JP4085403B2 - Drilling and finishing methods for hydrocarbon production wells - Google Patents

Drilling and finishing methods for hydrocarbon production wells Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4085403B2
JP4085403B2 JP2000527736A JP2000527736A JP4085403B2 JP 4085403 B2 JP4085403 B2 JP 4085403B2 JP 2000527736 A JP2000527736 A JP 2000527736A JP 2000527736 A JP2000527736 A JP 2000527736A JP 4085403 B2 JP4085403 B2 JP 4085403B2
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Prior art keywords
casing
well
tubing
method
next
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JP2002500306A (en
Inventor
ヴィルヘルムス・クリスティアヌス・マリア・ローベック
フランツ・マルケッツ
ローベルト・ブルース・ステヴァルト
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シエル・インターナシヨネイル・リサーチ・マーチヤツピイ・ベー・ウイShell Internationale Research Maatschappij Besloten Vennootshap
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Priority to EP97204157 priority
Application filed by シエル・インターナシヨネイル・リサーチ・マーチヤツピイ・ベー・ウイShell Internationale Research Maatschappij Besloten Vennootshap filed Critical シエル・インターナシヨネイル・リサーチ・マーチヤツピイ・ベー・ウイShell Internationale Research Maatschappij Besloten Vennootshap
Priority to PCT/EP1998/008549 priority patent/WO1999035368A1/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/02Subsoil filtering
    • E21B43/10Setting of casings, screens, liners or the like in wells
    • E21B43/103Setting of casings, screens, liners or the like in wells of expandable casings, screens, liners, or the like

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a method for drilling and finishing a hydrocarbon production well, such as a well, for producing oil and / or gas.
Traditionally, hydrocarbon production wells are made by first digging a large well section, inserting a large diameter casing and cementing it in place to stabilize the well wall. Next, an extension of a smaller diameter well is dug, a casing is inserted into the extension, the casing is extended from the bottom of the extension to the top of the well, and the casing is further connected to the interior of the well extension. And cement in place in the previously set casing.
This process is repeated until the well reaches near the hydrocarbon-containing layer. If the layer is unstable, the casing is extended into the layer and then penetrated through the hole to allow hydrocarbon inflow. If the hydrocarbon-containing layer is stable, an essentially open hole is made and a permeable production liner is inserted into it, for example surrounded by a gravel pack.
Usually, the production liner is connected to the lower end of the production tubing. The production tubing is lowered through the casing string so that it spans the entire length of the well from the wellhead to near the hydrocarbon layer. Here, the tubing is hermetically fixed to the casing by a production packer.
[0002]
The walls of the well and the inner surface of the previously installed casing may be irregular, and the well may be curved, which requires considerable clearance between the various casings and production tubing. A considerable amount of unproductive annular space is created and extra drilling work must be done.
In general, in hydrocarbon production wells, the diameter of the upper part of the well near the ground surface and the inner diameter of the upper casing part are well over 0.5 meters, while the inner diameter of the production tubing where hydrocarbons are produced is 10-25 cm. Meter.
Many attempts have been made to reduce the size of the non-productive annular space in the well. U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,162,245, 3,203,483 and 5,014,779 disclose the use of a unique corrugated tube, which can be extended by an extended mandrel or sphere. Expanded cylindrically with respect to the inside of the casing. The disadvantages of using corrugated tubes are that they are difficult to manufacture and that the expanded tube walls can have non-uniform strength around them, which increases reliability. Hurt.
International Patent Application Publication No. WO 93/25799 discloses the use of an essentially cylindrical casing, which is expanded against the well wall by an expansion mandrel, creating a compressive force between the casing and the surrounding layer.
[0003]
This known expandable casing can be placed between a surface casing provided at the top of the well and a production casing provided at the bottom of the well. Since this surface and production casing do not extend down the hole, this well-known well casing technology uses conventional casing parts that still need to dig oversized wells or reduce the overall length of the well. Although it is necessary to insert and expand the casing string after digging, this is not always possible.
The method according to the first paragraph of claim 1 is known from French patent application 2 741 907. In this known method, a flexible hose is used, and after insertion into a well, a heavy liquid is injected to swell and cured by polymerization. The disadvantage of this known method is that it takes time for the two steps of expansion and chemical treatment, resulting in a fragile tube with irregular strength and shape.
