JP4126316B2 - Operation control method of gasification and melting system and system - Google Patents

Operation control method of gasification and melting system and system Download PDF

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JP4126316B2
JP4126316B2 JP2006099148A JP2006099148A JP4126316B2 JP 4126316 B2 JP4126316 B2 JP 4126316B2 JP 2006099148 A JP2006099148 A JP 2006099148A JP 2006099148 A JP2006099148 A JP 2006099148A JP 4126316 B2 JP4126316 B2 JP 4126316B2
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利昌 白井
芳久 齊藤
成章 中村
佐藤  淳
岳洋 橘田
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三菱重工業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Description

本発明は、廃棄物を熱分解して熱分解ガスを発生させ、該熱分解ガスの燃焼熱で灰分を溶融するガス化溶融システムに関し、特に、廃棄物の投入量や発熱量に変動がある場合であっても排ガス中のCO濃度を増大させることなく安定した燃焼を行うことができるガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法及び該システムに関する。   The present invention relates to a gasification and melting system in which waste is pyrolyzed to generate pyrolysis gas, and ash is melted by the combustion heat of the pyrolysis gas. Even if it is a case, it is related with the operation control method of the gasification melting system which can perform stable combustion, without increasing the CO density | concentration in waste gas, and this system.
従来より、都市ごみを始めとして不燃ごみ、焼却残渣、汚泥、埋立ごみ等の廃棄物まで幅広く処理できる技術としてガス化溶融システムが知られている。
ガス化溶融システムの概略を図5に示す。ガス化溶融システムは、熱分解してガス化するガス化炉3と、該ガス化炉3にて生成された熱分解ガスを高温燃焼し、ガス中の灰分を溶融スラグ化する旋回溶融炉6と、該旋回溶融炉6の排ガスが導入され、排ガス中の未燃分を燃焼させる二次燃焼室12と、減温塔14、除塵装置15、蒸気式加熱器16、触媒反応装置17等からなる排ガス処理設備とを備えている。廃棄物の資源化、減容化及び無害化を図るために、旋回溶融炉6からスラグを取り出して路盤材等の土木資材として再利用したり、二次燃焼室13の高温排ガスからボイラ部13にて廃熱を回収して発電を行うなどしている。
Conventionally, a gasification and melting system is known as a technology capable of processing a wide range of wastes such as municipal waste, non-combustible waste, incineration residue, sludge, landfill waste, and the like.
An outline of the gasification melting system is shown in FIG. The gasification melting system includes a gasification furnace 3 that thermally decomposes and gasifies, and a swirl melting furnace 6 that combusts the pyrolysis gas generated in the gasification furnace 3 at a high temperature and converts the ash content in the gas into molten slag. From the secondary combustion chamber 12 in which the exhaust gas from the swirling melting furnace 6 is introduced and unburned in the exhaust gas is combusted, the temperature reducing tower 14, the dust removing device 15, the steam heater 16, the catalytic reaction device 17, and the like. And an exhaust gas treatment facility. In order to reduce the amount of waste, reduce the volume, and make it harmless, slag is taken out from the swivel melting furnace 6 and reused as civil engineering materials such as roadbed materials, or from the high-temperature exhaust gas in the secondary combustion chamber 13 The company collects waste heat and generates electricity.
ガス化炉には流動床ガス化炉3が多く用いられる。流動床ガス化炉3は、炉底から燃焼空気を供給して流動媒体を流動化させた流動層20が形成され、該流動層内に投入した廃棄物を部分燃焼させ、該燃焼熱により高温に維持される流動層20内で廃棄物を熱分解する。廃棄物中に混入した不燃物は、燃焼空気にて浮遊させ、炉底に設けられた不燃物排出口より排出するようになっている。
流動床ガス化炉3で発生したCO、H等の可燃ガス、チャー(炭化物)、灰分を含む熱分解ガスは、熱分解ガスダクト25を介して旋回溶融炉6に供給される。旋回溶融炉6では、可燃ガスを燃焼させた燃焼熱により灰分を溶融する。そこで旋回溶融炉6には、燃焼を促進するための燃焼空気が供給されるとともに、炉内温度を維持するための種火バーナ26、補助燃料バーナ27が設置される。
A fluidized bed gasifier 3 is often used as the gasifier. In the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, a fluidized bed 20 is formed by fluidizing a fluidized medium by supplying combustion air from the bottom of the furnace, and the waste introduced into the fluidized bed is partially combusted and is heated by the combustion heat. The waste is pyrolyzed in the fluidized bed 20 maintained at a constant temperature. The incombustible material mixed in the waste is floated by the combustion air and discharged from the incombustible material discharge port provided in the furnace bottom.
The pyrolysis gas containing combustible gas such as CO and H 2 generated in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, char (carbide), and ash is supplied to the swirl melting furnace 6 through the pyrolysis gas duct 25. In the slewing melting furnace 6, the ash is melted by the combustion heat obtained by burning the combustible gas. Therefore, the swirl melting furnace 6 is supplied with combustion air for promoting combustion, and a seed fire burner 26 and an auxiliary fuel burner 27 for maintaining the furnace temperature.
旋回溶融炉6の上方には二次燃焼室12が連結されており、溶融炉にて発生した排ガス中の未燃分を燃焼する。二次燃焼室12にも同様に燃焼空気が供給されるとともに、補助燃料バーナ32が設置されている。
一般的に溶融炉における燃焼制御方法として、特許文献1(特開平11−351538号公報)等に記載されるように、溶融炉内に設置した温度センサにより炉内温度を検出し、該検出した温度に基づいて溶融炉に供給する燃焼空気量を制御する方法が用いられている。
しかし、このようなガス化溶融システムにおいて廃棄物を処理対象とした場合、廃棄物の投入量や発熱量の変動により燃焼が不安定となり、二次燃焼室から排出される排ガスのCO濃度が高くなり、これを原因とする環境への悪影響が問題となっていた。
A secondary combustion chamber 12 is connected to the upper side of the swirling melting furnace 6 and burns unburned components in the exhaust gas generated in the melting furnace. Similarly, combustion air is supplied to the secondary combustion chamber 12, and an auxiliary fuel burner 32 is installed.
Generally, as a combustion control method in a melting furnace, the temperature in the furnace is detected by a temperature sensor installed in the melting furnace as described in Patent Document 1 (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 11-351538) and the detected A method of controlling the amount of combustion air supplied to the melting furnace based on the temperature is used.
However, when waste is treated in such a gasification and melting system, combustion becomes unstable due to fluctuations in the amount of waste input and the amount of heat generated, and the CO concentration in the exhaust gas discharged from the secondary combustion chamber is high. Therefore, the adverse effect on the environment caused by this has been a problem.
そこで、特許文献2(特開2003−269712号公報)では、熱分解炉に圧力検出装置を設け、炉内圧の検出結果に基づいて熱分解炉二次燃焼空気量、灰溶融炉燃焼空気量及び二次燃焼室燃焼空気量の少なくとも1つを制御する構成が開示されている。このように、各部で必要な燃焼空気量を制御して供給することにより、燃焼空気不足から起こる有害ガスの大量発生を防ぐようにしている。
同様に、特許文献3(特開2001−201023号公報)では、熱分解ガス化炉の炉内圧を計測することにより廃棄物の負荷変動を検出し、負荷急増が検出された際に溶融炉に供給する燃焼用空気の供給量を増加させることにより、溶融炉内での不完全燃焼を防止する構成を開示している。
特開平11−351538号公報 特開2003−269712号公報 特開2001−201023号公報
Therefore, in Patent Document 2 (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2003-269712), a pressure detection device is provided in the pyrolysis furnace, and based on the detection result of the furnace pressure, the pyrolysis furnace secondary combustion air amount, the ash melting furnace combustion air amount, and A configuration for controlling at least one of the amount of combustion air in the secondary combustion chamber is disclosed. In this way, by controlling and supplying the necessary amount of combustion air in each part, a large amount of harmful gas resulting from a shortage of combustion air is prevented.
