JP4020179B2 - Satellite-mounted imaging device - Google Patents

Satellite-mounted imaging device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4020179B2
JP4020179B2 JP30663699A JP30663699A JP4020179B2 JP 4020179 B2 JP4020179 B2 JP 4020179B2 JP 30663699 A JP30663699 A JP 30663699A JP 30663699 A JP30663699 A JP 30663699A JP 4020179 B2 JP4020179 B2 JP 4020179B2
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Prior art keywords
imaging
cloud
unit
calculation unit
satellite
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JP30663699A
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JP2001122199A (en
Inventor
泰介 遠藤
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三菱電機株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A90/00Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate change
    • Y02A90/10Information and communication technologies [ICT] supporting adaptation to climate change.
    • Y02A90/12Specially adapted for meteorology, e.g. weather forecasting, climate modelling
    • Y02A90/17Weather surveillance systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves
    • Y02A90/18Radar-based

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a satellite-mounted imaging device that is mounted on a satellite and images the ground.
[0002]
[Prior art]
FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining a conventional satellite-mounted imaging device.
In FIG. 4, 40 is a cloud photographing satellite, 41 is a field of view of the cloud photographing satellite 40, 42 is a ground receiving station of the cloud photographing satellite 40, 43 is a ground imaging satellite, and 44 is a ground imaging satellite 43. The field of view, 45 is the ground station of the ground imaging satellite 43, 46 is a cloud, and 47 is the locus of the center of the ground imaging field of view 44 of the ground imaging satellite 43.
[0003]
Next, the operation of the conventional satellite-mounted imaging device will be described.
The cloud imaging satellite 40 captures a cloud 46 in the field of view 41 and sends the image to the ground receiving station 42. The ground receiving station 42 uses the received image to capture the image in the field of view 41. The distribution of the cloud 46 is obtained. In the ground station 45 of the ground imaging satellite 43, a locus 47 at the center of the imaging field 44 of the ground imaging satellite 43 is obtained based on the distribution information of the clouds 46 sent from the ground receiving station 42 so that effective ground imaging can be performed. Then, the imaging field 44 of the ground imaging satellite 43 is controlled from the ground station 45.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In the conventional satellite-mounted imaging device, the cloud imaging satellite 40 and the ground imaging satellite 43 are separate, and the operation of the ground imaging satellite 43 based on cloud information is limited to the imaging field of view 41 of the cloud imaging satellite 40, For example, when the cloud photographing satellite 40 is a geostationary satellite and the ground imaging satellite 43 is not a geostationary satellite, the area where cloud information can be utilized is limited to the imaging area 41 of the geostationary satellite.
[0005]
Further, if the imaging field of view 41 of the cloud imaging satellite 40 and the imaging field of view 44 of the ground imaging satellite 43 are not in an appropriate size relationship, an imaging opportunity is missed or invalid imaging is performed. For example, when the cloud photographing satellite 40 is a geostationary satellite, the photographing field 41 of the cloud photographing satellite 40 is often wider than the imaging field 44 of the ground imaging satellite 43 and is the same as the imaging field 44 of the ground imaging satellite 43. When there is a clear sky between clouds of a certain size or clouds in a clear sky, the field of view 41 is too wide from the cloud photographing satellite 40, and a clear space between clouds or a cloud in a clear sky is detected. Therefore, the opportunity of imaging is missed or invalid imaging is performed.
[0006]
When the cloud photography satellite 40 is not a geostationary satellite, the imaging field of view 41 of the cloud photography satellite 40 and the imaging field of view 44 of the terrestrial imaging satellite 43 can be set to an appropriate size, but the photographing times are different. As a result, the cloud condition changes from cloud detection to imaging, and more effective imaging cannot be performed.
[0007]
The present invention was made to solve the above-described problems associated with the conventional example, and by observing the cloud condition near the ground in front of the satellite traveling direction and selecting the imaging route, the influence of the clouds can be avoided and the ground can be avoided. An object of the present invention is to obtain a satellite-mounted imaging device capable of imaging.
