JP4029183B2 - Projection exposure apparatus and projection exposure method - Google Patents

Projection exposure apparatus and projection exposure method Download PDF

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JP4029183B2
JP4029183B2 JP34374097A JP34374097A JP4029183B2 JP 4029183 B2 JP4029183 B2 JP 4029183B2 JP 34374097 A JP34374097 A JP 34374097A JP 34374097 A JP34374097 A JP 34374097A JP 4029183 B2 JP4029183 B2 JP 4029183B2
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stage
substrate
position
axis
alignment
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JPH10214783A (en
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健爾 西
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株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70691Handling of masks or wafers
    • G03F7/70716Stages

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a projection exposure apparatus and a projection exposure method, and more particularly to a projection exposure apparatus and a projection exposure method for projecting and exposing a pattern image formed on a mask onto a sensitive substrate via a projection optical system. It is characterized in that one substrate stage is moved independently and exposure processing and other processing are performed in parallel.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, various exposure apparatuses have been used for manufacturing a semiconductor element or a liquid crystal display element in a photolithography process. Currently, a pattern of a photomask or a reticle (hereinafter, collectively referred to as “reticle”) is used. In general, a projection exposure apparatus that transfers an image onto a substrate such as a wafer or a glass plate (hereinafter, referred to as a “sensitive substrate” as appropriate) having a photosensitive material such as a photoresist coated on the surface via a projection optical system. in use. In recent years, as this projection exposure apparatus, a sensitive substrate is placed on a two-dimensionally movable substrate stage, and the sensitive substrate is stepped (stepped) by this substrate stage, so that the pattern image of the reticle is placed on the sensitive substrate. The so-called step-and-repeat type reduction projection exposure apparatus (so-called stepper), which repeats the operation of sequentially exposing each shot area, is the mainstream.
[0003]
Recently, a step-and-scan type projection exposure apparatus (for example, a scanning exposure apparatus as described in JP-A-7-176468, etc.), which is an improvement to a batch type exposure apparatus such as a stepper, is provided. Has also been used relatively frequently. This step-and-scan type projection exposure apparatus can expose a large field with a smaller optical system as compared with (1) a stepper. Therefore, the projection optical system can be easily manufactured and the number of shots by large field exposure can be reduced. High throughput can be expected due to the decrease, and (2) there are advantages such as an effect of averaging by relatively scanning the reticle and wafer with respect to the projection optical system, and an improvement in distortion and depth of focus. Furthermore, as the integration density of semiconductor devices increases from 16M (mega) to 64M DRAM, and in the future to 256M, 1G (giga), and so on, the large field becomes essential, so it replaces the stepper. Therefore, it is said that scanning projection exposure apparatuses will become mainstream.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Since this type of projection exposure apparatus is mainly used as a mass-production machine for semiconductor elements and the like, it is possible to improve the throughput, that is, the throughput of how many wafers can be exposed within a certain period of time. Is inevitably required.
[0005]
In this regard, in the case of a step-and-scan type projection exposure apparatus, when exposing a large field, as described above, the number of shots exposed in the wafer is reduced, so an improvement in throughput is expected. Since exposure is performed during constant-velocity movement by synchronous scanning of the reticle and wafer, an acceleration / deceleration area is required before and after the constant-velocity movement area, and a shot having the same size as the stepper shot size is temporarily exposed. In some cases, the throughput may be lower than that of the stepper.
[0006]
The flow of processing in this type of projection exposure apparatus is roughly as follows.
[0007]
(1) First, a wafer loading process is performed in which a wafer is loaded onto a wafer table using a wafer loader.
[0008]
(2) Next, a search alignment process is performed in which a rough position detection of the wafer is performed by the search alignment mechanism. Specifically, this search alignment process is performed, for example, based on the outer shape of the wafer or by detecting a search alignment mark on the wafer.
[0009]
{Circle around (3)} Next, a fine alignment step for accurately obtaining the position of each shot area on the wafer is performed. In this fine alignment process, an EGA (Enhanced Global Alignment) method is generally used. In this method, a plurality of sample shots in a wafer are selected, and an alignment mark (wafer mark) attached to the sample shot is selected. Are sequentially measured, and based on the measurement result and the design value of the shot arrangement, a statistical calculation is performed by a so-called least square method or the like to obtain all shot arrangement data on the wafer (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 61). -44429, etc.), the coordinate position of each shot area can be obtained with relatively high accuracy with high throughput.
[0010]
(4) Next, based on the coordinate position of each shot area obtained by the above-mentioned EGA method or the like and the baseline amount measured in advance, each shot area on the wafer is sequentially positioned at the exposure position, and the projection optical system is An exposure process for transferring the pattern image of the reticle onto the wafer is performed.
[0011]
(5) Next, a wafer unload process is performed in which the wafer on the wafer table subjected to the exposure process is unloaded using a wafer unloader. This wafer unloading step is performed simultaneously with the wafer loading step (1) for the wafer to be exposed. That is, (1) and (5) constitute a wafer exchange process.
[0012]
Thus, in the conventional projection exposure apparatus, four operations are repeatedly performed using one wafer stage, such as wafer exchange → search alignment → fine alignment → exposure → wafer exchange.
[0013]
Further, the throughput THOR [sheets / hour] of this type of projection exposure apparatus is given by the following equation when the wafer exchange time is T1, the search alignment time is T2, the fine alignment time is T3, and the exposure time is T4: It can be expressed as 1).
[0014]
THOR = 3600 / (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4) (1)
The operations from T1 to T4 are repeatedly executed sequentially (sequentially) in the order of T1, T2, T3, T4, T1, and so on. For this reason, if each element from T1 to T4 is speeded up, the denominator becomes smaller and the throughput THOR can be improved. However, the above-described T1 (wafer exchange time) and T2 (search alignment time) are relatively small since only one operation is performed on one wafer. In the case of T3 (fine alignment time), the throughput can be improved by reducing the number of shots when using the EGA method described above or by reducing the measurement time of a single shot. Since accuracy is degraded, T3 cannot be easily shortened.
[0015]
T4 (exposure time) includes a wafer exposure time and a stepping time between shots. For example, in the case of a scanning projection exposure apparatus such as the step-and-scan method, it is necessary to increase the relative scanning speed of the reticle and wafer by the amount that shortens the wafer exposure time, but the synchronization accuracy deteriorates. The scanning speed cannot be increased easily.
[0016]
In addition to the above throughput in this type of projection exposure apparatus, important conditions include (1) resolution, (2) depth of focus (DOF), and (3) line width control accuracy. . The resolution R is such that the exposure wavelength is λ and the numerical aperture of the projection lens is N.P. A. (Numerical Aperture), λ / N. A. And the depth of focus DOF is λ / (NA) 2 Is proportional to
[0017]
Therefore, in order to improve the resolution R (reduce the value of R), the exposure wavelength λ is reduced or the numerical aperture N.P. A. Need to be larger. In particular, the density of semiconductor elements has been increasing recently, and the device rule has become 0.2 μmL / S (line and space) or less, so illumination is necessary to expose these patterns. A KrF excimer laser is used as the light source. However, as described above, the degree of integration of semiconductor elements will inevitably increase in the future, and development of a device having a light source having a wavelength shorter than KrF is desired. As a candidate for a next-generation apparatus equipped with such a light source having a shorter wavelength, an apparatus using an ArF excimer laser as a light source, an electron beam exposure apparatus, and the like are representatively mentioned. In the case of an ArF excimer laser, oxygen In some places, light is hardly transmitted, high output is difficult to be output, laser life is short, and equipment costs are high, and in the case of electron beam exposure equipment, light exposure equipment In reality, it is difficult to develop next-generation machines with the main viewpoint of shortening the wavelength because of the disadvantage that the throughput is significantly lower than.
[0018]
As another method for increasing the resolution R, the numerical aperture N.I. A. Can be increased, but N.I. A. If is increased, there is a demerit that the DOF of the projection optical system is reduced. This DOF can be roughly divided into UDOF (User Depth of Forcus: part used on the user side: pattern step, resist thickness, etc.) and the total focal difference of the apparatus itself. Up to now, since the ratio of UDOF has been large, the direction in which the DOF is increased is the main axis of development of the exposure apparatus. For example, modified illumination has been put to practical use as a technique for increasing the DOF.
[0019]
By the way, in order to manufacture a device, a pattern in which L / S (line and space), isolated L (line), isolated S (space), CH (contact hole), etc. are combined is formed on the wafer. However, the exposure parameters for performing optimum exposure differ for each pattern shape such as L / S and isolated line. For this reason, conventionally, using a method called ED-TREE (excluding CHs with different reticles), the common is that the resolution line width is within a predetermined allowable error with respect to the target value and a predetermined DOF is obtained. Exposure parameters (coherence factor σ, NA, exposure control accuracy, reticle drawing accuracy, etc.) are determined and used as the specifications of the exposure apparatus. However, it is thought that there will be the following technical flow in the future.
[0020]
(1) Improvement in process technology (planarization on the wafer) will lead to a decrease in pattern step and a decrease in resist thickness, and UDOF may be in the range of 1 μm to 0.4 μm or less.
[0021]
(2) The exposure wavelength is shortened from g-line (436 nm) → i-line (365 nm) → KrF (248 nm). However, only light sources up to ArF (193) have been studied in the future, and the technical hurdles are high. Thereafter, the process shifts to EB exposure.
[0022]
(3) It is expected that scanning exposure such as step-and-scan will become the mainstream of steppers instead of static exposure such as step-and-repeat. This technique enables large field exposure with a projection optical system having a small diameter (especially in the scanning direction), and accordingly, a high N.D. A. It is easy to realize.
[0023]
Against the background of the technical trend as described above, the double exposure method has been reviewed as a method for improving the limit resolution, and this double exposure method is used in KrF and future ArF exposure apparatuses, and 0.1 μmL / S. Attempts have been made to expose to the maximum. In general, the double exposure method is roughly divided into the following three methods.
[0024]
(1) L / S and isolated lines with different exposure parameters are formed on separate reticles, and each is subjected to double exposure on the same wafer under optimum exposure conditions.
[0025]
(2) When the phase shift method or the like is introduced, the limit resolution is higher in the L / S with the same DOF than the isolated line. By utilizing this, all the patterns are formed with L / S by the first reticle, and an isolated line is formed by thinning out L / S with the second reticle.
[0026]
(3) Generally, the isolated line is smaller than the L / S. A. Can obtain a high resolution (however, the DOF becomes small). Therefore, all patterns are formed by isolated lines, and L / S is formed by a combination of isolated lines respectively formed by the first and second reticles.
[0027]
The above double exposure method has two effects of improving resolution and improving DOF.
[0028]
However, in the double exposure method, since it is necessary to perform exposure processing a plurality of times using a plurality of reticles, the exposure time (T4) is more than doubled as compared with the conventional apparatus, and the throughput is greatly deteriorated. In reality, the double exposure method has not been studied very seriously, and the resolution and depth of focus (DOF) can be improved by using ultraviolet exposure wavelength, modified illumination, phase shift reticle, etc. Has been done.
[0029]
However, if the double exposure method described above is used in a KrF or ArF exposure apparatus, exposure up to 0.1 μmL / S is realized, thereby developing a next-generation machine aimed at mass production of 256M and 1G DRAMs. There is no doubt that it is a promising option, and the development of a new technology has been awaited for improving the throughput, which is a problem of the double exposure method that becomes a bottleneck for this.
[0030]
In this regard, if the above-described four operations, ie, wafer exchange, search alignment, fine alignment, and exposure operations, can be processed partially or simultaneously in parallel, these four operations can be performed sequentially. Compared to this, it is thought that throughput can be improved. For this purpose, it is premised that multiple substrate stages are provided, but this seems to be simple in theory, but in reality, multiple substrate stages are provided. There are many problems that need to be solved in order to achieve the desired effects. For example, if two substrate stages having the same size as the current situation are simply arranged side by side, the installation area (so-called footprint) of the apparatus increases remarkably, leading to an increase in the cost of a clean room in which the exposure apparatus is placed. is there. In order to achieve high-precision overlay, alignment is performed on the sensitive substrate on the same substrate stage, and then the alignment of the mask pattern image and the sensitive substrate is performed using the alignment result. Since it is necessary to perform exposure, it is impossible to provide one of the two substrate stages, for example, dedicated to exposure and the other dedicated to alignment.
[0031]
The present invention has been made under such circumstances, and a first object thereof is a projection capable of improving throughput and reducing the size and weight of the substrate stage by performing parallel processing of an exposure operation and an alignment operation. It is to provide an exposure apparatus.
[0032]
A second object of the present invention is to provide a projection exposure method capable of improving throughput and reducing the size and weight of the stage.
[0033]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The invention according to claim 1 is a projection exposure apparatus for projecting and exposing a pattern image formed on a mask (R) onto a sensitive substrate (W1, W2) via a projection optical system (PL). A first substrate stage (WS1) capable of holding a substrate (W1) and moving in a two-dimensional plane; and a first substrate stage (WS1) in the same plane as the first substrate stage (WS1) holding a sensitive substrate (W2). A second substrate stage (WS2) movable independently of the substrate stage (WS1); provided separately from the projection optical system (PL), on the substrate stage (WS1, WS2) or the substrate stage (WS1, WS1) An alignment system (for example, 24a) for detecting marks on the sensitive substrates (W1, W2) held by WS2); a projection center of the projection optical system (PL) and a detection center of the alignment system (24a); Pass through A first measuring axis (BI1X) that always measures the position of the first substrate stage (WS1) in the first axial direction from one side in one axial direction, and the second substrate from the other side in the first axial direction A second length measurement axis (BI2X) that always measures the position of the stage (WS2) in the first axis direction, and a third length measurement that perpendicularly intersects the first axis at the projection center of the projection optical system (PL). An axis (BI3Y) and a fourth measuring axis (BI4Y) perpendicularly intersecting the first axis at the detection center of the alignment system (24a), and the first measuring axis (BI1X to BI4Y) An interferometer system for measuring the two-dimensional positions of the first and second substrate stages (WS1 and WS2), respectively, and the position of one of the first substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2) is The interferometer system The first substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2) are controlled while using the measurement values of the three measurement axes (BI3Y) and the sensitive substrate held on the one stage is exposed. The positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference point on the other stage is based on the detection result of the alignment system (24a) and the fourth measurement axis of the interferometer system ( After controlling the operations of the two substrate stages (WS1, WS2) to be detected using the measured value of BI4Y), the other stage is measured using the measured value of the third measuring axis (BI3Y). Possible to measure the position of And A reference point on the other stage at a position where a positional relationship with a predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system (PL) can be detected The Positioning Reset the interferometer of the third measuring axis (BI3Y) And control means (90) for controlling.