[0004]
The object of the present invention is that the casing can be installed or extended to protect the well wall from sinking at various stages of the excavation process, and the tubing can be extended over at least a substantial length of the well. Or providing a hydrocarbon production well drilling and finishing method in which both the casing and production tubing can be installed so that the accumulation of the width of the annular space between the casing (s) and the surrounding layer is kept to a minimum. It is.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a method of making a well such that the amount of steel part required to attach and finish the casing to the well can be kept to a minimum.
[0005]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The method according to the invention comprises:
A) digging a well section in the underground layer; inserting a casing into the drilled well section and expanding and fixing the casing radially in the well section;
B) Drill the drilling tool through the expanded casing and dig the next well section; insert the next casing into the next well section and radially expand the next casing within the next well section The next casing is installed so as to be coaxially overlapped with the previously installed casing, and the next casing further expands the previously installed casing. Extending to the previously installed casing ; and
C) If necessary, include a step of repeating step B multiple times until the well reaches the vicinity of the hydrocarbon-containing layer.
[0006]
Preferably, only the first casing extends from the ground surface to the well, and all subsequent casings only partially overlap the previously set casing.
In this case, the length in which the next casing sections overlap each other is preferably less than 10% of the length of each casing itself, and at least a substantial length from the ground surface to the vicinity of the hydrocarbon-containing layer. Over a portion, the well diameter variation is preferably less than 10%.
In that case, it creates a slim well of almost uniform diameter throughout its length, which is dug using minimal drilling effort and the smallest steel part to be installed in the well. .
However, in some situations, it is still required that each of the at least two casings inserted subsequent to the well extend into the wellhead.
[0007]
Further, preferably, after the casing is installed, the production tubing is inserted into the well to extend the production tubing from the ground surface to near the hydrocarbon layer, and the tubing is radially arranged inside the expanded casing string. To expand.
Suitably, the expansion mandrel is moved longitudinally through the casing and possibly tubing to plastically expand the casing and possibly tubing in a radial direction, the casing and tubing as a result of the expansion process. Made from a formable steel variety that undergoes strain hardening without causing any necking or ductile fracture, the expansion mandrel used uses a tapered non-metallic surface along part of its length. Have.
In this case, preferably the expandable mandrel has a tapered ceramic surface and the tubing and casing have a yield strength-tensile strength ratio of less than 0.8 and a yield strength of at least 275 MPa. Made from.
Also preferably, the production tubing and at least one casing comprise a tube, which is inserted into the well by winding the tube from a take-up drum.
[0008]
Alternatively, the production tubing and / or at least one casing can be made of a series of pipe sections that are interconnected at the wellhead by threaded joints, welding or gluing to form a substantially cylindrical long pipe. Can be expanded and installed below the hole according to the method according to the invention.
[0009]
Detailed description of the invention Figure 1 shows a well 1 extending from a ground surface 2 through a plurality of underground layers 3, 4, 5, 6 to an oil and / or gas containing layer 7.
In the example shown, the casing 8, 9, 10 or 11 is inserted and every time the well 1 passes through the interface 12, 13, 14 or 15 between the different layers 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, the well It is necessary to protect and not to sink.
Accordingly, the first upper section 1A of the well 1 is first dug, and after reaching the interface 12, the upper casing 8 is inserted into the upper well section 1A and expanded radially by the expansion mandrel 16. The expanded casing 8 can be secured to the well wall by a cement or adhesive annulus (not shown). Alternatively, the expanded casing 8 can be secured to the well wall by friction. Such friction can be generated by providing a large nail (not shown) on the outer surface of the casing 8 and / or pressing the casing against the layer 3 in the radial direction.
[0010]
Next, the drilling tool is lowered through the upper casing 8 to the bottom of the first section 1A of the well and the second section 1B of the well 1 is dug. After reaching the next interface 13, the second casing 9 is lowered through the first casing 8 to the bottom of the second section 1 </ b> B of the well and is expanded radially by the expansion mandrel 16.
