JP3987660B2 - Nitride semiconductor structure, manufacturing method thereof, and light emitting device - Google Patents

Nitride semiconductor structure, manufacturing method thereof, and light emitting device Download PDF

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JP3987660B2
JP3987660B2 JP21611099A JP21611099A JP3987660B2 JP 3987660 B2 JP3987660 B2 JP 3987660B2 JP 21611099 A JP21611099 A JP 21611099A JP 21611099 A JP21611099 A JP 21611099A JP 3987660 B2 JP3987660 B2 JP 3987660B2
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groove
nitride semiconductor
substrate
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embodiment
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JP2000106455A (en
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有三 津田
貴之 湯浅
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シャープ株式会社
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a nitride semiconductor structure, and relates to a nitride semiconductor structure in which a nitride semiconductor having a lattice constant or a thermal expansion coefficient different from that of a crystal growth substrate is grown on the crystal growth substrate with high quality, a method for manufacturing the nitride semiconductor structure, and the nitride semiconductor The present invention relates to a light-emitting element formed using the structure.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, a nitride semiconductor has been used as a material for forming a blue light emitting diode (blue LED) or a blue laser diode (blue LD). Nitride semiconductors are grown on a substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD), hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In general, semiconductor growth uses a substrate of the same type as the semiconductor to be crystal-grown or a substrate having a lattice constant and a thermal expansion coefficient close to those of the semiconductor.
[0003]
Since current technology cannot produce a nitride semiconductor substrate of the same size as the nitride semiconductor to be formed, a sapphire substrate, SiC substrate, spinel substrate, or the like is used as a substitute for the nitride semiconductor substrate. Since the sapphire substrate, which is one of the substitute substrates, has a large lattice constant difference or thermal expansion coefficient difference from the nitride semiconductor, the sapphire substrate has 10 in the nitride semiconductor film grown on the sapphire substrate. 9 -10 Ten cm -2 It is known that threading dislocations exist. Therefore, it has been difficult to obtain a good nitride semiconductor crystal with a small crystal defect or threading dislocation density in the growth film by directly growing the crystal directly on the substitute substrate. Here, the threading dislocation in this specification is defined as the dislocation generated at the interface inside the crystal or between the crystals reaching the substrate surface.
[0004]
Currently, a selective growth method using a mask pattern is used as a method for manufacturing a nitride semiconductor film in order to reduce crystal defects or threading dislocation density directly on a sapphire substrate.
[0005]
A nitride semiconductor film manufacturing method using selective growth of a nitride semiconductor according to the prior art will be described.
[0006]
A first-layer nitride semiconductor film is formed directly on the sapphire substrate using an MOCVD apparatus. This is the first step. After the first step, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is used to form SiO directly on the first nitride semiconductor film. 2 Deposit a layer. This is the second step. Subsequently, SiO 2 A periodic opening pattern is formed in the layer using a conventional lithography technique, and this is a third step. The sapphire substrate including the third step is transferred into the HVPE apparatus, and a second nitride semiconductor thick film layer as the fourth step is grown. By passing through the above growth process, the threading dislocation density, which is one factor that lowers the crystal quality, is about 6 × 10 6 in the second nitride semiconductor thick film layer formed in the fourth process. 6 cm -2 (The 58th JSAP Scientific Lecture Proceedings 2p-Q-15, No1 (1997) p266 or Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 36 (1997) pp. L899). This is the SiO formed in the third step. 2 This is for the selective growth of a nitride semiconductor crystal formed on the mask pattern. That is, the second nitride semiconductor thick film layer grown on the mask pattern is SiO 2 2 The nitride semiconductor crystal has a selective growth property that it is difficult to grow in the portion formed by the layers and the crystal is easily grown in the opening.
[0007]
As a result, the initial growth of the second nitride semiconductor thick film layer begins to grow mainly in the opening, and SiO 2 2 When reaching the outermost surface of the layer, growth in a direction perpendicular to the substrate and a mask (SiO 2 2 Lateral growth (lateral growth) that fills the layer begins. This lateral growth is not grown with the mask as the base, but is grown with the nitride semiconductor crystal grown at the opening as the nucleus, and is not easily affected by lattice constant mismatch. Further, threading dislocations generated in the first nitride semiconductor layer penetrate into the second nitride semiconductor thick film layer through the opening of the mask. Change. Therefore, the threading dislocation reaching the outermost surface is reduced, and a crystal having a low threading dislocation density is obtained.
[0008]
Also, as reported in the 58th JSAP Scientific Lecture Proceedings 2p-Q-14, No1 (1997) p265, SiO directly on the sapphire substrate. 2 A GaN single crystal film may be selectively grown by the MOCVD method. In the case of the above report example, the first step is omitted, and the second step to the fourth step are formed. As a result of the above method, in the GaN single crystal film formed immediately above the sapphire substrate (SiO 2 2 The threading dislocation density on the mask opening) is 10 9 -10 Ten cm -2 In contrast to SiO 2 It is 10 right above Five -10 6 cm -2 It was reported that it was decreasing.