[0034]
According to this, since the positions of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage in the first axis direction are always measured by the first measuring axis and the second measuring axis of the interferometer system, If the position in the direction perpendicular to the first axis direction is accurately measured during exposure, alignment mark measurement, etc., the two-dimensional positions of the first and second substrate stages can be managed. In this case, the control means manages the position of one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage using the measurement value of the third length measuring axis of the interferometer system and holds it on the one stage. While the sensitive substrate is exposed, the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held by the other one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage and the reference point on the other stage is the alignment system. After controlling the operation of the two substrate stages so as to be detected using the measurement result of the interferometer system and the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis of the interferometer system, the other stage using the measurement value of the third measurement axis Possible to measure the position of And A reference point on the other stage at a position where the positional relationship with a predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system can be detected The Positioning Reset the interferometer of the 3rd measurement axis .
[0035]
That is, the control means perpendicularly intersects the measurement axis in the first axis direction (the first measurement axis and the second measurement axis) at the projection center of the projection optical system with respect to the sensitive substrate held on the one stage. While the exposure of the pattern image of the mask through the projection optical system is performed using the measurement value of the third measuring axis to manage the position of one stage without Abbe error, it is held on the other stage. The positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate and the reference point on the other stage is a measurement axis in the first axis direction at the detection result of the alignment system and the detection center of the alignment system (the first measurement axis and the second measurement dimension). The operations of the two substrate stages can be controlled so that they can be accurately detected without Abbe error using the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis perpendicular to the axis). Upper exposure operation and the other stage Since the alignment operation can be performed in parallel, it is possible to improve the throughput.
[0036]
In the control means, when the operation of both the stages is completed, the position of the other stage can be measured using the measurement value of the third length measuring axis. And A reference point on the other stage at a position where the positional relationship with a predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system can be detected The Positioning Reset the interferometer of the 3rd measurement axis . Therefore, for the other stage where the positional relationship between the reference point on the stage and the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate was measured (alignment was completed), the fourth measurement axis used when measuring the alignment mark was measured. Even in the impossible state, the position can be managed using the measurement value of the third measuring axis without any inconvenience, and the reference point on the other stage and within the projection area of the projection optical system The positional relationship with the predetermined reference point is detected, and the projection region of the projection optical system and the sensitive substrate are aligned using the positional relationship, the alignment measurement result, and the measurement value of the third measuring axis. Exposure can be performed. In other words, even if the length measurement axis that managed the position of the other stage during alignment cannot be measured, the position management of the other stage during exposure can be performed using another length measurement axis. The stage reflecting surface for reflecting the interferometer beam of each measuring axis can be reduced in size, and the substrate stage can be reduced in size.
[0037]
According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided the projection exposure apparatus according to the first aspect, wherein the projection optical system (PL) has a detection center on the first axis on the opposite side of the alignment system (24a). An alignment system (24b), and the interferometer system includes a fifth measurement axis (BI5Y) perpendicular to the first axis at the detection center of the other alignment system (24b), and the control means (90) is a state in which the position of the one stage is managed using the measurement value of the third measuring axis (BI3Y) of the interferometer system, and the sensitive substrate held on the one stage is exposed. In addition, the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference point on the other stage is based on the detection result of the alignment system and the fourth measurement axis (BI4) of the interferometer system. ), The position of the one stage can be measured using the measurement value of the fifth length measuring axis (BI5Y). In this state, the interferometer of the fifth measuring axis (BI5Y) is reset, and the reference point on the one substrate stage is positioned in the detection area of the other alignment system (24b). It is characterized by controlling the operation of the stage.
[0038]
According to this, in the control means, with respect to the sensitive substrate held on the one stage, the measurement axis in the first axis direction (the first measurement axis and the second measurement axis) at the projection center of the projection optical system. While exposure of the mask pattern image through the projection optical system is performed while the position of one stage is managed without Abbe error using the measurement value of the third measuring axis that intersects perpendicularly, the other stage is The positional relationship between the alignment mark on the held sensitive substrate and the reference point on the other stage is the result of the detection of the alignment system and the measurement axis in the first axis direction at the detection center of the alignment system (the first measurement axis and the first measurement axis). The operations of the two substrate stages can be controlled so that they can be accurately detected without Abbe error using the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis perpendicular to the two measurement axes). The exposure operation on one substrate stage and the other The fact that the alignment operation on the di are performed in parallel.
[0039]
In addition, when the operation of both the stages is completed, the control unit resets the interferometer of the fifth measurement axis while measuring the position of one stage using the measurement value of the fifth measurement axis. The operation of one stage is controlled so that the reference point on one substrate stage is positioned within the detection region of another alignment system. For this reason, with respect to one stage that has been exposed to the sensitive substrate, there is no inconvenience even if the third length measuring axis used at the time of exposure becomes unmeasurable, and the first center at the detection center of another alignment system. The position can be managed without Abbe error using the measurement value of the fifth measurement axis perpendicularly intersecting the axial measurement axis (the first measurement axis and the second measurement axis), The position of the reference point on one substrate stage and the position of the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on one stage can be measured subsequent to exposure by another alignment system. Accordingly, the interferometer of the third measuring axis is in a state where the two substrate stages are shifted in the first axis direction and the position measurement of the other substrate stage after the alignment operation is completed using the measured value of the third measuring axis. Is reset, and the interferometer of the fifth measuring axis is reset in a state where the position measurement of the one stage where the exposure operation is completed using the measurement value of the fifth measuring axis is possible. It is possible to easily switch between the exposure operation and the exposure operation on the other stage side.
[0040]
In this case, as in the invention described in claim 3, the transfer system (180 to 200) for delivering the sensitive substrates (W1, W2) between the first substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2). ), The control means positions the reference point on the one substrate stage in the detection region of the another alignment system (24b) and the one stage and the transfer system ( 180-200), it is desirable to transfer the substrate. In this case, in addition to the switching between the exposure operation and the alignment operation described above, the control means resets the fifth length measuring axis of the interferometer system and, at the same time, one substrate stage within the detection region of another alignment system. Since the substrate is transferred between one stage and the transfer system while the upper reference point is positioned, the position measurement of the reference point and the replacement of the sensitive substrate, which are the alignment start operations, are performed in a stationary state of the substrate stage. Can be done. Further, in addition to the movement time of the substrate stage from the substrate exchange position to the alignment start position becoming zero, the operations at time T1, time T2, and time T3 described above are performed on one substrate stage side, and at time T4 Since the operation can be performed on the other substrate stage side, the throughput can be further improved as compared with the case of the invention described in claim 2.
[0041]
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the projection exposure apparatus according to the first aspect, on the first substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2), a reference mark as a reference point of the stage ( MK1, MK2, MK3) are formed, and the predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system (PL) is the projection center of the pattern image of the mask (R), and the pattern image of the mask (R) And a mark position detecting means (142, 144) for detecting a relative positional relationship between the projection center of the first stage and the reference mark on the stage via the mask (R) and the projection optical system (PL). To do.
[0042]
According to this, with respect to the sensitive substrate held on one stage, the control means uses the measured value of the third length measuring axis to manage the position of one stage via the projection optical system without any Abbe error. While the exposure of the mask pattern image is performed, the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference mark (MK2) on the other stage is the detection result of the alignment system (24a). The operations of the two substrate stages can be controlled so that the measurement value of the fourth length measuring axis can be accurately detected without Abbe error, and in this way, the exposure operation on one substrate stage and the other can be controlled. The alignment operation on the stage is performed in parallel.
[0043]
In addition, when the operation of both the stages is completed, the control unit resets the interferometer of the third measurement axis while measuring the position of the other stage using the measurement value of the third measurement axis. The operation of the other stage is controlled so that the reference point (MK1, MK3) on the other stage is positioned at a position where the positional relationship with the projection center of the mask pattern image can be detected. For this reason, with respect to the other stage where the positional relationship between the reference point (MK2) on the stage and the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate is measured, the fourth length measuring axis used when measuring the alignment mark is in a state incapable of measurement. Even without any inconvenience, the position can be managed using the measurement value of the third length measurement axis without any inconvenience, and the reference point (MK1, MK3) on the other stage and the pattern image of the mask can be controlled. The relative positional relationship with the projection center can be detected by using mark position detection means (142, 144) that detects via the mask (R) and the projection optical system (PL), and this positional relationship and the alignment measurement result. It is possible to perform exposure while aligning the pattern image of the mask with the projection optical system (PL) and the sensitive substrate using the measured value of the third measuring axis and the third measurement axis.
[0044]
The invention according to claim 5 is a projection exposure method in which an image of a pattern of a mask (R) is projected and exposed onto a sensitive substrate (W1, W2) via a projection optical system (PL), the sensitive substrate (W1). , W2) are prepared, and two substrate stages (WS1, WS2) each capable of moving independently within the same plane are prepared; while measuring the position of one of the two stages with a predetermined interferometer The mask pattern image is projected and exposed on the sensitive substrate held on the one stage, and the exposure is performed on the substrate held on the one stage by an interferometer different from the predetermined interferometer. While measuring the position of the other of the two stages, the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held by the other stage and the reference point on the other stage is measured; Stage After completion of the exposure of the retained sensitive substrate, by the predetermined interferometer position measurement state capable of the other stage ,And The reference point of the other stage is positioned at a position where the positional relationship with a predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system can be detected. In a state where the predetermined interferometer is reset, The measured positional relationship And the detected positional relationship Based on the above, the alignment between the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the pattern image of the mask is performed using the reset predetermined interferometer.
[0045]
According to this, the exposure operation of the sensitive substrate held on one stage, the measurement of the positional relationship between the alignment mark of the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference point on the stage (alignment operation), Are done in parallel. At this time, the position of one stage is managed by a predetermined interferometer, and the position of the other stage is managed by another interferometer. When the exposure operation on one stage is completed, the position of the other stage can be measured with a predetermined interferometer that previously managed the position of one stage. And The reference point of the other stage is positioned at a position where the positional relationship with a predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system can be detected. The given interferometer is reset . Next, the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference point on the other stage. And detected positional relationship Based on the above, alignment of the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the pattern image of the mask is performed using a predetermined reset interferometer, and the mask pattern image is projected and exposed on the sensitive substrate.
[0046]
That is, after the exposure operation of the sensitive substrate held on one substrate stage and the alignment operation of the sensitive substrate held on the other stage are performed in parallel, one substrate stage is retracted to a predetermined substrate replacement position. In parallel with this, the other stage is moved toward the projection optical system, and the other stage can measure the position with a predetermined interferometer. And A predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system (for example, the projection center of the mask pattern image) and Reference point of the other stage Position that can detect the positional relationship of When it comes to When the given interferometer is reset Both The position of the person is detected And Based on this detection result and the positional relationship between the reference point on the stage and the alignment mark previously measured during the alignment operation, the position is managed by a predetermined interferometer after reset and held on the other stage. The alignment of the sensitive substrate and the pattern image of the mask is performed during exposure.
[0047]
Therefore, it is possible to improve the throughput by performing the exposure operation of the sensitive substrate on one substrate stage and the alignment operation of the sensitive substrate on the other substrate stage in parallel, and the other stage at the time of alignment. Even if another interferometer whose position has been managed cannot be measured, the position of the other stage during exposure can be managed by a predetermined interferometer. It is possible to reduce the size of the stage reflecting surface for reflecting the substrate, and thus to reduce the size of the substrate stage.
[0048]
The invention according to claim 6 is a projection exposure apparatus for projecting and exposing a pattern image formed on a mask (R) onto a sensitive substrate (W1, W2) via a projection optical system (PL). A first substrate stage (WS1) capable of holding a substrate (W1) and moving in a two-dimensional plane; and a first substrate stage (WS1) in the same plane as the first substrate stage (WS1) holding a sensitive substrate (W2). A second substrate stage (WS2) movable independently of the substrate stage (WS1); a reference mark on the substrate stage (WS1, WS2) and the substrate stage provided separately from the projection optical system (PL) An alignment system (for example, 24a) for detecting a mark on the sensitive substrate held in the first axis direction; passing through the projection center of the projection optical system (PL) and the detection center of the alignment system (24a). One side A first measuring axis (BI1X) for measuring the position of the first substrate stage (WS1) in the first axial direction, and the second substrate stage (WS2) from the other side in the first axial direction. A second measurement axis (BIX2) for measuring a position in the first axis direction, a third measurement axis (BI3Y) orthogonal to the first axis at the projection center of the projection optical system (PL), and A fourth measuring axis (BI4Y) orthogonal to the first axis at the detection center of the alignment system (24a) is provided, and the first and second substrate stages (WS1 and WS1 and BI4Y) are provided by these measuring axes (BI1X to BI4Y). An interferometer system that respectively measures the two-dimensional position of WS2); the position of one of the first substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2) is measured by the third length measurement of the interferometer system. Using the axis (BI3Y) While the sensitive substrate on the one stage is being exposed while being managed, the position of the other stage is managed using the fourth length measuring axis (BI4Y) of the interferometer system. While obtaining the positional relationship between the held mark on the sensitive substrate and the reference mark on the other stage using the alignment system (24a) ,in front The positional relationship between the projection position of the mask pattern image by the projection optical system (PL) and the reference mark on the other stage is obtained. Sometimes resets the measurement value of the third measuring axis (BI3Y) of the interferometer system And control means (90).