Similarly, in Patent Document 3 (Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-201023), the load pressure of the waste is detected by measuring the furnace pressure of the pyrolysis gasification furnace, and when a rapid increase in load is detected, The structure which prevents the incomplete combustion in a melting furnace by increasing supply_amount | feed_rate of the combustion air supplied is disclosed.
JP 11-351538 A JP 2003-269712 A JP 2001-201023 A
上記したように、ガス化溶融システムにおいては廃棄物の投入量や発熱量の変動により燃焼が不安定となり、二次燃焼室から排出される排ガスのCO濃度が高くなるという問題があった。しかし、特許文献1に記載されるように、溶融炉の炉内温度に基づき該溶融炉への燃焼空気量を制御するのみではCO濃度を低減することは困難であった。これは、ガス化炉にて熱分解ガスが大量に発生した場合、溶融炉や二次燃焼室への燃焼空気供給量の制御だけではこれを完全燃焼することは不可能であり、また溶融炉へ大量の燃焼空気を供給すると炉内温度が低下して灰分の溶融に支障をきたすためである。   As described above, the gasification and melting system has a problem in that combustion becomes unstable due to fluctuations in the amount of waste input and the amount of heat generated, and the CO concentration of exhaust gas discharged from the secondary combustion chamber increases. However, as described in Patent Document 1, it is difficult to reduce the CO concentration only by controlling the amount of combustion air to the melting furnace based on the in-furnace temperature of the melting furnace. This is because when a large amount of pyrolysis gas is generated in the gasification furnace, it is impossible to completely burn it only by controlling the amount of combustion air supplied to the melting furnace and the secondary combustion chamber. This is because if a large amount of combustion air is supplied to the furnace, the temperature in the furnace decreases and the melting of ash is hindered.
一方、特許文献2及び3はガス化炉の炉内圧に基づいて燃焼空気量を制御する構成であり、この方法によれば熱分解ガスの発生量を適確に検出することができCO濃度低減に効果的な方法であるが、炉内圧の変動に対して一律的な制御のみでは燃焼状態を安定的に維持することが困難であるという問題があった。
従って、本発明は上記従来技術の問題点に鑑み、廃棄物の投入量や発熱量の変動に対応して各状況に応じた適切な制御を行うことができ、安定した燃焼状態を維持して排ガス中のCO濃度の低減を可能としたガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法及び該システムを提案することを目的とする。
On the other hand, Patent Documents 2 and 3 are configured to control the amount of combustion air based on the internal pressure of the gasification furnace. According to this method, the amount of pyrolysis gas generated can be accurately detected, and the CO concentration can be reduced. However, there is a problem that it is difficult to stably maintain the combustion state only by uniform control with respect to fluctuations in the furnace pressure.
Therefore, in view of the above-mentioned problems of the prior art, the present invention can perform appropriate control according to each situation in response to fluctuations in the amount of waste input and the amount of heat generated, and maintains a stable combustion state. It is an object of the present invention to propose an operation control method for a gasification and melting system capable of reducing the CO concentration in exhaust gas and the system.
そこで、本発明はかかる課題を解決するために、流動床ガス化炉にて廃棄物を熱分解して熱分解ガスを発生させ、該熱分解ガスが導入された溶融炉にて該熱分解ガスの燃焼熱により灰分を溶融した後、前記溶融炉に連結された二次燃焼室にて燃焼を行うガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法において、
前記流動床ガス化炉における炉内圧の上限値を予め複数段階設定するとともに、流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の少なくとも何れかに供給する燃焼空気供給量の変更値と制御保持時間の組み合わせからなる複数の制御操作を有し、該制御操作が前記上限値に夫々関連付けされており、
前記炉内圧の検出値に基づいて前記上限値に対応した制御操作を選択することを特徴とする。
Therefore, in order to solve such problems, the present invention pyrolyzes waste in a fluidized bed gasification furnace to generate pyrolysis gas, and the pyrolysis gas in a melting furnace into which the pyrolysis gas is introduced. In an operation control method of a gasification and melting system in which ash is melted by the combustion heat of the gas and then burned in a secondary combustion chamber connected to the melting furnace,
The upper limit value of the furnace pressure in the fluidized bed gasification furnace is set in advance in a plurality of stages, and the changed value of the supply amount of combustion air supplied to at least one of the fluidized bed gasification furnace, the melting furnace, and the secondary combustion chamber and the control hold Having a plurality of control operations consisting of a combination of times, each of which is associated with the upper limit value,
The control operation corresponding to the upper limit value is selected based on the detected value of the furnace pressure.
本発明によれば、炉内圧の正常範囲を超える上限値を複数段階設定し、各上限値に対応した制御操作を選択するようにしたため、廃棄物の投入量や発熱量の変動があった場合でも炉内状況に対応した適切な制御を行うことができる。
制御操作は、流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の少なくとも何れか一に供給する燃焼空気供給量の変更値と制御保持時間の組み合わせからなり、これらを制御することにより、流動床ガス化炉における熱分解ガスの発生量や溶融炉、二次燃焼室における燃焼をバランス良く適正化することができ、各装置における燃焼状態に支障を及ぼすことなく溶融炉後段側の排ガス中CO濃度を低減することができる。
According to the present invention, the upper limit value exceeding the normal range of the furnace pressure is set in multiple stages, and the control operation corresponding to each upper limit value is selected. However, it is possible to perform appropriate control corresponding to the in-furnace situation.
The control operation consists of a combination of a change value of the combustion air supply amount supplied to at least one of the fluidized bed gasification furnace, the melting furnace, and the secondary combustion chamber and the control holding time. The amount of pyrolysis gas generated in the gasifier and the combustion in the melting furnace and secondary combustion chamber can be optimized in a well-balanced manner, and the CO concentration in the exhaust gas on the downstream side of the melting furnace without affecting the combustion state in each device Can be reduced.
また、前記上限値が、炉内圧の正常範囲を示す設定値に近い順に第1上限値、第2上限値、・・・と設定されており、
前記検出値が前記第1上限値に達した場合に、前記溶融炉と前記二次燃焼室の燃焼空気供給量を所定時間増加する第1の制御操作を行い、
前記検出値が前記第2上限値に達した場合に、前記流動床ガス化炉への燃焼空気供給量を所定時間減少する第2の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする。
このように第1の制御操作では、流動床ガス化炉で増加した熱分解ガスを燃焼させるために、旋回溶融炉及び二次燃焼室への燃焼空気供給量を増大させ、熱分解ガスの完全燃焼を促進させる。しかし、燃焼空気を大量に供給すると溶融炉温度が低下してしまうことが考えられる。従って、第2の制御操作では、流動床ガス化炉における熱分解を抑制し、熱分解ガスの発生量を抑えて排ガス中のCO濃度を低減するようにした。
Further, the upper limit value is set as a first upper limit value, a second upper limit value,... In order from the set value indicating the normal range of the furnace pressure,
When the detected value reaches the first upper limit value, a first control operation is performed to increase the amount of combustion air supplied to the melting furnace and the secondary combustion chamber for a predetermined time,
When the detected value reaches the second upper limit value, a second control operation is performed to reduce the amount of combustion air supplied to the fluidized bed gasification furnace for a predetermined time.