[0009]
It has been expected that threading dislocations in the nitride semiconductor film are reduced by the above-described nitride semiconductor film manufacturing method, and that the light emission characteristics and quality of the nitride semiconductor light emitting device formed immediately above the nitride semiconductor film are improved.
[0010]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Although the threading dislocations in the nitride semiconductor film can be reduced by the above-described nitride semiconductor film manufacturing technology, the growth of at least three steps is required to form the nitride semiconductor film of the above method with a low threading dislocation density. Requires a membrane process. Moreover, it is necessary to change the manufacturing apparatus from the first process to the second process or from the second process to the fourth process. In particular, in the method in which the first to fourth steps are performed, two-stage crystal growth is unavoidable. In general, in the case of regrowth accompanied by growth interruption, impurities on the crystal surface become a problem. In the above method, the SiO formed in the second step is further added. 2 Since the deposited layer is patterned, there is a concern that impurities and the like are further mixed. In addition, since the GaN layer generally used as the second nitride semiconductor thick film layer performs crystal growth at a growth temperature of about 1000 ° C., the third step SiO 2 2 The mask pattern constituted by the layers is thermally damaged. Si or O that is a component of a thermally damaged mask pattern 2 Has been found by the inventors' research to adversely affect the nitride semiconductor film.
[0011]
When a nitride semiconductor light emitting device structure is fabricated directly on the nitride semiconductor film fabricated by the nitride semiconductor film manufacturing method, impurities generated by thermal damage of the mask pattern generate light of the nitride semiconductor light emitting device structure. Affects the active layer. This influence causes a decrease in the light emitting efficiency of the light emitting element and a decrease in the reliability of the product due to a variation in the light emitting efficiency of the individual light emitting elements, and also reduces the yield of the nitride semiconductor light emitting element production.
[0012]
[Means for Solving the Invention]
In the nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention, a concave portion and a convex portion made of the same material are formed, and the same nitride semiconductor film is formed in the concave portion and the convex portion. Grow It has a single member substrate having a growth surface and the nitride semiconductor film formed on the growth surface, and has a cavity in the recess. Furthermore, the nitride semiconductor film may include a nitride semiconductor buffer layer and a nitride semiconductor film grown on the nitride semiconductor buffer layer.
[0013]
In the nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention, the concave portion and the convex portion are formed by providing a plurality of parallel grooves on the growth surface of the substrate. With such a configuration, distortion caused by a difference in lattice constant or a difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and the first-layer nitride semiconductor film to be crystal-grown can be relaxed by the following method.
[0014]
In the nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention, the groove width b is 10 μm or less, the groove depth h is h ≧ 0.2 × b, and the distance between the center lines of adjacent grooves is 20 μm. It is characterized by the following. In the nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention, the groove width b is 10 μm or less, the groove depth h is h ≧ b, and the distance between the center lines of adjacent grooves is 20 μm or less. It is characterized by.
[0015]
In the nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention, the groove has the nitride semiconductor. Against the membrane It is formed along the <1-100> direction. The nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention is characterized in that the groove is formed along a direction of a cleaved surface or an etching stable surface of the substrate.
[0016]
Book In the nitride semiconductor structure according to the invention, at least the growth surface of the substrate is made of a nitride semiconductor, and the groove is formed of the nitride semiconductor. film Against < 11- 20> Direction or <1-100> direction It is characterized by being provided along. In the nitride semiconductor structure of the present invention, the nitride semiconductor at the bottom of the groove is polycrystalline.
[0017]
The method of manufacturing a nitride semiconductor structure according to the present invention includes a step of forming a growth surface having concave and convex portions made of the same material on a single member substrate, or a plurality of parallel grooves made of the same material, and the substrate On the growth side of Same The step of forming a cavity in the recess or groove by growing a nitride semiconductor film is sequentially performed.
[0018]
Furthermore, a light emitting device according to the present invention is characterized by comprising the above-described nitride semiconductor structure and a light emitting device structure having an active layer made of a nitride semiconductor formed on the nitride semiconductor structure.
[0019]
In the light-emitting device according to the present invention, the ridge stripe structure provided in the light-emitting device structure is provided at an upper position at least 1 μm or more laterally from the center line of the recess in the nitride semiconductor structure, and The direction of the ridge stripe is parallel to the direction of at least one groove.
[0020]
The principle of the present invention will be described below with reference to FIG.
[0021]
In FIG. 8, the processed structure substrate 100 is a substrate in which a groove 115 is formed, and has a convex portion (flat portion) 114 that appears on the substrate surface by the formation of the groove 115. A nitride semiconductor film is formed on the processed structure substrate 100. The nitride semiconductor layer 123 on the convex portion is formed as well as the nitride semiconductor layer 124 on the groove, and the groove 115 has a cavity 116 in which no nitride semiconductor is formed. A nitride semiconductor 125 is also deposited on the bottom of the trench 115.
