JP4116740B2 - Information recording medium, information recording method, information recording apparatus, and information reproducing apparatus - Google Patents

Information recording medium, information recording method, information recording apparatus, and information reproducing apparatus Download PDF

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JP4116740B2
JP4116740B2 JP25367899A JP25367899A JP4116740B2 JP 4116740 B2 JP4116740 B2 JP 4116740B2 JP 25367899 A JP25367899 A JP 25367899A JP 25367899 A JP25367899 A JP 25367899A JP 4116740 B2 JP4116740 B2 JP 4116740B2
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Prior art keywords
area
information
data
recording
block
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JP2000322835A (en
Inventor
基志 伊藤
芳稔 後藤
宏 植田
能久 福島
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松下電器産業株式会社
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an information recording medium, an information recording method, an information recording apparatus, and an information reproducing apparatus.
[0002]
[Prior art]
There is an optical disc as an information recording medium having a sector structure. In recent years, higher density and larger capacity have been promoted, and ensuring reliability is important. In order to ensure this reliability, the optical disk apparatus performs defect management in which a sector that cannot be recorded on and reproduced from the disk (referred to as a defective sector) is replaced with another sector in good condition. For such defect management, ISO / IEC10090 (hereinafter abbreviated as ISO standard) is published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for 90 mm optical disks.
[0003]
Hereinafter, as one of the background arts, an ECC block adopted in the DVD standard and a defect management method of the ISO standard will be briefly described.
[0004]
FIG. 17 shows the physical structure of the disk 1. A plurality of tracks 2 are formed concentrically or spirally on the disk-shaped disk 1. Each of the plurality of tracks 2 is divided into a plurality of sectors 3. The area of the disk 1 includes one or more disk information areas 4 and a data recording area 5.
[0005]
The disk information area 4 stores parameters necessary for accessing the disk 1. In the example shown in FIG. 17, the disc information areas 4 are provided on the innermost and outermost sides of the disc 1, respectively. The innermost disk information area 4 is also referred to as a lead-in area. The outermost disk information area 4 is also referred to as a lead-out area.
[0006]
Data recording / reproduction is performed on the data recording area 5. Each sector 3 in the data recording area 5 is assigned in advance an absolute address called a physical sector number.
[0007]
FIG. 18A shows the configuration of an ECC block that is a calculation unit of an error correction code. The ECC block includes main data arranged in 172 bytes × 48 rows, an inner code parity PI for which an error correction code is calculated for each row (horizontal direction), and an error for each column (vertically). And the outer code parity PO for which the correction code is calculated.
[0008]
An error correction method using an inner code parity and an outer code parity is generally called an error correction method using a product code. The error correction method using a product code is an error correction method that is strong against both random errors and burst errors (locally concentrated errors). For example, let us consider a case where a burst error of two lines occurs due to a scratch in addition to a random error. Most burst errors can be corrected because they are mostly 2-byte errors from the outer code. A sequence in which a lot of random errors exist cannot be corrected by the outer code, and an error remains, but the remaining error can be corrected by the inner code in most cases. Even if an error remains due to the inner code, the error can be further reduced by correcting again with the outer code. In DVD, such a product code is adopted, so that sufficient correction capability is realized while suppressing redundancy of parity. In other words, the capacity of user data can be increased by reducing the parity redundancy.
[0009]
In a larger capacity DVD, one ECC block is composed of 16 sectors in order to achieve both high error correction capability and low redundancy. However, in FIG. 18A, for convenience, it is assumed that an ECC block is composed of four sectors.
[0010]
FIG. 18B shows the configuration of the sectors included in the ECC block. The outer code parity of the ECC block is divided into a plurality of rows and is equally distributed to each sector. As a result, one recording sector is composed of data of 182 bytes × 13 rows.
[0011]
A host control device (generally a host computer) issues a recording or playback command to the optical disk device in units of sectors. When instructed to reproduce a certain sector, the optical disk apparatus reproduces an ECC block including the sector from the disk, performs error correction, and then returns only the data portion corresponding to the designated sector. When instructed to record a certain sector, the optical disk apparatus reproduces an ECC block including the sector from the disk, performs error correction, and then receives a data portion corresponding to the designated sector from the host controller. The error correction code is recalculated and appended for the ECC block, and the ECC block including the sector is recorded on the disk. In particular, such a recording operation is called a read modified write.
[0012]
In the following description, the block means the ECC block described above.
[0013]
FIG. 19 shows an example of the physical space of the disk 1 in the ISO standard defect management method. The data recording area 5 includes a volume space 6 and a spare area 9.
[0014]
The volume space 6 is managed by continuous addresses called logical sector numbers. The volume space 6 includes a logical volume space 6a and a volume structure 6b indicating the structure of the logical volume space 6a.
[0015]
The spare area 9 includes at least one sector that can be used in place of the defective sector when a defective sector occurs in the volume space 6.
[0016]
In the example shown in FIG. 19, a file A (shown as “File-A” in FIG. 19) exists immediately under the root directory (shown as “ROOT” in FIG. 19). Of the data blocks a to c included in the data extent of the root directory, the data block c is a defective block. The defective block c is replaced by the # 1 spare block in the spare area 9. Of the data blocks d to g included in the data extent of the file A, the data block f is a defective block. The defective block f is replaced by the # 2 spare block in the spare area 9.
[0017]
The replacement relationship between the defective block and the spare block in the spare area 9 is registered in a secondary defect list (SDL). The SDL is stored in the defect management information area as part of the defect management information.
[0018]
Furthermore, recently, there is a movement to use a rewritable optical disk as a bare disk without a cartridge, which is cheaper like a read-only optical disk. From the viewpoint of defect management, a bare disk is likely to have a fingerprint, so there is a concern that the number of defective sectors will increase more than expected. Therefore, a technique for dynamically expanding a spare area that has been fixed in the past has been studied.
[0019]
Subsequently, with the increase in capacity of optical disks and the practical application of moving image compression technology, applications for recording and reproducing moving images on optical disks have been developed. There is a problem with the conventional defect management method for applications that require real-time performance such as moving images. In other words, if the defective sector is replaced with a spare sector that is physically separated, it takes extra time to move the optical head, and real-time performance cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, a defect management method that replaces the method of replacing with a spare sector at a position away from the defective sector has been studied.
[0020]
Hereinafter, as a second background art, a method for recording and reproducing AV data (that is, audio-video data) being studied will be described.
[0021]
20A and 20B are layout diagrams of AV data on a disc in recording / reproducing AV data. In FIGS. 20A and 20B, the letter h indicates a hexadecimal number.
[0022]
FIG. 20A is a layout diagram of AV data when there is no defective sector. If there is no defective sector, AV data from # 1 data to # 4 data can be recorded in sectors having consecutive logical sector numbers (LSN). Further, AV data can be reproduced by reproducing sectors having consecutive logical sector numbers.
[0023]
FIG. 20B is a layout diagram of AV data when there is a defective sector. FIG. 20B shows an example in which 16 sectors with logical sector numbers n to n + 0Fh are detected as defective sectors during data recording. In this case, the ECC block including the detected defective sector is skipped. As a result, # 3 data and # 4 data are recorded in sectors with logical sector numbers n + 10h to n + 1Fh and sectors with logical sector numbers n + 20h to n + 2Fh, respectively. Such skip operation in units of ECC blocks is called block skip.
[0024]
FIG. 21 shows an example of the physical space of the disc 1 in recording / reproducing AV data.
[0025]
In the example shown in FIG. 21, a file A (shown as “File-A” in FIG. 21) that includes AV data immediately below the root directory (shown as “ROOT” in FIG. 21). Exists. Of the data blocks a to c included in the data extent of the root directory, the data block c is a defective block. The defective block c is replaced by the # 1 spare block in the spare area 9. Assume that a defective block f is detected in an area where the AV data extent of file A is to be recorded. In this case, the defective block f is skipped. As a result, the AV data extent of file A is divided into AV data extent I including data block d and data block e, and AV data extent II including data block g and data block h.
[0026]
The fact that the defective block c is replaced with the # 1 spare block in the spare area 9 is registered in the SDL. However, the defective block f is not registered in the SDL. This is because the defective block f is only skipped, and no spare block is assigned to the defective block f and is not replaced.
[0027]
Hereinafter, with reference to FIG. 22A to FIG. 22C, a problem that there is a defective block that is not registered in the SDL will be described.
[0028]
FIG. 22A shows an ECC block recorded normally. The ECC block is recorded over a plurality of sectors. Each sector starts with an ID in which a physical sector number or the like is described. Data is recorded in the area following this ID. The data is obtained by adding an error correction code to the main data and further interleaving the main data to which the error correction code is added (see FIG. 18).