[0049]
According to this, the control means manages the position of one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage using the measurement value of the third length measuring axis of the interferometer system while controlling the position of the one substrate stage. While exposing the sensitive substrate, the positional relationship between the mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference mark on the other stage is obtained using an alignment system, and held on one stage. After exposure of sensitive substrates , Throw Obtain the positional relationship between the projection position of the mask pattern image by the shadow optical system and the reference mark on the other stage. Sometimes resets the measurement value of the third measuring axis of the interferometer system .
[0050]
That is, in the control means, with respect to the sensitive substrate held on the one stage, the first measurement axis orthogonal to the first measurement axis (first measurement axis and second measurement axis) at the projection center of the projection optical system. A sensitive substrate held on the other stage while the pattern image of the mask is being exposed through the projection optical system while managing the position of one stage without Abbe error using the measurement values of the three measurement axes The positional relationship between the upper mark and the reference mark on the other stage is set to the measurement axis in the first axis direction (first measurement axis and second measurement axis) at the detection result of the alignment system and the detection center of the alignment system. It is possible to accurately detect without Abbe error using the measurement values of the fourth measurement axis orthogonal to each other, and in this way, the exposure operation on one substrate stage and the alignment operation on the other stage can be performed in parallel. So increase throughput Rukoto is possible.
[0051]
In addition, the control means, after the exposure of the sensitive substrate held on one stage, that is, after the operation of both stages is completed. , Throw Obtain the positional relationship between the projection position of the mask pattern image by the shadow optical system and the reference mark on the other stage. Sometimes resets the measurement value of the third measuring axis of the interferometer system . Therefore, for the other stage where the positional relationship between the reference mark on the stage and the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate was measured (alignment was completed), the fourth length measuring axis used when measuring the alignment mark was measured. Even in the impossible state, the position can be managed using the measurement value of the third measuring axis without any inconvenience, and the reference mark on the other stage and the mask pattern by the projection optical system The relationship between the projection position of the image is obtained, and exposure is performed while aligning the projection area of the projection optical system and the sensitive substrate using this positional relation, the alignment measurement result, and the measurement value of the third measurement axis. It becomes possible. That is, even if the length measurement axis that managed the position of the other stage at the time of alignment becomes impossible to measure, the position measurement of the other stage at the time of exposure is performed by another length measurement axis. The stage reflecting surface for reflecting the axial interferometer beam can be reduced in size, and thus the substrate stage can be reduced in size.
[0053]
Claim 7 In the projection exposure apparatus according to claim 6, the control means (90) is configured such that the control means (90) includes a mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and a reference mark on the other stage. Based on the measurement result of the third measuring axis when the positional relationship and the positional relationship between the projection position of the mask pattern image by the projection optical system and the reference mark on the other stage are obtained, The sensitive substrate held on the other stage is exposed while controlling the position of the stage.
[0054]
According to this, the positional relationship between the mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference mark on the other stage (which is obtained by the same sensor, that is, the alignment system) and the projection optics The position of the other stage is controlled while controlling the position of the other stage based on the measurement result of the third measuring axis when the positional relationship between the projection position of the mask pattern image by the system and the reference mark on the other stage is obtained. Since the held sensitive substrate is exposed, after obtaining the positional relationship between the mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference mark on the other stage, when the positional relationship is obtained, the other Even if the 4th measuring axis that managed the position of the stage becomes impossible to measure, the sensitive substrate can be positioned at the exposure position with high accuracy without any inconvenience. It becomes ability.
[0055]
In this case, the claim 8 As described in the invention, the control means (90) is configured so that the reference mark on the other stage enters the detection region of the alignment system after exposure of the sensitive substrate held on the other stage. It is desirable to replace the sensitive substrate by positioning the other stage.
[0056]
In this case, since the control means replaces the substrate on the other stage while the reference mark on the other substrate stage is positioned within the detection region of the alignment system, the alignment start operation and the sensitive substrate are performed. Can be performed while the substrate stage is stationary. Further, in addition to the movement time of the substrate stage from the substrate exchange position to the alignment start position becoming zero, the operations at the time T1, time T2, and time T3 described above are performed on the other substrate stage side, and at the time T4 Since the operation can be performed on one substrate stage side, the throughput can be improved.
[0057]
In this case, the claim 9 As described above, when the reference mark on the other stage is detected by the alignment system, the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis of the interferometer system may be reset.
[0058]
Claim 10 The projection exposure apparatus for projecting and exposing the pattern image formed on the mask (R) onto the sensitive substrate (W) via the projection optical system (PL), the sensitive substrate (W1) A first substrate stage (WS1) that can be held and moved in a two-dimensional plane; a sensitive substrate (W2) is held, and the first substrate stage (WS1) is in the same plane as the first substrate stage (WS1). A second substrate stage (WS2) that can move independently from the first substrate stage; and a transfer system (180-200) that delivers a sensitive substrate between the first substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2). An alignment system (for example, 24a) that is provided separately from the projection optical system (PL) and detects a reference mark on the substrate stage and a mark on the sensitive substrate held by the substrate stage; While one of the one substrate stage (WS1) and the second substrate stage (WS2) transfers the sensitive substrate to / from the transfer system (180 to 200), the other stage performs an exposure operation. Control means (90) for controlling the two substrate stages to perform the control means (90) when the one stage transfers the sensitive substrate to / from the transport system. A reference mark on one stage falls within the detection area of the alignment system position The one stage Positioning It is characterized by doing.
[0059]
According to this, the control unit causes the other stage to perform an exposure operation while one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage transfers the sensitive substrate to and from the transfer system. The operation of both stages is controlled. Therefore, the operation at the time T1 described above and the operation at the time T4 can be processed in parallel. Further, when one stage delivers the sensitive substrate to or from the transfer system by the control means, the reference mark on one stage enters the detection area of the alignment system. position One stage is Positioning Therefore, the position measurement of the reference mark and the exchange of the sensitive substrate, which are the alignment start operations, can be performed while the substrate stage is stationary. Further, in addition to the movement time of the substrate stage from the substrate exchange position to the alignment start position becoming zero, the operations at time T1, time T2, and time T3 described above are performed on one substrate stage side, and at time T4 The operation can be performed on the other substrate stage side. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the throughput as compared with the conventional sequential processing which requires time (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4).
The present invention is also a projection exposure apparatus that projects a pattern image onto a sensitive substrate and exposes the sensitive substrate, having a reflection surface (21) for an interferometer, and holding the sensitive substrate (Wl). A first stage (WSl) movable in a two-dimensional direction (X-axis direction, Y-axis direction); a reflection surface (23) for the interferometer, and holding the sensitive substrate (W2), Independently of one stage (WSl), a second stage (WS2) movable in a two-dimensional direction (X-axis direction, Y-axis direction); a reference (MK2) disposed on the stage (WSl or WS2); A first alignment system (24a) for obtaining a first positional relationship with a shot area on the sensitive substrate held by the stage; and a first axial direction (X-axis direction) with respect to the first alignment system (24a) The projection is used to project the pattern image on the sensitive substrate. An optical system (PL); a second alignment system (142) for determining a second positional relationship between a projection position of the pattern image by the projection optical system (PL) and a reference (MKl) disposed on the stage; When an alignment operation for detecting a mark on a sensitive substrate (for example, Wl) on one stage is performed using the first alignment system (24a) to obtain the positional relationship, the first of the one stage (WSl) is performed. The other stage using the first measuring axis (BI1X) for measuring the position in the axial direction (X-axis direction) from one side of the first axial direction (X-axis direction) and the projection optical system (PL) When the exposure operation for exposing the upper sensitive substrate (W2) is performed, the position of the other stage (WS2) in the first axis direction (X-axis direction) is set to the other side of the first axis direction (X-axis direction). 2nd measuring axis (BI2X) for measuring from The second stage (WS2) on which the exposure operation for the sensitive substrate is performed is arranged so as to be able to measure the position in the second axis direction (Y-axis direction) perpendicular to the first axis direction (X-axis direction). After the operation is finished, the third measuring axis (BI3Y) deviating from the reflecting surface (23) of the other stage (WS2) and the one stage where the alignment operation for the sensitive substrate is performed in parallel with the exposure operation ( WSl) is arranged so as to be able to measure the position in the second axis direction (Y-axis direction), and after the alignment operation is finished, a fourth length measuring axis (BI4Y) deviating from the reflecting surface (21) of one stage (WSl) A mark on the sensitive substrate (Wl) is detected during an alignment operation with respect to the sensitive substrate (Wl) on one stage (WSl), and the sensitive substrate (Wl) Top shot The first positional relationship between the first region and the reference (MK2) arranged on one stage (WSl) is obtained, and the alignment operation on one stage (WSl) side and the exposure operation on the other stage (WS2) side are determined. After the completion, the second alignment system (142) is used to obtain the second positional relationship between the projection position of the pattern image by the projection optical system (PL) and the reference (MKl) of one stage (WSl). At that time, the third measuring axis is reset, After the second positional relationship is obtained, the position of one stage (WS1) is determined based on the first positional relationship and the second positional relationship. Using the third measuring axis and the first measuring axis or the second measuring axis of the interferometer system While controlling, the shot area on the sensitive substrate (W1) held on one stage (WSl) is sequentially exposed.
According to this, the throughput can be improved and the stage reflection surface can be reduced, so that the stage can be miniaturized.
[0060]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
<< First Embodiment >>
Hereinafter, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0061]
FIG. 1 shows a schematic configuration of a projection exposure apparatus 10 according to an embodiment. The projection exposure apparatus 10 is a so-called step-and-scan type scanning exposure type projection exposure apparatus.
[0062]
The projection exposure apparatus 10 holds wafers WS1 and WS2 as first and second substrate stages that independently move in a two-dimensional direction while holding wafers W1 and W2 as sensitive substrates on a base board 12, respectively. The stage device provided, the projection optical system PL disposed above the stage device, and the reticle R as a mask above the projection optical system PL mainly in a predetermined scanning direction, here the Y-axis direction (the direction perpendicular to the plane of FIG. 1) ), A lighting system for illuminating the reticle R from above, a control system for controlling these parts, and the like.
[0063]
The stage device is levitated and supported on the base board 12 via an air bearing (not shown), and is independently 2 in the X-axis direction (the left-right direction on the paper surface in FIG. 1) and the Y-axis direction (the orthogonal direction on the paper surface in FIG. 1). Two wafer stages WS1 and WS2 capable of dimension movement, a stage drive system for driving these wafer stages WS1 and WS2, and an interferometer system for measuring the positions of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 are provided.
[0064]
More specifically, air pads (for example, vacuum preload type air bearings) (not shown) are provided at a plurality of locations on the bottom surfaces of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2, and the air ejection force of the air pads and the vacuum preload are reduced. For example, it is levitated and supported on the base board 12 with an interval of several microns maintained by balance.
[0065]
On the base board 12, as shown in the plan view of FIG. 3, two X-axis linear guides extending in the X-axis direction (for example, a fixed side magnet of a so-called moving coil type linear motor) 122 , 124 are provided in parallel, and two X-axis linear guides 122, 124 are respectively attached with two moving members 114, 118 and 116, 120 that are movable along the X-axis linear guides. ing. Drive coils (not shown) are attached to the bottom portions of these four moving members 114, 118, 116, and 120 so as to surround the X-axis linear guide 122 or 124 from above and from the sides, respectively. And the X-axis linear guide 122 or 124 constitute moving coil type linear motors for driving the moving members 114, 116, 118, and 120 in the X-axis direction, respectively. However, in the following description, for the sake of convenience, the moving members 114, 116, 118, and 120 are referred to as X-axis linear motors.
[0066]
Two of these X-axis linear motors 114 and 116 are respectively provided at both ends of a Y-axis linear guide 110 (such as a fixed coil of a moving magnet type linear motor) 110 extending in the Y-axis direction. The remaining two X-axis linear motors 118 and 120 are fixed to both ends of a similar Y-axis linear guide 112 extending in the Y-axis direction. Therefore, the Y-axis linear guide 110 is driven along the X-axis linear guides 122 and 124 by the X-axis linear motors 114 and 116, and the Y-axis linear guide 112 is driven by the X-axis linear motors 118 and 120. 122 and 124 are driven.
[0067]
On the other hand, a magnet (not shown) surrounding one Y-axis linear guide 110 from above and from the side is provided at the bottom of wafer stage WS1, and wafer stage WS1 is moved to Y-axis by this magnet and Y-axis linear guide 110. A moving magnet type linear motor driven in the direction is configured. Further, a magnet (not shown) surrounding the other Y-axis linear guide 112 from above and from the side is provided at the bottom of the wafer stage WS2, and the wafer stage WS2 is moved to the Y-axis by this magnet and the Y-axis linear guide 112. A moving magnet type linear motor driven in the direction is configured.
[0068]
That is, in the present embodiment, the X-axis linear guides 122 and 124, the X-axis linear motors 114, 116, 118, and 120, the Y-axis linear guides 110 and 112, and the magnets (not shown) at the bottom of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 are used. A stage drive system is configured to drive the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 independently in an XY two-dimensional manner. This stage drive system is controlled by the stage controller 38 in FIG.
[0069]
Note that by slightly varying the torque of the pair of X-axis linear motors 114 and 116 provided at both ends of the Y-axis linear guide 110, it is possible to generate or remove slight yawing in the wafer stage WS1. Similarly, by slightly varying the torque of the pair of X-axis linear motors 118 and 120 provided at both ends of the Y-axis linear guide 112, it is possible to generate or remove minute yawing in the wafer stage WS2. .
[0070]
On the wafer stages WS1 and WS2, the wafers W1 and W2 are fixed by vacuum suction or the like via a wafer holder (not shown). The wafer holder is finely driven in a Z-axis direction and a θ-direction (rotation direction about the Z-axis) orthogonal to the XY plane by a Z / θ drive mechanism (not shown). Further, on the upper surfaces of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2, fiducial mark plates FM1 and FM2 on which various fiducial marks are formed are installed so as to have almost the same height as the wafers W1 and W2, respectively. These reference mark plates FM1 and FM2 are used, for example, when detecting the reference position of each wafer stage.