[0022]
As described above, by using the substrate with a groove, the step of the groove 115 and the protrusion 114 causes a crystal growth on the protrusions 114 adjacent to the groove 115 before the nitride semiconductor 125 is buried in the groove 115. The nitride semiconductor film 123 on the portion is laterally grown and bonded. Therefore, the nitride semiconductor film 124 on the groove is also formed immediately above the groove 115. As a result, a cavity 116 in which the nitride semiconductor film is not grown is formed on the trench 115. The nitride semiconductor film 124 on the groove formed by lateral growth from the convex portion 114 is not affected at all by the processed structure substrate 100 (stress distortion due to a difference in lattice constant or thermal expansion coefficient), and is therefore formed in the convex portion 114. The nitride semiconductor film 123 is not affected by the stress strain caused by the difference in lattice constant or the thermal expansion coefficient generated between the nitride semiconductor film 124 and the processed structure substrate 100 at all from the substrate. 124 can mitigate. By utilizing the crystal growth in the lateral direction, and by performing crystal growth while reducing the influence of stress in this way, threading dislocations extending in the vertical direction from the substrate toward the crystal surface are simply on a flat surface. This can be reduced compared to the case of crystal growth. Furthermore, along with the relaxation of such stress, even if a thick nitride semiconductor film is formed, the generation of cracks can be suppressed, and a thick nitride semiconductor film that has been difficult in the past can be produced. It was.
[0023]
In order to provide such an effect over the entire nitride semiconductor film, the density of the grooves needs to be high to some extent. According to the study by the present inventors, the effect of the present invention was obtained when the interval between adjacent grooves (distance from the center line of the groove to the center line of the adjacent groove) was 20 μm or less. In particular, the strain between the substrate and the nitride semiconductor film depends on the groove density, and a higher strain relaxation effect can be obtained as the groove density increases. When the interval between adjacent grooves was 20 μm or more, the threading dislocation density in the obtained nitride semiconductor film was no different from that formed on a flat substrate.
[0024]
The cavity 116 is formed by lateral growth from the nitride semiconductor film 123 on the convex portion 114 exceeding the growth of the nitride semiconductor 125 from the inside of the groove. Will receive. According to the study by the present inventors, it was found that the groove width b is preferably 10 μm or less and the groove depth h is preferably h ≧ 0.2 × b.
[0025]
Furthermore, if the groove depth h is sufficiently deep to the condition of h ≧ b, no raw material is supplied at the bottom of the groove during crystal growth, and the nitride semiconductor 125 is hardly deposited. The cavity 116 can be easily formed, and the effect of reducing the stress strain can be further enhanced.
[0026]
Further, by forming the groove on the substrate surface along the <1-100> direction with respect to the nitride semiconductor, the groove is formed in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the lateral growth rate of the nitride semiconductor is large. Become. Therefore, the lateral growth from the nitride semiconductor film 123 on the convex portion can be further promoted, and the effect of the present invention can be enhanced. According to the inventors' experimental viewpoint, it has been found that GaN, which is a nitride semiconductor, grows (lateral growth) in the [11-20] direction of the nitride semiconductor (GaN) on the substrate. .
[0027]
Further, by forming the groove so that the side wall of the groove includes the cleaved surface of the substrate, the groove can be easily processed, so that the shape of the groove can be made steep. In addition, it is possible to easily form a groove having a deep groove depth with respect to the groove width.
[0028]
In the present specification, the groove is a specific example of the concave portion, and the groove means that the concave portion is continuously arranged in a linear shape. The processed structure substrate means a substrate in which uneven portions or groove portions are formed on the substrate surface. The cleavage direction of the substrate refers to a direction parallel to the cleavage surface of the substrate.
[0029]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail.
[0030]
(Embodiment 1)
FIG. 1 shows a configuration diagram of a nitride semiconductor structure in which n-type GaN films fabricated according to this embodiment are stacked. In the nitride semiconductor structure of the first embodiment, the groove 110 is formed on the C surface of the sapphire substrate along the [11-20] direction of the sapphire substrate ([1-100] direction with respect to the GaN film). A GaN buffer layer 120 is formed on the processed structure substrate 100 and the convex portions 114 of the processed structure substrate 100, and an n-type GaN film 121 is grown on the entire surface of the processed structure substrate 100 by 9 μm.
[0031]
First, a method for manufacturing a processed structure substrate used in Embodiment 1 will be described. The C surface of the sapphire substrate was used as the growth substrate. 2A is a three-dimensional view of the processed structure substrate 100, and FIG. 2B is a top view of FIG. 2A. The processed structure substrate 100 in FIG. 2 was produced as follows. First, a resist was applied to the surface of the sapphire substrate, and a resist pattern was formed by ultraviolet exposure. Next, only the portion cured by the exposure is left, and the other portions are lifted off. These series of operations are based on a well-known photolithography technique. The sapphire substrate with a resist pattern was wet etched. At this time, the groove 110 formed on the surface of the sapphire substrate has a width b = 6 μm, a depth h = 2 μm, and an interval (one period) L = 12 μm between the grooves. The direction of the groove 110 was formed in the [11-20] direction with respect to the sapphire substrate. In general, the M plane ({1-100} plane) of the sapphire substrate is known as one of several cleavage planes. Therefore, the C-plane of the sapphire substrate has a cleaving property along this [11-20] direction.