[0008]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
A satellite-mounted imaging device according to the present invention includes a cloud detection optical system that receives reflected light of sunlight from a cloud, a detector unit that converts light received by the cloud detection optical system into an electrical signal, and a detector unit that includes: An amplification unit that amplifies the output signal, a cloud conversion coefficient storage device that stores in advance the relationship between the output of the amplification unit and the cloud amount as a coefficient, a cloud conversion coefficient stored in the cloud conversion coefficient storage device, and the amplification unit A cloud amount calculation unit for calculating a cloud amount based on the output of the above, a pointing direction detector for detecting the pointing direction of the cloud detection optical system, a satellite position detector for detecting a three-dimensional position of the satellite, and the pointing direction detector A cloud detection area calculation unit that calculates a cloud detection area that is a field of view of the cloud detection optical system based on the output of the satellite and the output of the satellite position detector, and a receiver that receives a position load coefficient transmitted from the ground equipment And received by the above receiver And the load factor storage device for storing the position load factor, the load factor reading section for reading the load coefficient from the load coefficient storage device based on the output of the clouds detection area operation unit, the load output from the load coefficient reading unit An imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit that calculates an imaging evaluation coefficient that serves as an indicator of the effectiveness of observation at a location in the cloud detection region based on the integration of the coefficient and the cloud amount output from the cloud amount calculation unit; and a plurality of imaging paths An imaging path storage device that stores the candidates, and an evaluation value for each imaging candidate path from the imaging path candidates stored in the imaging path storage device and the imaging evaluation coefficient, and compared with each other in the cloud detection region The relative imaging path calculation unit for determining the imaging path in the image and the relative imaging path for the cloud detection area determined by the relative imaging path calculation unit using the output of the cloud detection area calculation unit in the coordinates of the real space Is characterized in that mounting the configured imaging route selecting unit in the imaging path calculation section for converting the image path.
[0009]
Also, an imaging optical system that images the ground, an imaging optical system directivity driving unit that controls the directivity direction of the imaging optical system based on the output of the imaging path selection unit, and the light received by the imaging optical system is converted into an electrical signal. An image detector unit, an image amplifying unit that amplifies the output of the image detector unit, and an image recording unit that records an image signal output from the image amplifying unit. The cloud detection area of the selection unit is arranged so as to be positioned in front of the satellite traveling relative to the field of view of the imaging unit.
Further, a cloud amount calculation unit that calculates a cloud amount distribution from reflection data of sunlight reflected by the cloud, a cloud detection region calculation unit that calculates a cloud detection region, and a cloud detection region calculated by the cloud detection region calculation unit The position load coefficient corresponding to the position in the cloud is received, and based on the integration of the position load coefficient and the cloud amount distribution state calculated by the cloud amount calculation unit, an evaluation numerical value is obtained for each photographing path in the cloud detection region. A shooting path for determining a shooting path on the ground based on the shooting evaluation coefficient calculation unit to be calculated, the evaluation value calculated by the shooting evaluation coefficient calculation unit, and the position of the cloud area calculated by the cloud detection area calculation unit And an arithmetic unit.
[0010]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Embodiment 1 FIG.
Hereinafter, Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a connection configuration diagram for explaining a satellite-mounted imaging device according to the present invention.
