JP4060765B2 - A device that makes heated cereal grains - Google Patents

A device that makes heated cereal grains Download PDF

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JP4060765B2
JP4060765B2 JP2003283450A JP2003283450A JP4060765B2 JP 4060765 B2 JP4060765 B2 JP 4060765B2 JP 2003283450 A JP2003283450 A JP 2003283450A JP 2003283450 A JP2003283450 A JP 2003283450A JP 4060765 B2 JP4060765 B2 JP 4060765B2
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尚一 田宮
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京都グレインシステム株式会社
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本発明は、でんぷんを多量に含む穀類を加熱後、一粒毎に分離する装置に関する。本明細書では、穀類を一粒毎に分離することを「単粒化」と呼ぶ。 The present invention, after heating the cereal containing starch in a large amount, to that equipment be separated for each grain. In the present specification, separating grains every grain is referred to as “single grain”.
例えば、玄米茶を製造するとき等には、加熱した穀類を単粒化する必要がある。   For example, when producing brown rice tea, etc., it is necessary to make heated cereal grains into single grains.
ところが、周知のように、水分を30%以上含んだ状態で、穀類、特に、水稲、陸稲、小麦、大麦及び雑穀を70℃以上に加熱すると糊化する。特に、でんぷん質の多い水稲や陸稲は、でんぷんが糊化した場合、そのでんぷんの粘着性は高いことが知られている。   However, as is well known, when cereals, particularly paddy rice, upland rice, wheat, barley and millet, are heated to 70 ° C. or higher with a moisture content of 30% or more, gelatinization occurs. In particular, paddy rice and upland rice having a high starch quality are known to have high adhesiveness when the starch is gelatinized.
このようなでんぷんを多量に含む穀類を加熱後、冷却すると、塊となって単粒化が困難となる。その理由は、でんぷんが糊化した後では、穀類粒表面に、糊化したでんぷんが滲み出し、その付着力で多数の粒が塊を形成するからである。   When such cereals containing a large amount of starch are heated and then cooled, they become lumps and are difficult to be made into single grains. The reason is that after the starch is gelatinized, the gelatinized starch oozes out on the surface of the grain of grains, and a large number of grains form a lump by the adhesive force.
穀類を加熱した後に単粒化する方法として、例えば、従来の玄米茶製造法では、作業員が高温の穀類を手でこねるようにしてほぐしている。これは、非能率的であるとともに、作業員にとって過酷な作業である。   For example, in the conventional brown rice tea manufacturing method, the worker loosens the cereals by heating them by hand. This is inefficient and harsh for workers.
別の従来法では、塊となった穀類粒に対して機械的な圧力を加える(例えば、クラッシャーを用いて破壊する)方法があるが、単粒化と同時に、過剰な圧力で穀類粒が破壊されて完全な穀類の歩留まりが著しく低下する欠点がある。   In another conventional method, there is a method in which mechanical pressure is applied to a lump of grain (for example, destruction using a crusher). There is a drawback that the yield of complete cereals is significantly reduced.
さらに別の従来技術によれば、糊化した後に、冷水に浸し、穀粒表面の糊化したでんぷんの付着性をなくし、ベルト上に広く薄く並べて乾燥を行うことで単粒化を達成している。この方法によれば、蒸気による加熱で、でんぷんを糊化した穀粒を、冷水に浸さなければならないので、新たに水浸漬工程を加える必要がある。更に糊化したでんぷんは水を急速に吸収し膨潤するので、乾燥の際に通常よりも能力の大きな装置を必要とする。そのため、乾燥エネルギーを大量に消費しなければならない、という欠点がある。   According to yet another conventional technique, after gelatinization, it is immersed in cold water to eliminate the adhesiveness of starch gelatinized on the surface of the grain, and it is widely arranged thinly on a belt and dried to achieve single granulation. Yes. According to this method, it is necessary to add a water soaking step since the grain gelatinized with starch must be soaked in cold water by heating with steam. Furthermore, gelatinized starch absorbs water rapidly and swells, so that a device having a larger capacity than usual is required for drying. Therefore, there is a drawback that a large amount of drying energy must be consumed.