[0032]
In addition to the photolithography technique, the manufacturing method of the processed structure substrate 100 described above is a sapphire substrate using a scribing method, a wire saw process, an electric discharge process, a sputtering process, a laser process, a sandblast process, and a focus ion beam (FIB) process. The groove 110 may be formed on the surface. Further, instead of the wet etching, dry etching may be used, and holography technology using electron beam or laser beam interference may be used for exposure.
[0033]
In this embodiment, the surface of the side wall of the groove is a {1-100} plane (M plane) cleaved plane (a plane that tends to appear by physical processing). Is hexagonal (including sapphire substrate), {1-100} plane (M plane), {01-20} plane (R plane), or when the substrate is zinc blende type or diamond structure type Has a {110} plane, and a groove may be formed in such a direction as to have a plane orientation.
[0034]
The {1-100} plane with respect to the sapphire substrate is also a plane that is likely to appear when chemical etching is performed (hereinafter referred to as an etching stable plane). By forming the groove in such a direction that becomes an etching stable surface, the side surface of the groove can be made steep. As the plane orientation to be such an etching stable plane, when the substrate is a hexagonal system (including a sapphire substrate), the {1-100} plane (M plane), the {11-20} plane (A plane), {0001} plane (C plane), {01-12} plane (R plane), or {111} plane, {001} plane when the substrate is cubic, particularly zinc blende type or diamond structure type Yes, the groove may be formed in such a direction of the plane orientation.
[0035]
Next, a process for producing a nitride semiconductor structure by growing an n-type GaN film on the processed structure substrate 100 using an MOCVD apparatus will be described. The processed structure substrate 100 shown in FIG. 1 (FIG. 2) was sufficiently washed with an organic solvent and set in an MOCVD apparatus. Before the growth of the n-type GaN film 121, H 2 During the gas flow, the processed structure substrate 100 was thermally cleaned at a substrate temperature of 1025 ° C. for about 10 minutes. Next, the substrate temperature is lowered to 550 ° C., TMG (trimethylgallium) 10 cc / min is used as the group III material, and NH is used as the group V material. Three A GaN buffer layer 120 of about 20 nm was grown by supplying 5000 cc / min. This technique is the same as a known technique for epitaxial growth on a sapphire substrate.
[0036]
Next, the substrate temperature is raised to 1000 ° C., and TMG (50 cc), NH Three (5000cc) and donor impurity SiH Four (Silane) was supplied, and an n-type GaN film 121 was grown to 9 μm.
[0037]
From around the thickness of the n-type GaN film 121 exceeding 3 μm, the groove 110 formed on the substrate surface was covered with the n-type GaN film 121 while leaving the cavity 116, and started to flatten. Further, the n-type GaN film 121 has a thickness of 9 μm and a threading dislocation density of about 10 7 cm -2 It became about.
[0038]
Nitrogen epitaxially grown on the sapphire substrate C surface. monster The orientation relationship of GaN, which is a semiconductor, is known to be (0001) sapphire // (0001) GaN and [1-210] sapphire // [-1010] GaN. The formation of the groove portion in the [11-20] direction means that the groove portion 110 is formed in the [1-100] direction for GaN. Therefore, the groove of the first embodiment is formed along the <1-100> direction of the nitride semiconductor crystal grown in the cleavage direction of the substrate and immediately above the substrate.
[0039]
Since the nitride semiconductor (GaN) extends in the <11-20> direction of the nitride semiconductor (GaN) and laterally grows on the C-plane of the sapphire substrate, the groove portion of the first embodiment has a cleavage direction of the substrate. In addition, the nitride semiconductor crystal grown directly on the substrate is formed along a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the lateral growth rate is high. By forming grooves along the cleavage direction of the substrate, groove processing becomes easy, and a steep step can be realized by forming a groove shape with side walls, and it is perpendicular to the direction in which the lateral growth direction is fast. As a result of the formation of a simple groove, a cavity was easily generated. Therefore, the formed nitride semiconductor film 121 contributes to improving the quality of crystals due to stress strain and preventing cracks in the nitride semiconductor film 121.
[0040]
The n-type GaN film 121 is formed between the film and the processed structure substrate 110 by satisfying the groove depth h ≧ 0.2 × groove width b as the period of the grooves formed on the processed structure substrate in the first embodiment. The stress strain due to the difference in lattice constant or the difference in thermal expansion coefficient generated in the film can be alleviated, and the occurrence of cracks due to the formation of the thick nitride semiconductor film can be prevented. In the case where the condition of the groove depth h ≧ 0.2 × the groove width b is not satisfied by increasing the groove width or reducing the groove depth, the inside of the groove is made of a nitride semiconductor film at the initial stage of growth. A buried cavity cannot be formed, and the effects of lateral growth and distortion reduction are not achieved. Further, even when the interval between the grooves was increased, the threading dislocation density was almost the same as when formed on a flat sapphire substrate as described above.