[0071]
Further, a surface 20 on one side in the X-axis direction (left side surface in FIG. 1) and a surface 21 on one side in the Y-axis direction (surface on the back side in FIG. 1) 21 of the wafer stage WS1 are mirror-finished reflecting surfaces. Similarly, a surface 22 on the other side in the X-axis direction (the right side surface in FIG. 1) 22 and a surface 23 on the one side in the Y-axis direction of the wafer stage WS2 are mirror-finished reflecting surfaces. Yes. Interferometer beams of each measuring axis constituting the interferometer system, which will be described later, are projected onto these reflecting surfaces, and the reflected light is received by each interferometer, so that the reference position of each reflecting surface (generally projection optics) Displacement from the system side surface or the side surface of the alignment optical system is used as a reference surface, and the two-dimensional positions of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 are thereby measured. ing. The configuration of the measurement axis of the interferometer system will be described in detail later.
[0072]
Here, as the projection optical system PL, there is used a refractive optical system composed of a plurality of lens elements having a common optical axis in the Z-axis direction and having a predetermined reduction magnification, for example, 1/5, on both sides telecentric. Yes. For this reason, the moving speed of the wafer stage in the scanning direction at the time of step-and-scan scanning exposure is 1/5 of the moving speed of the reticle stage.
[0073]
On both sides in the X-axis direction of the projection optical system PL, as shown in FIG. 1, off-axis type alignment systems 24a and 24b having the same function are provided. They are located at the same distance from the center (coincided with the projection center of the reticle pattern image). These alignment systems 24a and 24b have three types of alignment sensors, an LSA (Laser Step Alignment) system, an FIA (Filed Image Alignment) system, and an LIA (Laser Interferometric Alignment) system. It is possible to measure the position of the mark and the alignment mark on the wafer in the X and Y two-dimensional directions.
[0074]
Here, the LSA system is the most versatile sensor that irradiates a mark with a laser beam and measures the mark position using diffracted / scattered light, and has been conventionally used for a wide variety of process wafers. The FIA system is a sensor that measures the mark position by illuminating the mark with broadband light such as a halogen lamp and processing the image of the mark, and is effectively used for asymmetric marks on the aluminum layer and wafer surface. The In addition, the LIA system is a sensor that irradiates a diffraction grating mark with laser light having a slightly different frequency from two directions, causes the generated two diffracted lights to interfere, and detects the position information of the mark from the phase. Yes, it can be used effectively for low step and rough wafers.
[0075]
In the present embodiment, these three types of alignment sensors are properly used according to the purpose, so-called search alignment in which the approximate position of the wafer is measured by detecting the position of three-dimensional marks on the wafer, or on the wafer. Fine alignment or the like for performing accurate position measurement of each shot area is performed.
[0076]
In this case, the alignment system 24a is used for position measurement of the alignment mark on the wafer W1 held on the wafer stage WS1 and the reference mark formed on the reference mark plate FM1. The alignment system 24b is used for measuring the position of the alignment mark on the wafer W2 held on the wafer stage WS2 and the reference mark formed on the reference mark plate FM2.
[0077]
Information from each alignment sensor constituting the alignment systems 24a and 24b is A / D converted by the alignment control device 80, and a digitized waveform signal is arithmetically processed to detect a mark position. This result is sent to the main controller 90, and the main controller 90 instructs the stage controller to correct the synchronization position at the time of exposure according to the result.
[0078]
Further, in the exposure apparatus 10 of the present embodiment, although not shown in FIG. 1, a reticle mark (not shown) on the reticle R is provided above the reticle R via the projection optical system PL as shown in FIG. ) And the marks on the reference mark plates FM1 and FM2 are provided with a pair of reticle alignment microscopes 142 and 144 as a mark position detecting means comprising a TTR (Through The Reticle) alignment optical system using an exposure wavelength. It has been. Detection signals from these reticle alignment microscopes 142 and 144 are supplied to the main controller 90. In this case, the deflection mirrors 146 and 148 for guiding the detection light from the reticle R to the reticle alignment microscopes 142 and 144 are movably arranged, and when an exposure sequence is started, a command from the main controller 90 is also given. Thus, the deflecting mirrors 146 and 148 are retracted by the mirror driving device (not shown). Note that a configuration equivalent to the reticle alignment microscope 142, 144 is disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-176468, and therefore detailed description thereof is omitted here.
[0079]
Although not shown in FIG. 1, each of the projection optical system PL and the alignment systems 24a and 24b includes an autofocus / autoleveling measurement mechanism (hereinafter referred to as an in-focus position measuring mechanism) for checking the in-focus position as shown in FIG. , "AF / AL system") 130, 132, 134. Of these, the AF / AL system 132 projects the pattern formation surface on the reticle R and the exposure surface of the wafer W in order to accurately transfer the pattern on the reticle R onto the wafer (W1 or W2) by scanning exposure. Since it is necessary to be conjugated with respect to the optical system PL, it is detected whether or not the exposure surface of the wafer W matches the image plane of the projection optical system PL within the depth of focus range (whether it is in focus). This is what is provided. In the present embodiment, a so-called multipoint AF system is used as the AF / AL system 132.
[0080]
Here, the detailed configuration of the multipoint AF system constituting the AF / AL system 132 will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0081]
As shown in FIG. 5, the AF / AL system (multi-point AF system) 132 includes an optical fiber bundle 150, a condenser lens 152, a pattern forming plate 154, a lens 156, a mirror 158, and an irradiation objective lens 160. The optical system 151 includes a condensing objective lens 162, a rotational vibration plate 164, an imaging lens 166, and a condensing optical system 161 including a light receiver 168.
[0082]
Here, each part of the configuration of the AF / AL system (multi-point AF system) 132 will be described together with its operation.
[0083]
Illumination light having a wavelength that does not sensitize the photoresist on the wafer W1 (or W2) different from the exposure light EL is guided from an illumination light source (not shown) through the optical fiber bundle 150 and emitted from the optical fiber bundle 150. The light illuminates the pattern forming plate 154 through the condenser lens 152. The illumination light transmitted through the pattern forming plate 154 passes through the lens 156, the mirror 158, and the irradiation objective lens 160, and is projected onto the exposure surface of the wafer W. On the pattern forming plate 154 with respect to the exposure surface of the wafer W1 (or W2). The pattern image is projected and formed obliquely with respect to the optical axis AX. The illumination light reflected by the wafer W 1 is projected onto the light receiving surface of the light receiver 168 via the condenser objective lens 162, the rotation direction vibration plate 164 and the imaging lens 166, and on the light receiving surface of the light receiver 168 on the pattern forming plate 154. The pattern image is re-imaged. Here, the main controller 90 applies predetermined vibrations to the rotational direction vibration plate 164 via the vibration device 172, and a large number of light receivers 168 (specifically, the same number as the slit patterns of the pattern forming plate 154). Detection signals from the light receiving elements are supplied to the signal processing device 170. Further, the signal processing device 170 supplies a large number of focus signals obtained by synchronously detecting each detection signal with the drive signal of the vibration exciting device 172 to the main control device 90 via the stage control device 38.
[0084]
In this case, as shown in FIG. 6, for example, 5 × 9 = 45 vertical slit-like opening patterns 93-11 to 93-59 are formed on the pattern forming plate 154. The image of the aperture pattern is projected obliquely (45 °) with respect to the X axis and the Y axis on the exposure surface of the wafer W. As a result, a slit image having a matrix arrangement inclined at 45 ° with respect to the X axis and the Y axis as shown in FIG. 4 is formed. 4 indicates an illumination field on the wafer conjugate with an illumination area on the reticle illuminated by the illumination system. As is apparent from FIG. 4, the detection beam is irradiated onto an area that is two-dimensionally sufficiently larger than the illumination field IF under the projection optical system PL.
[0085]
The other AF / AL systems 130 and 134 are configured in the same manner as the AF / AL system 132. In other words, in the present embodiment, the detection beam can be irradiated by the AF / AL mechanisms 130 and 134 used when measuring the alignment mark in substantially the same area as the AF / AL system 132 used for focus detection during exposure. It has become. For this reason, when the alignment sensor 24a and 24b measures the alignment mark, the position of the alignment mark is measured while performing the same AF / AL measurement and auto-focus / auto-leveling as in the exposure. Alignment measurement becomes possible. In other words, an offset (error) due to the posture of the stage does not occur between exposure and alignment.
[0086]
Next, the reticle driving mechanism will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0087]
The reticle driving mechanism includes a reticle stage RST that can move in a two-dimensional direction of XY while holding the reticle R on the reticle base board 32, a linear motor (not shown) that drives the reticle stage RST, and the reticle stage RST. And a reticle interferometer system for managing the position of the projector.
[0088]
More specifically, in the reticle stage RST, as shown in FIG. 2, two reticles R1 and R2 can be placed in series in the scanning direction (Y-axis direction). The RST is levitated and supported on the reticle base board 32 via an air bearing (not shown), and is driven minutely in the X-axis direction and minute in the θ direction by a drive mechanism 30 (see FIG. 1) including a linear motor (not shown). Rotation and scanning driving in the Y-axis direction are performed. The drive mechanism 30 is a mechanism that uses a linear motor similar to that of the stage device described above as a drive source, but is shown as a simple block in FIG. 1 for convenience of illustration and explanation. For this reason, the reticles R1 and R2 on the reticle stage RST are selectively used, for example, in double exposure, and any reticle can be scanned synchronously with the wafer side.
[0089]
On this reticle stage RST, a parallel plate moving mirror 34 made of the same material as the reticle stage RST (for example, ceramic) is extended in the Y-axis direction at one end of the X-axis direction. A reflective surface is formed on one surface of the mirror 34 in the X-axis direction by mirror finishing. An interferometer beam from an interferometer indicated by a measurement axis BI6X constituting the interferometer system 36 of FIG. 1 is irradiated toward the reflecting surface of the movable mirror 34, and the interferometer receives the reflected light and receives the wafer stage. The position of reticle stage RST is measured by measuring the relative displacement with respect to the reference surface in the same manner as on the side. Here, the interferometer having the measurement axis BI6X actually has two interferometer optical axes that can be measured independently, and measures the position of the reticle stage in the X-axis direction and measures the amount of yawing. Is possible. The interferometer having the measurement axis BI6X is based on the reticle and wafer based on yawing information and X position information of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 from the interferometers 16 and 18 having measurement axes BI1X and BI2X on the wafer stage described later. This is used to control the rotation of reticle stage RST in the direction in which the relative rotation (rotation error) is canceled or to perform X-direction synchronization control.
[0090]
On the other hand, a pair of corner cube mirrors 35 and 37 are installed on the other side in the Y-axis direction (the front side in FIG. 1), which is the scanning direction (scanning direction) of reticle stage RST. A pair of double-pass interferometers (not shown) irradiate the corner cube mirrors 35 and 37 with interferometer beams indicated by measurement axes BI7Y and BI8Y in FIG. Are returned from the corner cube mirrors 35 and 37, and the reflected lights reflected there return on the same optical path and are received by the respective double-pass interferometers. The reference positions of the respective corner cube mirrors 35 and 37 (the reticle at the reference position). The relative displacement from the reflection surface on the base board 32 is measured. Then, the measurement values of these double pass interferometers are supplied to the stage control device 38 of FIG. 1, and the position of the reticle stage RST in the Y-axis direction is measured based on the average value. Information on the position in the Y-axis direction is obtained by calculating the relative position between the reticle stage RST and the wafer stage WS1 or WS2 based on the measurement value of the interferometer having the measurement axis BI3Y on the wafer side, and scanning during scanning exposure based on this. This is used for synchronous control of the reticle in the direction (Y-axis direction) and the wafer.
[0091]
On the other hand, a pair of corner cube mirrors 35 and 37 are installed on the other side in the Y-axis direction (the front side in FIG. 1), which is the scanning direction (scanning direction) of reticle stage RST. A pair of double-pass interferometers (not shown) irradiate the corner cube mirrors 35 and 37 with interferometer beams indicated by measurement axes BI7Y and BI8Y in FIG. Returned from the corner cube mirrors 35 and 37, the reflected light reflected there returns along the same optical path and is received by the respective double path interferometers, and the reference position of the respective corner cube mirrors 35 and 37 (the reticle base at the reference position). The relative displacement from the reflection surface on the board 32 is measured. Then, the measurement values of these double pass interferometers are supplied to the stage control device 38 of FIG. 1, and the position of the reticle stage RST in the Y-axis direction is measured based on the average value. Information on the position in the Y-axis direction is obtained by calculating the relative position between the reticle stage RST and the wafer stage WS1 or WS2 based on the measurement value of the interferometer having the measurement axis BI3Y on the wafer side, and scanning during scanning exposure based on this. This is used for synchronous control of the reticle in the direction (Y-axis direction) and the wafer.
[0092]
That is, in this embodiment, a reticle interferometer system is configured by the interferometer 36 and a pair of double-path interferometers indicated by the measurement axes BI7Y and BI8Y.
[0093]
Next, an interferometer system for managing the positions of wafer stages WST1 and WST2 will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0094]
As shown in these figures, the X axis direction one side of the wafer stage WS1 is along a first axis (X axis) passing through the projection center of the projection optical system PL and the detection centers of the alignment systems 24a and 24b. The surface is irradiated with an interferometer beam indicated by a first measurement axis BI1X from the interferometer 16 of FIG. 1, and similarly, on the other surface in the X-axis direction of the wafer stage WS2 along the first axis. Is irradiated with an interferometer beam indicated by a second measuring axis BI2X from the interferometer 18 of FIG. The interferometers 16 and 18 receive these reflected lights, thereby measuring the relative displacement of each reflecting surface from the reference position and measuring the positions of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 in the X-axis direction. . Here, as shown in FIG. 2, the interferometers 16 and 18 are three-axis interferometers each having three optical axes. In addition to the measurement in the X-axis direction of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2, tilt measurement and θ measurement is possible. The output value of each optical axis can be measured independently. Here, the θ stage (not shown) that performs θ rotation of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 and the Z / leveling stage (not shown) that performs minute driving and tilt driving in the Z-axis direction are actually below the reflecting surface. All the driving amounts during tilt control of the wafer stage can be monitored by these interferometers 16 and 18.