Thus, in the first control operation, in order to burn the pyrolysis gas increased in the fluidized bed gasification furnace, the amount of combustion air supplied to the swirl melting furnace and the secondary combustion chamber is increased, and the pyrolysis gas is completely discharged. Promotes combustion. However, if a large amount of combustion air is supplied, the melting furnace temperature may be lowered. Therefore, in the second control operation, thermal decomposition in the fluidized bed gasification furnace is suppressed, and the amount of pyrolytic gas generated is suppressed to reduce the CO concentration in the exhaust gas.
さらに、前記検出値が第3上限値に達した場合に、前記溶融炉と前記二次燃焼室への燃焼空気供給割合を所定時間変更する第3の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする。
これは、溶融炉温度が燃焼空気の供給量増加により低下することを防ぎ、二次燃焼室にて可燃分を積極的に燃焼させるようにしたものであり、これにより排ガス中のCO濃度を効果的に低減できる。
Furthermore, when the detected value reaches a third upper limit value, a third control operation is performed to change a combustion air supply ratio to the melting furnace and the secondary combustion chamber for a predetermined time.
This prevents the melting furnace temperature from decreasing due to an increase in the supply amount of combustion air, and actively combusts combustible components in the secondary combustion chamber, thereby effectively reducing the CO concentration in the exhaust gas. Can be reduced.
また、前記検出値が第4上限値に達した場合に、前記第3の制御操作を行うとともに、前記第3の制御操作よりも制御保持時間を長くする第4の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする。
この第4の制御操作では、第3の制御操作の時間を長くすることにより二次燃焼室にて可燃分を積極的に燃焼させる時間を延長し、排ガス中のCO濃度の低減を図っている。
In addition, when the detected value reaches a fourth upper limit value, the third control operation is performed, and a fourth control operation that makes the control holding time longer than the third control operation is performed. And
In this fourth control operation, the time for actively combusting combustible components in the secondary combustion chamber is extended by extending the time of the third control operation, thereby reducing the CO concentration in the exhaust gas. .
さらに、前記検出値が突発的に急激な増加を示した場合に、前記第1の制御操作と前記第3の制御操作を行うとともに、これらの制御操作より制御保持時間を長くする第5の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする。
さらにまた、前記検出値が前記設定値よりも大である状態が所定時間以上継続した場合に、前記第1の制御操作を行うとともに、その制御保持時間を前記上限値1の場合よりも長い時間維持する第6の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする。
これらの発明のごとく、炉内圧に特異な状態が発生した場合に、上記した制御操作を組み合わせて行うことにより炉内圧を正常値に戻し、安定運転を回復することが可能である。
Further, when the detected value suddenly increases abruptly, the first control operation and the third control operation are performed, and the control holding time is made longer than these control operations. It is characterized by performing an operation.
Furthermore, when the state where the detected value is larger than the set value continues for a predetermined time or longer, the first control operation is performed, and the control holding time is longer than the case of the upper limit value 1. A sixth control operation to be maintained is performed.
As in these inventions, when a state peculiar to the furnace pressure occurs, it is possible to return the furnace pressure to a normal value and recover stable operation by combining the above-described control operations.
また、廃棄物を熱分解して熱分解ガスを発生させる流動床ガス化炉と、該熱分解ガスの燃焼熱により灰分を溶融する溶融炉と、該溶融炉で発生した燃焼排ガス中の未燃分を燃焼させる二次燃焼室とからなるガス化溶融システムにおいて、
前記流動床ガス化炉の炉内圧を検出する炉内圧検出センサと、
前記流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の何れかの燃焼空気供給量を調整する複数の供給量調整手段と、
前記炉内圧の上限値が複数段階設定されるとともに、流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の少なくとも何れかに供給する燃焼空気供給量の変更値と制御保持時間の組み合わせからなる複数の制御操作が設定され、該制御操作が前記上限値に夫々関連付けされた制御テーブルと、
前記炉内圧検出センサにて得られる検出値に基づいて前記上限値に対応した制御操作を選択する制御装置とを備えることを特徴とする。
In addition, a fluidized bed gasification furnace that pyrolyzes waste to generate pyrolysis gas, a melting furnace that melts ash by the heat of combustion of the pyrolysis gas, and unburned gas in the combustion exhaust gas generated in the melting furnace In a gasification and melting system consisting of a secondary combustion chamber that burns
A furnace pressure detection sensor for detecting a furnace pressure of the fluidized bed gasification furnace;
A plurality of supply amount adjusting means for adjusting the combustion air supply amount of any one of the fluidized bed gasification furnace, the melting furnace, and the secondary combustion chamber;
A plurality of upper limit values of the furnace internal pressure are set, and a plurality of combinations of a change value of a combustion air supply amount supplied to at least one of a fluidized bed gasification furnace, a melting furnace, and a secondary combustion chamber and a control holding time A control table in which each control operation is associated with the upper limit value, and
And a control device that selects a control operation corresponding to the upper limit value based on a detection value obtained by the furnace pressure detection sensor.
以上記載のごとく本発明によれば、廃棄物の投入量や発熱量の変動があった場合でも炉内状況に対応した適切な制御を行うことができ、延いては流動床ガス化炉における熱分解ガスの発生量や溶融炉、二次燃焼室における燃焼をバランス良く適正化することができ、各装置における燃焼状態に支障を及ぼすことなく溶融炉後段側の排ガス中CO濃度を低減することが可能となる。   As described above, according to the present invention, it is possible to perform appropriate control corresponding to the state of the furnace even when there is a change in the amount of waste input or the amount of heat generated, and thus the heat in the fluidized bed gasifier. It is possible to optimize the amount of cracked gas generation and combustion in the melting furnace and secondary combustion chamber in a well-balanced manner, and to reduce the CO concentration in the exhaust gas on the downstream side of the melting furnace without affecting the combustion state in each device. It becomes possible.
以下、図面を参照して本発明の好適な実施例を例示的に詳しく説明する。但しこの実施例に記載されている構成部品の寸法、材質、形状、その相対的配置等は特に特定的な記載がない限りは、この発明の範囲をそれに限定する趣旨ではなく、単なる説明例に過ぎない。
図1は本発明の実施例に係るガス化溶融システムの全体構成図、図2は図1のガス化溶融システムにおける制御テーブルを示す図、図3は図1に示した流動床ガス化炉の炉内圧変化を示す図、図2は図1のガス化溶融システムにおける運転制御フローを示す図である。
Hereinafter, exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. However, the dimensions, materials, shapes, relative arrangements, and the like of the components described in this embodiment are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention unless otherwise specified, but are merely illustrative examples. Not too much.
1 is an overall configuration diagram of a gasification and melting system according to an embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a control table in the gasification and melting system of FIG. 1, and FIG. 3 is a diagram of the fluidized bed gasification furnace shown in FIG. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an operation control flow in the gasification and melting system of FIG.