When the expansion mandrel 16 reaches a region where the casings 8 and 9 are coaxially overlapped with each other, the second casing 9 further expands the first casing 8 and creates strong adhesion and sealing by frictional force and compressive force. In order to reduce the expansion force that increases in the overlap region, the length of the casings 8 and 9 overlapping each other is relatively small, preferably less than 10% of the length of the shortest casings 8 and 9, so that the bottom of the upper casing 8 A slit or groove (not shown) can be provided in the bottom that pre-expands and / or opens during the expansion process.
[0011]
The second casing 9 is fixed to the well wall in the same manner as the first casing 8. In addition, a second and further optional well sections 1B, 1C, 1D are dug with an underreamer bit that can dig the entire length of the well 1 with substantially the same diameter.
Next, each of the third and fourth sections 1C and 1D of the well is dug and attached to the casing in the same manner as described for the second section 1B of the well.
At the bottom of section 1D, an expansion mandrel 16 is shown, which is moved longitudinally downward through the lowermost casing 11, thereby calibrating the casing 11 in a manner described in more detail with respect to FIG. Extend in the direction.
[0012]
FIG. 2 shows the installation of the production tubing 17 by moving the expansion mandrel 18 longitudinally through the production tubing 17 in the well 1 of FIG.
The tubing 17 is expanded so that the outer diameter is substantially equal to the inner diameter of the expanded casing, so that the production tubing 17 forms an inner cladding for the casings 89, 10 and 11, the tubing 17 and the casings 8, 9, The 10 and 11 walls strengthen each other. Staggered axial slots (not shown) can be provided at the lower end of the production tubing extending beyond the lower end of the lowermost casing 11 and into the oil and / or gas containing layer 7. This slot opens in a diamond shape as a result of the pipe expansion process, allowing oil and / or gas to flow from the layer 7 into the well 1, and this fluid flows through the tubing 17 to the ground surface 2. Go up.
Instead of providing an axial slot in the inflow section at the lower end of the production tubing 17, a non-slotted opening can be provided. These openings can be circular, oval or square holes drilled in or cut from the tubing wall and can be configured in a staggered or non-staggered overlapping or non-overlapping pattern.
[0013]
In general, providing such a non-slot shaped opening provides a higher strength tubing than expandable tubing having axial slots that overlap in a staggered fashion after expansion.
Necessary for expanding the expandable casings 8, 9, 10, 11 especially in areas where the casings 8, 9, 10, 11 overlap and in other areas where the expansion force is high, such as curved sections of the well 1. These casings can be provided with at least a plurality of slot-like or non-slot-like openings in order to alleviate unnecessary forces.
In such a case, the production tubing 17 is not perforated in the region where any casing 8, 9, 10, 11 is perforated, so that the inside of the tubing 17 and the surrounding layers 3, 4 It can be seen that a strong seal against the fluid is maintained between 5,6.
[0014]
In FIG. 3, the well 20 dug up to the underground layer 21 is shown.
A first casing 22 is installed and expanded in the upper part 20A of the well. In the illustrated example, the well top 20A has an inner diameter of about 25.4 cm. The unexpanded first casing 22 has an outer diameter of about 18.8 cm when lowered into the well. The expanded first casing 22 has an outer diameter of about 23.4 cm, so that a small ring remains around the expanded first casing 22 and is filled with cement 23.
Next, the second portion 20B of the well is dug to an inner diameter of about 21 cm, the second casing 24 is inserted into the well in an unexpanded configuration, and extends from the top of the well 20 to the bottom of the second portion 20B. . The unexpanded second casing 24 has an outer diameter of 15.7 cm and is expanded inside the well 20 to an outer diameter of 19.5 cm.
The second casing 24 is fixed by an annular body of cement 23 inside the second portion 20B of the well and inside the first casing.
Next, from the bottom of the second well section 20B to the layer 21, a third well section 20C having an inner diameter of 17.8 cm is dug, and a third casing 25 is inserted into the well 20 and expanded. The unexpanded third casing 25 has an outer diameter of about 13 cm and expands to an outer diameter of about 16.3 cm.
[0015]
Thereafter, a fourth well section 20D having an inner diameter of about 14.2 cm is dug and the fourth casing 26 is inserted into the well 20 and subsequently expanded from an outer diameter of 10.1 cm to an outer diameter of about 13 cm.