[0095]
The interferometer beams of the first measurement axis BI1X and the second measurement axis BI2X always come into contact with the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 over the entire range of movement of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2, and accordingly, the X axis Regarding the direction, the position of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 is the first length measurement axis BI1X and the second length measurement axis BI2X during exposure using the projection optical system PL and when the alignment systems 24a and 24b are used. It is managed based on the measured value.
[0096]
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, an interferometer having a third measurement axis BI3Y perpendicularly intersecting the first axis (X axis) at the projection center of the projection optical system PL, and alignment systems 24a and 24b. Interferometers each having measurement axes BI4Y and BI5Y as fourth measurement axes perpendicularly intersecting with the first axis (X axis) at the respective detection centers are provided. Only the long axis is shown).
[0097]
In the case of the present embodiment, in the Y-direction position measurement of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 during exposure using the projection optical system PL, the interferometer of the measurement axis BI3Y passing through the projection center of the projection optical system, that is, the optical axis AX. In the measurement of the Y direction position of the wafer stage WS1 when the alignment system 24a is used, the measurement value of the measurement axis BI4Y passing through the detection center of the alignment system 24a, that is, the optical axis SX, is used. The measurement value of the measurement axis BI5Y passing through the detection center of the alignment system 24b, that is, the optical axis SX, is used for measuring the position of the wafer stage WS2 in the Y direction when the alignment system 24b is used.
[0098]
Accordingly, although the interference measurement major axis in the Y-axis direction deviates from the reflection surface of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 depending on each use condition, at least one measurement axis, that is, the measurement axes BI1X and BI2X are the respective wafer stages. Since it does not deviate from the reflecting surfaces of WS1 and WS2, the Y-side interferometer can be reset at an appropriate position where the interferometer optical axis to be used enters the reflecting surface. A method for resetting the interferometer will be described in detail later.
[0099]
The Y measuring length measuring axes BI3Y, BI4Y, and BI5Y are two-axis interferometers each having two optical axes. In addition to the measurement in the Y-axis direction of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2, Tilt measurement is possible. The output value of each optical axis can be measured independently.
[0100]
In the present embodiment, there is an interferometer system that manages the two-dimensional coordinate positions of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 by using a total of five interferometers including three interferometers having interferometers 16 and 18 and measurement axes BI3Y, BI4Y, and BI5Y. It is configured.
[0101]
In this embodiment, as will be described later, while one of the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 executes the exposure sequence, the other executes the wafer exchange and wafer alignment sequence. The movement of wafer stages WS1 and WS2 is managed by stage control device 38 in accordance with a command from main control device 90 based on the output value of each interferometer so that there is no interference.
[0102]
Next, the illumination system will be described with reference to FIG. As shown in FIG. 1, the illumination system includes an exposure light source 40, a shutter 42, a mirror 44, beam expanders 46 and 48, a first fly-eye lens 50, a lens 52, a vibrating mirror 54, a lens 56, and a second fly. The lens includes an eye lens 58, a lens 60, a fixed blind 62, a movable blind 64, relay lenses 66 and 68, and the like.
[0103]
Here, each part of the illumination system will be described together with its operation.
[0104]
Laser light emitted from a light source unit 40 including a KrF excimer laser that is a light source and a dimming system (a dimming plate, an aperture stop, etc.) is transmitted through a shutter 42 and then deflected by a mirror 44 to be a beam expander 46, The beam is shaped into an appropriate beam diameter by 48 and is incident on the first fly-eye lens 50. The light beam incident on the first fly-eye lens 50 is divided into a plurality of light beams by two-dimensionally arranged fly-eye lens elements, and each light beam is again different by the lens 52, the vibrating mirror 54, and the lens 56. The light enters the second fly-eye lens 58 from an angle. The light beam emitted from the second fly-eye lens 58 reaches the fixed blind 62 installed at a position conjugate with the reticle R by the lens 60. After the cross-sectional shape is defined in a predetermined shape, the reticle R A predetermined shape defined by the fixed blind 62 on the reticle R as uniform illumination light that passes through the movable blind 64 disposed at a position slightly defocused from the conjugate plane of Here, the illumination area IA having a rectangular slit shape (see FIG. 2) is illuminated.
[0105]
Next, the control system will be described with reference to FIG. This control system is composed of an exposure amount control device 70, a stage control device 38, and the like subordinate to the main control device 90, with a main control device 90 as a control means for overall control of the entire apparatus. .
[0106]
Here, the operation at the time of exposure of the projection exposure apparatus 10 according to the present embodiment will be described focusing on the operations of the above-described components of the control system.
[0107]
The exposure amount controller 70 instructs the shutter driver 72 to drive the shutter driver 74 to open the shutter 42 before the synchronous scanning of the reticle R and the wafer (W1 or W2) is started. .
[0108]
Thereafter, the stage controller 38 starts synchronous scanning (scan control) of the reticle R and the wafer (W1 or W2), that is, the reticle stage RST and the wafer stage (WS1 or WS2) in accordance with an instruction from the main controller 90. The This synchronous scanning is performed by monitoring the measured values of the measurement axis BI3Y and the measurement axis BI1X or BI2X of the interferometer system and the measurement axes BI7Y, BI8Y and the measurement axis BI6X of the reticle interferometer system, while controlling the stage 38 is used to control each of the linear motors constituting the driving system of the reticle driving unit 30 and the wafer stage.
[0109]
When both stages are controlled at a constant speed within a predetermined tolerance, the exposure control device 70 instructs the laser control device 76 to start pulse emission. As a result, the rectangular illumination area IA of the reticle R whose pattern is chromium-deposited on the lower surface thereof is illuminated by illumination light from the illumination system, and an image of the pattern in the illumination area is 1/5 by the projection optical system PL. Projection exposure is performed on a wafer (W1 or W2) whose surface is reduced in size and coated with a photoresist on its surface. As is clear from FIG. 2, the slit width in the scanning direction of the illumination area IA is narrower than the pattern area on the reticle, and the reticle R and the wafer (W1 or W2) are synchronously scanned as described above. Thus, an image of the entire surface of the pattern is sequentially formed on the shot area on the wafer.
[0110]
Here, simultaneously with the start of the pulse emission described above, the exposure amount control device 70 instructs the mirror drive device 78 to drive the vibrating mirror 54 so that the pattern region on the reticle R is completely the illumination region IA (see FIG. 2). ), That is, until the image of the entire surface of the pattern is formed in the shot area on the wafer, this control is continuously performed to reduce the unevenness of interference fringes generated by the two fly-eye lenses 50 and 58. Do.
[0111]
Further, in order to prevent illumination light from leaking outside the light-shielding area on the reticle at the shot edge portion during the scanning exposure described above, the movable blind 64 is moved by the blind controller 39 in synchronization with the scanning of the reticle R and the wafer W. The drive control is performed, and a series of these synchronous operations are managed by the stage controller 38.
[0112]
By the way, the pulse light emission by the laser control device 76 described above needs to emit light n times (n is a positive integer) while an arbitrary point on the wafers W1 and W2 passes through the illumination field width (w). If the oscillation frequency is f and the wafer scan speed is V, the following equation (2) must be satisfied.
[0113]
f / n = V / w (2)
Further, when the irradiation energy of one pulse irradiated on the wafer is P and the resist sensitivity is E, the following equation (3) needs to be satisfied.
[0114]
nP = E (3)
In this way, the exposure amount control device 70 calculates all the variable amounts of the irradiation energy P and the oscillation frequency f, issues a command to the laser control device 76, and sets the dimming system provided in the exposure light source 40. By controlling the irradiation energy P and the oscillation frequency f, the shutter driving device 72 and the mirror driving device 78 are controlled.
[0115]
Further, in the main controller 90, for example, when correcting the movement start position (synchronous position) of the reticle stage and wafer stage that perform synchronous scanning at the time of scan exposure, the correction amount with respect to the stage controller 38 that controls the movement of each stage. Instructs correction of the stage position according to
[0116]
Furthermore, the projection exposure apparatus of the present embodiment is provided with a first transfer system for exchanging wafers with wafer stage WS1 and a second transfer system for exchanging wafers with wafer stage WS2. ing.
[0117]
As shown in FIG. 7, the first transfer system performs wafer exchange with the wafer stage WS1 at the left wafer loading position as described later. The first transport system is attached to a first loading guide 182 extending in the Y-axis direction, a first slider 186 and a second slider 190 moving along the loading guide 182, and the first slider 186. A first wafer loader including a first unload arm 184, a first load arm 188 attached to a second slider 190, and the like, and three vertical moving members provided on the wafer stage WS1 And a first center-up 180 composed of
[0118]
Here, the wafer exchange operation by the first transfer system will be briefly described.
[0119]
Here, as shown in FIG. 7, a case will be described in which the wafer W1 ′ on the wafer stage WS1 at the left wafer loading position and the wafer W1 transferred by the first wafer loader are exchanged.
[0120]
First, in main controller 90, the vacuum of a wafer holder (not shown) on wafer stage WS1 is turned off via a switch (not shown) to release the adsorption of wafer W1 ′.
[0121]
Next, main controller 90 drives center-up 180 upward by a predetermined amount via a center-up drive system (not shown). Thereby, the wafer W1 ′ is lifted to a predetermined position. In this state, main controller 90 supports the movement of first unload arm 184 by a wafer loader controller (not shown). Thereby, the first slider 186 is driven and controlled by the wafer loader control device, and the first unload arm 184 moves along the loading guide 182 over the wafer stage WS1 and is positioned directly below the wafer W1 ′.
[0122]
In this state, main controller 90 drives center up 180 downward to a predetermined position. During the downward movement of the center up 180, the wafer W1 ′ is transferred to the first unload arm 184, so the main controller 90 instructs the wafer loader controller to start vacuuming the first unload arm 184. As a result, the wafer W1 ′ is sucked and held by the first unload arm 184.
[0123]
Next, main controller 90 instructs the wafer loader controller to retract the first unload arm 184 and start moving the first load arm 188. As a result, the first unload arm 184 starts to move in the −Y direction in FIG. 7 integrally with the first slider 186, and at the same time, the second slider 190 and the first load arm 188 holding the wafer W1. The movement starts in the + Y direction integrally. When the first load arm 188 comes above the wafer stage WS1, the wafer loader control device stops the second slider 190 and releases the vacuum of the first load arm 188.
[0124]
In this state, the main controller 90 drives the center-up 180 upward, and the center-up 180 lifts the wafer W1 from below. Next, main controller 90 instructs wafer loader controller to retract the load arm. As a result, the second slider 190 starts moving in the −Y direction integrally with the first load arm 188, and the first load arm 188 is retracted. Simultaneously with the start of retraction of the first load arm 188, the main controller 90 starts to drive the center up 180 downward to place the wafer W1 on a wafer holder (not shown) on the wafer stage WS1, and vacuum the wafer holder. turn on. This completes a series of wafer exchange sequences.
[0125]
Similarly, as shown in FIG. 8, the second transfer system performs wafer exchange with the wafer stage WS2 at the right wafer loading position in the same manner as described above. The second transport system includes a second loading guide 192 extending in the Y-axis direction, a third slider 196 moving along the second loading guide 192, a fourth slider 200, and a third slider 196. A second wafer loader configured to include a second unload arm 194 attached, a second load arm 198 attached to the fourth slider 200, and the like, and a not-shown unit provided on the wafer stage WS2 It consists of the second center up.
[0126]
Next, parallel processing by two wafer stages, which is a feature of this embodiment, will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0127]
In FIG. 7, while the wafer W2 on the wafer stage WS2 is being exposed through the projection optical system PL, the wafer stage WS1 and the first transfer system are in the left loading position as described above. A plan view showing a state in which the wafers are exchanged between them is shown. In this case, an alignment operation is performed on wafer stage WS1 as described later following the wafer exchange. In FIG. 7, the position control of wafer stage WS2 during the exposure operation is performed based on the measurement values of measurement axes BI2X and BI3Y of the interferometer system, and the position of wafer stage WS1 where the wafer replacement and alignment operations are performed. The control is performed based on the measurement values of the measurement axes BI1X and BI4Y of the interferometer system.
[0128]
In the left loading position shown in FIG. 7, the reference mark on the reference mark plate FM1 of the wafer stage WS1 is arranged immediately below the alignment system 24a (see FIG. 9A). For this reason, the main controller 90 resets the interferometer of the measurement axis BI4Y of the interferometer system before the alignment system 24a detects the reference mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM1.
[0129]
FIG. 9B shows an example of the shape of the reference mark MK2 and how the image is captured by the FIA sensor of the alignment system 24a. In FIG. 9B, the symbol Sx indicates the image capture range of the CCD, and the cross mark indicated by the symbol M is an index in the FIA sensor. Here, only the image capturing range in the X-axis direction is shown, but it is a matter of course that similar image capturing is performed in the Y-axis direction.
[0130]
FIG. 9C shows a waveform signal obtained by the image processing system in the alignment control device 80 when the image of the mark MK2 in FIG. 9B is captured by the FIA system sensor. The alignment control device 80 analyzes the waveform signal to detect the position of the mark MK2 with reference to the center of the index, and the main control device 90 measures the position of the mark MK2 and the measurement axes BI1X and BI4Y with an interferometer. Based on the result, the coordinate position of the mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM1 in the coordinate system using the measurement axes BI1X and BI4Y (hereinafter referred to as “first stage coordinate system” as appropriate) is calculated.