図1を参照して、本実施例に係るガス化溶融システムの全体構成を説明する。
廃棄物投入ホッパ1から投入された廃棄物40は、必要に応じて破砕、乾燥された後に給じん機2を介して流動床式ガス化炉3へ定量供給される。流動床ガス化炉3では、温度約120〜230℃、空気比0.2〜0.7程度の燃焼空気41が炉下部から風箱4を介して炉内に吹き込まれ、流動層温度が500〜600℃程度に維持されている。
廃棄物40は流動床ガス化炉3で熱分解ガス化され、ガス、タール、チャー(炭化物)に分解される。タールは、常温では液体となる成分であるが、ガス化炉内ではガス状で存在する。ガス化炉3の不燃物は不燃物排出口5より逐次排出される。
チャーは流動層内で徐々に微粉化され、ガス及びタールに同伴して旋回溶融炉6へ導入される。以下、溶融炉6へ導入されるこれらの成分を総称して熱分解ガスと呼ぶ。
With reference to FIG. 1, the whole structure of the gasification melting system which concerns on a present Example is demonstrated.
Waste 40 input from the waste input hopper 1 is crushed and dried as necessary, and then quantitatively supplied to the fluidized bed gasifier 3 through the dust feeder 2. In the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, combustion air 41 having a temperature of about 120 to 230 ° C. and an air ratio of about 0.2 to 0.7 is blown into the furnace from the lower part of the furnace through the wind box 4, and the fluidized bed temperature is 500. It is maintained at about ~ 600 ° C.
The waste 40 is pyrolyzed and gasified in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 and decomposed into gas, tar, and char (carbide). Tar is a component that becomes liquid at room temperature, but is present in a gaseous state in the gasification furnace. The incombustible material in the gasification furnace 3 is sequentially discharged from the incombustible material discharge port 5.
The char is gradually pulverized in the fluidized bed, and is introduced into the swirl melting furnace 6 along with gas and tar. Hereinafter, these components introduced into the melting furnace 6 are collectively referred to as a pyrolysis gas.
前記流動床ガス化炉3の炉頂部より排出された熱分解ガスは、熱分解ガスダクト25を経て旋回溶融炉6の熱分解ガスバーナへ導入される。該熱分解ガスバーナで、熱分解ガスは燃焼空気42と混合されて炉内に導入され、旋回流を形成する。このとき、燃焼空気は空気比0.9〜1.1、好ましくは1.0程度であると良い。
前記旋回溶融炉6では、熱分解ガスと燃焼空気42の混合ガスが燃焼するとともに、必要に応じて種火バーナ26、補助燃料バーナ27により炉内温度が1300〜1500℃に維持され、熱分解ガス中の灰分が溶融、スラグ化される。溶融したスラグは、旋回溶融炉6の内壁面に付着、流下し、炉底部のスラグ出滓口7からスラグ抜出シュート8を経て排出される。旋回溶融炉6から排出されたスラグは、水砕槽9で急冷され、スラグコンベア10により搬出されて水砕スラグとして回収される。回収された水砕スラグは、路盤材等に有効利用することが可能である。
The pyrolysis gas discharged from the top of the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 is introduced into the pyrolysis gas burner of the swirling melting furnace 6 through the pyrolysis gas duct 25. In the pyrolysis gas burner, the pyrolysis gas is mixed with the combustion air 42 and introduced into the furnace to form a swirling flow. At this time, the combustion air may have an air ratio of 0.9 to 1.1, preferably about 1.0.
In the swirl melting furnace 6, the mixed gas of the pyrolysis gas and the combustion air 42 is combusted, and the furnace temperature is maintained at 1300 to 1500 ° C. by the seed flame burner 26 and the auxiliary fuel burner 27 as necessary. The ash in the gas melts and slags. The molten slag adheres and flows down on the inner wall surface of the swirl melting furnace 6 and is discharged from the slag outlet 7 at the bottom of the furnace through the slag extraction chute 8. The slag discharged from the slewing melting furnace 6 is rapidly cooled in the water granulating tank 9, carried out by the slag conveyor 10, and collected as granulated slag. The recovered granulated slag can be effectively used for roadbed materials and the like.
一方、旋回溶融炉6から排出された燃焼排ガスは連結部11を介して二次燃焼室12へ導入される。二次燃焼室12では、燃焼空気43が空気比1.2〜1.5となるように供給されるとともに、必要に応じて補助燃料バーナ32で所定温度まで昇温され、前記燃焼排ガス中の未燃分はここで完全燃焼される。
燃焼排ガスは、ボイラ部13で熱回収されて、200〜250℃程度まで冷却される。ボイラ部13から排出された燃焼排ガスは、減温塔14へ導入され、直接水噴霧により150℃程度まで冷却される。減温塔14から排出された燃焼排ガスは、必要に応じて煙道で消石灰、活性炭が噴霧され、反応集塵装置15に導入される。反応集塵装置15では、燃焼排ガス中の煤塵、酸性ガス、DXN類等が除去される。反応集塵装置15から排出された集塵灰は薬剤処理して埋立処分され、燃焼排ガスは蒸気式加熱器16で再加熱され、触媒反応装置17でNOが除去された後、誘引ファン18を介して煙突19より大気放出される。
On the other hand, the combustion exhaust gas discharged from the swirling melting furnace 6 is introduced into the secondary combustion chamber 12 via the connecting portion 11. In the secondary combustion chamber 12, the combustion air 43 is supplied so as to have an air ratio of 1.2 to 1.5, and is heated to a predetermined temperature by the auxiliary fuel burner 32 as necessary. The unburned portion is completely burned here.
Combustion exhaust gas is heat-recovered by the boiler part 13, and is cooled to about 200-250 degreeC. The combustion exhaust gas discharged from the boiler unit 13 is introduced into the temperature reducing tower 14 and cooled to about 150 ° C. by direct water spray. The combustion exhaust gas discharged from the temperature reducing tower 14 is sprayed with slaked lime and activated carbon in the flue as necessary, and is introduced into the reaction dust collector 15. The reaction dust collector 15 removes soot, acid gas, DXNs and the like in the combustion exhaust gas. The dust ash discharged from the reaction dust collector 15 is treated with chemicals and disposed of in landfill. The combustion exhaust gas is reheated by the steam heater 16 and NO x is removed by the catalyst reactor 17. The air is discharged from the chimney 19 through the air.
前記流動床ガス化炉3は、炉底部に流動砂が充填された流動層20が形成され、その上方に補助燃料バーナ21が設けられている。炉底部には複数の風箱4が並設されており、該風箱4を介して炉内に燃焼空気41が導入される。通常運転時の流動層20は、550〜650℃程度の温度に維持される。
燃焼空気41は送風機23により供給され、該供給ライン上にはFDFダンパ24が配置されている。FDFダンパ24は、開度制御することにより風箱4に供給する燃焼空気供給量を調整する。FDFダンパ24の開度制御は、制御装置35により行われる。
また、流動床ガス化炉3の上方には、旋回溶融炉6に接続される熱分解ガスダクト25が配設される。該流動床ガス化炉3上方の熱分解ガス出口側には、炉内圧を検出する炉内圧センサ22が設けられており、連続的に検出を行って連続的に検出値を制御装置35に送信する。該制御装置35では、この炉内圧の検出値に基づいて、前記FDFダンパ24の開度制御、及び後述する2次FDFダンパ30、OFAダンパ31の開度制御を行い、各装置内への燃焼空気供給量を調整する。
In the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, a fluidized bed 20 in which fluidized sand is filled at the bottom of the furnace is formed, and an auxiliary fuel burner 21 is provided thereabove. A plurality of wind boxes 4 are arranged in parallel at the bottom of the furnace, and combustion air 41 is introduced into the furnace through the wind boxes 4. The fluidized bed 20 during normal operation is maintained at a temperature of about 550 to 650 ° C.