糊化した塊は、高温100℃〜70℃の間で、尚且つ、表面水分が充分ある場合は粒間の付着力は弱いが、水分蒸発が進行し穀類粒の表面水分が低下して乾燥が進行すると、でんぷんの粘着性が増加する。又、温度が70℃以下に低下すると、更に再結晶化が始まり、穀類粒間のでんぷんが再結合して容易に粒を引き離すことはできなくなる。   The gelatinized mass is dried at a high temperature between 100 ° C and 70 ° C, and when the surface moisture is sufficient, the adhesion between the grains is weak, but the moisture evaporation proceeds and the surface moisture of the cereal grains decreases. As the progress proceeds, the tackiness of the starch increases. Further, when the temperature is lowered to 70 ° C. or lower, recrystallization starts, and starch between cereal grains is recombined so that the grains cannot be easily separated.
最も理想的には、蒸気により加熱し糊化した穀粒を、温度が50℃以下になるまでに単粒化させることである。この方法であれば、余分な工程を必要とせず、尚且つ、品質への影響が少ない。   Most ideally, the grains heated and gelatinized with steam are made into single grains before the temperature falls to 50 ° C. or lower. This method does not require an extra step and has little influence on the quality.
本発明者等は、糊化直後の穀粒表面温度98℃から70℃の間では、粒間の付着力は極めて小さいことを見出した。そして、この温度を維持した状態で湿度60%〜90%の熱風を穀粒層に均一に当てることで、緩やかに穀粒表面の水分が蒸発し、穀類表面のでんぷんの再結晶化が緩やかになるため、その間、粒間の付着力が弱いことを見出した。   The present inventors have found that the adhesion force between grains is extremely small at a grain surface temperature of 98 ° C. to 70 ° C. immediately after gelatinization. And with this temperature maintained, hot air with a humidity of 60% to 90% is uniformly applied to the grain layer, so that the moisture on the grain surface will gradually evaporate, and the recrystallization of the starch on the grain surface will slowly Therefore, during that period, it was found that the adhesion between grains was weak.
本発明は、この知見に基づき行われたもので、この条件を実現させる方法と装置を提供することを目的とする。   The present invention has been made on the basis of this finding, and an object thereof is to provide a method and an apparatus for realizing this condition.
本発明の装置は、温度60℃〜100℃、湿度60%〜90%の雰囲気中で、加熱した穀類を攪拌しながらコンベアー上で熱風に当てて単粒化する装置であって、熱風発生装置(1)と、この熱風発生装置(1)の熱風を単粒化装置に送風する熱風ダクト(2)と、穀類層の厚みが100mm以下となるように開口を制御された穀類投入ホッパー(4)と、投入された前記穀類が移動するネットコンベア(5)と、ネットコンベア(5)上の前記穀類を攪拌する攪拌機(6)と、ネットコンベア(5)の網目間から均一に空気が流れるように前記熱風の流れを作る排気ファン(7)とからなることを特徴とする。 The apparatus of the present invention is an apparatus for applying a single grain by applying hot air on a conveyor while stirring the heated cereal in an atmosphere having a temperature of 60 ° C. to 100 ° C. and a humidity of 60% to 90%. (1), a hot air duct (2) for blowing hot air from the hot air generator (1) to a single granulator, and a cereal input hopper (4) whose opening is controlled so that the thickness of the cereal layer is 100 mm or less and), a net conveyor (5) to the entered the cereal is moved, net conveyor (5) agitator for agitating the grains on the (6), uniformly air flows from between the mesh of the net conveyor (5) And an exhaust fan (7) that creates the flow of hot air.
本発明の装置によれば、湿度と温度に関して上記条件を満たす熱風を穀類層に当てることにより、穀類粒間の付着力が弱い間に穀類層を攪拌し、穀類粒間を引き離すことができる。穀類粒は、引き離されると同時に表面水分が蒸発し、表面のてんぷんが再結晶化し付着力を失って単粒化する。しかも、そのために余分な工程を必要とせず、尚且つ、品質への影響が少ないので、後の工程で製品化する際、品質を落とすことがない。