Inside the fourth casing 26, the production tubing 27 is inserted and expanded against the inner surface of the casing 26 to form the clad tubing 27.
In order to facilitate the injection of service and / or kill fluid into the well and to allow the installation of a measuring conduit or other device, a coiled service conduit 28 is inserted into the production tubing 27; The production packer 29 is sealed and connected near the bottom of the tubing 27.
The service conduit 28 includes a through hole 30 directly above the production packer so that oil and / or gas can be produced in the production tubing 27 from the well, the bottom of the service conduit 28 and the inflow region of the through hole 30.
[0016]
As a result of the expansion of the casings 22, 24, 25, 26 and the expansion of the production tubing 27, a production tubing having an inner diameter greater than 10 cm can be installed in the well 20 having an upper section 20A with an inner diameter of about 25 cm. A person skilled in the art of drilling oil and / or gas production wells may use the method of the present invention to use a larger diameter production tubing 27 within a smaller diameter well 20 than conventional well drilling finishing techniques. You will find it easier.
It will also be appreciated that instead of using only the casing to be expanded inside the well, one or more casings may be conventional non-expandable casings. For example, the upper casing can be a conventional casing, as shown in FIG. 3, with one or more telescoping expandable casing sections inserted therein and the bottom of the well shown in FIGS. A single bore casing as shown in FIG. 2 can be provided.
[0017]
FIG. 4 shows a well that crosses the underground layer 41 and a casing 42 that is fixed in the well by an annular body of cement 43.
A production tubing 44 made of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel or other formable high strength steel in a dual phase is suspended in the casing 42.
The expansion mandrel 45 is moved longitudinally through the tubing 44 to expand the tubing 44 so that the expanded tubing outer diameter is slightly less than or approximately equal to the inner diameter of the casing 42.
The expansion mandrel 45 includes a series of ceramic surfaces 46 to limit the frictional force between the pig and the tubing 44 during the expansion process. In the example shown, the semi top angle A of the conical ceramic surface that actually expands the tubing is about 25 °. Zirconium oxide has been found to be suitable as a ceramic material that can be formed as a smooth conical ring. From experiments and simulations, if the conical semi-top angle A is between 20 ° and 30 °, then the pipe will deform and become S-shaped, essentially at the outer tip or edge of the conical portion at the tapered portion of the ceramic surface 46. It has been shown that it contacts and in some cases also contacts approximately the middle of the cone.
[0018]
According to experiments, when the tubing 44 is expanded into an S-shape, the length of the contact surface between the tapered portion of the ceramic surface 46 and the tubing 44 is reduced, and thus the amount of friction between the extended mandrel 45 and the tubing 44 is also reduced. It has also been shown to be advantageous.
According to experiments, if the semi-top angle A is smaller than 15 °, relatively high frictional force is generated between the tube and the pig, while if the semi-top angle is larger than 30 °, the plastic 44 is bent due to plastic bending. It has been shown to involve extra plastic work, thereby generating more heat and disabling forward movement of the pig 45 through the tubing 44. Accordingly, the semi-top angle A is preferably selected from 15 ° to 30 °, and should always be 5 ° to 45 °.
[0019]
Experiments have also shown that the tapered portion of the expansion mandrel 45 should have a non-metallic outer surface to avoid tubing seizure during the expansion process. Furthermore, the use of a ceramic surface for the tapered portion of the expansion mandrel resulted in a reduced average roughness of the inner surface of the tubing 44 as a result of the expansion process. Experimentation has shown that an expanded mandrel 45 with a tapered ceramic surface 46 can be formed such that the expanded tubing outer diameter D2 is at least 20% larger than the unexpanded tubing outer diameter D1. 45 can be expanded and as a formable steel, dual phase (DP) high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel known as DP55 and DP60; ASTM A106 HSLA seamless pipe, ASTM A312 austenitic stainless steel pipe, varieties TP 304L and TP 316L As well, high residual austenitic high strength hot rolled steel known as TRIP steel from Nippon Steel was also shown to be suitable.
[0020]
The mandrel 45 includes a pair of sealing rings 47 that are spaced apart from the conical ceramic surface 46 by a distance such that the ring 47 faces a plastic expanded section of the tubing 44. The sealing ring prevents high hydraulic fluids between the conical ceramic surface 46 of the mandrel 45 and the expanding tubing 44 from causing irregularly large expansion of the tubing 44.