The combustion air 41 is supplied by the blower 23, and the FDF damper 24 is disposed on the supply line. The FDF damper 24 adjusts the amount of combustion air supplied to the wind box 4 by controlling the opening. The opening degree control of the FDF damper 24 is performed by the control device 35.
A pyrolysis gas duct 25 connected to the swirling melting furnace 6 is disposed above the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3. A furnace pressure sensor 22 for detecting the furnace pressure is provided on the pyrolysis gas outlet side above the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, and continuously detects and transmits the detected value to the control device 35. To do. The control device 35 controls the opening degree of the FDF damper 24 and the opening degree control of the secondary FDF damper 30 and the OFA damper 31, which will be described later, based on the detected value of the furnace pressure, and burns into each apparatus. Adjust the air supply.
前記旋回溶融炉は6は断面円形状の炉本体を有しており、側壁には、熱分解ガスダクト25から延設され熱分解ガスを炉内に吹き込む一又は複数の熱分解ガスバーナが配設される。熱分解ガスバーナの近傍には、種火バーナ26、補助燃料バーナ27が配設される。さらに、炉上部は絞り構造の連結部11を介して二次燃焼室12に連通しており、旋回溶融炉6で発生した燃焼排ガスは二次燃焼室12に送られる。炉底部にはスラグ出滓口7が設けおり、該スラグ出滓口7から下方に延設されたスラグ抜出シュート8を通って溶融スラグが排出されるようになっている。スラグ抜出シュート8にはスラグ出滓口7へ向けて溶融固化物溶融バーナ28が取り付けられており、スラグ出滓口7から排出される溶融スラグが固化して閉塞しないように加温するようになっている。   The swirl melting furnace 6 has a furnace body having a circular cross section, and one or more pyrolysis gas burners extending from the pyrolysis gas duct 25 and blowing pyrolysis gas into the furnace are disposed on the side walls. The In the vicinity of the pyrolysis gas burner, a seed flame burner 26 and an auxiliary fuel burner 27 are disposed. Further, the upper part of the furnace communicates with the secondary combustion chamber 12 via the connecting portion 11 having a throttle structure, and the combustion exhaust gas generated in the swirling melting furnace 6 is sent to the secondary combustion chamber 12. A slag outlet 7 is provided at the bottom of the furnace, and molten slag is discharged through a slag extraction chute 8 extending downward from the slag outlet 7. The slag extraction chute 8 is provided with a melt-solidified melt burner 28 toward the slag outlet 7 so as to heat the molten slag discharged from the slag outlet 7 so that it does not solidify and become blocked. It has become.
熱分解ガスダクト25には燃焼空気42が供給される。燃焼空気42は送風機29により供給され、該供給ライン上には2次FDFダンパ30が配置されている。2次FDFダンパ30は、開度制御することにより旋回溶融炉6に供給する燃焼空気供給量を調整する。2次FDFダンパ30の開度制御は、制御装置35により行われる。
二次燃焼室12の側壁には一又は複数の補助燃料バーナ32が設けられており、必要に応じて二次燃焼室内の温度を維持するようになっている。
さらに、二次燃焼室12には燃焼空気43が供給される。燃焼空気43は、旋回溶融炉6に供給される燃焼空気42と同一の送風機29により供給される。送風機29から供給される燃焼空気は2次FDFダンパ30を経由した後に分岐され、一方はOFAダンパ31を介して二次燃焼室12へ供給され、他方は熱分解ガスダクト25に供給されて溶融炉内に導入される。OFAダンパ31は、開度制御により二次燃焼室12に供給する燃焼空気供給量を調整する。OFAダンパ31の制御は、制御装置35により行われる。
Combustion air 42 is supplied to the pyrolysis gas duct 25. The combustion air 42 is supplied by a blower 29, and a secondary FDF damper 30 is disposed on the supply line. The secondary FDF damper 30 adjusts the amount of combustion air supplied to the swirl melting furnace 6 by controlling the opening. The opening degree control of the secondary FDF damper 30 is performed by the control device 35.
One or a plurality of auxiliary fuel burners 32 are provided on the side wall of the secondary combustion chamber 12 so as to maintain the temperature in the secondary combustion chamber as necessary.
Further, combustion air 43 is supplied to the secondary combustion chamber 12. The combustion air 43 is supplied by the same blower 29 as the combustion air 42 supplied to the swirl melting furnace 6. The combustion air supplied from the blower 29 is branched after passing through the secondary FDF damper 30, one is supplied to the secondary combustion chamber 12 via the OFA damper 31, and the other is supplied to the pyrolysis gas duct 25 for melting furnace. Introduced in. The OFA damper 31 adjusts the amount of combustion air supplied to the secondary combustion chamber 12 by opening degree control. The control of the OFA damper 31 is performed by the control device 35.
上記したような流動床ガス化炉3では、その炉内圧は運転に伴い変動する。変動の要因としては、炉内に投入される廃棄物の発熱量、投入量の変動等が考えられる。廃棄物の発熱量や投入量の変動等おいて熱分解ガスが多量に発生することがあり、これに応じて炉内圧も変動する。運転時における炉内圧センサ22により検出した炉内圧変化を図3に示す。
流動床ガス化炉3にて熱分解ガスが多量に発生すると、後流側の溶融炉にて熱分解ガスが完全燃焼せずにCOを大量に含む排ガスが生じてしまう。従って、本実施例では流動床ガス化炉3における流動床ガス化炉3、及び旋回溶融炉6、二次燃焼室12における燃焼を適正化し、排ガス中のCO濃度を低減する構成を提案する。
In the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 as described above, the furnace pressure fluctuates with operation. As factors of fluctuation, the amount of heat generated by the waste thrown into the furnace, fluctuation of the input amount, and the like can be considered. A large amount of pyrolysis gas may be generated due to fluctuations in the amount of heat generated and the amount of waste, and the furnace pressure also fluctuates accordingly. FIG. 3 shows changes in the furnace pressure detected by the furnace pressure sensor 22 during operation.
When a large amount of pyrolysis gas is generated in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, the pyrolysis gas does not completely burn in the downstream melting furnace, and exhaust gas containing a large amount of CO is generated. Therefore, in this embodiment, a configuration is proposed in which the combustion in the fluidized bed gasifier 3, the swirl melting furnace 6, and the secondary combustion chamber 12 in the fluidized bed gasifier 3 is optimized and the CO concentration in the exhaust gas is reduced.
そこで本実施例は、流動床ガス化炉3の炉内圧に基づいて流動床ガス化炉3、旋回溶融炉6、二次燃焼室12の何れかの燃焼空気供給量の制御を行う構成としている。
流動床ガス化炉3の炉内圧は原則的に負圧に維持されるが、熱分解ガスの発生が過剰になると負圧が小さくなる。そこで、予め炉内圧の上限値を複数段階設定しておき、炉内圧センサ22により検出した炉内圧検出値と、予め設定した上限値(閾値)とを比較して制御操作を選択する。
図2は、炉内圧の上限値と、各上限値に対応した制御操作を示す制御テーブルである。
正常範囲内の炉内圧を設定値SPとした場合、設定値SPを超える上限値H1〜H5を段階的に設定する。該設定値SPに最も近い上限値をH1とし、これに続いて、順次上限値H2、H3、H4、H5とする。また、炉内圧センサ22により検出された炉内圧検出値をPVとする。
Therefore, in this embodiment, the combustion air supply amount of any one of the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, the swirling melting furnace 6, and the secondary combustion chamber 12 is controlled based on the pressure inside the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3. .