In FIG. 1, reference numeral 1 denotes an imaging path selection unit, and this imaging path selection unit 1 has a configuration indicated by reference numerals 2 to 16 described later. That is, the cloud detection optical system 2 for viewing the cloud detection region, the detector unit 3 for converting the received light of the cloud detection optical system 1 into an electrical signal, the amplification unit 4 for amplifying the output signal of the detector unit 3, and the detector unit 4 A cloud conversion coefficient storage device 5 that stores a conversion coefficient for converting the output level of the image into a cloud amount in advance, and an observation region in the cloud detection region from the output of the amplifying unit 4 and the coefficient stored in the cloud amount conversion coefficient storage device 5 Cloud amount calculation unit 6 for calculating the cloud amount for each, satellite position detector 7 for detecting the self-flight position of the satellite, pointing direction detector 8 for detecting the pointing direction of the cloud detection optical system 2, satellite position detector 7 and the pointing direction A cloud detection area calculation unit 9 is provided for calculating the position coordinates of the cloud detection area from the output of the prominent device 8.
[0011]
Furthermore, the receiver 10 that receives the load coefficient marked by the ground position coordinates transmitted from the ground and set for each observation area, the load coefficient storage device 11 that stores the load coefficient, and the output of the cloud detection area calculation unit 9 Thus, the load coefficient reading unit 12 that reads the load coefficient for each observation area corresponding to each position coordinate from the load coefficient storage device 11, the cloud amount for each observation area by the cloud amount calculation unit 6, and the load coefficient reading corresponding to each observation area An imaging evaluation coefficient computing unit 13 for calculating an imaging evaluation coefficient for each observation area from a load coefficient for each observation area output from the unit 12, and an imaging path storage device for storing a plurality of imaging path candidates in the cloud observation area 14. Output of the relative imaging path calculation unit 15 and the relative imaging path calculation unit 15 for obtaining a relative imaging path from the output of the imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit 13 and the imaging path candidates stored in the imaging path storage device 14. An imaging route calculation unit 16 from a certain relative imaging path and the position coordinates of the cloud detection region which is the output of the cloud detection region calculation unit 9 obtains the actual imaging path.
[0012]
Reference numeral 17 denotes an imaging unit. The imaging unit 17 is an imaging optical system 18 that images the ground, an image detector unit 19 that converts received light of the imaging optical system 18 into an electrical signal, and an output of the image detector unit 19. An image amplifying unit 20 for amplifying the image, an image recording unit 21 for recording the output of the image amplifying unit 20, and an imaging optical system directivity driving unit 22 for changing the directing direction of the imaging optical system 18 by the output of the imaging path selecting unit 1. Further, reference numeral 23 denotes a satellite-mounted imaging device including the imaging path selection unit 1 and the imaging unit 17, 24 denotes ground equipment, 25 denotes the sun, 26 denotes a cloud detection area, 27 denotes a cloud, and 28 denotes a ground imaging area.
[0013]
FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining the operation principle of the cloud amount calculation unit 6, the imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit 13, and the relative imaging path calculation unit 15 of FIG.
In FIG. 2, 30 is a ground projection of the cloud photographing region 26 of FIG. 1, 31 is a projection of the cloud 27 of FIG. 1 projected on the ground projection 30, and 32 is for each observation area in the ground projection 30. The indicated cloud amount distribution 33 is a load factor distribution read out for each observation area by the load factor reading unit 12 of FIG. 1 corresponding to the ground projection map 30, and 34 is a map corresponding to the ground projection map 30. The imaging evaluation coefficient distribution calculated for each observation position by the imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit 13 in FIG. 5, 35 is a plurality of imaging path candidates stored in the imaging path storage device 14 in FIG. 1, and 36 is for each of these imaging path candidates. An imaging evaluation value 37 calculated from the imaging evaluation coefficient distribution 35 along each imaging path and 37 are selected imaging paths.
[0014]
Further, FIG. 3 is a diagram showing the interrelationship between the cloud detection area 26, the imaging area 28 of FIG. 1, the ground projection map 30 of FIG.
[0015]
Next, the operation will be described.