[0041]
In order to estimate the threading dislocation density appearing on the surface of the n-type GaN film 121 of FIG. 1, surface TEM (transmission electron microscope) observation was performed. As a result, the threading dislocation density appearing on the growth film surface was about 10 7 cm -2 It is almost the same as or slightly higher than the conventional examples reported so far.
[0042]
In the conventional example, the mask pattern by selective growth is a nitride semiconductor. of Thermal damage was caused during the growth, and the constituent elements of the mask pattern had an influence on the nitride semiconductor growth film as impurities. However, the growth film layer produced in the present embodiment does not contain any of the above-described components that become impurities, and according to the photoluminescence (PL) measurement of the nitride semiconductor growth film, the nitride semiconductor When the relative ratio between the emission intensity in the vicinity of the band edge of the growth film (GaN single film) and the emission intensity from the deep level due to impurities is compared, the relative intensity ratio obtained in this embodiment is the same as that using the mask pattern. Compared to an order of magnitude improvement. This indicates that the nitride semiconductor growth film obtained in the present embodiment has a very high quality.
[0043]
The period length L of the grooves formed on the processed structure substrate was 12 μm. However, if the period length L is further shortened, the density of the grooves increases, and the threading dislocation density can be reduced. In the first embodiment, the groove width is 6 μm, but the groove width may be further narrowed. Further, although the groove period is constant in this embodiment, the groove period is not necessarily constant as long as the groove interval is 20 μm or less.
[0044]
(Embodiment 2)
The second embodiment is a modification of the first embodiment, and is essentially the same as the first embodiment except that the pattern of the groove formed on the sapphire substrate is changed. FIG. 3 shows a processed structure substrate 100 configured according to the second embodiment.
[0045]
In the second embodiment, the processed structure substrate 100 in which the groove 111 is formed along the [11-20] and [-2110] directions of the sapphire substrate on the C surface of the sapphire substrate, and the n-type directly above the processed structure substrate 100. It has a structure in which a GaN film is grown to 8 μm. Hereinafter, the processed structure substrate 100 manufactured in the second embodiment and the n-type GaN film grown on the processed structure substrate 100 will be described.
[0046]
The C surface of the sapphire substrate was used as the growth substrate. The processed structure substrate 100 of FIG. 3 was produced using FIB technology. The groove 111 formed on the surface of the sapphire substrate has a width b = 1 μm, a depth h = 3 μm, and a groove interval period L = 3 μm. The direction of the groove 111 at this time is the [11-20] and [-2110] directions with respect to the sapphire substrate.
[0047]
Next, an n-type GaN film was grown on the processed structure substrate 100 using an MOCVD apparatus. The processed structure substrate 100 of FIG. 3 was sufficiently washed with an organic solvent and set in an MOCVD apparatus. Before n-type GaN film growth, H 2 During the gas flow, the processed structure substrate 100 was thermally cleaned at a substrate temperature of 1025 ° C. for about 10 minutes. Next, the substrate temperature is lowered to 500 ° C., TMA (trimethylaluminum) 20 cc / min is used as the group III material, and NH is used as the group V material. Three An AlN buffer layer of about 50 nm was grown by supplying 5000 cc / min. This technique is the same as a known technique for epitaxial growth on a sapphire substrate.
[0048]
Next, the substrate temperature is raised to 1000 ° C., and TMG (50 cc), NH Three (5000cc) and donor impurity SiH Four (Silane) was supplied, and an n-type GaN film was grown to 8 μm.
[0049]
As described in the first embodiment, when the thickness of the n-type GaN film exceeds 2 μm, the groove 111 formed on the substrate surface is covered with the GaN film while leaving the cavity, and the n-type GaN film is flattened. I started. Further, the n-type GaN film has a thickness of about 8 μm and the threading dislocation density is about 10 Five -10 6 cm -2 It became about. The PL emission intensity from the vicinity of the band edge of the nitride semiconductor growth film was very strong as in the first embodiment, and the emission intensity from the deep level due to impurities was extremely weak. From this, a high quality GaN single film was formed as in the first embodiment.
[0050]
In the second embodiment, the relative depth of the groove depth with respect to the groove width is deeper than that in the first embodiment, and the depth of the groove is larger than the groove width, so that during vapor phase growth. In this case, the supply of the source gas into the groove became extremely insufficient, and almost no crystal growth occurred in the groove.
[0051]
In this embodiment, the direction of the groove is formed in a plurality of directions. There are three types of grooves [11-20], [-2110], and [1-210] in the C-plane of the sapphire substrate with respect to the sapphire substrate. When the nitride semiconductor is crystal-grown with C-axis orientation with respect to the sapphire substrate as in this embodiment, there are similarly three types of directions in the C-plane of the nitride semiconductor. The processed structure substrate used in the second embodiment is obtained by selecting two of the three directions and forming the groove 111 on the C surface of the sapphire substrate. As a result, GaN crystal-grown on the processed structure substrate is promoted in lateral growth in a direction perpendicular to each of these two directions. In addition, one cycle of the groove interval of the second embodiment is as short as half of one cycle of the groove interval of the first embodiment, and the groove density is increased. Therefore, the threading dislocation density obtained in the second embodiment was improved by an order of magnitude compared with that in the first embodiment.