Although the internal pressure of the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 is maintained at a negative pressure in principle, the negative pressure decreases when the generation of pyrolysis gas becomes excessive. Therefore, the upper limit value of the furnace pressure is set in a plurality of stages in advance, and the control operation is selected by comparing the detected furnace pressure value detected by the furnace pressure sensor 22 with the preset upper limit value (threshold value).
FIG. 2 is a control table showing an upper limit value of the furnace pressure and a control operation corresponding to each upper limit value.
When the furnace pressure in the normal range is set as the set value SP, the upper limit values H1 to H5 exceeding the set value SP are set stepwise. The upper limit value closest to the set value SP is set as H1, followed by the upper limit values H2, H3, H4, and H5. Further, the detected furnace pressure detected by the furnace pressure sensor 22 is PV.
まず、本実施例の基本制御となる第1の制御操作から第4の制御操作を示す。
第1の制御操作は、検出値PVが上限値H1に達した場合に行う。該第1の制御操作では、2次FDFダンパ30の開度(OP)を開側に制御し、二次燃焼室12及び旋回溶融炉6への燃焼空気供給量を増加する。例えば、H1=−0.3kPaとした場合、2次FDFダンパ30を10%開く制御操作を行う。この制御操作の継続条件としてはT1秒間とする。T1=30秒とすると、30秒間経過したら2次FDFダンパ30を元に戻す。
第2の制御操作は、検出値PVが上限値H2に達した場合に行う。該第2の制御操作では、FDFダンパ24の開度を閉側に制御し、流動床ガス化炉3への燃焼空気供給量を低減する。例えば、H2=−0.19kPaとした場合、FDFダンパ24を10%閉じる制御操作を行う。ただし、FDFダンパ24を閉じ過ぎると流動化するための空気量が不足し、流動不良となることから、FDFダンパ24の開度は10%を下限とし、これ以上閉じる操作は行わない。この場合には給じん機2の回転数をさげる操作を行い、流動床ガス化炉3に供給される廃棄物量を減らす操作を行う。これらの制御操作は、炉内圧が設定値SPまで復帰したら元に戻す。
First, a first control operation to a fourth control operation, which are basic controls of the present embodiment, are shown.
The first control operation is performed when the detection value PV reaches the upper limit value H1. In the first control operation, the opening degree (OP) of the secondary FDF damper 30 is controlled to the open side, and the amount of combustion air supplied to the secondary combustion chamber 12 and the swirling melting furnace 6 is increased. For example, when H1 = −0.3 kPa, a control operation for opening the secondary FDF damper 30 by 10% is performed. The continuation condition for this control operation is T1 seconds. If T1 = 30 seconds, the secondary FDF damper 30 is returned to its original position after 30 seconds.
The second control operation is performed when the detection value PV reaches the upper limit value H2. In the second control operation, the opening degree of the FDF damper 24 is controlled to the closed side, and the amount of combustion air supplied to the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 is reduced. For example, when H2 = −0.19 kPa, a control operation for closing the FDF damper 24 by 10% is performed. However, if the FDF damper 24 is closed too much, the amount of air to be fluidized becomes insufficient and the flow becomes poor. Therefore, the opening degree of the FDF damper 24 is set to a lower limit of 10%, and no further closing operation is performed. In this case, an operation of reducing the rotational speed of the dust feeder 2 is performed, and an operation of reducing the amount of waste supplied to the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 is performed. These control operations are restored when the furnace pressure returns to the set value SP.
第3の制御操作は、検出値PVが上限値H3に達した場合に行う。該第3の制御操作では、OFAダンパ31の開度を開側に制御し、二次燃焼室12への燃焼空気供給割合を増加する。このとき溶融炉6への燃焼空気供給量は低減する。例えば、H3=−0.1kPaとした場合、OFAダンパ31を20%開く制御操作を行う。この制御操作の継続条件は第1の制御操作と同様である。
第4の制御操作は、検出値PVが上限値H4に達した場合に行う。該第4の制御操作では、前記第3の制御操作を行うとともに、この継続時間をより長く維持する。継続条件はT2秒間とする(T2>T1)。例えば、H4=−0.1kPaとした場合、OFAダンパ31を20%開く制御操作を60秒間継続して行った後、元に戻す。
The third control operation is performed when the detected value PV reaches the upper limit value H3. In the third control operation, the opening degree of the OFA damper 31 is controlled to the open side, and the combustion air supply ratio to the secondary combustion chamber 12 is increased. At this time, the amount of combustion air supplied to the melting furnace 6 is reduced. For example, when H3 = −0.1 kPa, a control operation for opening the OFA damper 31 by 20% is performed. The continuation condition of this control operation is the same as that of the first control operation.
The fourth control operation is performed when the detected value PV reaches the upper limit value H4. In the fourth control operation, the third control operation is performed and the duration is maintained longer. The continuation condition is T2 seconds (T2> T1). For example, when H4 = −0.1 kPa, the control operation for opening the OFA damper 31 by 20% is continuously performed for 60 seconds, and then returned to the original state.
前記第1の制御操作は、流動床ガス化炉3で増加した熱分解ガスを燃焼させるために、旋回溶融炉6及び二次燃焼室12への燃焼空気供給量を増大させ、熱分解ガスの完全燃焼を促進させるものである。しかし、燃焼空気供給量は大量に供給すると溶融炉温度が低下してしまうことが考えられる。従って、前記第2の制御操作では、流動床ガス化炉3における熱分解を抑制させ、熱分解ガスの発生量を抑えることを目的とする。
さらに、前記第3の制御操作では、二次燃焼室12側のダンパ開度を大きくし、旋回溶融炉6への燃焼空気供給量を低減して二次燃焼室12への燃焼空気供給量を増大させる。これは、溶融炉温度が燃焼空気の供給量増加により低下するのを防ぎ、二次燃焼室12にて積極的に燃焼させるようにしたものである。
また、前記第4の制御操作では、前記第3の制御操作の時間を長くすることにより、二次燃焼室にて可燃分を積極的に燃焼させる時間を延長することを目的とする。
In the first control operation, in order to burn the pyrolysis gas increased in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3, the amount of combustion air supplied to the swirling melting furnace 6 and the secondary combustion chamber 12 is increased. It promotes complete combustion. However, if the supply amount of combustion air is large, it is considered that the melting furnace temperature decreases. Therefore, an object of the second control operation is to suppress thermal decomposition in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 and suppress generation amount of the pyrolysis gas.
Further, in the third control operation, the damper opening on the secondary combustion chamber 12 side is increased, the amount of combustion air supplied to the swirl melting furnace 6 is reduced, and the amount of combustion air supplied to the secondary combustion chamber 12 is reduced. Increase. This prevents the melting furnace temperature from decreasing due to an increase in the supply amount of combustion air, and actively burns in the secondary combustion chamber 12.
In the fourth control operation, an object is to extend the time during which the combustible component is actively burned in the secondary combustion chamber by lengthening the time of the third control operation.