The expansion mandrel 45 includes a central vent passage 47 that communicates with a coiled vent line 48 through which fluid can be discharged to the surface. After the expansion process is complete, the pig 45 can be pulled to the surface by a vent line, a coiled kill and / or service line (not shown) is lowered into the expanded tubing 44, and the kill and / or processing fluid is removed. It can be easily injected into the inflow zone of the hydrocarbon fluid, usually this is done via a ring between the production tubing and the well casing. However, if the tubing 44 is expanded to a smaller diameter, the remaining annular space between the casing 42 and the expanded tubing 44 drains fluid during the expansion process and injects fluid during the production process. In this case, it is not necessary to use the vent line 48 and the kill and / or service line.
[0021]
In conventional wells, production tubing having an outer diameter that is less than 50% of the inner diameter of the deepest well casing so that the tubing can be smoothly inserted even if the well is warped or the casing has an irregular inner surface It is often necessary to use Thus, essentially the tubing expansion method according to the present invention allows the efficient use of well holes.
It can be seen that instead of moving the expansion mandrel 45 hydraulically through the tubing 44, the mandrel can also be pulled through the tubing by a cable or pushed through the tubing by a pipe string or rod.
If the casing 42 and the casings 8, 9, 10, 11, 22, 24, 25 and 26 shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 are made of steel varieties which can also form these casings, FIG. It can also be seen that the expansion can be performed using an expansion process similar to that described with respect to the expansion of the tubing 44.
Preferably, the expandable production tubing and expandable casing are made from formable steel varieties having a yield strength-tensile strength ratio of less than 0.8 and a yield strength of at least 275 MPa.
[0022]
Hereinafter, the present invention will be further described based on the following comparative experiment.
Experiment 1
An expansion mandrel having a conical ceramic surface (conical semi-top angle A = 20 °) was moved through a conventional oil field pipe known as casing variety L80 13% Cr. This oilfield pipe is a widely used casing type, with an initial outer diameter of 101.6 mm (4 inches), an initial wall thickness of 5.75 mm, a burst pressure of 850 bar, The curing index n was 0.075. The expansion mandrel was designed so that the outer diameter of the expanded tube was 127 mm and the diameter increase was 20%. The tube burst during the expansion process. Analysis showed that ductile fracture occurred because the ductility limit of the material was exceeded.
[0023]
Experiment 2
Experiments were performed using type QT-800 coiled tubing, which is increasingly used as production tubing in oil or gas wells. The tubing initially had an outer diameter of 60.3 mm, a wall thickness of 5.15 mm, a burst pressure of 800 bar, and a strain hardening index n = 0.14. The expansion mandrel was moved through the tubing. This mandrel was designed to include a conical ceramic surface with a conical semi-top angle A of 5 ° surrounding the conical surface, and an expanded tubing outer diameter of 73 mm (about 21% increase). This tubing burst during the expansion process. Analysis revealed that the expansion pressure exceeded the pipe burst pressure during the expansion process due to high frictional forces.
[0024]
Experiment 3
Experiments were conducted using seamless pipes made from a formable steel variety known as ASTM A 106 Grade B. The pipe initially had an outer diameter of 101.6 mm (4 inches), an initial wall thickness of 5.75 mm, and a strain hardening index n = 0.175.
The expansion mandrel was pumped through the pipe. The mandrel included a conical ceramic surface such that the conical semi-top angle A enveloping the conical surface was 20 ° and the expanded pipe outer diameter was 127 mm (5 inches) and the outer diameter increased 21%.
The pipe was successfully expanded and the hydraulic pressure applied to the mandrel to move the mandrel through the pipe was 275-300 bar. The burst pressure of the expanded pipe was 520-530 bar.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a well comprising a series of radially expanded casings having a substantially uniform diameter installed using the method of the present invention.
2 shows the well of FIG. 1 with production tubing extended in a series of casings.
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of a series of casings telescopically expanded and production tubing installed in accordance with the method of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the production tubing expanded by an expansion mandrel below the hole.