[0029]
FIG. 22B shows an ECC block that has failed to be overwritten. When new data is overwritten on the ECC block shown in FIG. 22A, an error correction code corresponding to the new main data is added. In the example shown in FIG. 22B, since the ID of the third sector is a bad ID, up to the first two sectors are rewritten with new ECC block data, and the remaining two sectors are data of the old ECC block. It remains.
[0030]
FIG. 22C shows the structure of the reproduction data of the ECC block whose overwrite has failed. When the four sectors shown in FIG. 22B are reproduced, two data are mixed. In FIG. 22C, the two data are displayed so that the directions of the oblique lines are different. This means that error correction always fails in the vertical direction using the outer code parity PO.
[0031]
As can be seen from the above description, a block that has failed to be recorded even once is a block that cannot be reproduced. In order to record data in some sectors of this block, a read modified write operation is required. However, a read modified write operation on a block that cannot be reproduced always fails. Therefore, this block cannot be recorded again. This block is also a block that cannot be replaced later. This is because data to be moved to the replacement block cannot be reproduced from this block in the same manner as in the read-modify-write operation.
[0032]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
If an attempt is made to incorporate a dynamically expandable spare area method into the ISO standard defect management method for a fixed size spare area, the spare area is temporarily depleted (that is, not possible in the past). There is no spare area available. A method for managing defective blocks detected when the spare area is temporarily depleted has not been studied. Since the read-modify-write operation for a defective block that has not been managed fails, there is a problem in that data cannot be recorded in the defective block in units of sectors.
[0033]
Even when AV data is recorded / reproduced on / from a disc, the read / modify / write operation for the skipped defective block fails. Therefore, there was the same problem as the problem described above.
[0034]
In view of the above problems, the present invention manages a defective block even when a spare block to be replaced does not exist, and reduces the probability that the read / modify / write operation fails, thereby improving the reliability of the information recording medium, An object is to provide an information recording method, an information recording apparatus, and an information reproducing apparatus.
[0035]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  The information recording medium of the present invention includes a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management for managing the defect area. An information recording medium comprising a defect management information area in which information is recorded, wherein the defect management information isIt further includes first position information indicating the position of the defective area, and second position information regarding the position of the replacement area, and the second position information is a value indicating whether the value indicates the position of the replacement area. Based on whether a predetermined value indicating that there is no destination, indicates whether the defective area has been replaced by the replacement area,As a result, the above object is achieved.
[0036]
  The information recording method of the present invention includes a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management for managing the defect area. An information recording method for recording information on an information recording medium including a defect management information area in which information is recorded, wherein the defect management information includes first position information indicating a position of the defect area and the replacement area. Second position information related to a position, and the information recording method includes a step of detecting the defect area and a step of recording the second position information in the defect management information area. Whether or not the defective area has been replaced with the replacement area based on whether the value is a value indicating the position of the replacement area or a predetermined value indicating that there is no replacement destination Shown, thereby the objective described above being achieved.
[0037]
  An information recording apparatus according to the present invention includes a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management for managing the defect area. An information recording apparatus for recording information on an information recording medium including a defect management information area in which information is recorded, wherein the defect management information includes first position information indicating a position of the defect area and the replacement area. The information recording apparatus includes a detection unit that detects the defect area, and a recording unit that records the second position information regarding the position of the replacement area in the defect management information area. The second position information is replaced with the replacement area based on whether the value is a value indicating the position of the replacement area or a predetermined value indicating that there is no replacement destination. Indicates whether an, thereby the objective described above being achieved.
[0038]
  The information reproducing apparatus according to the present invention includes a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defective area included in the volume space, and defect management for managing the defective area. An information reproducing apparatus for reproducing information recorded on an information recording medium including a defect management information area in which information is recorded, wherein the defect management information includes first position information indicating a position of the defect area, A determination unit that determines whether or not the defective area has been replaced with the replacement area by referring to the second position information; and second position information relating to a position of the replacement area. And a control unit that controls reproduction of the user data according to the determination result, and the control unit is configured to control the defect data when the defective area is not replaced with the replacement area. Skip reproduction areas, thereby the objective described above being achieved.
[0057]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0058]
(Embodiment 1)
The disc 1 is a disc-like rewritable information recording medium. As the disk 1, any information recording medium including a DVD-RAM can be used. Data can be recorded on the disc 1. Data recorded on the disc 1 can be reproduced. Data recording / reproduction is performed in units of sectors or blocks.
[0059]
The physical structure of the disk 1 is the same as that shown in FIG. Therefore, the description thereof is omitted here.
[0060]
FIG. 1A shows the structure of the physical space of the disk 1. The area of the disk 1 includes one or more disk information areas 4 and a data recording area 5. In the example shown in FIG. 1, the disc information areas 4 are provided on the innermost and outermost sides of the disc 1, respectively. The innermost disk information area 4 is also referred to as a lead-in area. The outermost disk information area 4 is also referred to as a lead-out area.
[0061]
Data recording / reproduction is performed on the data recording area 5. All sectors in the data recording area 5 are pre-assigned absolute addresses called physical sector numbers (hereinafter abbreviated as PSN).
[0062]
The data recording area 5 includes a volume space 6 and a first spare area 7.
[0063]
The volume space 6 is an area prepared for storing user data. In order to access the volume space 6, a logical sector number (hereinafter abbreviated as LSN) is assigned to each sector included in the volume space 6. Data is recorded and reproduced by accessing the sector of the disk 1 using the LSN.
[0064]
The first spare area 7 includes at least one sector that can be used in place of the defective sector when a defective sector occurs in the volume space 6. The first spare area 7 is arranged on the inner circumference side of the disk 1 from the volume space 6. This is because, when a defective sector occurs in an area for storing file management information (such as unused space management information and a root directory file entry), the defective sector replacement process is performed at high speed. The file management information is stored in the vicinity of the sector to which the logical sector number “0” is assigned. Therefore, by arranging the first spare area 7 on the inner circumference side of the disk 1 with respect to the volume space 6, the seek distance between the defective sector and the replacement sector can be reduced. This speeds up the replacement process of defective sectors. The frequency at which file management information is accessed is high, and high data reliability is required for file management information. Therefore, it is extremely useful to perform the replacement process of defective sectors generated in the area for storing the file management information at high speed.
[0065]
The volume space 6 includes a logical volume space 6a and a volume structure 6b indicating the structure of the logical volume space 6a. In the logical volume space 6a, unused space management information indicating whether the sector of the logical volume space 6a is used or unused, one or more data extents storing the contents of the file, and one or more corresponding to the file And a file entry in which the data extents are registered are stored. Files are managed using these pieces of information.
[0066]
The disc information area 4 includes a control data area 4a and a defect management information area 4b. The defect management information area 4b stores defect management information 10 for managing defective sectors.
[0067]
The defect management information 10 includes a disk definition structure 11, a primary defect list (hereinafter abbreviated as PDL) 12, and a secondary defect list (hereinafter abbreviated as SDL) 13. .
[0068]
The PDL 12 is used for managing defective sectors detected in the inspection at the time of shipment of the disk 1. The inspection at the time of shipment of the disk 1 is usually performed by the manufacturer of the disk 1.
[0069]
The SDL 13 is used to manage defective sectors detected while the user is using the disk 1.
[0070]
FIG. 1B shows the structure of SDL13.
[0071]
The SDL 13 includes a secondary defect list header (SDL header) 20 including an identifier indicating SDL, information (SDL entry number information) 21 indicating the number of SDL entries 22 registered in the SDL, and one or more SDL entry 22 (in the example shown in FIG. 1B, the first entry to the m-th entry). Note that the value of the SDL entry number information 21 being zero indicates that there is no defective sector registered in the SDL.
[0072]
FIG. 1C shows the structure of the SDL entry 22.
[0073]
The SDL entry 22 includes a status field 22a, a field 22b for storing information indicating the position of the defective sector, and a field 22c for storing information indicating the position of the replacement sector to be replaced with the defective sector.
[0074]
The status field 22a is used to indicate whether the defective sector has been replaced with a replacement sector. The position of the defective sector is expressed by, for example, the physical sector number of the defective sector. The position of the replacement sector is expressed by, for example, the physical sector number of the replacement sector.
[0075]
For example, the status field 22a may include a 1-bit flag 22a-1 and a reserved area 22a-2. For example, the value of the flag 22a-1 being 1 indicates that the defective sector has not been replaced with a replacement sector. The value of the flag 22a-1 being 0 indicates that the defective sector has been replaced with a replacement sector.