In FIG. 1, the reflected light of the sun 25 by the cloud 27 in the cloud detection region 26 is received by the cloud detection optical system 2, and the received light is converted into an electric signal by the detector unit 3, and further, the amplification unit 4 is amplified. The cloud amount in the cloud detection area 26 is calculated from the conversion coefficient for converting the output of the amplifying unit 4 stored in advance in the cloud amount conversion coefficient storage device 5 into the cloud amount and the output of the amplifying unit 4. This calculation is performed for each observation area constituting the cloud detection region 26, for example, when the detector unit 3 is configured by a two-dimensional CCD, and the output of the cloud amount calculation unit 6 is in the form of the cloud amount distribution. Become.
[0016]
On the other hand, the importance of the ground field shadow is transmitted from the ground facility 24 to the receiver 10 as a load coefficient for each place, and the load coefficient is stored in the load coefficient storage device 11.
[0017]
The three-dimensional position of the satellite is detected by the satellite position detector 7, and the pointing direction of the cloud detection optical system 2 is detected by the pointing direction detector 8. The cloud detection area calculation unit 9 calculates the geographical position of the cloud detection area 26 that is the visual field of the optical system from the output of the satellite position detector 7 and the output of the pointing direction detector 8. The load coefficient reading unit 12 reads the load coefficient of the area corresponding to the cloud detection area 26 from the data stored in the load coefficient storage device 11. Reading is performed for each observation region in the cloud detection region 26, and the output is in the form of a load coefficient distribution.
[0018]
The output of the cloud amount calculation unit 6 and the output of the load coefficient reading unit 12 are integrated by the imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit 13 for each corresponding observation area, and an imaging evaluation coefficient distribution in the cloud detection region 26 is obtained. As an example, the imaging evaluation coefficient can be defined as in Expression (1).
Imaging evaluation coefficient = (1−cloud amount) × load coefficient (1)
[0019]
The imaging path storage device 14 stores a plurality of types of imaging path candidates that can be realized in the cloud detection area 26 in advance, and the relative imaging path calculation unit 15 stores candidate paths stored in the imaging path storage device 14. The imaging evaluation coefficients are integrated for each observation area along the path every time, and the integrated value of the evaluation coefficients of the candidate paths is compared and the one that maximizes is set as the relative imaging path. The relative path is a path relative to the cloud imaging region 26 and is not a path in real space.
[0020]
The imaging path calculation unit 16 calculates an imaging path in real space from the position of the relative imaging path that is the output of the relative imaging path calculation unit 15 and the cloud detection area 26 that is the output of the cloud detection area calculation unit 9.
[0021]
Therefore, the imaging route selection unit 1 calculates an imaging evaluation value based on the cloud distribution state in the cloud detection area and the imaging priority for each area on the ground, and selects an imaging route from the imaging route candidates. Therefore, it is possible to select an optimal imaging path that comprehensively considers the cloud status and imaging priority.
[0022]
On the other hand, in the imaging unit 17, the imaging optical system directivity driving unit 22 changes the directing direction of the imaging optical system 18 by the output of the imaging path calculation unit 16. Thereby, the ground imaging area 28 of the imaging optical system 18 is set according to the selection result of the imaging path selection unit 1. The light received by the imaging optical system 18 is converted into an electrical signal by the image detector unit 19, amplified by the image amplification unit 24, and recorded in the image recording unit 21.
[0023]
As shown in FIG. 2, in the ground projection map 30, the cloud 27 appears as a cloud projection map 31. When the cloud amount calculation unit 6 obtains the cloud amount for each observation region constituting the entire cloud detection region, a cloud amount distribution 32 is obtained. Imaging is performed for each observation region in the ground projection map 30 by the imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit 13 from the cloud distribution 32 and the load coefficient distribution 33 read for each observation region by the load factor reading unit 12 of FIG. When the evaluation coefficient is calculated, an imaging evaluation coefficient distribution 34 is obtained.