[Explanation of symbols]
1, 20 Well 2 Ground surface 3, 4, 5, 6, 21, 41 Underground layer 7 Oil / gas containing layer 8, 9, 10, 11, 42 Casing 12, 13, 14, 15 Interface 16, 18 Expansion mandrel 17, 27, 44 Tubing 22 First casing 23, 43 Cement 24 Second casing 25 Third casing 26 Fourth casing 28 Service conduit 46 Ceramic surface

Claims (12)

  1. A) digging a well section in the underground layer; inserting a casing into the drilled well section and expanding and fixing the casing radially in the well section;
    B) Drill the drilling tool through the expanded casing and dig the next well section; insert the next casing into the next well section and radially expand the next casing within the next well section The next casing is installed so as to be coaxially overlapped with the previously installed casing, and the next casing further expands the previously installed casing. Extending to the previously installed casing ; and
    C) if necessary wellbore is characterized including that the steps are repeated a plurality of times the steps B until it reaches the vicinity of the hydrocarbon containing formation, drilling and completion methods hydrocarbon production well.
  2. Only the first casing (8) extends from the ground surface (2) to the well (1) , and the second casing (9, 10, 11) is partly part of the previously set casing (8, 9, 10) . The method of claim 1, wherein the method overlaps only.
  3. Method according to claim 2, wherein the length of the next casing section (8, 9, 10, 11) overlapping each other is less than 10% of the length of each casing (8, 9, 10, 11) itself.
  4. 4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the diameter variation of the well (1) is less than 10% over at least a substantial length from the ground surface to the vicinity of the hydrocarbon-containing layer in the well.
  5. The method of claim 1, wherein each of the at least two casings (24, 25) inserted subsequent to the well extends to the wellhead.
  6. After installing the casing (8, 9, 24, 25, 44) , the production tubing (26) is inserted into the well to extend the production tubing from the ground surface near the hydrocarbon layer and expanded. The method of claim 1, wherein the tubing (26) is radially expanded inside the string (8, 9, 24, 25, 44) .
  7. By moving the expansion mandrel (16, 45) longitudinally through the casing (8, 9, 24, 25, 44) and possibly the tubing (26) , the casing and possibly the tubing are moved radially. The plastic expansion and the casing and tubing are made of a formable steel variety that can be strain hardened without any constriction or ductile failure as a result of the expansion process, and the expansion mandrels (16, 45) used are The method according to claim 1 or 6, wherein the method has a tapered non-metallic surface (46) over a portion of its length.
  8. The expansion mandrel (16, 45) has a tapered ceramic surface (46) and the tubing (26) and casing (8, 9, 24, 25, 44) have a yield strength-tensile strength of less than 0.8. 8. The method of claim 7, wherein the method is made from a formable steel variety having a ratio and a yield strength of at least 275 MPa.
  9. The production tubing (26) and the at least one casing (8, 9, 24, 25, 44) comprise pipes, which are inserted into the well by winding the pipes from a take-up drum. the method of.
  10. The method of claim 8, wherein the tapered ceramic surface (46) of the expansion mandrel forms a semi-top angle A of 5 ° to 45 °.
  11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the semi-top angle A is 15 ° to 30 °.
  12. The method according to claim 1, wherein at least the lowermost casing (11, 25, 26) comprises a slot or opening.
JP2000527736A 1997-12-31 1998-12-28 Drilling and finishing methods for hydrocarbon production wells Expired - Lifetime JP4085403B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

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EP97204157.8 1997-12-31
EP97204157 1997-12-31
PCT/EP1998/008549 WO1999035368A1 (en) 1997-12-31 1998-12-28 Method for drilling and completing a hydrocarbon production well

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JP4085403B2 true JP4085403B2 (en) 2008-05-14

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JP (1) JP4085403B2 (en)
AU (1) AU740213B2 (en)
BR (1) BR9814563A (en)
CA (1) CA2316978C (en)
DE (1) DE69808139T2 (en)
DK (1) DK1044316T3 (en)
EA (1) EA002563B1 (en)
GC (1) GC0000041A (en)
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NO (1) NO322486B1 (en)
NZ (1) NZ505059A (en)
OA (1) OA11527A (en)
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WO (1) WO1999035368A1 (en)

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DE69808139D1 (en) 2002-10-24
EP1044316A1 (en) 2000-10-18

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