[0131]
Subsequent to the wafer exchange and the interferometer reset described above, search alignment is performed. The search alignment performed after the wafer exchange is a pre-alignment performed again on the wafer stage WS1 because the position error is large only by the pre-alignment performed during the transfer of the wafer W1. Specifically, the positions of three search alignment marks (not shown) formed on the wafer W1 placed on the stage WS1 are measured using an LSA sensor or the like of the alignment system 24a, and the measurement is performed. Based on the result, alignment of the wafer W1 in the X, Y, and θ directions is performed. The operation of each part during this search alignment is controlled by main controller 90.
[0132]
After the end of this search alignment, fine alignment is performed in which the arrangement of each shot area on the wafer W1 is obtained here using EGA. Specifically, the wafer stage WS1 is sequentially controlled based on design shot arrangement data (alignment mark position data) while managing the position of the wafer stage WS1 by the interferometer system (measurement axes BI1X, BI4Y). While moving, the alignment mark position of a predetermined sample shot on the wafer W1 is measured by an FIA sensor or the like of the alignment system 24a, and based on this measurement result and the design coordinate data of the shot arrangement, statistical calculation by the least square method is performed. , All shot array data are calculated. Thereby, the coordinate position of each shot is calculated on the first stage coordinate system. The operation of each part in the EGA is controlled by the main controller 90, and the above calculation is performed by the main controller 90.
[0133]
Then, main controller 90 calculates the relative positional relationship of each shot with respect to mark MK2 by subtracting the above-described coordinate position of reference mark MK2 from the coordinate position of each shot.
[0134]
In the case of this embodiment, as described above, the position of the alignment mark is measured while performing the same AF / AL system 132 (see FIG. 4) measurement and control autofocus / auto leveling as in the exposure. Measurement is performed, and an offset (error) due to the posture of the stage can be prevented from occurring between alignment and exposure.
[0135]
While the wafer exchange and alignment operations described above are being performed on the wafer stage WS1 side, the wafer stage WS2 side continuously uses two reticles R1 and R2 as shown in FIG. 12 while changing the exposure conditions. Then, double exposure is performed by the step-and-scan method.
[0136]
Specifically, the relative positional relationship of each shot with respect to the mark MK2 is calculated in advance in the same manner as on the wafer W1 side described above, and this result and the mark on the reference arc plate FM1 by the reticle alignment microscopes 144 and 142 are calculated. Based on the result of the relative position detection of the projected images on the wafer surface of the on-reticle marks RMK1 and RMK3 corresponding to MK1 and MK3 (which will be described in detail later), a shot area on the wafer W2 is projected onto the projection optical system PL. Each time the exposure of each shot area is performed, the reticle stage RST and the wafer stage WS2 are synchronously scanned in the scanning direction, and scanning exposure is performed.
[0137]
Such exposure for all shot areas on the wafer W2 is continuously performed even after reticle replacement. As a specific double exposure sequence, as shown in FIG. 13A, each shot area of the wafer W1 is sequentially scanned and exposed from A1 to A12 using a reticle R2 (A pattern). Then, the reticle stage RST is moved by a predetermined amount in the scanning direction by using the drive system 30 to set the reticle R1 (B pattern) to the exposure position, and then scan exposure is performed in the order of B1 to B12 shown in FIG. Do. At this time, since the exposure conditions (AF / AL, exposure amount) and the transmittance are different between the reticle R2 and the reticle R1, it is necessary to measure the respective conditions during reticle alignment and change the conditions according to the results.
[0138]
The operation of each part during double exposure of the wafer W2 is also controlled by the main controller 90.
[0139]
In the exposure sequence and wafer exchange / alignment sequence that are performed in parallel on the two wafer stages WS1 and WS2 shown in FIG. 7 described above, the wafer stage that has been completed first is in a waiting state, and both operations are completed. At the time, the wafer stages WS1 and WS2 are controlled to move to the positions shown in FIG. The wafer W2 on the wafer stage WS2 for which the exposure sequence has been completed is exchanged at the right loading position, and the wafer W1 on the wafer stage WS1 for which the alignment sequence has been completed is subjected to the exposure sequence under the projection optical system PL. It is.
[0140]
In the right loading position shown in FIG. 8, the reference mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM2 is positioned under the alignment system 24b as in the left loading position, and the above-described wafer exchange operation and alignment sequence are performed. Will be executed. Of course, the reset operation of the interferometer having the measurement axis BI5Y of the interferometer system is executed prior to the detection of the mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM2 by the alignment system 24b.
[0141]
Next, the reset operation of the interferometer by the main controller 90 when shifting from the state of FIG. 7 to the state of FIG. 8 will be described.
[0142]
After alignment at the left loading position, the wafer stage WS1 is positioned at the position where the reference mark on the reference mark plate FM1 comes directly under the optical axis AX center (projection center) of the projection optical system PL shown in FIG. (See (A)), but the interferometer beam of the measuring axis BI4Y is not incident on the reflecting surface 21 of the wafer stage WS1 during the movement, so that the wafer stage is moved to the position shown in FIG. 8 immediately after the alignment. It is difficult to move WS1. For this reason, in this embodiment, the following devices are devised.
[0143]
That is, as described above, in this embodiment, when the wafer stage WS1 is at the left loading position, the reference mark plate FM1 is set to be directly below the alignment system 24a, and the length measuring axis is set at this position. Since the BI4Y interferometer has been reset, the wafer stage WS1 is temporarily returned to this position, and the distance between the detection center of the alignment system 24a known in advance from that position and the optical axis center (projection center) of the projection optical system PL. Based on (for convenience, BL), the wafer stage WS1 is moved to the right in the X-axis direction by the distance BL while monitoring the measurement value of the interferometer 16 of the measurement axis BI1X where the interferometer beam does not break. As a result, wafer stage WS1 is moved to the position shown in FIG.
[0144]
Then, in main controller 90, as shown in FIG. 10 (A), marks MK1 and MK3 on reference mark plate FM1 and reticle marks RMK1 and RMK3 corresponding thereto using exposure light by reticle alignment microscopes 144 and 142, respectively. The relative position of the projected image on the wafer surface is detected.
[0145]
FIG. 10B shows a projected image of the mark RMK (RMK1, RMK2) on the reticle R on the wafer surface, and FIG. 10C shows the mark MK (MK1, MK3) on the reference mark plate. Yes. FIG. 10D shows the projection image on the wafer surface of the mark RMK (RMK1, RMK2) on the reticle R and the mark MK on the reference mark plate on the reticle alignment microscope 144, 142 in the state shown in FIG. An image capturing state in which (MK1, MK3) is simultaneously detected is shown. In FIG. 10D, the symbol SRx indicates the image capture range of the CCD constituting the reticle alignment microscope. FIG. 10E shows a waveform signal obtained by processing the image captured in the above by an image processing system (not shown).
[0146]
The main controller 90 resets the interferometer of the measurement axis BI3Y prior to capturing the waveform signal waveform. The reset operation can be executed when the next measurement axis to be used can irradiate the side surface of the wafer stage.
[0147]
As a result, the coordinate positions of the marks MK1 and MK3 on the reference mark plate FM1 in the coordinate system (second stage coordinate system) using the measurement axes BI1X and BI3Y, and the projected image coordinates on the wafer R of the mark RMK on the reticle R The position is detected, and the relative positional relationship between the exposure position (projection center of the projection optical system PL) and the mark MK1, MK3 coordinate positions on the reference mark plate FM1 is obtained from the difference between the two.
[0148]
Then, main controller 90 finally determines the exposure position based on the relative positional relationship of each shot with respect to reference plate FM1 upper mark MK2 and the relative relationship between the exposure position and reference plate FM1 upper mark MK1, MK3 coordinate positions. And the relative positional relationship of each shot. Depending on the result, as shown in FIG. 11, each shot on the wafer W1 is exposed.
[0149]
As described above, the reason why high-precision alignment is possible even if the reset operation of the interferometer is performed is that after the reference mark on the reference mark plate FM1 is measured by the alignment system 24a, the alignment mark of each shot area on the wafer W1 is measured. This is because the distance between the reference mark and the virtual position calculated by measuring the wafer mark is calculated by the same sensor. Since the relative positional relationship (relative distance) between the reference mark and the position to be exposed is obtained at this time, the exposure position and the reference mark position can be matched by the reticle alignment microscopes 142 and 144 before the exposure. By adding the relative distance to that value, even if the interferometer beam of the interferometer in the Y-axis direction is cut during the movement of the wafer stage and reset again, a highly accurate exposure operation can be performed. is there.
[0150]
In addition, since the reference marks MK1 to MK3 are always on the same reference plate, if the drawing error is obtained in advance, there is no variation factor only by offset management. RMK1 and RMK2 may also have an offset due to reticle drawing error. For example, as disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 5-67271, the writing error may be reduced by using a plurality of marks during reticle alignment. If the reticle mark drawing error is measured in advance, it can be handled only by offset management.
[0151]
If the length measurement axis BI4Y cannot be cut while the wafer stage WS1 is moved from the alignment end position to the position shown in FIG. 8, the measured values of the length measurement axes BI1X and BI4Y are monitored and after the alignment is completed. Of course, the wafer stage WS1 may be moved linearly to the position shown in FIG. In this case, after the measurement axis BI3Y passing through the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL is applied to the reflecting surface 21 orthogonal to the Y axis of the wafer stage WS1, the mark MK1 on the reference mark plate FM1 by the reticle alignment microscopes 144 and 142 is used. , MK3 and the corresponding on-reticle marks RMK1, RMK3 may be reset at any time before the relative position detection of the projected image on the wafer surface.
[0152]
In the same manner as described above, the wafer stage WS2 is moved from the exposure end position to the right loading position shown in FIG. 8, and the reset operation of the interferometer of the measurement axis BI5Y is performed.
[0153]
FIG. 14 shows an example of the timing of an exposure sequence for sequentially exposing each shot area on the wafer W1 held on the wafer stage WS1, and FIG. 15 is performed in parallel with this. The timing of the alignment sequence on the wafer W2 held on the wafer stage WS2 is shown. In this embodiment, the exposure sequence and the wafer exchange / alignment sequence are performed in parallel on the wafers W1 and W2 on each wafer stage while independently moving the two wafer stages WS1 and WS2 in the two-dimensional direction. As a result, throughput is improved.
[0154]
However, when two operations are simultaneously performed using two wafer stages, the operation performed on one wafer stage may affect the operation performed on the other wafer stage as a disturbance factor. Conversely, there is an operation in which the operation performed on one wafer stage does not affect the operation performed on the other wafer stage. Therefore, in this embodiment, among the operations that are processed in parallel, each operation is performed so that operations that become disturbance factors or operations that do not become disturbance factors are performed at the same time by dividing into operations that do not become disturbance factors. The timing is adjusted.
[0155]
For example, during the scanning exposure, the wafer W1 and the reticle R are synchronously scanned at a constant speed, so that it does not become a disturbance factor, and it is necessary to eliminate other disturbance factors as much as possible. For this reason, during the scan exposure on one wafer stage WS1, the timing is adjusted so as to be stationary in the alignment sequence performed on the wafer W2 on the other wafer stage WS2. That is, the mark measurement in the alignment sequence is performed in a state where the wafer stage WS2 is stationary at the mark position, so that it is not a disturbance factor for the scan exposure, and the mark measurement can be performed in parallel during the scan exposure. 14 and 15, the scan exposure indicated by the operation numbers “1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23” with respect to the wafer W1 in FIG. 16, the mark measurement operations at the respective alignment mark positions indicated by the operation numbers “1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23” in FIG. It can be seen that this is done in synchronization. On the other hand, even in the alignment sequence, during scanning exposure, since the motion is constant, high-accuracy measurement can be performed without disturbance.
[0156]
The same thing can be considered at the time of wafer exchange. In particular, vibration generated when the wafer is transferred from the load arm to the center up can be a cause of disturbance. Therefore, before scan exposure or during acceleration / deceleration before and after synchronous scanning is performed at a constant speed (disturbance factor) The wafer may be delivered according to the above.
[0157]
The timing adjustment described above is performed by the main controller 90.
[0158]
As described above, according to the projection exposure apparatus 10 of the present embodiment, the two wafer stages WS1 and WS2 for holding two wafers independently are provided, and these two wafer stages are independently moved in the XYZ directions. Since the wafer exchange and alignment operations are performed on one wafer stage, the exposure operation is performed on the other wafer stage, and the operations are switched when both operations are completed. The throughput can be greatly improved.
[0159]
Also, when switching the above operation, the measurement sequence of the reference mark plate arranged on the wafer stage is also performed at the same time as resetting the measurement axis interferometer used in the operation after switching, There is no particular inconvenience even if the measuring axis of the interferometer system deviates from the reflecting surface of the wafer stage (if a moving mirror is provided separately, the moving mirror). ) Can be shortened, and the wafer stage can be easily downsized. Specifically, the length of one side of the wafer stage can be reduced to a size slightly larger than the wafer diameter. This makes it possible to easily incorporate two wafer stages that can be moved independently into the apparatus, and improve the positioning performance of each wafer stage. Possible to become.
[0160]
Further, for the wafer stage on which the exposure operation is performed, mark measurement on the reference mark plate is performed by the reticle alignment microscopes 142 and 144 (exposure light alignment sensor) via the projection optical system PL at the same time as the measurement interferometer is reset. For the wafer stage on which the wafer exchange / alignment operation is performed, the mark on the reference mark plate is measured by the alignment system 24a or 24b (off-axis alignment sensor) at the same time as the measurement interferometer reset. In addition, it is possible to switch the interference measurement major axis for managing the position of the wafer stage even during alignment by each alignment system and exposure by the projection optical system. In this case, (1) when the mark on the reference mark plate is measured by the alignment system 24a or 24b, the coordinate position of the mark is measured on the first stage coordinate system, and (2) after that, on the wafer. The alignment mark of each sample shot is detected, and the array coordinates (exposure coordinate position) of each shot are obtained on the first stage coordinate system by EGA calculation. (3) The reference from the results of (1) and (2) above The relative positional relationship between the mark on the mark plate and the exposure coordinate position of each shot is obtained. (4) Before exposure, the mark on the reference mark plate and the reticle projection coordinate are projected by the reticle alignment microscope 142, 144 via the projection optical system PL. The relative positional relationship with the position is detected on the second stage coordinate system, and the exposure of each shot is performed using (5) and (3) and (4). It can be switched interference measurement long axis to manage the position of the stage performing exposure with high precision. As a result, the wafer can be aligned without performing baseline measurement for measuring the distance between the projection center of the projection optical system and the detection center of the alignment system as described in the prior art, and is described in JP-A-7-176468. It is not necessary to mount a large reference mark plate.