[0076]
Alternatively, the status field 22a may include a 1-bit depletion flag 22a-3, a 1-bit AV flag 22a-4, and a reserved area 22a-5 (see FIG. 1D). Each of the exhaustion flag 22a-3 and the AV flag 22a-4 is a flag indicating a factor that a defective sector is not replaced with a replacement sector. For example, the value of the depletion flag 22a-3 being 1 indicates that the defective sector has not been replaced by the replacement sector because the first spare area 7 has been exhausted. For example, when the value of the AV flag 22a-4 is 1, since the detected defective sector is a defective sector detected while the AV data is recorded on the disk 1, the defective sector becomes a replacement sector. Indicates that it has not been replaced.
[0077]
Alternatively, instead of providing the status field 22a, a predetermined state indicating that there is no replacement destination (that is, the defective sector has not been replaced with a replacement sector) in the field 22c for storing information indicating the position of the replacement sector. May be inserted (see FIG. 1E). The predetermined value is, for example, 0.
[0078]
The format of the SDL entry 22 shown in FIGS. 1C to 1E is an example, and the format of the SDL entry 22 is not limited to these. As long as the SDL includes status information indicating whether the defective sector has been replaced with a replacement sector, the SDL entry 22 can take any format.
[0079]
For example, when the value of the state field 22a is 1, the number of identifiable states can be increased by setting the value of the field 22c to a predetermined value. For example, the value of the field 22c being set to 0 indicates that a newly detected defective sector has not been replaced with a replacement sector, and no replacement sector has been assigned. For example, if the value of the field 22c is set to a value other than 0, the previously detected defective sector has been replaced with the replacement sector specified by the field 22c, but the replacement has been canceled. Show.
[0080]
Furthermore, in the above description, defect management is performed in units of sectors. However, defect management may be performed in units of blocks including a plurality of sectors. In this case, instead of the information indicating the position of the defective sector, information indicating the position of the defective block (for example, the physical sector number of the leading sector of the defective block) is registered in the SDL, and the information indicating the position of the replacement sector is stored. Instead, information indicating the position of the replacement block (for example, the physical sector number of the first sector of the replacement block) may be registered in the SDL. It is also possible to perform defect management in units of ECC blocks that are units for performing error correction.
[0081]
As described above, the defect area is detected by storing in the defect management information area the state information indicating whether or not the defect area (defective sector or defective block) has been replaced with the replacement area (replacement sector or replacement block). However, it is possible to manage a state in which the defective area is not replaced with the replacement area.
[0082]
FIG. 2 shows an example of the physical space of the disk 1 when a file A containing AV data as contents is recorded on the disk 1.
[0083]
In the example shown in FIG. 2, a file A (shown as “File-A” in FIG. 2) exists immediately under the root directory (shown as “ROOT” in FIG. 2). Of the data blocks a to c included in the data extent of the root directory, the data block c is a defective block. The defective block c is replaced by the # 1 spare block in the first spare area 7. Assume that a defective block f is detected in an area where the AV data extent of file A is to be recorded. In this case, the defective block f is skipped. As a result, the AV data extent of file A is AV data extent I (File-A) including data block d and data block e, and AV data extent II (File-A) including data block g and data block h. And divided.
[0084]
The first SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that the defective block c has been replaced with the # 1 spare block in the first spare area 7.
[0085]
The second SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 is detected when the AV data is recorded on the disc 1 and indicates that the skipped defective block f is not replaced with a replacement block.
[0086]
FIG. 3 shows an example of the physical space of the disk 1 when the file A including contents other than AV data is recorded on the disk 1 after the file A including AV data is recorded on the disk 1.
[0087]
In the example shown in FIG. 3, the defective block f is designated as the location where the data extent of file B is recorded. As a result, the defective block f is replaced with the # 2 spare block in the first spare area 7. Along with this replacement process, the value of the status field 22a of the second SDL entry 22 of the SDL 13 is updated from 1 to 0, and information indicating the position of the # 2 spare block is stored in the field 22c.
[0088]
Here, it is assumed that the data extent size of file B is equal to the size of one block. The configuration information of the data extent of file B is described in the file entry of file B. The LSN corresponding to the file B is described as used in the unused space management information. File B is registered in the data extent of the root directory.
[0089]
If the optical disk apparatus tries to record data in some sectors of the defective block f without knowing that the defective block f is a defective block that failed to record AV data, the above does not occur. The reason is as follows. The optical disc apparatus performs a read modified write operation so as not to change data of other sectors belonging to the same ECC block as the sector requested to be recorded. The optical disc apparatus tries to reproduce data in the read-modify-write operation, but always fails. As a result, the ECC unit data necessary for recording in the spare block cannot be obtained, and the replacement process cannot be performed.
[0090]
If the optical disk apparatus knows that the defective block f is a defective block that has failed to record AV data, it can be determined that no valid user data is recorded in the defective block f. This is because since it is important to record AV data in real time, it is required that AV data be recorded on the disk 1 in units of ECC blocks. In other words, it is not required to rewrite only a part of the ECC block. Therefore, it is not necessary to perform a read-modified-write operation for changing the data of other sectors belonging to the same ECC block as the sector requested to be recorded for the skipped defective block. Therefore, it is possible to generate an ECC block by filling the data of other sectors with 0, and to record the ECC block in the spare block to be replaced.
[0091]
FIG. 4 shows an example of the physical space of the disk 1 when the available replacement area included in the spare area is temporarily depleted (insufficient).
[0092]
Compared to the physical space example shown in FIG. 2, an expandable second spare area 8 is allocated to the data recording area 5. With the allocation of the second spare area 8, the size of the volume space 6 and the size of the logical volume space 6a are reduced by the size of the second spare area 8. Prior to the allocation of the second spare area 8, the volume structure 6 b arranged on the outer peripheral side of the disk 1 is moved in the inner peripheral direction of the disk 1. The size of the unused space management information is adjusted according to the size of the logical volume space 6a.
[0093]
In the example shown in FIG. 4, a file A (shown as “File-A” in FIG. 4) and a file B (shown in FIG. 4) are directly under the root directory (shown as “ROOT” in FIG. 4). And “File-B”) and a file C being recorded (shown as “File-C” in FIG. 4).
[0094]
The data block c included in the data extent of the root directory is a defective block. The defective block c is replaced by the # 1 spare block in the first spare area 7.
[0095]
Data block f included in the data extent of file A is a defective block. The defective block f is replaced by the # 2 spare block in the first spare area 7.
[0096]
Data block h and data block j included in the data extent of file B are defective blocks. The defective block h and the defective block j are replaced by a # 3 spare block and a # 4 spare block in the second spare area 8, respectively. The data block m to be recorded as the data extent of the file C is detected as a defective block during recording, but there is no spare block available in the first spare area 7 and the second spare area 8. It was. For this reason, the file C is in an incomplete state.
[0097]
A field 23 for storing information indicating the position of the second spare area 8 is added to the SDL 13 as compared with the structure of the SDL 13 shown in FIG. 1B. As information indicating the position of the second spare area 8, for example, the physical sector number of the head sector of the second spare area 8 is stored in the field 23. The field 23 is provided for dynamically expanding the second spare area 8.
[0098]
The first SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that the defective block c has been replaced with the # 1 spare block in the first spare area 7.
[0099]
The second SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that the defective block f has been replaced with the # 2 spare block in the first spare area 7.
[0100]
The third SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that the defective block h has been replaced with the # 3 spare block in the second spare area 8.
[0101]
The fourth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that the defective block j has been replaced with the # 4 spare block in the second spare area 8.
[0102]
The fifth SDL entry 22 of the SDL 13 indicates that the defective block m has not been replaced with a spare block.
[0103]
FIG. 5 shows an example of the physical space of the disk 1 when the file C is recorded again after the second spare area 8 is expanded.
[0104]
As shown in FIG. 5, the second spare area 8 is expanded. The size of the volume space 6 and the size of the logical volume space 6a are reduced by the amount of expansion of the second spare area 8.
[0105]
Prior to the expansion of the second spare area 8, the volume structure 6 b arranged on the outer peripheral side of the disk 1 is moved in the inner peripheral direction of the disk 1. The size of the unused space management information is adjusted according to the size of the logical volume space 6a.
[0106]
The data block m included in the data extent of the file C is replaced by the # 5 spare block in the expanded second spare area 8. The data extent of file C is composed of three data blocks l, m, and n. The configuration information of the data extent of file C is described in the file entry of file C. The LSN corresponding to the file C is described as used in the unused space management information. File C is registered in the data extent of the root directory.
[0107]
The fifth SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13 indicates that the data block m has been replaced with the # 5 spare block in the extended second spare area 8.
[0108]
Unlike the case where the attempt to record AV data fails, if the attempt to record data other than AV data fails, there may be valid user data in the defective block. Therefore, the process of recovering such a defective block is somewhat more complicated than when the defective block does not contain valid user data.
[0109]
Assume that the optical disk apparatus is requested to record data in a sector included in a defective block (ECC block) to which no replacement block is assigned. In this case, the optical disk apparatus reproduces data using only the inner code parity PI (see FIG. 22C) independent for each sector for each of the other sectors in the ECC block including the sector, and reproduces the data. Read / write operation is performed using the read data.