[0052]
(Embodiment 3)
The third embodiment is a modification of the second embodiment, in which grooves are formed along all three equivalent directions of the sapphire substrate <11-20> described in the second embodiment. Therefore, it corresponds to selecting all three <1-100> directions for the nitride semiconductor. The third embodiment is the same as the second embodiment except that the groove pattern formed on the sapphire substrate is changed.
[0053]
FIG. 4 shows a processed structure substrate 100 configured according to the third embodiment. In the third embodiment, the processed structure substrate 100 in which the groove 112 is formed along the [11-20], [-2110] and [1-210] directions of the sapphire substrate on the C surface of the sapphire substrate, and the processed structure The n-type GaN film is grown directly on the substrate 100 by 8 μm. Hereinafter, the processed structure substrate 100 manufactured in the third embodiment will be described. The C surface of the sapphire substrate was used as the growth substrate. The processed structure substrate 100 of FIG. 4 was manufactured using the FIB technique as in the second embodiment. The groove 112 formed on the surface of the sapphire substrate has a width b = 1 μm, a depth h = 2 μm, and one period L of the groove interval L = 4 μm. The direction of the groove 112 at this time is the [11-20], [-2110] and [1-210] directions with respect to the sapphire substrate.
[0054]
In the third embodiment, the crystal-grown GaN is laterally grown in a direction perpendicular to each of all three directions. Further, since the depth h of the groove is longer than the width b of the groove as in the second embodiment, it is difficult to receive the stress strain generated between the substrate and the nitride semiconductor film.
[0055]
The results of threading dislocation density and PL emission intensity obtained in the third embodiment were almost the same as those in the second embodiment. From this, a high-quality GaN single film was formed as in the second embodiment, and the generation of cracks was similarly suppressed.
[0056]
(Embodiment 4)
The fourth embodiment is a modification of the first or second embodiment, and is the same except that the C surface of the sapphire substrate is changed to the M surface of the sapphire substrate and the direction of the groove is appropriately selected. . The processed structure substrate manufactured in the fourth embodiment will be described below.
[0057]
The epitaxial relationship between the sapphire substrate M-plane and GaN, which is a nitride semiconductor, is (01-10) sapphire // (01-13) GaN, [0001] sapphire // [2-1-10] GaN. Therefore, when the groove portion including the {1-100} plane in the [0001] direction or the groove portion along the [2-1-10] direction is formed with respect to the M-plane sapphire substrate, the former groove direction is the cleavage of the sapphire substrate. M plane ({1-100} plane) which is a plane is included, and the direction of the latter groove is perpendicular to the lateral growth of GaN crystal-grown on the sapphire substrate M plane. Only one of these directions or both are formed on the M-plane of the sapphire substrate, and this is used as a processed structure substrate. The case where the groove is formed only in one direction belongs to Embodiment 1, and the case where the groove is formed in both directions belongs to Embodiment 2.
[0058]
In conformity with the fourth embodiment, a processed structure substrate was fabricated with a groove width b = 2 μm, a depth h = 3 μm, and a period L of the groove L = 5 μm, and a nitride semiconductor film was grown by 10 μm. Prototypes were made for two types of processed structure substrate grooves formed in only one direction or both directions, and the threading dislocation density was 10 for both. 6 -10 7 cm -2 It was about. The value of the threading dislocation density was almost the same as that using the mask pattern reported in the conventional examples. In the fourth embodiment, as in the first to third embodiments, the direction in the cleavage plane of the substrate does not coincide with the direction perpendicular to the lateral growth of the nitride semiconductor. The above reason can be considered as one factor that the threading dislocation density has deteriorated by about one digit as compared with the second or third embodiment. As for the PL emission intensity, as in the first embodiment, the PL emission intensity due to the emission near the band edge of the nitride semiconductor was very strong, and the emission intensity from the deep level due to the impurities was extremely weak. In addition, the generation of cracks was similarly suppressed.
[0059]
(Embodiment 5)
The fifth embodiment is a modification of the first to third embodiments, and is the same except that the C surface of the sapphire substrate is changed to the A surface of the sapphire substrate. The processed structure substrate manufactured in the fifth embodiment will be described below.
[0060]
When GaN, which is a nitride semiconductor, is epitaxially grown on the sapphire substrate A surface, the following two types of orientation relationships exist between the sapphire substrate A surface and GaN depending on the crystal growth conditions of the nitride semiconductor. (2-1-10) sapphire // (0001) GaN, [0001] sapphire // [2-1-10] GaN, [01-10] sapphire // [01-10] GaN, (2 -1-10) sapphire // (0001) GaN, [0001] sapphire // [01-10] GaN, [01-10] sapphire // [2-1-10] GaN. The former orientation relationship is epitaxial relationship 1, and the latter is epitaxial relationship 2.
