JP4062233B2 - Loop antenna device - Google Patents

Loop antenna device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4062233B2
JP4062233B2 JP2003359423A JP2003359423A JP4062233B2 JP 4062233 B2 JP4062233 B2 JP 4062233B2 JP 2003359423 A JP2003359423 A JP 2003359423A JP 2003359423 A JP2003359423 A JP 2003359423A JP 4062233 B2 JP4062233 B2 JP 4062233B2
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Prior art keywords
loop antenna
conductor
conductor pattern
antenna device
dielectric
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP2003359423A
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JP2005124061A (en
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佳彦 高橋
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
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Description

  The present invention generally relates to a loop antenna device, and more particularly to a loop antenna device having a conductor pattern formed on a surface of a dielectric substrate as a part of an antenna element.

  Conventionally, as shown in FIG. 1A, a pair of symmetrical loops in which two loop-shaped antenna elements each having a length corresponding to one wavelength (λ) are arranged and fed at one point. A double-loop antenna is known as an antenna element made of (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

  The double loop antenna has an advantage that high gain and wide band antenna characteristics can be obtained as compared with the monopole antenna.

Further, as shown in FIG. 1B, there is also known a double / half loop antenna in which a double loop antenna is cut in half at the center and provided on a ground plane (conductor flat plate). As in the case of the single loop, the dual / half-loop antenna also functions as an antenna equivalent to the double-loop antenna shown in FIG. 1A by combining the actual conductor portion and the electric image portion by the principle of mirror image. .
Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 2-86208

  As shown in FIG. 2A, in the dual loop antenna, the currents flowing through the antenna elements # 1 to # 3 are in phase during resonance. This twin loop antenna can be approximated to three dipole antennas as shown in FIG. In this situation, the electromagnetic waves from the respective elements # 1 to # 3 are in a relationship of strengthening each other in the Y direction and in a relationship of weakening each other in the X direction.

  Therefore, the conventional twin loop antenna has a characteristic that the radiation in the Y direction is relatively strong and the radiation in the X direction is relatively weak, and the horizontal plane (XY plane) directivity is approximately elliptical.

  The present invention is intended to improve the antenna directivity unique to such a loop antenna, and provides a loop antenna device in which the horizontal plane directivity is substantially omnidirectional or any horizontal plane directivity can be set. The main purpose is to do.

One aspect of the present invention for achieving the above object is a loop antenna apparatus having a dielectric substrate placed on a conductive plate and an antenna element including a conductor pattern formed on the substrate, The conductor pattern has both ends connected to a conductor flat plate, is formed in a strip shape on the outer peripheral surface of the dielectric substrate, the antenna element passes through the dielectric substrate, and one end is connected to the conductor pattern. The other end is composed of a conductive wire connected to the feeding point on the conductive plate and the conductive pattern, and the half from the end connected to the conductive plate to the end of the conducting wire connected to the feeding point looped pair of elements has a shape having symmetry, the dielectric substrate is perforated in the outer peripheral surface of the conductor pattern is formed in the strip, a wide lateral width than the belt-like conductor pattern, the dielectric The dielectric constant of the body substrate is Of the conductor pattern, an electromagnetic wave radiated from the conductive wire in the extending direction of the upper surface portion extending on the upper surface of the dielectric substrate, and a side surface formed on the side surface of the dielectric substrate of the conductor pattern Selected so that there is no phase shift between the portion and the electromagnetic wave radiated in the extending direction, and the length of the lateral width is an electromagnetic wave radiated from the conducting wire in the orthogonal direction of the extending direction; It is a loop antenna device set so that the phase of the electromagnetic wave radiated from the side surface portion in the orthogonal direction is shifted .

In the above aspect, since the electromagnetic wave radiated from the conductive wire in the extending direction passes through the dielectric substrate, the electromagnetic wave is radiated from the side surface portion in the extending direction through the conductor pattern. A phase difference may occur between the electromagnetic wave radiated in the extending direction from the conductive wire and the electromagnetic wave radiated in the extending direction from the side portion. Since the phase is appropriately selected so as not to cause a phase shift, these electromagnetic waves can be made to be electromagnetic waves that are out of phase and intensify each other.
Moreover, in the said one aspect | mode, since the electromagnetic waves radiated | emitted from the said conducting wire to the said orthogonal direction pass the inside of the said dielectric substrate, a phase shifts compared with the case where it advances in the air, and the said side part In view of the fact that the electromagnetic wave radiated from the conductor in the orthogonal direction travels in the air without passing through the dielectric substrate, the width of the electromagnetic wave radiated from the conductor in the orthogonal direction and the side surface Since the phase of the electromagnetic waves radiated from the portion in the orthogonal direction is appropriately set, these electromagnetic waves can be made into electromagnetic waves that are out of phase and in a mutually weakening relationship.
Therefore, according to the above aspect, the electric field is applied to the conventional low gain direction (corresponding to the extending direction) in the antenna horizontal plane as compared to the double / half loop antenna in which no dielectric passes through the loop. strong Me, because the conventional high gain direction (corresponding to the orthogonal direction) the electric field can Ru weak because, can be made a horizontal plane directivity of the double-half-loop antenna, substantially uniform in all directions.