[0161]
In addition, according to the above embodiment, since at least two alignment systems that perform mark detection across the projection optical system PL are provided, the alignment systems are alternately used by shifting the two wafer stages alternately. The alignment operation and the exposure operation to be performed can be performed in parallel.
[0162]
In addition, according to the embodiment, since the wafer loader for exchanging the wafer is arranged in the vicinity of the alignment system, particularly at each alignment position, the transition from the wafer exchange to the alignment sequence is smoothly performed. Higher throughput can be obtained.
[0163]
Further, according to the above-described embodiment, the high throughput as described above can be obtained. Therefore, even if the off-axis alignment system is installed far away from the projection optical system PL, the influence of the throughput degradation is almost eliminated. For this reason, the straight cylinder type high N.P. A. It is possible to design and install an optical system having a (numerical aperture) and small aberration.
[0164]
In addition, according to the above-described embodiment, each optical system has an interferometer beam from an interferometer that measures approximately the center of each optical axis of the two alignment systems and the projection optical system PL. In either case of pattern exposure via the optical system, the two wafer stage positions can be accurately measured without Abbe error, and the two wafer stages can be moved independently and accurately. Is possible.
[0165]
Furthermore, the measurement axes BI1X and BI2X provided from both sides along the direction in which the two wafer stages WS1 and WS2 are arranged (here, the X-axis direction) toward the projection center of the projection optical system PL are always the wafer stages WS1 and WS1. Since irradiation is performed on WS2 and the position of each wafer stage in the X-axis direction is measured, movement control can be performed so that the two wafer stages do not interfere with each other.
[0166]
In addition, according to the above embodiment, since double exposure is performed using a plurality of reticles R, an effect of improving high resolution and DOF (depth of focus) can be obtained. This double exposure method has the disadvantage that the exposure process has to be repeated at least twice, resulting in a long exposure time and a significant decrease in throughput, but by using the projection exposure apparatus of this embodiment, Since the throughput can be significantly improved, it is possible to obtain the high resolution and the DOF improvement effect without reducing the throughput.
[0167]
For example, in T1 (wafer exchange time), T2 (search alignment time), T3 (fine alignment time), and T4 (one exposure time), each processing time for an 8-inch wafer is T1: 9 seconds, T2: 9 seconds , T3: 12 seconds, T4: 28 seconds, when double exposure is performed by a conventional exposure apparatus in which a series of processing is performed sequentially using one wafer stage, throughput THOR = 3600 / (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 *) 2) = 3600 / (30 + 28 * 2) = 41 [sheets / hour], and the throughput of the conventional apparatus that performs the single exposure method using one wafer stage (THOR = 3600 / (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4) = 3600/58 = 62 Compared to [sheet / hour]), the throughput is reduced to 66%. On the other hand, when performing double exposure using the projection exposure apparatus of this embodiment while performing T1, T2, and T3 and T4 in parallel, the exposure time is longer, so the throughput THOR = 3600 / (28 + 28 ) = 64 [sheets / hour], and it is possible to significantly improve the throughput while maintaining the improvement effect of high resolution and DOF. Further, since the exposure time is long, the number of EGA points can be increased, and the alignment accuracy is improved.
[0168]
<< Second Embodiment >>
Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. Here, the same reference numerals are used for the same or equivalent components as those in the first embodiment described above, and the description thereof is simplified or omitted.
[0169]
In the projection exposure apparatus according to the second embodiment, as shown in FIG. 16, the length of one side of the wafer stage WS1 (the length of one side of WS2 is the same as this) is the mutual relationship between the measurement axes BI4Y and BI3Y. Since the distance BL is longer than the distance BL (the distance between the measurement axes BI5Y and BI3Y is the same), the wafer stage WS1 (or WS2) moves from the end position of the alignment sequence to the start position of the exposure sequence. Further, the measurement beam BI4Y (or BI5Y) is characterized in that it is not cut off from the reflecting surface of the stage. For this reason, as will be described later, the reference mark on the reference mark plate can be measured after the interferometer is reset, unlike the case of the first embodiment described above. This is the same as the projection exposure apparatus 10 of the first embodiment.
[0170]
FIG. 16 shows a state where the interferometer of the measuring axis BI3Y is reset after the alignment of the wafer W1 on the wafer stage WS1 is completed.
[0171]
As is apparent from FIG. 16, the interferometers of the measuring axes BI1X and BI4Y that manage the position of the wafer stage WS1 operate after the fine alignment of the wafer W1 (performed by the aforementioned EGA) by the alignment system 24a. Since the interferometer beam does not deviate from the reflection surface formed on one end surface in the Y-axis direction of wafer stage WS1, main controller 90 monitors wafer stage WS1 while monitoring the measurement values of measurement axes BI1X and BI4Y. Is moved from the end position of the arrangement to the position of FIG. 16 where the reference mark plate FM1 is positioned below the projection lens PL. At this time, immediately before positioning the reference mark plate FM1 directly below the projection lens PL, the interferometer beam of the measuring axis BI3Y is reflected by the reflecting surface of the wafer stage WS1.
[0172]
In this case, since the position control of wafer stage WS1 is performed based on the measurement values of the interferometers of measuring axes BI1X and BI4Y, main controller 90 differs from the case of the first embodiment described above. The position of the wafer stage WS1 can be accurately managed, and at this time (immediately before the reference mark plate FM1 is positioned directly below the projection lens PL), the interferometer of the measurement axis BI3Y is reset. After the reset is completed, the position control of wafer stage WS1 is performed based on the measurement values of the interferometers of measurement axes BI1X and BI3Y (the coordinate system is switched from the first stage coordinate system to the second stage coordinate system). Is done).
[0173]
Thereafter, main controller 90 positions wafer stage WS1 at the position shown in FIG. 16, and uses reference light microscopes 142 and 144 to perform the reference mark plate using exposure light as in the first embodiment described above. Detection of the relative positions of the projected images on the wafer surface of the marks MK1 and MK3 on the FM1 and the corresponding marks RMK1 and RMK3 on the reticle, that is, the relative positional relationship between the marks RMK1 and RMK3 and the exposure position (projection center of the projection optical system PL) After the detection, the relative position relationship of each shot with respect to the mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM1 and the relative position relationship between the exposure position and the coordinate positions MK1, MK3 on the reference mark plate FM1 are finally obtained. The relative positional relationship between the exposure position and each shot is calculated, and exposure (double exposure described above) is performed according to the result (the aforementioned double exposure) 11 reference).
[0174]
During this exposure, the measurement axis BI4Y deviates from the reflecting surface in accordance with the exposure position and cannot be measured. However, there is no inconvenience because the measurement axis is already switched for position control of the wafer stage WS1.
[0175]
While the exposure sequence operation is performed on one wafer stage WS1 in this way, the position of the other wafer stage WS2 is controlled based on the measured values of the interferometers of the length measuring axes BI2X and BI5Y. , A W exchange sequence and a wafer alignment sequence are executed. In this case, since the double exposure is performed on the wafer stage WS1 side as described above, the operations of the wafer exchange sequence and the wafer alignment sequence on the wafer stage WS2 end first, and the wafer stage WS2 is in a standby state thereafter. It has become.
[0176]
When the exposure of wafer W1 is completed, main controller 90 monitors the measurement values of interferometers of measurement axes BI1X and BI3Y, and the interferometer beam of measurement axis BI4Y is reflected on the reflecting surface of wafer stage WS1. Wafer stage WS1 is moved to the position where it is reflected, and the interferometer of measuring axis BI4Y is reset. After completion of the reset operation, main controller 90 again switches the measurement axis for controlling wafer stage WS1 to measurement axes BI1X and BI4Y and moves wafer stage WS1 to the loading position.
[0177]
During this movement, this time, the interferometer beam of the measuring axis BI3Y deviates from the reflecting surface and cannot be measured, but there is no inconvenience because the measuring axis is already switched for controlling the position of the wafer stage WS1. .
[0178]
Main controller 90 starts moving wafer stage WS2 in order to position reference mark plate FM2 of wafer stage WS2 below projection optical system PL in parallel with the movement of wafer stage WS1 toward the loading position. To do. During the movement, the interferometer of the measuring axis BI3Y is reset in the same manner as described above, and thereafter, the marks MK1, MK3 on the reference mark plate FM2 are used using the reticle microscope 142, 144 in the same manner as described above. And relative position detection of the projected images on the wafer surface of the marks RMK1 and RMK3 on the reticle corresponding thereto, that is, the relative positional relationship between the marks RMK1 and RMK3 and the exposure position (projection center of the projection optical system PL) is detected. The relative position relationship between each shot with respect to the mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM2 and the relative position relationship between the exposure position and the mark MK1 and MK3 coordinate positions on the reference mark plate FM2 are obtained in advance. The positional relationship is calculated, and exposure (double exposure described above) is started according to the result.
[0179]
FIG. 17 shows a state in which the wafer stage WS1 is thus moved to the loading position and the exposure sequence operation is performed on the wafer stage WS2 side.
[0180]
At this loading position, as in the first embodiment, the mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM1 is positioned under the alignment system 24a. In the main controller 90, the wafer replacement is completed. At the same time, the coordinate position of the mark MK2 is detected on the first stage coordinate system (BI1X, BI4Y) in the same manner as in the first embodiment. Next, EGA measurement is performed on the mark on the wafer W1, and the coordinate position of each shot in the same coordinate system is calculated. That is, the relative position relationship of each shot with respect to the mark MK2 is calculated by subtracting the coordinate position of the mark MK2 on the reference plate FM1 from the coordinate position of each shot. At this time, the EGA operation is finished, and after the exposure of the wafer W2 on the wafer stage WS2 is finished, the state again shifts to the state shown in FIG.
[0181]
According to the projection exposure apparatus of the second embodiment described above, the same effects as those of the first embodiment can be obtained, and the stage can be moved when switching to the exposure sequence operation after the alignment sequence operation is completed. The length measurement axis used before and after switching is reflected on the reflecting surface of the wafer stage at the same time during the switching, and the stage when switching to the wafer exchange / alignment sequence operation after the exposure sequence operation is completed. Since the length measurement axis used before and after switching is reflected by the reflecting surface of the wafer stage at the same time in the course of movement, exposure light via the projection optical system PL after resetting the length measurement interferometer Mark measurement on the reference mark plate is performed by the alignment sensor (reticle alignment microscope 142, 144). In addition, the length measurement interferometer is reset prior to the wafer exchange, and the mark on the reference plate can be measured by the off-axis alignment sensors (alignment systems 24a and 24b) after the wafer exchange is completed. Become. Therefore, the length measuring axis used in the operation after switching during the switching between the alignment operation by each alignment system and the exposure operation by the projection optical system PL and during the switching between the exposure operation and the wafer exchange operation by the projection optical system PL. It is possible to switch the stage-controlled interferometer to an interferometer having Accordingly, it is possible to further improve the throughput as compared with the case of the first embodiment in which the length measurement axis is switched simultaneously with the measurement of the mark on the reference mark plate.
[0182]
In the first and second embodiments, the case where the present invention is applied to an apparatus for exposing a wafer using the double exposure method has been described. However, as described above, this is an apparatus according to the present invention. When performing wafer exchange and wafer alignment in parallel on the other wafer stage side that can be moved independently while performing two exposures with two reticles (double exposure) on one wafer stage side. This is because there is a particularly great effect that a higher throughput than the conventional single exposure can be obtained and the resolving power can be greatly improved. However, the scope of application of the present invention is not limited to this, and the present invention can also be suitably applied when exposure is performed by a single exposure method. For example, assuming that the processing times (T1 to T4) of an 8-inch wafer are the same as described above, when performing exposure processing by a single exposure method using two wafer stages as in the present invention, T1, T2, and T3 are set as follows. When one group (30 seconds in total) and parallel processing with T4 (28 seconds) are performed, the throughput becomes THOR = 3600/30 = 120 [sheets / hour], and the single exposure method is performed using one wafer stage. As compared with the throughput THOR = 62 [sheets / hour] of the conventional apparatus, it is possible to obtain a high throughput almost twice as high.
[0183]
In the above embodiment, the case where the scanning exposure is performed by the step-and-scan method has been described. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the case where the stationary exposure is performed by the step-and-repeat method and the electronic Of course, the present invention can also be applied to a line exposure apparatus (EB exposure apparatus), an X-ray exposure apparatus, and stitching exposure in which chips are combined.
[0184]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the inventions described in claims 1 to 4 and 6 to 11, there is an unprecedented excellent effect that throughput can be improved and the substrate stage can be reduced in size and weight.
[0185]
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a projection exposure method capable of improving the throughput and reducing the size and weight of the stage.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a schematic configuration of a projection exposure apparatus according to a first embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a positional relationship among two wafer stages, a reticle stage, a projection optical system, and an alignment system.
FIG. 3 is a plan view showing a configuration of a drive mechanism of the wafer stage.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing AF / AL systems provided in the projection optical system and the alignment system, respectively.
FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a schematic configuration of a projection exposure apparatus showing a configuration of an AF / AL system and a TTR alignment system.
6 is a diagram showing the shape of the pattern forming plate of FIG. 5. FIG.
FIG. 7 is a plan view showing a state in which a wafer exchange / alignment sequence and an exposure sequence are performed using two wafer stages.
8 is a view showing a state where the wafer exchange / alignment sequence and the exposure sequence in FIG. 7 are switched.