[0110]
As described above, since the outer code parity PO is not used, the error correction capability is lowered. However, if the error is within a range that can be corrected by the inner code parity PI, the error can be corrected.
[0111]
Note that only when there is no valid user data in the defective block, when a defective block to which no replacement block is assigned is registered in the SDL, the process of recovering the defective block tries to record the AV data described above. It is the same as the processing in case of failure.
[0112]
As described above, when a defective area is detected when data (for example, AV data) requiring real-time property is recorded on the disc 1, the data is not recorded in the defective area (that is, the data The defective area is skipped). The position of the defect area is written in the defect management information area 4b of the disk 1. In addition, status information indicating that the defective area has not been replaced with the replacement area is written in the defect management information area 4b of the disk 1. When it is required to record data that does not require real-time property in the defective area (for example, data other than AV data), the defective area is replaced with a replacement area without performing a read-modify-write operation. Is done. The position of the replacement area is written in the defect management information area 4b of the disk 1.
[0113]
In this way, by avoiding a read-modify-write operation that is known to always fail in advance, by replacing the defective area with a replacement area, it is possible to record data that does not require real-time characteristics in the replacement area. Can be successful.
[0114]
Further, a replacement area is not assigned to the defective area until it is actually requested to record data in the defective area. This provides the advantage that the spare area is not wasted.
[0115]
In addition, when the spare area is an expandable area, there is a possibility that the available replacement area included in the spare area is temporarily insufficient. If the replacement area cannot be allocated to the detected defect area due to a temporary shortage of the available replacement area included in the spare area, the position of the defect area is stored in the defect management information area 4b of the disk 1. Written. In addition, since no replacement area is assigned to the defect area, status information indicating that the replacement area is not replaced is written in the defect management information area 4 b of the disk 1. After the spare area is expanded and an available replacement area is secured, a replacement area is assigned to the defective area and is replaced therewith. The position of the replacement area is written in the defect management information area 4b of the disk 1.
[0116]
In the information recording medium described above, the replacement area is not allocated to the defective area when the defective area is detected, but the defective data is recorded when valid data is recorded in the logical volume space corresponding to the defective area. A replacement area is assigned to the area. Such an information recording medium has an advantage in that the spare area can be used effectively.
[0117]
The advantage of effectively using the spare area does not depend on the configuration of the error correction code that requires the read-modify-write operation.
[0118]
(Embodiment 2)
Hereinafter, an embodiment of an information recording / reproducing system for recording information on the disc 1 described in the first embodiment or reproducing information recorded on the disc 1 will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0119]
FIG. 6 is a conceptual diagram showing the principle of recording AV data on the disc 1 or reproducing the AV data recorded on the disc 1.
[0120]
When AV data is recorded on the disc 1, unused space management information in the logical volume space 6a is referred to. Based on the unused space management information, an unused area in the logical volume space 6a is searched. The number of blocks in a continuously unused area is required to satisfy the condition that it is larger than the number of blocks necessary for AV data to be recorded by a predetermined number or more. Here, the predetermined number corresponds to the number of blocks that can be skipped. If an unused area that satisfies the condition is found as a result of the search, the AV data is allocated to the unused area.
[0121]
In the example shown in FIG. 6, the AV data 63 is allocated to the unused area 62 included in the area 61. The area 61 is a partial area of the logical volume space 6a. Unused area 62 is block B1~ Block BTenIt is composed of
[0122]
The parameter of the skip recording command is generated based on the size of the unused area 62 (that is, the allocated area) to which the AV data 63 is allocated and the size of the AV data 63 (that is, the AV data size).
[0123]
Reference numeral 65 indicates a recording operation when the skip recording command is executed.
[0124]
A defective block is detected when the AV data 63 is recorded in the unused area 62. The AV data 63 is recorded in the unused area 62 while skipping the detected defective block. In the example shown in FIG.FourAnd block B7Are defective blocks. Therefore, a part of the AV data 63 is a block B.1~ BThreeThe other part of the AV data 63 is recorded in the block B.Five~ B6The remaining part of the AV data 63 is recorded in block B.8~ B9To be recorded. Following the AV data 63, padding data 64 is block B.9To be recorded. The padding data 64 is arranged so that the end of the padding data 64 coincides with the block boundary. As a result of recording operation, block B1~ BThree, BFive~ B6And B8~ B9Becomes used. Block BFour, B7And BTenIs unused.
[0125]
Defective block BFour, B7Are stored in the defect list 66a. The contents of the defect list 66a are written to the SDL 13 stored in the defect management information area 4b on the disk 1 at an appropriate timing, and are reported to the file system as a skip list 66b as necessary. The file system determines from the reported skip list 66b the position of the AV data extent 66c indicating the area in which the AV data 63 is recorded, and the fraction of the ECC block (that is, in the ECC block in which AV data is partially recorded). Then, the position of the padding extent 66d indicating the sector in which AV data is not recorded is obtained, and the file management information is updated.
[0126]
The parameters of the skip playback command are the size of the allocation area and the AV data size.
[0127]
Reference numeral 67 indicates a playback operation when the skip playback command is executed.
[0128]
When reproducing the AV data 63 recorded on the disc 1, the SDL 13 is referred to. AV data 63 is reproduced while skipping defective blocks registered in the SDL.
[0129]
FIG. 7 is a block diagram showing a configuration of an information recording / reproducing system 700 according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
[0130]
As shown in FIG. 7, an information recording / reproducing system 700 includes a host controller 710 that controls the entire system, and a rewritable disc 1 (not shown in FIG. 7) in response to a command from the host controller 710. A disk recording / reproducing drive 720 that performs recording / reproducing control, a magnetic disk device 750, an AV data output unit 760 that converts digital AV data into an analog video / audio signal, and outputs the analog AV signal. An AV data input unit 770 for converting into digital AV data and an I / O bus 780 for transmitting and receiving data and control information are included.
[0131]
The host controller 710 includes a microprocessor that incorporates a control program and an arithmetic memory. The host control device 710 includes a recording area allocation unit 711 that allocates a recording area at the time of recording, a file management information creation unit 712 that creates file management information of the recorded file, a file recording position calculation from the file management information, It further includes a file management information interpreting unit 713 that determines attribute information, a data buffer memory 714 that temporarily stores data, and an instruction issuing unit 715 that issues an instruction to the disk recording / reproducing drive 720.
[0132]
The command issuing unit 715 returns a skip recording command issuing unit 716 that issues a skip recording command that requests recording while skipping a defective area, and returns recording position information that determines an area in which data is recorded after recording. It includes a recording position request command issuing unit 717 that issues a recording position request command to request, and a skip playback command issuing unit 718 that issues a skip playback command requesting playback while skipping a defective area.
[0133]
The disk recording / reproducing drive 720 includes a microprocessor having a control program and a calculation memory. The disk recording / reproducing drive 720 includes a mechanism section controlled by a microprocessor, a signal processing circuit, and the like. A recording control unit 730 that performs control and a reproduction control unit 740 that performs control during reproduction from the rewritable disc 1 are functionally provided.
[0134]
The command processing unit 721 includes a skip recording command processing unit 722 that processes a skip recording command, a recording position request command processing unit 723 that processes a recording position request command, and a skip playback command processing unit that processes a skip playback command. 724.
[0135]
The recording control unit 730 includes a defective area detection unit 731 that detects a defective area during recording, a skip recording control unit 732 that records while skipping the defective area detected during recording, and a recording that stores information regarding the position where the data is recorded. Stores a position storage memory 733, a data inspection unit 734 for checking whether or not data is normally recorded by reading data recorded after recording, and control information necessary for recording such as a recording start position and a recording length. A recording control information memory 735 for recording, a recording data storage memory 736 for temporarily storing recording data received from the host controller 710, and a skip position recording unit 737 for recording the defect area detected and skipped during recording in the defect management information. Including.
[0136]
The reproduction control unit 740 includes a reproduction position storage memory 743 that stores information related to a position where data is reproduced, a skip reproduction control unit 742 that performs reproduction while skipping a defective area with reference to the reproduction position storage memory 743, and a reproduction start position. Playback control information memory 745 for storing control information required for playback such as playback length, playback data storage memory 746 for temporarily storing data read from rewritable disc 1, and skip from defect management information A skip position reading unit 747 that reads the position of the defective area to be read into the reproduction position storage memory 743.
[0137]
Next, a recording method for recording a file containing AV data on the disc 1 using the information recording / reproducing system 700 shown in FIG. 7 will be described.
[0138]
FIG. 8 shows each step of the recording method.