In the above one aspect, the dielectric to form a "dielectric substrate" is a ceramic for example, an epoxy resin such as glass epoxy, polyether resins, BT resins, such as PPO, Teflon (registered trademark) PTFE resins such as, Any dielectric may be used.

Further, as an application example of the present invention, two combining a loop antenna device according to the one aspect, a recess in the contact surface between Kishirubeden body flat top of the other of the upper Symbol loop antenna device it is provided, the other upper Symbol loop antenna device designed to be housed in the upper Symbol the recess when installed above Kishirubeden body flat plate, for both the upper Symbol loop antenna device, as well as share the feed line and the feeding point, took the impedance matching, A dual-frequency loop antenna device is also possible.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to provide a loop antenna device in which the horizontal plane directivity is substantially omnidirectional or an arbitrary horizontal plane directivity can be set.

  Hereinafter, the best mode for carrying out the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. Note that the basic concept, main hardware configuration, operating principle, basic control method, and the like of an antenna device having a loop-shaped antenna element are known to those skilled in the art, and thus detailed description thereof is omitted.

  First, Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the loop antenna device 300 according to the present embodiment.

  The loop antenna device 300 includes an antenna composed of a conductor pattern 302 formed on a substantially rectangular parallelepiped ceramic base 301 and a central conductor 304 connecting the conductor pattern 302 and the feeding point 303 through a hole formed in the ceramic base 301. It has an element. For convenience, the thickness of the conductor pattern 302 is not shown in FIG.

  As shown in the figure, the loop antenna device 300 is a twin / half loop antenna and is installed on a ground plane (conductor flat plate) 305. The ground plane 305 may be any conductor as long as it can function as a ground.

  The formation method of the conductor pattern 302 may be arbitrary, and for example, the same method (for example, vapor deposition) as in the case of the microstrip antenna can be used.

  For example, the central conductor 304 is inserted into a hole formed in the ceramic substrate 301 after the conductor pattern 302 is formed, and is soldered to the conductor pattern 302.

  In this way, the conductor pattern 302 is formed on the ceramic base 301 that is a dielectric, and this is connected to the feeding point 303 by the conducting wire 304, whereby the half ring of the half-loop antenna element is the dielectric. It is assumed that the ceramic penetrates and the center conductor 304 is surrounded by the ceramic.

  FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the loop antenna device 300 of FIG. 3 cut along the XZ plane on the conductor pattern 302. As shown in the drawing, two half loops constituted by the conductor pattern 302 and the conductive wire 304 are filled with ceramic inside.

Here, considering the radiation in the X direction where the gain is weak in the conventional dual (.half) loop antenna, the electromagnetic wave 401 radiated in the X direction from the antenna element # 1 (= the central conducting wire 304) is generated in the ceramic substrate 301. Therefore, a phase difference is generated between the current 402 and the current 402 passing through the conductor pattern 302. Here, by appropriately selecting the dielectric constant of the ceramic substrate 301 epsilon, in the X-direction far field P 1, an electromagnetic wave from the case of conventional dielectric without antenna elements # 1 to 3 were destructively with each other It can be a mutually reinforcing relationship.

FIG. 5 is a top view of the loop antenna device 300 of FIG. As shown in the drawing, W 1 and W 2 > 0 in order to make the dielectric penetrate through the loop.

Here, in the case of radiation in the Y direction where the conventional dual (.half) loop antenna has a strong gain, the electromagnetic wave 501 radiated in the Y direction from the antenna element # 1 (= the central conducting wire 304) Therefore, the phase is shifted as compared with the case of traveling in the air. On the other hand, the electromagnetic wave 502 radiated from the antenna elements # 2 and 3 which are part of the conductor pattern 302 formed on the side surface of the ceramic base 301 travels in the air without passing through the dielectric. Here, by appropriately selecting the lateral width W 2 (or W 1 ) of the ceramic substrate 301, the antenna elements that have strengthened each other in the Y-direction far field P 2 due to the same phase in the case of no conventional dielectric. The electromagnetic waves from # 1 to # 3 can be made to weaken each other.