[0061]
In the case of the epitaxial relationship 1, a groove is formed in the [0001] direction and its [0001] direction and 32.4 ° direction with respect to the sapphire substrate A surface, or along the [01-10] direction. The direction of the former two grooves includes the M plane ({1-100} plane) and the R plane ({01-12} plane), which are cleavage planes of the sapphire substrate, and the latter direction is on the sapphire substrate A plane. This is perpendicular to the lateral growth of GaN crystal-grown. These directions are formed on the A surface of the sapphire substrate only in each direction or in combination, and this is used as a processed structure substrate.
[0062]
When the groove is formed only in one direction, it belongs to Embodiment 1, and when these grooves are combined, it belongs to Embodiment 2 or Embodiment 3, respectively. The effect obtained by the sapphire substrate A surface and the epitaxial relation 1 of the fifth embodiment was the same as that of the fourth embodiment. In addition, cracks were similarly suppressed.
[0063]
Next, in the case of the epitaxial relation 2, the groove is formed in the [0001] direction with respect to the sapphire substrate A surface or along the [0001] direction and 32.4 ° direction. The direction of the former groove portion includes the M plane ({1-100} plane) that is the cleavage plane of the sapphire substrate, and is perpendicular to the lateral growth of GaN crystal-grown on the sapphire substrate A plane. Therefore, the same effect as Embodiment 1 using the C surface of the sapphire substrate can be obtained. Next, the direction of the latter groove includes an R plane ({01-12} plane) that is a cleavage plane of the sapphire substrate. One or both of these directions is formed on the A surface of the sapphire substrate, and this is used as a processed structure substrate.
[0064]
When the groove is formed only in one direction, it belongs to Embodiment 1 in FIG. 2, and when it is formed by combining these grooves, it belongs to Embodiment 2 or Embodiment 3, respectively. The effect obtained by the sapphire substrate A surface and the epitaxial relationship 2 of the fifth embodiment was the same as that of the first embodiment. In addition, cracks were similarly suppressed.
[0065]
(Embodiment 6)
The sixth embodiment is a modification of the first embodiment, and is the same as the above embodiment except that the C surface of the sapphire substrate is changed to the R surface of the sapphire substrate. Hereinafter, the processed structure substrate manufactured in the sixth embodiment will be described.
The epitaxial relationship between the sapphire substrate R surface and GaN, which is a nitride semiconductor, is (011-2) sapphire // (2-1-10) GaN, [2-1-10] sapphire // [01-10] GaN. It is. Therefore, a groove including a {1-100} plane is formed in the [2-1-10] direction with respect to the sapphire substrate R plane. The direction of the groove includes the M plane ({1-100} plane) that is the cleavage plane of the sapphire substrate. The said direction is formed on the R surface of a sapphire substrate, and this is made into a processed structure substrate. The threading dislocation density obtained by the sixth embodiment is about 10 7 -10 8 cm -2 However, it was slightly worse than that obtained by using a mask pattern which is a general prior art. However, the PL emission intensity due to the impurities was equivalent to that of the first embodiment. In addition, cracks were similarly suppressed.
[0066]
(Embodiment 7)
The seventh embodiment is a modification of the first to third embodiments, and is the same as the above embodiment except that the C surface of the sapphire substrate is changed to the (0001) surface of the 6H—SiC substrate. The processed structure substrate manufactured in the seventh embodiment will be described below.
When GaN, which is a nitride semiconductor, is epitaxially grown on the (0001) plane of the 6H-SiC substrate, the epitaxial relationship between the 6H-SiC substrate (0001) plane and GaN is (0001) 6H-SiC // (0001). GaN, [2-1-10] 6 H—SiC // [2-1-10] GaN, [01-10] sapphire // [01-10] GaN.
[0067]
Accordingly, the groove is formed in the [2-1-10] direction or along the [01-10] direction with respect to the 6H—SiC substrate (0001) plane. The former groove direction includes the {1-100} plane which is a cleavage plane of the 6H—SiC substrate (0001) plane, and the latter is a lateral growth of GaN crystal grown on the 6H—SiC substrate (0001) plane. Is perpendicular to. One or both of these directions are formed on the 6H—SiC substrate (0001) surface, and this is used as a processed structure substrate.
[0068]
When grooves are formed only in one direction, they belong to Embodiment 1, and when these grooves are formed in combination, they belong to Embodiment 2 or Embodiment 3. The effect of the processed structure substrate obtained in the seventh embodiment is equivalent to that in the fourth embodiment.
[0069]
(Embodiment 8)
The eighth embodiment is a modification of the first to third embodiments, in which the C surface of the sapphire substrate is MgAl 2 O Four The (magnesia spinel) substrate is the same as the above embodiment except that it is changed to the (111) plane. The processed structure substrate manufactured in the eighth embodiment will be described below.