[0139]
In FIG. 8, the file management information of the file (“AV_FILE”) recorded on the rewritable disc 1 is read when the disc 1 is inserted into the disc recording / reproducing drive 720, and is interpreted by the file management information interpreting unit 713. After that, it is assumed that it is held inside the host controller 710.
[0140]
Further, in FIG. 8, reference numeral 81 indicates processing executed by the host controller 710, reference numeral 82 indicates processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 720, and reference numeral 83 indicates the host controller 710 and the disk. The flow of instructions, data, and processing results in the I / F protocol with the recording / reproducing drive 720 is shown.
[0141]
(Step 801) The host controller 710 controls the AV data input unit 770 to start an AV data receiving operation. At this time, AV data input from the AV data input unit 770 is converted into digital data by the AV data input unit 770, transferred via the I / O bus 780, and stored in the data buffer memory 714.
[0142]
(Step 802) Prior to recording AV data, the recording area allocation unit 711 of the host controller 710 obtains information indicating the free area of the rewritable disc 1 from the file management information interpretation unit 713, and the free area. Is assigned as a recording area. Here, the recording area allocation unit 711 performs area allocation in consideration of the size of the allocated area and the physical distance between the areas so that the AV data can be smoothly reproduced during reproduction.
[0143]
(Step 803) The skip recording command issuing unit 716 of the host control device 710 acquires the position information of the area allocated by the recording area allocating unit 711, and “SKIP WRITE” which is a skip recording command to the disk recording / reproducing drive 720. Issue a command. At this time, the skip recording command issuing unit 716 designates the position information of the area allocated by the recording area allocation unit 711 and the size information to be recorded as parameters of the “SKIP WRITE” command. Further, following the “SKIP WRITE” command, data of the size specified by this command is transferred from the data buffer memory 714 to the disk recording / reproducing drive 720.
[0144]
FIG. 23A and FIG. 23B show examples of the format of the “SKIP WRITE” command.
[0145]
FIG. 23A shows an example of the format of the “SKIP WRITE” command that can specify both the allocated area and the data size to be recorded by issuing a command once. Byte 0 stores a unique instruction code that asserts that it is a “SKIP WRITE” command. Bytes 2 to 5 store the logical sector number indicating the first sector of the area to be allocated, and bytes 6 to 7 store the number of sectors corresponding to the data size to be recorded. In bytes 8 to 9, the number of sectors corresponding to the allocated area size is stored.
[0146]
FIG. 23B shows an example of the format of the “SKIP WRITE” command that can specify the allocated area and the data size to be recorded by issuing the command multiple times. Byte 0 stores a unique instruction code that asserts that it is a “SKIP WRITE” command. An operation option is provided in bit 0 of byte 1. An operation option of 1 indicates that an allocated area is designated. An operation option of 0 indicates that the data size to be recorded is designated. When the operation option is 1, bytes 2 to 5 store the logical sector number indicating the first sector of the allocated area, and bytes 7 to 8 store the number of sectors corresponding to the allocated area size. When the operation option is 0, bytes 7 to 8 store the number of sectors corresponding to the data size to be recorded.
[0147]
Note that the format of the command shown in FIGS. 23A and 23B is merely an example of the format of the “SKIP WRITE” command. As long as the position information of the allocated area and the size information of data to be recorded can be designated, the “SKIP WRITE” command can adopt any format.
[0148]
(Step 804) Upon receiving the “SKIP WRITE” command issued from the host controller 710, the skip recording command processing unit 722 of the disk recording / reproducing drive 720 sets the recording control information memory 735 and the recording position storage memory 733 to “SKIP WRITE”. "Initialization is performed according to the command, and the skip recording control unit 732 is activated. The skip recording control unit 732 uses the defective area detection unit 731 to detect a defective block being recorded (newly discovered or registered in the SDL), while transferring data from the recording data storage memory 736 to the disk 1. Record in a block that is not a defective block. Each time a defective block is detected, the number of skippable blocks in the recording control information memory 735 is reduced by one, and the position of the defective block is stored in the recording position storage memory 733. Each time a block is successfully recorded, the number of recording completion blocks in the recording control information memory 735 is incremented by one. If the recording of the requested block is completed before the number of skippable blocks becomes less than 0, the process ends normally. In addition, when it is designated to inspect the data reproduced after recording, in addition to the defective block detected by the defective area detection unit 731, the defective block detected by the data inspection unit 734 is a target to be skipped.
[0149]
As described above, the skip recording control unit 732 skips the defective area detected during recording, and continues the recording operation until all data is normally recorded while storing the skipped position information.
[0150]
(Step 805) The disc recording / reproducing drive 720 that has executed the skip recording process returns an end status to the host controller 710.
[0151]
(Step 806) The recording position request command issuing unit 717 of the host controller 710 issues a “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command to the disc recording / reproducing drive 720 for inquiring the positional information of the defective area skipped in the skip recording process of Step 804. .
[0152]
FIG. 24A shows an example of the format of the “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command. Byte 0 stores a unique instruction code indicating that it is a “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command. Bytes 7 to 8 store the upper limit value of the size of data to be reported.
[0153]
FIG. 24B shows an example of the format of data reported in response to the “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command. Bytes 0 to 1 store the number of reported location information. In 4 bytes after byte 4, position information of the skipped defective area is stored.
[0154]
Note that the command format shown in FIG. 24A and the data format shown in FIG. 24B are merely examples. These commands or data can adopt any format as long as the location information of the skipped defect area can be queried.
[0155]
(Step 812) The skip position recording unit 737 registers the position information of the defective area stored in the recording position storage memory 733 during the skip recording process in step 804 as an SDL entry. In this way, the defect management information is updated.
[0156]
(Step 807) Upon receiving the “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command, the recording position request command processing unit 723 of the disk recording / reproducing drive 720 stores the position information of the defective area stored in the recording position storage memory 733 during the skip recording process in Step 804. Is returned as skip address data.
[0157]
(Step 808) Upon receiving the skip address data, the file management information creation unit 712 of the host control device 710 creates file management information. Here, the file management information creation unit 712 determines that data is recorded in an area other than the skipped area indicated by the skip address data, creates a file entry of the AV file, and corresponds to the area determined to be recorded. Set the unused space management information bit to 1 (used). Further, the file management information creation unit 712 identifies a skipped area from the skip address data returned in step 807, and sets the unused space management information bit corresponding to the skipped area to 0 (unused). To do. Further, when the end of the extent of the file is in the middle of the ECC block, the file management information creation unit 712 registers the remaining area of the ECC block as a padding extent. At this time, the extent type of the padding extent is set to 1, which means a padding extent, and the bit of unused space management information corresponding to the padding extent is set to 1 (used). Thereafter, the file management information creation unit 712 stores the file management information in the data buffer memory 714 in order to record the created file management information on the rewritable disc 1.
[0158]
(Step 809) In order to record the file management information stored in the data buffer memory 714, the host controller 710 issues a “WRITE” command for requesting recording to the disk recording / reproducing drive 720 by a conventional recording method. Here, the LSN for starting recording and the number of sectors to be recorded are designated as parameters of the “WRITE” command.
[0159]
(Step 810) The disc recording / reproducing drive 720 receives the “WRITE” command, and records the file management information on the disc 1 according to the conventional recording method. Further, the defective area detected in the recording operation by the “WRITE” command is subjected to a replacement process by a conventional replacement method.
[0160]
(Step 811) When all the data recording designated by the “WRITE” command is completed, the disc recording / reproducing drive 720 returns an end status to the host controller 710.
[0161]
The execution of step 812 may be performed immediately after step 804, or may be performed when there is no request from the host controller 710 for a predetermined time or more after step 811 is completed.
[0162]
As described above, the disk recording / reproducing drive 720 detects a defective area and skips the defective area when recording AV data requiring real-time performance on the disk 1. No replacement area is assigned to the skipped defect area. The position of the skipped defect area is recorded in the defect management information area 4b of the rewritable disc 1.
[0163]
Next, a reproducing method for reproducing a file including AV data recorded on the disc 1 using the information recording / reproducing system 700 shown in FIG. 7 will be described.
[0164]
FIG. 9 shows each step of the reproducing method.
[0165]
In FIG. 9, reference numeral 91 indicates processing executed by the host controller 710, reference numeral 92 indicates processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 720, and reference numeral 93 indicates the host controller 710 and disk recording / reproducing. A flow of instructions, data, and processing results in the I / F protocol with the drive 720 is shown.
[0166]
(Step 901) When the rewritable disc 1 is mounted and when the defect management information is updated, the disc recording / reproducing drive 720 reads the defect management information on the rewritable disc 1 using the skip position reading unit 747, and reproduces the reproduction position. Store in the storage memory 743.
[0167]
(Step 902) The recording area allocating unit 711 of the host controller 710 allocates the AV data recording area previously allocated in Step 802 as a reproduction area.