さらにまた、本実施例では、上記した基本制御に加えて特異な状況に応じた制御操作を備えることが好ましい。
図3に示すように、突発的に極端に高い値を示す状態(位置A)と、炉内圧が継続的に高い値を示す状態(位置B)に対応した制御操作を備える。
短時間で急激な炉内圧の上昇が検出される場合は、流動床ガス化炉3にて突発的に激しい燃焼が起こっていることが考えられる。従って、第5の制御操作として、検出値PVが上限値H5に達した場合に、前記第1の制御操作と前記第3の制御操作を行うとともに、これらの制御操作より制御保持時間を長くする。第5の制御操作では2次FDFダンパ30とOFAダンパ31の開度を開側に制御し、旋回溶融炉6と二次燃焼室12への燃焼空気量を増大する。例えば、PV>H5が20秒間継続して現れたとき、2次FDFダンパ30の開度を10%開くとともに、OFAダンパ31の開度を20%開く制御操作を60秒間行って元に戻す。
Furthermore, in this embodiment, it is preferable to provide a control operation corresponding to a specific situation in addition to the basic control described above.
As shown in FIG. 3, the control operation corresponding to the state (position A) that suddenly shows an extremely high value and the state (position B) in which the furnace pressure continuously shows a high value is provided.
When a rapid increase in the furnace pressure is detected in a short time, it is considered that sudden and intense combustion has occurred in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3. Accordingly, as the fifth control operation, when the detected value PV reaches the upper limit value H5, the first control operation and the third control operation are performed, and the control holding time is made longer than these control operations. . In the fifth control operation, the opening degree of the secondary FDF damper 30 and the OFA damper 31 is controlled to the open side, and the amount of combustion air to the swirl melting furnace 6 and the secondary combustion chamber 12 is increased. For example, when PV> H5 continuously appears for 20 seconds, the opening degree of the secondary FDF damper 30 is opened by 10%, and the control operation for opening the opening degree of the OFA damper 31 by 20% is performed for 60 seconds and returned.
炉内圧が継続的に高い値を示す場合は、流動床ガス化炉3にて活発な燃焼が継続的に発生していることが考えられる。従って、第6の制御操作として、PV>SPが所定時間以上継続した場合に、2次FDFダンパ30の開度を開側に制御し、旋回溶融炉6及び二次燃焼室12への燃焼空気供給量を増加する。例えば、PV>SPが30秒間継続して現れたとき、2次FDFダンパ30を10%開く制御操作を行う60秒間行う。60秒を超えたら2次FDFダンパ30を元に戻す。同様に、PV>SPが、より長い間継続して現れるときには、2次FDFダンパ30を10%開く制御操作を120秒間行う。   When the furnace pressure continuously shows a high value, it is considered that active combustion is continuously generated in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3. Accordingly, as a sixth control operation, when PV> SP continues for a predetermined time or longer, the opening degree of the secondary FDF damper 30 is controlled to the open side, and the combustion air to the swirling melting furnace 6 and the secondary combustion chamber 12 is controlled. Increase supply. For example, when PV> SP appears continuously for 30 seconds, the control operation for opening the secondary FDF damper 30 by 10% is performed for 60 seconds. When the time exceeds 60 seconds, the secondary FDF damper 30 is restored. Similarly, when PV> SP appears continuously for a longer time, a control operation for opening the secondary FDF damper 30 by 10% is performed for 120 seconds.
図4に本実施例に係るガス化溶融システムにおける運転制御フローを示す。
同図に示されるように、まず流動床ガス化炉3の炉内圧の検出値PVと、複数設定した上限値とを比較する。
炉内圧の検出値PVが上限値H1より小さい場合には、該検出値を設定値SPと比較する。該検出値PVが設定値SPより大きく、且つTS秒間継続する場合には、タイマをスタートさせて時間計測を行い、タイムアップ値TL=保持タイマ設定値T2に設定する。そして、2次FDFダンパ操作値OPを開側にOP1だけ制御する。
一方、検出値PVが上限値H1より大きい場合には、タイムアップ値TL=保持タイマ設定値T1に設定し、2次FDFダンパ操作値OPを開側にOP1だけ制御する。
そして、夫々の操作時間Tがタイムアップ値TL以上になったらタイマをリセットし、2次FDFダンパ操作値OPを元に戻す。
FIG. 4 shows an operation control flow in the gasification melting system according to the present embodiment.
As shown in the figure, first, the detection value PV of the in-furnace pressure of the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 is compared with a plurality of set upper limit values.
When the detected value PV of the furnace pressure is smaller than the upper limit value H1, the detected value is compared with the set value SP. When the detected value PV is larger than the set value SP and continues for TS seconds, the timer is started to measure time, and the time-up value TL = the holding timer set value T2 is set. Then, the secondary FDF damper operation value OP is controlled to the open side by OP1.
On the other hand, when the detected value PV is larger than the upper limit value H1, the time-up value TL = the holding timer set value T1 is set, and the secondary FDF damper operation value OP is controlled to the open side by OP1.
When each operation time T becomes equal to or greater than the time-up value TL, the timer is reset, and the secondary FDF damper operation value OP is restored.
炉内圧の検出値PVが上限値H2より大きい場合には、タイムアップ値TL=保持タイマ設定値T1に設定し、FDFダンパ操作値OPを閉側にOP2だけ制御する。そして、操作時間Tがタイムアップ値TL以上になったらタイマをリセットし、FDFダンパ操作値OP2を元に戻す。
炉内圧の検出値PVが上限値H3より大きい場合には、タイムアップ値TL=保持タイマ設定値T1に設定し、OFAダンパ操作値OPを開側にOP3だけ制御する。そして、保持タイマ設定値T1がタイムアップ値TLを超えたらタイマをリセットする。
炉内圧の検出値PVが上限値H4より大きい場合には、タイムアップ値TL=保持タイマ設定値T2に設定し、操作C(OFAダンパ操作値OPを開側にOP3だけ制御)を行った後、保持タイマ設定値T1がタイムアップ値TLを超えたらタイマをリセットする。
尚、炉内圧の上限値は、H1<H2<H3<H4とする。
When the detected value PV of the furnace pressure is larger than the upper limit value H2, the time-up value TL is set to the hold timer set value T1, and the FDF damper operation value OP is controlled to the closed side by OP2. When the operation time T becomes equal to or greater than the time-up value TL, the timer is reset and the FDF damper operation value OP2 is returned to the original value.
When the detected value PV of the furnace pressure is larger than the upper limit value H3, the time-up value TL is set to the holding timer set value T1, and the OFA damper operation value OP is controlled to the open side by OP3. When the hold timer set value T1 exceeds the time-up value TL, the timer is reset.
When the detected value PV of the furnace pressure is larger than the upper limit value H4, the time-up value TL is set to the holding timer set value T2, and the operation C (the OFA damper operation value OP is controlled to the open side only by OP3) is performed. When the hold timer set value T1 exceeds the time-up value TL, the timer is reset.
The upper limit value of the furnace pressure is set to H1 <H2 <H3 <H4.
本構成によれば、廃棄物40の投入量や発熱量の変動があった場合でも炉内状況に対応した適切な制御を行うことができ、延いては流動床ガス化炉3における熱分解ガスの発生量や溶融炉6、二次燃焼室12における燃焼をバランス良く適正化することができ、各装置における燃焼状態に支障を及ぼすことなく溶融炉後段側の排ガス中CO濃度を低減することが可能となる。   According to this configuration, it is possible to perform appropriate control corresponding to the situation in the furnace even when there is a change in the input amount of the waste 40 or the calorific value, and as a result, the pyrolysis gas in the fluidized bed gasification furnace 3 Generation amount and combustion in the melting furnace 6 and the secondary combustion chamber 12 can be optimized in a well-balanced manner, and the CO concentration in the exhaust gas on the downstream side of the melting furnace can be reduced without affecting the combustion state in each apparatus. It becomes possible.