FIG. 9 is a diagram for explaining the operation of detecting a reference mark on the reference mark plate by the alignment system. FIG. 9A shows that the reference mark MK2 on the reference mark plate FM1 is positioned directly below the alignment system 24a. FIG. 5B is a diagram showing an example of the shape of the reference mark MK2 and an image capturing state in which the reference mark MK2 is detected by the FIA sensor of the alignment system 24a. FIG. It is a figure which shows the waveform signal obtained by the image processing system when it took in.
10A and 10B are diagrams for explaining the measurement operation of the mark on the reference mark plate by the reticle alignment microscope, and FIG. 10A shows the marks MK1 and MK3 on the reference mark plate FM1 and the marks MK1 and MK3 using the exposure light by the reticle alignment microscope. The figure which shows a mode that the relative position detection of the projection image on the wafer surface of the corresponding marks RMK1 and RMK3 on the reticle is performed, (B) is the figure which shows the projection image on the wafer surface of the mark RMK on the reticle R, (C) (D) is a figure which shows the mode of the image capture in (A), (E) is a figure which shows the waveform signal obtained by processing the taken-in image.
FIG. 11 is a conceptual diagram showing a state in which exposure of each shot on the wafer is performed in accordance with the finally calculated exposure position and the relative positional relationship of each shot.
FIG. 12 is a view showing a reticle stage for double exposure that holds two reticles.
13A and 13B are diagrams for explaining an exposure sequence in double exposure, and FIG. 13A is a diagram showing an exposure sequence when wafers are exposed using the reticle of the pattern A in FIG. (B) is a figure which shows the exposure order at the time of exposing a wafer using the reticle of the pattern B of FIG.
FIG. 14 is a diagram showing an exposure order for each shot area on a wafer held on one of two wafer stages.
FIG. 15 is a diagram showing a mark detection order for each shot area on a wafer held on the other of two wafer stages.
FIG. 16 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the second embodiment and shows a state in which an interferometer having a measurement axis BI3Y is reset after the alignment of the wafer W1 on the wafer stage WS1 is completed. FIG.
FIG. 17 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the second embodiment, and shows a state when the wafer stage WS1 is moved to the loading position and an exposure sequence operation is performed on the wafer stage WS2 side. FIG.
[Explanation of symbols]
10 Projection exposure equipment
24a, 24b alignment system
90 Main controller
142, 144 reticle alignment microscope
180 Center up
182 First loading guide
184 First unload arm
186 first slider
188 First load arm
190 Second slider
192 Second loading guide
194 Second unload arm
196 Third slider
198 Second load arm
200 Fourth slider
W1, W2 wafer
WS1, WS2 Wafer stage
PL projection optical system
BI1X to BI5Y Measuring axis
R reticle
MK1, MK2, MK3 fiducial mark

Claims (17)

  1. A projection exposure apparatus that projects and exposes an image of a pattern formed on a mask onto a sensitive substrate via a projection optical system,
    A first substrate stage capable of holding a sensitive substrate and moving in a two-dimensional plane;
    A second substrate stage that holds a sensitive substrate and is movable independently of the first substrate stage in the same plane as the first substrate stage;
    An alignment system provided separately from the projection optical system, for detecting a mark on the substrate stage or on a sensitive substrate held on the substrate stage;
    A first measuring axis that always measures the position of the first substrate stage in the first axis direction from one side in the first axis direction passing through the projection center of the projection optical system and the detection center of the alignment system; A second length measuring axis that always measures the position of the second substrate stage in the first axis direction from the other side in the first axis direction, and a second crossing perpendicular to the first axis at the projection center of the projection optical system. A third measuring axis and a fourth measuring axis perpendicularly intersecting the first axis at the detection center of the alignment system, and the two-dimensional positions of the first and second substrate stages are determined by these measuring axes. An interferometer system to measure each;
    The position of one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage is managed using the measurement value of the third length measuring axis of the interferometer system, and a sensitive substrate held on the one stage is During the exposure, the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage and the reference point on the other stage is determined by the alignment system. After controlling the operations of the two substrate stages so as to be detected using the detection result and the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis of the interferometer system, the measurement value of the third measurement axis is used to control the operation. in position measurement state capable of other stage, or one said in a predetermined state positioning the reference point on the other stage the positional relationship to a detectable position of the reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system Above 3 and a control means for resetting the interferometer measurement axis;
    A projection exposure apparatus.
  2. Another alignment system having a detection center on the first axis on the opposite side of the alignment system with respect to the projection optical system;
    The interferometer system includes a fifth measurement axis that perpendicularly intersects the first axis at the detection center of the another alignment system;
    The control means manages the position of the one stage using the measurement value of the third length measuring axis of the interferometer system, and while the sensitive substrate held on the one stage is exposed, The positional relationship between the alignment mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and the reference point on the other stage uses the detection result of the alignment system and the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis of the interferometer system. After controlling the operations of the two substrate stages so that they can be detected, the interference of the fifth measurement axis in a state where the position of the one stage can be measured using the measurement value of the fifth measurement axis. 2. The operation of the one stage is controlled so that a meter is reset and a reference point on the one substrate stage is positioned in a detection region of the other alignment system. Mounting of the projection exposure apparatus.
  3. A transfer system for transferring a sensitive substrate between the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage;
    The control means transfers the substrate between the one stage and the transfer system in a state where a reference point on the one substrate stage is positioned in a detection region of the another alignment system. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 2.
  4. A reference mark as a reference point of the stage is formed on the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage,
    The predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system is the projection center of the pattern image of the mask,
    2. The mark position detecting means for detecting a relative positional relationship between a projection center of a pattern image of the mask and a reference mark on the stage via the mask and the projection optical system. Projection exposure equipment.
  5. A projection exposure method for projecting and exposing a mask pattern image onto a sensitive substrate through a projection optical system,
    Prepare two substrate stages that can hold the sensitive substrate and move independently in the same plane,
    While measuring the position of one of the two stages with a predetermined interferometer, projecting and exposing the pattern image of the mask onto the sensitive substrate held on the one stage,
    During exposure of the substrate held on the one stage, the position of the other stage of the two stages is measured by an interferometer different from the predetermined interferometer, and held on the other stage. Measure the positional relationship between the alignment mark on the substrate and the reference point on the other stage,
    After completion of exposure of the substrate held on the one stage, the position of the other stage can be measured by the predetermined interferometer , and the position with a predetermined reference point in the projection area of the projection optical system With the reference point of the other stage positioned at a position where the relationship can be detected , the predetermined interferometer is reset,
    Based on the measured positional relationship and the detected positional relationship , the sensitive substrate held on the other stage is aligned with the pattern image of the mask using the reset predetermined interferometer. A projection exposure method characterized by the above.
  6. A projection exposure apparatus that projects and exposes an image of a pattern formed on a mask onto a sensitive substrate via a projection optical system,
    A first substrate stage capable of holding a sensitive substrate and moving in a two-dimensional plane;
    A second substrate stage that holds a sensitive substrate and is movable independently of the first substrate stage in the same plane as the first substrate stage;
    An alignment system provided separately from the projection optical system, for detecting a reference mark on the substrate stage and a mark on the sensitive substrate held on the substrate stage;
    A first measuring axis for measuring the position of the first substrate stage in the first axis direction from one side in the first axis direction passing through the projection center of the projection optical system and the detection center of the alignment system; A second length measurement axis for measuring the position of the second substrate stage in the first axis direction from the other side in the first axis direction; and a second length measurement axis orthogonal to the first axis at the projection center of the projection optical system. 3 length measuring axes and a 4th length measuring axis orthogonal to the first axis at the detection center of the alignment system, and measuring the two-dimensional positions of the first and second substrate stages with these length measuring axes, respectively. An interferometer system to perform;
    While the position of one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage is managed using the third measuring axis of the interferometer system, the sensitive substrate on the one stage is being exposed. Further, the position of the mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage while managing the position of the other stage using the fourth measuring axis of the interferometer system and the position of the reference mark on the other stage with the relation obtained by using the alignment system, after the exposure of the sensitive substrate held on the one stage, and the projection position of the pattern image of the mask by pre-Symbol projection optical system and the reference mark on the other stage Control means for resetting the measurement value of the third measuring axis of the interferometer system when determining the positional relationship;
    A projection exposure apparatus comprising:
  7.   The control means includes a positional relationship between a mark on the sensitive substrate held on the other stage and a reference mark on the other stage, a projection position of the pattern image of the mask by the projection optical system, and the other Exposing the sensitive substrate held on the other stage while controlling the position of the other stage based on the measurement result of the third measuring axis when the positional relationship with the reference mark on the stage is obtained. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 6.
  8. After the exposure of the sensitive substrate held on the other stage, the control means positions the other stage so that the reference mark on the other stage falls within the detection region of the alignment system, and 8. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 7, wherein exchange is performed.
  9. 9. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 8 , wherein when the reference mark on the other stage is detected by the alignment system, the measurement value of the fourth measurement axis of the interferometer system is reset.
  10. A projection exposure apparatus that projects and exposes an image of a pattern formed on a mask onto a sensitive substrate via a projection optical system,
    A first substrate stage capable of holding a sensitive substrate and moving in a two-dimensional plane;
    A second substrate stage that holds a sensitive substrate and is movable independently of the first substrate stage in the same plane as the first substrate stage;
    A transfer system for delivering a sensitive substrate between the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage;
    An alignment system provided separately from the projection optical system, for detecting a reference mark on the substrate stage and a mark on the substrate held on the substrate stage;
    Control that controls the two substrate stages so that the other stage performs an exposure operation while one of the first substrate stage and the second substrate stage delivers the sensitive system to the transport system. Means,
    The control means is configured such that when the one stage delivers a sensitive substrate to and from the transfer system, the one stage is positioned at a position where a reference mark on the one stage falls within a detection region of the alignment system. projection exposure apparatus according to claim Rukoto move the.
  11. A projection exposure apparatus that projects an image of a pattern onto a sensitive substrate and exposes the sensitive substrate,
    A first stage having a reflective surface for an interferometer and capable of moving in a two-dimensional direction while holding a sensitive substrate;
    A second stage having a reflective surface for an interferometer, holding a sensitive substrate, and movable in a two-dimensional direction independently of the first stage;
    A first alignment system for determining a first positional relationship between a reference placed on the stage and a shot area on a sensitive substrate held on the stage;
    A projection optical system disposed apart from the first alignment system in the first axis direction and projecting the pattern image onto a sensitive substrate;
    A second alignment system for obtaining a second positional relationship between a projection position of the pattern image by the projection optical system and a reference disposed on the stage;
    When the alignment operation for detecting the mark of the sensitive substrate on one stage is performed using the first alignment system in order to obtain the first positional relationship, the position of the one stage in the first axis direction is determined. A first length measuring axis for measuring from one side in the first axis direction, and an exposure operation for exposing a sensitive substrate on the other stage using the projection optical system; A second measuring axis for measuring the position in the first axial direction from the other side of the first axial direction, and the first axial direction of the other stage in which an exposure operation is performed on the sensitive substrate A third measuring axis which is arranged so as to be able to measure a position in a second axis direction perpendicular to the first axis and which is disengaged from the reflecting surface of the other stage after the exposure operation, and in parallel with the exposure operation, Alignment operation for An interferometer system having a fourth length measuring axis that is arranged so as to be able to measure the position of the one stage being performed in the second axis direction and deviates from the reflection surface of the one stage after completion of the alignment operation. And comprising;
    During an alignment operation on the sensitive substrate on the one stage, a mark on the sensitive substrate is detected, and a first positional relationship between a shot area on the sensitive substrate and a reference disposed on the one stage Is required,
    After completion of the alignment operation on the one stage side and the exposure operation on the other stage side, the projection position of the pattern image by the projection optical system and the position of the one stage using the second alignment system A second positional relationship with the reference is determined , at which time the third measuring axis is reset,
    After the second positional relationship is obtained, the position of the one stage is determined based on the first positional relationship and the second positional relationship, and the third measuring axis and the first measuring axis of the interferometer system. A projection exposure apparatus in which shot areas on a sensitive substrate held on the one stage are sequentially exposed while being controlled using a long axis or a second measuring axis .
  12. When determining the second positional relationship between the projection position of the pattern image by the projection optical system and the reference of the one stage using the second alignment system, the position of the one stage is the position of the interferometer system. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 11 , wherein the projection exposure apparatus is measured using a two-measurement axis.
  13. A base member;
    The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 11 , wherein the first stage and the second stage are independently movable in a two-dimensional direction on the base member.
  14. The projection exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 11 to 13 , wherein the first stage and the second stage are alternately moved to the image plane side of the projection optical system, and a plurality of sensitive substrates are sequentially exposed. .
  15. The reference placed on the one stage has a first reference mark and a second reference mark,
    Detecting the mark on the sensitive substrate and the first reference mark on the one stage using the first alignment system while measuring the position of the one stage using the first measuring axis. To determine the first positional relationship,
    While projecting the position of the one stage using the second measuring axis, the second alignment system is used to project the positional relationship between the second reference mark and the mask mark on which the pattern is formed. The second positional relationship is obtained by detecting through an optical system,
    Based on the first positional relationship and the second positional relationship, the positional relationship between the projection position of the pattern image by the projection optical system and the shot area on the sensitive substrate held on the one stage is determined, The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 11 , wherein a shot area on the sensitive substrate held on the one stage is exposed based on the determined positional relationship.
  16. It further includes a substrate transfer system for transferring the sensitive substrate,
    Prior to the alignment operation, the sensitive substrate is transferred between the one stage and the substrate transport system in parallel with the exposure operation on the other stage,
    The first reference mark is detected by the first alignment system in a state where the first length measuring axis can measure the position of the one stage after the transfer of the transfer system and the sensitive substrate. Item 15. A projection exposure apparatus according to Item 15 .
  17. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 16 , wherein the substrate transport system is disposed away from the projection optical system in the first axis direction.
JP34374097A 1996-11-28 1997-11-28 Projection exposure apparatus and projection exposure method Expired - Lifetime JP4029183B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP8-332843 1996-11-28
JP33284396 1996-11-28
JP34374097A JP4029183B2 (en) 1996-11-28 1997-11-28 Projection exposure apparatus and projection exposure method

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