According to the apparatus of the present invention, by applying hot air that satisfies the above conditions with respect to humidity and temperature to the cereal layer, the cereal layer can be stirred while the adhesion between the cereal grains is weak, and the cereal grains can be separated. As soon as the grains are pulled apart, the surface moisture evaporates, and the surface starch is recrystallized and loses adhesion to become single grains. Moreover, an extra process is not required for that purpose, and the influence on the quality is small. Therefore, the quality is not deteriorated when the product is manufactured in a later process.


穀類層の穀類粒の塊をほぐすには、加熱した穀類をコンベア上で移動させながら、攪拌するのが好ましい。攪拌は、攪拌羽根を有する攪拌機によるのが好ましい。攪拌機は、穀粒の進行方向に向かって回転する攪拌羽根を2個から4個有しているのが好ましい。その回転速度は、30rpm〜100ppm、好ましくは30〜50rpm 、最も好ましいのは60ppmである。攪拌回転数が30rpm以下であれば、穀類層の穀類粒を均一に攪拌することが難しく、100rpm以上となると、穀類粒が攪拌エネルギーによって飛散し過ぎて、均一に単粒化することは困難である。又、各攪拌機が10分間に1回以上、穀類層を攪拌するように配置されているのが好ましく、同一穀類層に2回〜4回攪拌が行われることが好ましい。   In order to loosen the grains of grains in the cereal layer, it is preferable to stir the heated cereal while moving it on a conveyor. Stirring is preferably performed by a stirrer having a stirring blade. The stirrer preferably has 2 to 4 stirring blades rotating in the direction of grain movement. The rotational speed is 30 rpm to 100 ppm, preferably 30 to 50 rpm, and most preferably 60 ppm. If the stirring speed is 30 rpm or less, it is difficult to uniformly stir the grains in the grain layer, and if it is 100 rpm or more, the grains are scattered too much by the stirring energy, and it is difficult to make a single grain uniformly. is there. Moreover, it is preferable that each stirrer is arranged to stir the cereal layer at least once every 10 minutes, and it is preferable that the same cereal layer is stirred twice to four times.
単粒化の間、穀類層の厚みは20mm〜100mmとすることが好ましく、熱風を穀類層に均一に当てる時間は10分〜30分が好ましい。穀類層の厚みが100mm以下であれば、熱風が穀類層の粒間の隙間を通る間に、穀類粒の表面が均一に緩やかに温度を維持しながら乾燥していくが、穀類層の厚みが100mm以上になると熱風が層圧で遮られ、層の温度にバラツキが起こり、層内の穀類粒の表面の水分が均一に蒸発しない。他方、穀類層が極端に薄いと、攪拌機による攪拌エネルギーが上手く伝わらずに塊が単粒化しない。又、その間に急激な水分蒸発が起きるので、穀類層の厚みは20mm以上必要である。   During single graining, the thickness of the cereal layer is preferably 20 mm to 100 mm, and the time during which hot air is uniformly applied to the cereal layer is preferably 10 minutes to 30 minutes. If the thickness of the cereal layer is 100 mm or less, while the hot air passes through the gaps between the grains of the cereal layer, the surface of the cereal grain dries while maintaining the temperature uniformly, but the thickness of the cereal layer is When the thickness exceeds 100 mm, the hot air is blocked by the laminar pressure, the temperature of the layer varies, and the surface moisture of the grains in the layer does not evaporate uniformly. On the other hand, if the grain layer is extremely thin, the stirring energy from the stirrer is not transmitted well, and the lump does not become a single grain. In addition, rapid moisture evaporation occurs during that time, and the thickness of the cereal layer needs to be 20 mm or more.
熱風量は、少なくとも穀類層容積の6倍の熱風容量/時間であるのが好ましい。その目的のために、排気ファンを動かし、単粒化装置内のネットコンベアの網目間から均一に空気が流れるように熱風の流れを作るのが好ましい。   The amount of hot air is preferably a hot air capacity / hour which is at least 6 times the grain layer volume. For that purpose, it is preferable to move the exhaust fan to create a flow of hot air so that air flows uniformly from the mesh of the net conveyor in the single granulation apparatus.
以下、添付の図面に基づき、本発明の実施例を説明する。図1は本発明の単粒化装置の概略図である。   Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a single granulation apparatus of the present invention.
熱風発生装置1から熱風を発生させ、熱風ダクト2を通して単粒化装置に送風する。熱風発生装置1の熱風量は15m3/minで、温度100℃、湿度70%である。熱風量は仕上がりを見ながら、熱風調整ダンパー3で風量を調整する。更に、排気ファン7を動かし、単粒化装置内のネットコンベア5の網目間から均一に空気が上部から下部に流れるように熱風の流れを作る。ネットコンベア5の速度を装置内の滞留時間が20分になるように調整する。攪拌機6が複数個(図面では4機)設置され、投入側から、40rpmから10rpmずつ回転速度が早くなるように調整されている。 Hot air is generated from the hot air generator 1 and blown to the single granulator through the hot air duct 2. The hot air generator 1 has a hot air volume of 15 m 3 / min, a temperature of 100 ° C., and a humidity of 70%. The hot air volume is adjusted with the hot air adjusting damper 3 while watching the finish. Further, the exhaust fan 7 is moved to create a flow of hot air so that the air flows uniformly from the upper part to the lower part through the nets of the net conveyor 5 in the single granulation apparatus. The speed of the net conveyor 5 is adjusted so that the residence time in the apparatus is 20 minutes. A plurality of stirrers 6 (four in the drawing) are installed, and are adjusted so that the rotational speed is increased from 40 rpm to 10 rpm from the input side.
上記の条件にて単粒化装置の稼動前準備を終了しておく。   The pre-operation preparation of the single granulation apparatus is completed under the above conditions.
原料として使用する粳米は、前処理として洗米を2時間浸漬し、水きり後、連続蒸し機に投入し30分間蒸してα化した。このα化した粳米を1時間100kgの条件で穀類投入ホッパー4に投入し、単粒化用ネットコンベア5で単粒化装置内を移動させた。そのときの粳米層は80mmであった。   As a pre-treatment, the polished rice used as a raw material was soaked in washed rice for 2 hours, drained, put into a continuous steamer and steamed for 30 minutes to become alpha. The pregelatinized glutinous rice was put into the cereal charging hopper 4 under the condition of 100 kg for 1 hour, and moved inside the single graining device by the single grain net conveyor 5. The glutinous rice layer at that time was 80 mm.
上記条件で単粒化を行い、単粒化後の粳米を5メッシュの篩いにかけた。篩いに残る粳米を単粒化が不完全な粳米と見なして、その比率で単粒化率を測定した結果、単粒化率は96%であった。   Single-granulation was performed under the above conditions, and the single-granulated rice was passed through a 5-mesh sieve. Assuming that the glutinous rice remaining in the sieve was glutinous rice that was incompletely pulverized, the sizing rate was measured at the ratio, and the sizing rate was 96%.
なお、単粒化装置通過後は、粳米粒表面が乾燥しており、再付着はなかった。単粒化装置投入直後の粳米の水分は34.6%、単粒化装置通過後の水分は28%であった。   After passing through the single graining device, the surface of the brown rice grains was dry and there was no reattachment. Immediately after the introduction of the single granulator, the moisture of the rice was 34.6%, and the moisture after passing through the single granulator was 28%.
本発明は、玄米茶の製造のほかに麦茶・アルファ米・発芽玄米等の製造に利用可能である。   The present invention can be used for the production of barley tea, alpha rice, germinated brown rice and the like in addition to the production of brown rice tea.
本発明の単粒化装置の概略図である。It is the schematic of the single granulation apparatus of this invention.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 熱風発生装置
2 熱風ダクト
3 熱風調整ダンパー
4 穀類投入ホッパー
5 ネットコンベア
6 攪拌機
7 排気ファン