As described above, according to the present embodiment, by appropriately selecting the dielectric constant ε of the ceramic substrate 301, it is possible to increase the radiation in the X direction where the gain is relatively weak in the conventional twin loop antenna, By appropriately designing the lateral widths W 1 and W 2 of the ceramic substrate 301, the radiation in the Y direction, which has a relatively strong gain in the conventional dual loop antenna, can be weakened. In addition, the horizontal plane directivity of the double loop antenna, which is elliptical and non-uniform depending on the shape, can be made to be a substantially uniform circular shape in all directions.

  Next, Embodiment 2 of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. The loop antenna device according to the present embodiment has a configuration that is substantially similar to that of the first embodiment described above. However, in Example 1, the aim is mainly to achieve uniform horizontal plane directivity in all directions, whereas in this example, the shape of the ceramic substrate is appropriately designed to be strong or weak in a specific direction. The aim is to achieve a desired horizontal plane directivity with gain.

  More specifically, in Example 1 described above, it is assumed that the ceramic base 301 is a substantially rectangular parallelepiped, and the horizontal plane directivity is mainly considered in the four directions of the X direction (+/−) and the Y direction (+/−). However, the shape of the ceramic substrate of the loop antenna device according to the present invention is not limited to a rectangular parallelepiped, but can be any shape, and in this embodiment, the shape is devised.

  FIG. 6 is a top view of an example of the loop antenna device according to the present embodiment. The same components as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals.

  When the ceramic base 301a of the loop antenna device shown in FIG. 6 focuses on electromagnetic waves emitted radially from the central conductor 304, the width of the dielectric is short in the direction A and the width of the dielectric in the direction B as shown in the figure. Is long. Therefore, as described above, the antenna gain is strong in the direction A and the antenna gain is weak in the direction B.

  Therefore, according to the loop antenna device shown in FIG. 6, the antenna horizontal plane directivity having directivity with respect to the direction A rather than the direction B can be realized.

  In this way, by changing the thickness of the dielectric through which the electromagnetic wave radiated from the central conductor 304 passes, the relationship between the electromagnetic waves radiated from the antenna elements # 1 to # 3 in a specific direction is weakened or strengthened. Can be set to

  The ceramic substrate 301a shown in FIG. 6 is merely an example, and for example, a substantially cross-shaped ceramic substrate 301b as shown in FIG. 7 or a substantially octagonal ceramic substrate 301c as shown in FIG. 8 is possible.

  Furthermore, since the shape of the ceramic substrate in the loop antenna device according to the present invention can be arbitrarily designed in the height direction (that is, the direction perpendicular to the ground plane 305), for example, as shown in FIG. By making the ceramic substrate around the body pattern 302 higher than the height of the conductor pattern, the antenna gain can be weakened even in the Y direction upward. That is, a desired vertical surface directivity can be obtained by making a difference in height between the conductor pattern 302 and the ceramic substrate.

  An example of the loop antenna device according to the present embodiment shown in FIG. 9 can be easily manufactured by, for example, forming a belt-like groove on the outer periphery of the ceramic substrate and depositing a conductor pattern on the bottom surface of the groove. is there.

  Thus, according to the present embodiment, desired horizontal and vertical plane directivities can be realized by appropriately designing the shape of the ceramic substrate.

  Next, Embodiment 3 of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. The loop antenna device according to the present embodiment has a structure in which two loop antenna devices according to the first embodiment having different sizes are stacked, and is capable of supporting two frequencies.

  FIG. 10 is an assembly diagram of the two-frequency loop antenna device according to the present embodiment. In the present embodiment, two large and small loop antenna devices 300 according to the first embodiment are used. The smaller loop antenna device is basically the same as the loop antenna device 300, and the larger loop antenna device 300a is sufficient to completely accommodate the smaller loop antenna device 300 on the contact surface with the ground plane 305. A recess (recess) of a size is provided.

  FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of the dual-frequency loop antenna device according to the present embodiment cut along the XZ plane on the conductor pattern 302.

  As shown in the figure, the outer loop antenna device 300a and the inner loop antenna device 300 share a feeding point 303 and a central conductor 304a. By adopting impedance matching for both in such a configuration, the outer and inner loop antennas can be made to resonate at different frequencies, and as a result, the entire device can be adapted to two frequencies.