[0168]
(Step 903) The skip playback command issuing unit 718 of the host controller 710 acquires the position information of the area allocated in step 902, and issues a “SKIP READ” command that is a skip playback command to the disk recording / playback drive 720. To do. The skip reproduction command issuing unit 718 designates the position information of the area allocated in step 902 and the size information to be reproduced as parameters of the “SKIP READ” command. Further, following the “SKIP READ” command, data of the size specified by this command is transferred from the disk recording / reproducing drive 720 to the data buffer memory 714 (step 905).
[0169]
The “SKIP READ” command can be defined in the same manner as the “SKIP WRITE” command. For example, a unique instruction code expressing that it is a “SKIP READ” command may be set in byte 0 in the formats of FIGS. 23A and 23B. This is an example of the format of the “SKIP READ” command. As long as the position information of the allocated area and the size information of the data to be reproduced can be designated, the “SKIP READ” command can adopt any format.
[0170]
(Step 904) Upon receiving the “SKIP READ” command issued from the host controller 710, the skip playback command processing unit 724 of the disk recording / playback drive 720 initializes the playback control information memory 745 according to the “SKIP READ” command. The skip reproduction control unit 742 is activated. The skip reproduction control unit 742 reproduces a block that is not a defective block on the disk 1 while referring to the reproduction position storage memory 743 and stores the data in the read data storage memory 746. Each time a block is successfully played back, the number of playback completion blocks in the playback control information memory 745 is incremented by one. When reproduction of the requested block is completed, the process ends normally.
[0171]
(Step 905) In step 904, the AV data stored in the read data storage memory 746 is transferred to the host controller 710.
[0172]
(Step 906) The received AV data is transferred to the AV data output unit 760. The AV data output unit 760 converts the input data into an analog video / audio signal and outputs it.
[0173]
(Step 907) The disc recording / reproducing drive 720 that has executed the skip reproducing process returns an end status to the host controller 710.
[0174]
As described above, the disc recording / reproducing drive 720 refers to the defect management information to reproduce the AV data that requires real-time performance while skipping the defective area on the rewritable disc 1. Data can be played back.
[0175]
(Embodiment 3)
Hereinafter, an embodiment of an information recording / reproducing system for recording information on the disc 1 described in the first embodiment or reproducing information recorded on the disc 1 will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0176]
FIG. 10 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 according to the third embodiment of the present invention. The disc recording / reproducing drive 1020 is connected to the host controller 710 shown in FIG. 7 via the I / O bus 780.
[0177]
The disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 includes a microprocessor incorporating a control program and a calculation memory. The disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 is composed of a mechanism section controlled by a microprocessor, a signal processing circuit, and the like. A recording control unit 1030 that performs control, a reproduction control unit 1040 that performs control during reproduction from the rewritable disc 1, a replacement information storage memory 1050 that stores information on a defective block and its replacement block, and recording and playback A data buffer 1060 for temporarily storing data is functionally provided.
[0178]
The command processing unit 1021 includes a recording command processing unit 1022 that performs processing of a normal recording command that does not perform skip recording, and a playback command processing unit 1024 that performs processing of a normal playback command that does not perform skip reproduction.
[0179]
The recording control unit 1030 includes a data combining unit 1031 that converts recording data from sector units to ECC block units, a block recording unit 1032 that records data in ECC block units on the rewritable disc 1, and a spare that replaces defective blocks. A replacement allocation unit 1033 that allocates blocks, an SDL update unit 1034 that records the contents of the replacement information storage memory 1050 in the SDL on the rewritable disk, and an ECC fraction checking unit 1035 are included.
[0180]
The playback control unit 1040 includes a 0 data padding unit 1041 that rewrites a part of the data buffer 1060 to 0, a block playback unit 1042 that plays back data in units of ECC blocks from a rewritable disc, and SDL on the rewritable disc 1. An SDL reading unit 1043 that stores the reproduced content in the replacement information storage memory 1050 and an ECC fraction correction unit 1044 are included.
[0181]
Next, a reproducing method for reproducing normal computer data that is not real-time data recorded on the disk 1 using the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 shown in FIG. 10 will be described.
[0182]
FIG. 11 shows the steps of the reproducing method.
[0183]
In FIG. 11, reference numeral 111 indicates processing executed by the host controller 710, reference numeral 112 indicates processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020, and reference numeral 113 indicates the host controller 710 and disk recording / reproducing. A flow of instructions, data, and processing results in the I / F protocol with the drive 1020 is shown. The details of the playback process by the disk recording / playback drive 1020 will be described later, so only a brief description will be given here.
[0184]
(Step 1101) When the rewritable disc 1 is mounted and when the defect management information is updated, the disc recording / reproducing drive 1020 reads the defect management information on the rewritable disc 1 using the SDL reading unit 1043 and stores the replacement information. Store in the memory 1050.
[0185]
(Step 1102) The host controller 710 analyzes the file structure to determine the position of the area where the computer data is stored.
[0186]
(Step 1103) The host controller 710 obtains information indicating the position of the area obtained in Step 1102 and issues a “READ” command, which is a normal reproduction command, to the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020.
[0187]
(Step 1104) Upon receiving the “READ” command, the playback command processing unit 1024 of the disk recording / playback drive 1020 reads the designated data from the rewritable disk 1 and transfers the data to the host controller 710 (Step 1105). When the transfer of all requested data is completed, an end status is returned (step 1107).
[0188]
(Step 1106) The reproduction data transferred via the I / F protocol is stored in the data buffer memory 714 of the host controller 710.
[0189]
When the host controller 710 receives the end status via the I / F protocol, the data stored in the data buffer memory 714 is used as computer data.
[0190]
FIG. 12 is a flowchart showing the procedure of the reproduction process (step 1104 in FIG. 11) executed by the disk recording / reproduction drive 1020.
[0191]
The area for which reproduction is required is specified in units of sectors. The ECC fraction correction unit 1044 obtains an ECC block including an area requested for reproduction (step 1201). Here, if the LSN of the first sector of the area where reproduction is required is S, the number of sectors in the area where reproduction is required is N, and the number of sectors constituting the ECC block is E, reproduction is performed in consideration of the ECC block. The LSN (S_ECC) of the first sector of the necessary area and the number of sectors (N_ECC) of the area that needs to be reproduced can be obtained by the following equations.
[0192]
S_ECC = [S ÷ E] × E
N_ECC = [(S + N + E−1) ÷ E] × E−S_ECC
Here, [α] represents a maximum integer not exceeding α.
[0193]
If all the blocks that need to be reproduced have not been stored in the data buffer 1060 (step 1202), the SDL is referenced (step 1203). As a result, if the block to be reproduced is not registered in the SDL as a defective block, the process proceeds to step 1204, and the block to be reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which a spare block to be replaced is assigned. If so, the process proceeds to step 1205. If the block to be reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which no replacement spare block is assigned, the process proceeds to step 1206.
[0194]
In step 1204, the block to be reproduced is reproduced. In step 1205, the replacement spare block is reproduced instead of the block to be reproduced. In step 1206, the 0 data padding unit 1041 generates an ECC block padded with 0 instead of reproducing data from the disk 1. The ECC block filled with 0 is generated, for example, by filling a predetermined area of the data buffer 1060 with 0.
[0195]
When all the blocks that need to be reproduced have been stored in the data buffer 1060 (step 1202), the data stored in the data buffer 1060 is transferred to the host controller 710 (step 1207), and the process ends.
[0196]
When a replacement spare block is registered in the SDL as an unassigned defective block, it is immediately determined as a reproduction error instead of generating an ECC block filled with 0 as the reproduction data of the defective block. Then, an error may be reported to the host controller 710. When a reproduction error is reported, the host controller 710 instructs the block to record. Thereby, a replacement process described later is performed. As a result, the defective block is replaced with a reproducible spare block in the logical volume space.
[0197]
As described above, when the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 is requested to reproduce a defective block to which no replacement spare block is assigned, the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 reproduces the data filled with 0 without reporting a reproduction error. Send it back as data. Alternatively, when a reproduction is requested for a defective block to which a spare block to be replaced is not assigned, a reproduction error may be reported without spending time on a useless reproduction operation that would fail. .
[0198]
In each step of the recording method for recording normal computer data that is not real-time data on the disk 1, a “WRITE” command is issued in place of the “READ” command in FIG. 11, and the recording data is in the reverse direction instead of transferring the reproduction data. 11 is almost the same as each step of the reproduction method shown in FIG.
[0199]
FIG. 13 is a flowchart showing a procedure of recording processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020.
[0200]
The disc recording / reproducing drive 1020 receives the data to be recorded from the host controller 710 and stores it in the data buffer 1060 (step 1301).