[0024]
When the imaging evaluation coefficient distribution 34 is accumulated along each imaging path for each of the plurality of imaging path candidates 35 stored in the imaging path storage device 14 of FIG. 1, an imaging evaluation value 36 for each imaging path candidate 35 is obtained. The imaging path 37 can be selected by comparing the imaging evaluation values with each other. In this example, the ground projection map 30 of the cloud detection area is divided into 5 × 5, but in general, it can be divided into m × n, and the size of each area is the size of the ground imaging area 28. It can be adjusted. Further, although the imaging path candidate 35 is a straight line parallel to the satellite traveling direction, an oblique direction or a curved line can be set.
[0025]
As shown in FIG. 3, the imaging device 23 is equipped with the imaging route selection unit 1, and the ground projection area 28 of the cloud detection region 26 of the imaging route selection unit 1 is installed in the imaging device 23. The image capturing unit 17 is positioned in front of the ground image capturing area 28 in the satellite traveling direction. The ground imaging area 28 passes through the ground projection area 28 of the cloud detection area 26 according to the imaging path 37 selected by the imaging path selection unit 1 as the satellite travels.
[0026]
Accordingly, the cloud detection area 26 of the imaging path selection unit 1 is positioned in front of the satellite traveling relative to the field of view of the imaging unit 17, and is directed to the imaging optical system 18 according to the imaging path selected by the imaging path selection unit 1. The situation of the cloud in the scheduled imaging area can be grasped immediately before imaging, the shielding situation by the cloud at the time of imaging can be accurately predicted, and imaging taking into consideration both the influence of the cloud and the imaging priority can be performed.
[0027]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the present invention, the imaging route is calculated from the imaging route candidate by calculating the imaging evaluation value based on the distribution state of the clouds in the cloud detection region and the imaging priority for each ground area set in advance. Since it has an imaging path selection unit to select, it is possible to select the optimal imaging path that comprehensively considers the cloud status and imaging priority, and selects the imaging path by observing the cloud situation near the ground in front of the satellite traveling direction Therefore, the ground can be imaged while avoiding the influence of clouds.
[0028]
In addition, the cloud detection area of the imaging path selection unit is positioned in front of the satellite relative to the field of view of the imaging unit, and is directed to the imaging optical system according to the imaging path selected by the imaging path selection unit. Can be grasped immediately before imaging, and the shielding situation by clouds at the time of imaging can be accurately predicted, and imaging taking into consideration both the influence of clouds and imaging priority can be performed.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a system configuration diagram of a satellite-mounted imaging device according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram of an operation principle of the satellite-mounted imaging device according to the present invention.
FIG. 3 is an explanatory diagram showing a relationship between a cloud detection area and an imaging area of the satellite-mounted imaging apparatus according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram of a satellite-mounted imaging device according to a conventional example.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Imaging route selection part, 2 Cloud detection optical system, 3 Detector part, 4 Amplification part, 5 Cloud amount conversion coefficient memory | storage device, 6 Cloud amount calculation part, 7 Satellite position detector, 8 Directional direction detector, 9 Cloud detection area calculation , 10 receiver, 11 load coefficient storage device, 12 load coefficient reading unit, 13 imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit, 14 imaging path storage device, 15 relative imaging path calculation unit, 16 imaging path calculation unit, 17 imaging unit, 18 imaging Optical system, 19 Image detector section, 20 Image amplification section, 21 Image recording section, 22 Imaging optical system pointing drive section, 23 Satellite-mounted imaging device, 24 Ground equipment, 25 Sun, 26 Cloud detection area, 27 Cloud, 28 Ground Imaging area.