本発明の実施例に係るガス化溶融システムの全体構成図である。1 is an overall configuration diagram of a gasification melting system according to an embodiment of the present invention. 図1のガス化溶融システムにおける制御テーブルを示す図である。It is a figure which shows the control table in the gasification melting system of FIG. 図1に示した流動床ガス化炉の炉内圧変化を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the furnace pressure change of the fluidized bed gasification furnace shown in FIG. 図1のガス化溶融システムにおける運転制御フローを示す図である。It is a figure which shows the operation control flow in the gasification melting system of FIG. 従来のガス化溶融システムの全体構成図である。It is a whole block diagram of the conventional gasification melting system.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
3 流動床ガス化炉
6 旋回溶融炉
12 二次燃焼室
22 炉内圧センサ
23、29 送風機
24 FDFダンパ
25 熱分解ガスダクト
30 2次FDFダンパ
31 OFAダンパ
35 制御装置
41、42、43 燃焼空気
3 Fluidized Bed Gasification Furnace 6 Swivel Melting Furnace 12 Secondary Combustion Chamber 22 Furnace Pressure Sensors 23, 29 Blower 24 FDF Damper 25 Pyrolysis Gas Duct 30 Secondary FDF Damper 31 OFA Damper 35 Controllers 41, 42, 43 Combustion Air

Claims (7)

  1. 流動床ガス化炉にて廃棄物を熱分解して熱分解ガスを発生させ、該熱分解ガスが導入された溶融炉にて該熱分解ガスの燃焼熱により灰分を溶融した後、前記溶融炉に連結された二次燃焼室にて燃焼を行うガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法において、
    前記流動床ガス化炉における炉内圧の上限値を予め複数段階設定するとともに、流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の少なくとも何れかに供給する燃焼空気供給量の変更値と制御保持時間の組み合わせからなる複数の制御操作を有し、該制御操作が前記上限値に夫々関連付けされており、
    前記炉内圧の検出値に基づいて前記上限値に対応した制御操作を選択することを特徴とするガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法。
    The waste is pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed gasification furnace to generate pyrolysis gas, the ash is melted by the combustion heat of the pyrolysis gas in the melting furnace into which the pyrolysis gas is introduced, and then the melting furnace In the operation control method of the gasification melting system that performs combustion in the secondary combustion chamber connected to
    The upper limit value of the furnace pressure in the fluidized bed gasification furnace is set in advance in a plurality of stages, and the changed value of the supply amount of combustion air supplied to at least one of the fluidized bed gasification furnace, the melting furnace, and the secondary combustion chamber and the control hold Having a plurality of control operations consisting of a combination of times, each of which is associated with the upper limit value,
    An operation control method for a gasification and melting system, wherein a control operation corresponding to the upper limit value is selected based on a detected value of the furnace pressure.
  2. 前記上限値が、炉内圧の正常範囲を示す設定値に近い順に第1上限値、第2上限値、・・・と設定されており、
    前記検出値が前記第1上限値に達した場合に、前記溶融炉と前記二次燃焼室の燃焼空気供給量を所定時間増加する第1の制御操作を行い、
    前記検出値が前記第2上限値に達した場合に、前記流動床ガス化炉への燃焼空気供給量を所定時間減少する第2の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする請求項1記載のガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法。
    The upper limit value is set as a first upper limit value, a second upper limit value,... In order from the set value indicating the normal range of the furnace pressure,
    When the detected value reaches the first upper limit value, a first control operation is performed to increase the amount of combustion air supplied to the melting furnace and the secondary combustion chamber for a predetermined time,
    2. The gas according to claim 1, wherein when the detected value reaches the second upper limit value, a second control operation is performed to reduce a supply amount of combustion air to the fluidized bed gasification furnace for a predetermined time. Control method for chemical melting system.
  3. 前記検出値が第3上限値に達した場合に、前記溶融炉と前記二次燃焼室への燃焼空気供給割合を所定時間変更する第3の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする請求項2記載のガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法。   3. The third control operation for changing a combustion air supply ratio to the melting furnace and the secondary combustion chamber for a predetermined time when the detected value reaches a third upper limit value. Operation control method for gasification and melting system.
  4. 前記検出値が第4上限値に達した場合に、前記第3の制御操作を行うとともに、前記第3の制御操作よりも制御保持時間を長くする第4の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする請求項2若しくは3記載のガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法。   When the detected value reaches a fourth upper limit value, the third control operation is performed, and a fourth control operation for making a control holding time longer than the third control operation is performed. The operation control method of the gasification melting system of Claim 2 or 3.
  5. 前記検出値が突発的に急激な増加を示した場合に、前記第1の制御操作と前記第3の制御操作を行うとともに、これらの制御操作より制御保持時間を長くする第5の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする請求項2若しくは3記載のガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法。   When the detected value shows a sudden and sudden increase, the first control operation and the third control operation are performed, and a fifth control operation that makes the control holding time longer than these control operations is performed. The operation control method of the gasification melting system according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the operation control method is performed.
  6. 前記検出値が前記設定値よりも大である状態が所定時間以上継続した場合に、前記第1の制御操作を行うとともに、その制御保持時間を前記上限値1の場合よりも長い時間維持する第6の制御操作を行うことを特徴とする請求項2記載のガス化溶融システムの運転制御方法。   When the state where the detected value is larger than the set value continues for a predetermined time or longer, the first control operation is performed, and the control holding time is maintained for a longer time than the upper limit value 1. 6. The operation control method for a gasification and melting system according to claim 2, wherein the control operation is performed.
  7. 廃棄物を熱分解して熱分解ガスを発生させる流動床ガス化炉と、該熱分解ガスの燃焼熱により灰分を溶融する溶融炉と、該溶融炉で発生した燃焼排ガス中の未燃分を燃焼させる二次燃焼室とからなるガス化溶融システムにおいて、
    前記流動床ガス化炉の炉内圧を検出する炉内圧検出センサと、
    前記流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の何れかの燃焼空気供給量を調整する複数の供給量調整手段と、
    前記炉内圧の上限値が複数段階設定されるとともに、流動床ガス化炉、溶融炉、二次燃焼室の少なくとも何れかに供給する燃焼空気供給量の変更値と制御保持時間の組み合わせからなる複数の制御操作が設定され、該制御操作が前記上限値に夫々関連付けされた制御テーブルと、
    前記炉内圧検出センサにて得られる検出値に基づいて前記上限値に対応した制御操作を選択する制御装置とを備えることを特徴とするガス化溶融システム。
    A fluidized bed gasification furnace that thermally decomposes waste to generate pyrolysis gas, a melting furnace that melts ash by the combustion heat of the pyrolysis gas, and unburned content in the combustion exhaust gas generated in the melting furnace In a gasification and melting system consisting of a secondary combustion chamber for combustion,
    A furnace pressure detection sensor for detecting a furnace pressure of the fluidized bed gasification furnace;
    A plurality of supply amount adjusting means for adjusting the combustion air supply amount of any one of the fluidized bed gasification furnace, the melting furnace, and the secondary combustion chamber;
    A plurality of upper limit values of the furnace internal pressure are set, and a plurality of combinations of a change value of a combustion air supply amount supplied to at least one of a fluidized bed gasification furnace, a melting furnace, and a secondary combustion chamber and a control holding time A control table in which each control operation is associated with the upper limit value, and
    A gasification and melting system comprising: a control device that selects a control operation corresponding to the upper limit value based on a detection value obtained by the furnace pressure detection sensor.
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