[0201]
The area where recording is required is specified in units of sectors. The ECC fraction inspection unit 1035 determines an ECC block including an area for which recording is requested.
[0202]
Furthermore, if there is a fraction of the ECC block, the ECC fraction checking unit 1035 performs buffering processing on the fraction. The buffering process is achieved by steps 1202 to 1206 surrounded by a broken line shown in FIG.
[0203]
When the head sector of the area requested to be recorded is not the head sector of the ECC block (that is, when S ≠ S_ECC) (step 1303), the buffering process of the ECC block including the head sector is performed (step 1304). ). If the last sector of the area requested to be recorded is not the last sector of the ECC block (that is, if S + N ≠ S_ECC + N_ECC) (step 1305), the ECC block including the last sector is buffered (step 1306). ).
[0204]
The data synthesis unit 1031 synthesizes the data obtained in step 1301 and the data obtained in steps 1303 to 1306. As a result, recording data corresponding to all ECC blocks to be recorded is generated in the data buffer 1060 (step 1307).
[0205]
If the blocks that need to be recorded have not yet been recorded on the rewritable disc 1 (step 1308), the SDL is referred to (step 1309). As a result, if the block to be recorded is not registered in the SDL as a defective block, the process proceeds to step 1310, and the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which a spare block to be replaced is assigned. If YES in step 1312, the process advances to step 1312. If the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which no replacement spare block is assigned, the process advances to step 1311.
[0206]
In step 1310, data is recorded in the block to be recorded. In step 1312, data is recorded in the replacement spare block instead of the block to be recorded. In step 1311, the replacement allocation unit 1033 allocates a replacement spare block to a defective block. Thereafter, data is recorded in the spare block of the replacement destination (step 1312).
[0207]
Here, there are two types of methods for assigning replacement spare blocks to defective blocks in step 1311. As described with reference to FIGS. 1C to 1E, whether or not a replacement block has been previously assigned to a defective block can be distinguished based on the value of the field 22c for storing the position of the replacement block. it can. If there is no replacement block previously assigned to the defective block (for example, the value of the field 22c is 0), a spare block not yet used for the defective block is newly assigned. If there is a replacement block previously assigned to the defective block (eg, the address of the replacement block previously assigned to field 22c is listed), A replacement block identical to the assigned replacement block is again assigned to the defective block.
[0208]
When the blocks that need to be recorded have been recorded on the rewritable disc 1 (step 1308), it is determined whether or not the SDL needs to be updated (step 1313). For example, when a replacement spare block is newly assigned to a defective block in the process 1311, the SDL needs to be updated. If the SDL needs to be updated, the SDL is updated (step 1314) and the process ends.
[0209]
As described above, when the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 is requested to record data in a defective block to which no replacement spare block is assigned, after the replacement spare block is assigned to the defective block. The data is recorded in the replacement spare block. In this way, the recording data is recorded on the disk 1 in units of ECC blocks. Adjustment of the fraction of the ECC block is performed by, for example, filling the fraction with zero.
[0210]
(Embodiment 4)
Hereinafter, an embodiment of an information recording / reproducing system for recording information on the disc 1 described in the first embodiment or reproducing information recorded on the disc 1 will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0211]
FIG. 14 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a disk recording / reproducing drive 1420 according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention. The disk recording / reproducing drive 1420 is connected to the host controller 710 shown in FIG. 7 via the I / O bus 780. 14, the same components as those in FIG. 10 are denoted by the same reference numerals, and detailed description thereof is omitted.
[0212]
The disk recording / reproducing drive 1420 includes an instruction processing unit 1021 that processes an instruction from the host controller 710, a recording control unit 1430 that performs control during recording on the rewritable disk 1, and a reproduction from the rewritable disk 1. Functionally provided with a playback control unit 1440 for controlling the time, a replacement information storage memory 1050 for storing information on defective blocks and their replacement blocks, and a data buffer 1060 for temporarily storing recording and playback data Yes.
[0213]
In addition to the components of the recording control unit 1030 described in the third embodiment, the recording control unit 1430 includes a spare remaining amount detection unit 1437 that calculates the remaining amount of available spare blocks.
[0214]
Compared with the playback control unit 1040 described in the third embodiment, the playback control unit 1440 deletes the 0 data padding unit 1041 and plays back the data recorded on the rewritable disc 1 in units of sectors. It has the structure which added.
[0215]
Since each step of reproducing normal computer data that is not real-time data is the same as that described in the third embodiment (FIG. 11), it is omitted.
[0216]
FIG. 15 is a flowchart showing the procedure of the playback process executed by the disk recording / playback drive 1420. The procedure shown in FIG. 15 is different from the procedure shown in FIG. 12 in that the ECC block to be reproduced is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which no replacement spare block is assigned (step 1503). ), The sector reproducing unit 1441 performs a sector-by-sector reproduction process for each of the plurality of sectors included in the ECC block to be reproduced (step 1507).
[0217]
The sector-by-sector reproduction process will be described with reference to FIG. 22C. Since the inner code parity PI calculates an error correction code for each row (in the horizontal direction), the inner code parity PI correctly corresponds to the main data even if the inner code parity PI is divided into sectors (that is, in FIG. The direction of hatching is the same in the data area and the inner code parity PI area). For this reason, the error correction capability is lowered because the outer code parity PO is not used, but the error can be corrected using the inner code parity PI. For example, when data recording is stopped at a sector break due to a defective ID, the error can be corrected with high probability even when only the inner code parity PI is used.
[0218]
As described above, the disk recording / reproducing drive 1420 returns the correct data of the overwritten sector in the defective block even to the defective block to which the spare block of the replacement destination is not assigned, and is overwritten in the defective block. Return the past data of the sector that did not exist.
[0219]
FIG. 16 is a flowchart showing a procedure of recording processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 1420. The procedure shown in FIG. 16 is different from the procedure shown in FIG. 13 in that when data recording on the rewritable disc 1 fails to record in units of blocks, the failed block is registered in the SDL as a defective block. The point is that the process ends with an error if there is no spare block available before assigning the spare block to be replaced to the defective block.
[0220]
The disc recording / reproducing drive 1420 receives the data to be recorded from the host controller 710 and stores it in the data buffer 1060 (step 1601).
[0221]
The area where recording is required is specified in units of sectors. An area including an area for which recording is requested is obtained for each ECC block (step 1602).
[0222]
If there is a fraction of the ECC block, buffering processing for that fraction is performed. The buffering process is achieved by steps 1502 to 1506 surrounded by a broken line shown in FIG.
[0223]
By combining the data of step 1601 and the data of steps 1603 to 1606, recording data for all ECC blocks necessary for recording is generated in the data buffer 1060 (step 1607).
[0224]
If the blocks that need to be recorded have not yet been recorded on the rewritable disc 1 (step 1608), the SDL is referred to (step 1609). As a result, if the block to be recorded is not registered in the SDL as a defective block, the process proceeds to step 1610, and the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which a spare block to be replaced is assigned. If so, the process proceeds to step 1612. If the block to be recorded is registered in the SDL as a defective block to which no replacement spare block is assigned, the process proceeds to step 1615.
[0225]
In step 1610, data is recorded in the block to be recorded. In step 1612, data is recorded in the replacement spare block instead of the block to be recorded. In step 1615, the spare remaining amount detection unit 1437 determines whether there is a spare block that can be used in the spare area. If there is a spare block that can be used in the spare area, a replacement spare block is allocated to the block to be recorded (step 1611), and data is recorded in the replacement spare block (step 1612). .
[0226]
In step 1610 or step 1612, if data recording on the rewritable disc 1 fails in units of blocks (step 1616), the blocks that failed to be recorded are registered in the SDL as defective blocks (step 1617). In order to redo the recording, the process returns to step 1609.
[0227]
When recording of a block that needs to be recorded on the rewritable disc 1 (step 1608) or when there is no spare block available in the spare area (step 1615), it is determined whether or not the SDL needs to be updated. Determination is made (step 1613). For example, when a replacement spare block is newly assigned to a defective block in step 1611, the SDL needs to be updated. Also, when the defective block detected in step 1617 is newly registered in the SDL, the SDL needs to be updated. If the SDL needs to be updated, the SDL is updated (step 1614), and the process ends.
[0228]
Here, when reaching here due to the completion of recording of all blocks (step 1608), it is determined as normal termination, and when reaching here due to spare exhaustion (step 1615), it is determined as error termination.
[0229]
As described above, the disc recording / reproducing drive 1420 always registers the detected defective block in the defect management information area even if there is no spare block that can be used as a replacement destination. Further, when the disk recording / reproducing drive 1420 is requested to record data in a defective block to which a spare block to be replaced is not assigned, the drive records the recording data received from the host controller and the recording is in progress. The correct data from the overwritten sector and the past data from the sector that has not been overwritten in the defective block that has been stopped in step S3 can be combined. The recording data synthesized in this way is recorded on the disk 1 in units of ECC blocks.