  Further, a gap 1101 is provided between the inner wall of the recess provided in the ceramic base 301e of the outer loop antenna device 300a and the surface of the inner loop antenna device 300 (particularly, the surface of the conductor pattern 302). Since the effective dielectric constant changes when the conductor pattern 302 is sandwiched between the dielectrics from above and below, the inner loop is designed by designing the ceramic substrate 301e (indentation) so as to ensure such a gap 1101. The antenna device 300 can function in the same manner as in the first embodiment.

  Thus, according to the present embodiment, it is possible to realize a loop antenna device that can easily cope with two frequencies by using two loop antenna devices according to the present invention.

  It should be noted that also in this embodiment, the shape of the ceramic base can be arbitrarily designed according to the desired directivity.

  The first to third embodiments of the present invention have been described above. However, the “ceramic substrate” in the above description is not limited to ceramic, and may be a substrate formed of any material as long as it is a dielectric. For example, a substrate formed of a dielectric material such as an epoxy resin such as glass epoxy, a polyether resin such as PPO, a PTFE resin such as BT resin or Teflon (registered trademark) can be considered as an alternative.

  The present invention can be used as an omnidirectional antenna or a directional antenna in a communication system such as a wireless LAN. The content of the communication method and data to be communicated is not limited.

(A) It is the schematic of the conventional double loop antenna. (B) It is the schematic of the conventional twin and half loop antenna. (A) It is the schematic which shows the electric current which flows into the conventional double loop antenna at the time of resonance. (B) It is the schematic which shows three dipole antennas equivalent to the double loop antenna of Fig.2 (a). It is a perspective view of the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 1 of this invention. It is sectional drawing which cut the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 1 of this invention on the conductor pattern at XZ plane. It is a top view of the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 1 of this invention. It is a top view of an example of the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 2 of this invention. It is a top view of another example of the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 2 of this invention. It is a top view of another example of the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 2 of this invention. It is a perspective view of another example of the loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 2 of this invention. It is an assembly drawing of the loop antenna device corresponding to 2 frequencies which concerns on Example 3 of this invention. It is sectional drawing which cut | disconnected the 2 frequency corresponding | compatible loop antenna apparatus which concerns on Example 3 of this invention on the conductor pattern at XZ plane.

Explanation of symbols

300, 300a Loop antenna device 301, 301a, 301b, 301c, 301d, 301e Ceramic substrate 302 Conductor pattern 303 Feeding point 304, 304a Conductor 305 Ground plate 401, 402, 501, 502 Electromagnetic wave 1101 Air gap

Claims (2)

  1. A loop antenna device having a dielectric substrate placed on a conductive plate and an antenna element including a conductor pattern formed on the substrate,
    The conductor pattern is connected to a conductor flat plate at both ends, and is formed in a strip shape on the outer peripheral surface of the dielectric substrate,
    The antenna element includes a conductive wire that passes through the dielectric substrate, has one end connected to a conductor pattern and the other end connected to a feeding point on a conductor plate, and the conductor pattern. A pair of half-loop elements from the end connected to the flat plate to the end of the conducting wire connected to the feeding point has a symmetrical shape,
    The dielectric substrate, the outer circumferential surface of the conductor pattern is formed of the strip, it has a wide lateral width than the belt-like conductor patterns,
    The dielectric constant of the dielectric substrate is determined by the electromagnetic wave radiated from the conductor in the extending direction of the upper surface portion of the conductor pattern that extends on the upper surface of the dielectric substrate, and the dielectric of the conductor pattern. Selected so as not to cause a phase shift between electromagnetic waves emitted in the extending direction from the side surface portion formed on the side surface of the body substrate,
    The length of the lateral width is set so that the phase of the electromagnetic wave radiated from the conducting wire in the orthogonal direction to the extending direction and the phase of the electromagnetic wave radiated from the side surface portion in the orthogonal direction are shifted. Loop antenna device to do.
  2. A loop antenna device for two frequencies, which is a combination of two loop antenna devices according to claim 1,
    A concave portion is provided on a contact surface with the conductor flat plate of one of the loop antenna devices,
    Designed to be housed in the recess when the other loop antenna device is installed on the conductor flat plate,
    A dual-frequency loop antenna apparatus characterized by sharing a feeding line and a feeding point for both the loop antenna apparatuses and taking impedance matching.
JP2003359423A 2003-10-20 2003-10-20 Loop antenna device Expired - Fee Related JP4062233B2 (en)

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