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Hot-air generator 2 Hot-air duct 3 Hot-air adjustment damper 4 Grain input hopper 5 Net conveyor 6 Stirrer 7 Exhaust fan

Claims (5)

  1. 温度60℃〜100℃、湿度60%〜90%の雰囲気中で、加熱した穀類を攪拌しながらコンベアー上で熱風に当てて単粒化する装置であって、熱風発生装置(1)と、この熱風発生装置(1)の熱風を単粒化装置に送風する熱風ダクト(2)と、穀類層の厚みが100mm以下となるように開口を制御された穀類投入ホッパー(4)と、投入された前記穀類が移動するネットコンベア(5)と、ネットコンベア(5)上の前記穀類を攪拌する攪拌機(6)と、ネットコンベア(5)の網目間から均一に空気が流れるように前記熱風の流れを作る排気ファン(7)とからなることを特徴とする装置。 A device that heats cereals into hot granules on a conveyor while stirring them in an atmosphere having a temperature of 60 ° C. to 100 ° C. and a humidity of 60% to 90%. A hot air duct (2) for blowing hot air from the hot air generator (1) to the single granulator, and a cereal input hopper (4) whose opening was controlled so that the thickness of the cereal layer was 100 mm or less were input. the cereal a net conveyor (5) that moves the net conveyor (5) agitator for agitating the grains on the (6), the flow of the heated air as from between the mesh uniform air flows in the net conveyor (5) An exhaust fan (7) for producing
  2. 前記各攪拌機が、10分間に1回以上、前記穀類層を攪拌する請求項1記載の装置。The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each of the agitators agitates the cereal layer at least once every 10 minutes.
  3. 前記各攪拌機の攪拌羽根が2個〜4個であり、その羽根の回転数が各々30rpm〜100ppmである請求項1又は2記載の装置。The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the number of stirring blades of each stirrer is 2 to 4, and the number of rotations of the blades is 30 to 100 ppm.
  4. 前記熱風量が、少なくとも前記穀類層容積の6倍の熱風容量/時間である請求項1ないし3のいずれかに記載の装置。The apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the amount of hot air is at least six times the volume of the cereal layer hot air capacity / hour.
  5. 前記穀類の層が20mm〜100mmとなるように穀類投入ホッパー(4)の開口を制御されている請求項1ないし4のいずれかに記載の装置。The apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the opening of the grain input hopper (4) is controlled so that the grain layer is 20 mm to 100 mm.
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JP5779899B2 (en) * 2011-02-10 2015-09-16 株式会社サタケ Kernel unit

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CN106659312A (en) * 2014-07-11 2017-05-10 株式会社日冷食品 Food heating device
CN106659312B (en) * 2014-07-11 2019-02-01 株式会社日冷食品 Foods heat unit
US10302358B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2019-05-28 Nichirei Foods Inc. Food heating device
CN104697294A (en) * 2015-03-03 2015-06-10 李丽芬 Drying method of chrysanthemum
CN104697293A (en) * 2015-03-03 2015-06-10 李丽芬 Miraflor drying method

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