Claims (3)

  1. A cloud detection optical system that receives reflected light of sunlight from the clouds;
    A detector for converting light received by the cloud detection optical system into an electrical signal;
    An amplifying unit for amplifying the output signal of the detector unit;
    A cloud amount conversion coefficient storage device that stores in advance the relationship between the output of the amplifying unit and the cloud amount as a coefficient;
    A cloud amount calculation unit that calculates a cloud amount based on the cloud amount conversion coefficient stored in the cloud amount conversion coefficient storage device and the output of the amplifying unit;
    A pointing direction detector for detecting the pointing direction of the cloud detection optical system;
    A satellite position detector for detecting the three-dimensional position of the satellite;
    A cloud detection region calculation unit that calculates a cloud detection region that is a field of view of the cloud detection optical system based on the output of the pointing direction detector and the output of the satellite position detector;
    A receiver for receiving a position load coefficient transmitted from the ground facility;
    A load coefficient storage device for storing the position load coefficient received by the receiver;
    A load coefficient reading unit that reads a load coefficient from the load coefficient storage device based on an output of the cloud detection region calculation unit;
    Based on the integration of the load coefficient output from the load coefficient reading unit and the cloud amount output from the cloud amount calculation unit, an imaging evaluation coefficient serving as an index of the effectiveness of observation by a place in the cloud detection region is calculated. An imaging evaluation coefficient calculation unit;
    An imaging path storage device that stores a plurality of imaging path candidates;
    A relative imaging path calculation unit that determines an imaging path in the cloud detection region by obtaining an evaluation value for each imaging candidate path from the imaging path candidates stored in the imaging path storage device and an imaging evaluation coefficient, and comparing the evaluation values; ,
    An imaging path calculation unit configured to convert a relative imaging path with respect to the cloud detection area determined by the relative imaging path calculation unit to an imaging path in real space coordinates using an output of the cloud detection area calculation unit. A satellite-mounted image pickup device equipped with a route selection unit.
  2. The satellite-borne imaging device according to claim 1,
    An imaging optical system for imaging the ground;
    An imaging optical system directional drive unit that controls a directional direction of the imaging optical system according to an output of the imaging path selection unit;
    An image detector unit for converting received light of the imaging optical system into an electrical signal;
    An image amplifying unit for amplifying the output of the image detector unit;
    An image recording unit that records an image signal output from the image amplification unit constitutes an imaging unit, and the cloud detection area of the imaging path selection unit is positioned in front of the satellite traveling relative to the field of view of the imaging unit A satellite-mounted imaging device characterized by being arranged as described above.
  3. A cloud amount calculation unit for calculating a cloud amount distribution from reflection data of sunlight reflected by the cloud;
    A cloud detection area calculation unit for calculating a cloud detection area;
    The position load coefficient corresponding to the position in the cloud detection region calculated by the cloud detection region calculation unit is received, and based on the integration of the position load coefficient and the cloud amount distribution state calculated by the cloud amount calculation unit, A shooting evaluation coefficient calculation unit that calculates an evaluation value for each shooting path in the cloud detection region;
    A shooting path calculation unit that determines a shooting path on the ground based on the evaluation value calculated by the shooting evaluation coefficient calculation unit and the position of the cloud area calculated by the cloud detection area calculation unit. A satellite-mounted imaging device.
JP30663699A 1999-10-28 1999-10-28 Satellite-mounted imaging device Expired - Lifetime JP4020179B2 (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7414706B2 (en) * 2004-12-22 2008-08-19 Northrop Grumman Corporation Method and apparatus for imaging a target using cloud obscuration prediction and detection
JP4988673B2 (en) * 2008-09-01 2012-08-01 株式会社日立情報制御ソリューションズ Shooting plan creation system
WO2011089477A1 (en) * 2010-01-25 2011-07-28 Tarik Ozkul Autonomous decision system for selecting target in observation satellites
US9063544B2 (en) * 2012-09-19 2015-06-23 The Boeing Company Aerial forest inventory system
KR101381293B1 (en) * 2012-12-31 2014-04-04 한국해양과학기술원 Apparatus and method for assessing performance of a satellite system based on observation images
IL231114D0 (en) * 2013-07-05 2014-08-31 Hitachi Ltd Photographing plan creation device and program and method for the same
EP3311449B1 (en) 2015-06-16 2019-12-11 King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology Efficient planar phased array antenna assembly

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