[0230]
In the second embodiment, the third embodiment, and the fourth embodiment, the parameters passed by the I / F protocol are the start position and size of the area, but the parameters can be obtained by performing the four arithmetic operations. It is clear that it may be. Further, the data transfer between the host controller and the disk recording / reproducing drive and the data transfer between the disk recording / reproducing drive and the rewritable disk may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. Good. In addition, when the host controller and the disk recording / reproducing drive are integrally configured, it is obvious that the parameter can be transferred using a shared memory or the like.
[0231]
【The invention's effect】
According to the information recording medium of the present invention, defect management information including state information indicating whether or not a defect area has been replaced with a replacement area is recorded in the defect management information area. Using this state information, it is possible to manage a state in which a defective area is detected but the defective area is not replaced with a replacement area.
[0232]
If a defective area is detected when data (for example, AV data) requiring real-time property is recorded on the information recording medium, the defective area is skipped. The position of the defect area and the state information indicating that the defect area has not been replaced with the replacement area are written in the defect management information area. When it is requested to record data that does not require real-time property in the defective area (for example, data other than AV data), a replacement area is assigned to the defective area without performing read-modified-write. . Thereby, the requested recording can be made successful. Further, a replacement area is not assigned to the defective area until it is actually requested to record data in the defective area. This provides the advantage that the spare area is not wasted.
[0233]
When the spare area is an expandable area, there may be a temporary shortage of available replacement areas included in the spare area. If a spare area cannot be allocated to a detected defective area due to a temporary shortage of available spare areas included in the spare area, the position of the defective area and the defective area are replaced with the spare area. Status information indicating that there is no data is written in the defect management information area. After the spare area is expanded and an available replacement area is secured, a replacement area is assigned to the defective area. The position of the replacement area is written in the defect management information area.
[0234]
According to the information recording method and the information recording apparatus of the present invention, defect management information including state information indicating whether or not a defect area has been replaced with a replacement area is recorded in the defect management information area. Thereby, the effect similar to the effect mentioned above is acquired.
[0235]
According to the information reproducing apparatus of the present invention, it is determined whether or not the defective area is replaced with the replacement area by referring to the state information, and the reproduction of the user data is controlled according to the determination result. Thereby, even when the defective area is not replaced with the replacement area, the user data can be reproduced.
[0236]
When reproduction is requested for a defective area to which no replacement area is assigned, user data may be reproduced while skipping the defective area. Alternatively, data having a fixed value (for example, data padded with 0) may be output as reproduction data obtained by reproducing the defective area. Alternatively, the corrected data is reproduced by performing only the correction by the error correction code that does not extend over a plurality of sectors (that is, within one sector) without performing the correction by the error correction code that extends over the plurality of sectors. It may be.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1A is a diagram showing a structure of a physical space of a disk 1 which is an information recording medium according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention.
FIG. 1B is a diagram showing the structure of SDL 13 shown in FIG. 1A.
FIG. 1C is a diagram showing a structure of an SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13;
FIG. 1D is a diagram showing another structure of the SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13;
FIG. 1E is a diagram showing another structure of the SDL entry 22 in the SDL 13;
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an example of a physical space of the disc 1 when a file A including AV data as content is recorded on the disc 1;
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an example of a physical space of the disk 1 when a file B including contents other than AV data is recorded on the disk 1 after a file A including AV data is recorded on the disk 1; It is.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing an example of a physical space of the disk 1 when an available replacement area included in a spare area is temporarily exhausted (insufficient).
FIG. 5 is a diagram showing an example of the physical space of the disk 1 when the recording of the file C is performed again after expanding the second spare area 8;
FIG. 6 is a conceptual diagram showing the principle of recording AV data on the disc 1 or reproducing the AV data recorded on the disc 1;
FIG. 7 is a block diagram showing a configuration of an information recording / reproducing system 700 according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
8 is a diagram showing a procedure of a recording method for recording a file containing AV data on the disc 1 using the information recording / reproducing system 700. FIG.
FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a procedure of a reproducing method for reproducing a file including AV data recorded on the disc 1 using the information recording / reproducing system 700;
FIG. 10 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a disk recording / reproducing drive 1020 according to a third embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 11 is a diagram showing a procedure of a reproducing method for reproducing normal computer data that is not real-time data recorded on the disc 1 by using the disc recording / reproducing drive 1020;
FIG. 12 is a flowchart showing the procedure of a reproduction process executed by the disk recording / reproduction drive 1020.
FIG. 13 is a flowchart showing a procedure of recording processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 1020.
FIG. 14 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a disk recording / reproducing drive 1420 according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 15 is a flowchart showing the procedure of playback processing executed by the disk recording / playback drive 1420;
FIG. 16 is a flowchart showing the procedure of recording processing executed by the disk recording / reproducing drive 1420;
FIG. 17 is a diagram showing a physical structure of the disk 1;
FIG. 18A is a diagram showing a configuration of an ECC block which is a calculation unit of an error correction code.
FIG. 18B is a diagram showing a configuration of sectors included in an ECC block.
FIG. 19 is a diagram showing an example of the physical space of the disc 1 in the ISO standard defect management method.
FIG. 20A is a layout diagram of AV data when there is no defective sector;
FIG. 20B is a layout diagram of AV data when there is a defective sector;
FIG. 21 is a diagram showing an example of the physical space of the disc 1 in recording / reproducing AV data.
FIG. 22A is a diagram showing an ECC block recorded normally.
FIG. 22B is a diagram showing an ECC block that has failed to be overwritten.
FIG. 22C is a diagram showing a structure of reproduction data of an ECC block whose overwrite has failed.
FIG. 23A is a diagram showing an example of a format of a “SKIP WRITE” command.
FIG. 23B is a diagram showing another example of the format of the “SKIP WRITE” command.
FIG. 24A is a diagram showing an example of a format of a “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command.
FIG. 24B is a diagram showing an example of a format of data reported in response to a “REPORT SKIPPED ADDRESS” command.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 disc
2 tracks
3 sectors
4 Disc information area
4a Control data area
4b Defect management information area
5 Data recording area
6 Volume space
6a Logical volume space
6b Volume structure
7 First spare area
8 Second spare area
10 Defect management information
11 Disk definition structure
12 Primary defect list (PDL)
13 Secondary defect list (SDL)
700 Information recording / reproducing system
710 Host controller
720, 1020, 1420 Disc recording / reproducing drive
780 I / O bus

Claims (4)

  1. Defect management information in which a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management information for managing the defect area are recorded. An information recording medium comprising an area,
    The defect management information further includes first position information indicating the position of the defect area, and second position information regarding the position of the replacement area,
    Whether the defect area is replaced with the replacement area based on whether the second position information is a value indicating the position of the replacement area or a predetermined value indicating that there is no replacement destination. This is an information recording medium.
  2. Defect management information in which a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management information for managing the defect area are recorded. An information recording method for recording information on an information recording medium comprising an area,
    The defect management information includes first position information indicating the position of the defect area and second position information regarding the position of the replacement area,
    The information recording method includes:
    Detecting the defective area;
    Recording the second position information in the defect management information area,
    Whether the defect area is replaced with the replacement area based on whether the second position information is a value indicating the position of the replacement area or a predetermined value indicating that there is no replacement destination. A method of recording information.
  3. Defect management information in which a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management information for managing the defect area are recorded. An information recording apparatus for recording information on an information recording medium comprising an area,
    The defect management information includes first position information indicating the position of the defect area and second position information regarding the position of the replacement area,
    The information recording device includes:
    A detection unit for detecting the defect region;
    A second recording unit that records second position information related to a position of the replacement area in the defect management information area;
    Whether the defect area is replaced with the replacement area based on whether the second position information is a value indicating the position of the replacement area or a predetermined value indicating that there is no replacement destination. An information recording device that indicates
  4. Defect management information in which a volume space in which user data is recorded, a spare area including a replacement area that can be used in place of the defect area included in the volume space, and defect management information for managing the defect area are recorded. An information reproducing apparatus for reproducing information recorded on an information recording medium comprising an area,
    The defect management information includes first position information indicating the position of the defect area and second position information regarding the position of the replacement area,
    The information reproducing apparatus includes:
    A determination unit that determines whether the defective area has been replaced with the replacement area by referring to the second position information ;
    A control unit for controlling reproduction of the user data according to the determination result,
    The control unit is an information reproducing apparatus that skips reproduction of the defective area when the defective area is not replaced with the replacement area.
JP25367899A 1999-03-08 1999-09-07 Information recording medium, information recording method, information recording apparatus, and information reproducing apparatus Expired - Lifetime JP4116740B2 (en)

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