[0070]
MgAl 2 O Four When GaN, which is a nitride semiconductor, is epitaxially grown on the (111) surface of the substrate, MgAl 2 O Four The epitaxial relationship between the substrate (111) surface and GaN is (111) MgAl 2 O Four // (0001) GaN, [−110] MgAl 2 O Four // [2-1-10] GaN, [11-2] MgAl 2 O Four // [01-10] GaN.
[0071]
Therefore, MgAl 2 O Four A groove including the {100} plane in the [−110] direction with respect to the (111) plane of the substrate, or a groove along the [11-2] direction is formed. The former groove direction is MgAl 2 O Four It includes the {100} plane that is the cleavage plane of the substrate (111) plane, the latter being MgAl 2 O Four This is perpendicular to the lateral growth of GaN crystal grown on the substrate (111) plane. One or both of these directions is MgAl 2 O Four It forms on a board | substrate (111) surface and makes this a process structure board | substrate.
[0072]
When grooves are formed only in one direction, they belong to Embodiment 1, and when these grooves are combined, they belong to Embodiment 2 or Embodiment 3, respectively. The effect of the processed structure substrate obtained in the eighth embodiment is equivalent to that in the fourth embodiment.
[0073]
(Embodiment 9)
FIG. 5A shows a configuration diagram of a GaN film fabricated according to the ninth embodiment. FIG. 5B shows a GaN film substrate produced in the ninth embodiment. In the present embodiment, a processed structure substrate 100 in which irregularities 113 are randomly formed on the C-plane of a sapphire substrate, and a structure in which a GaN film 122 is grown 30 μm directly on the processed structure substrate. Hereinafter, the processed structure substrate 100 manufactured in the ninth embodiment will be described, and a method of manufacturing a GaN growth thick film using the HVPE method will be described.
[0074]
The C surface of a sapphire substrate was used as the growth substrate. The processed structure substrate 100 shown in FIG. + Disordered irregularities 113 were formed on the surface of the sapphire substrate by ion milling. The uneven portion 113 had an average height difference of about 3 μm and an average period of the uneven portion of about 13 μm in the surface roughness measurement.
[0075]
Next, crystal growth of the GaN film 122 is performed on the processed structure substrate 100 having the concavo-convex portion 113 manufactured by the above process. First, the processed structure substrate 100 was sufficiently washed with an organic solvent and set in the HVPE apparatus. Before crystal growth of GaN film 122, H 2 During the gas flow, the processed structure substrate 100 was thermally cleaned at a substrate temperature of 1025 ° C. for about 10 minutes. Next, NH is used as a group V gas for crystal growth of the GaN film 122. Three Gas and carrier H 2 Gas mixed at 2000 cc / min and 10000 cc / min for each gas, and for group III gas, HCl gas 100 cc / min was supplied onto Ga metal previously held at a temperature of about 700 ° C. in the HVPE apparatus by Ga gas. Group III chloride and carrier H, which is a reaction product of HCl and HCl gas 2 A gas mixed with 1000 cc / min of gas was sent to the HVPE growth tank in which the processed structure substrate 100 was set, and the GaN film 122 was grown to about 30 μm. In this way, the GaN film shown in FIG. 5A can be formed.
[0076]
From around the thickness of the GaN film 122 exceeding 5 μm, the concavo-convex portion 113 formed on the surface of the processed structure substrate 100 was covered with the GaN film 122 while leaving a hollow portion, and started to flatten. Further, the growth is continued, and the density of threading dislocations is about 10 when the thickness of the GaN film 122 is 30 μm. 8 cm -2 It became about. When the surface of the substrate was observed with an optical microscope, no cracks were generated. The value of the threading dislocation density in the GaN film obtained in the ninth embodiment was comparable to that of the thick film growth method using the HVPE method that does not use a mask pattern that has been conventionally reported. However, compared with the conventional thick film growth method in which the crystal is directly grown on the sapphire substrate, the growth film manufactured using the processed structure substrate of the ninth embodiment has a surface on the growth film surface at the initial growth stage. No cracks are generated, and the grown thick film is thin even if it has the same threading dislocation density.
[0077]
As described above, in each embodiment, GaN has been described as an example of the nitride semiconductor to be formed. x Ga y In 1-xy N (0 ≦ x ≦ 1, 0 ≦ y ≦ 1) or Al x Ga y In 1-xy A part of N (0 ≦ x ≦ 1, 0 ≦ y ≦ 1) (composition ratio of 10% or less) is B, Cr, V, Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Sc, Tl, Gd, La, A material substituted with an element such as As, P, or Sb may be used.
[0078]
(Embodiment 10) FIG. 6 shows an LD element structure fabricated according to Embodiment 10. ing . In the present embodiment, an LD element structure is produced as a light emitting element structure using an MOCVD apparatus directly on the processed structure substrate 200 with an n-type GaN film produced in the second embodiment.
[0079]
Below, the manufacturing method of the semiconductor light-emitting device of this Embodiment is demonstrated.
[0080]
First, the nitride semiconductor structure (processed structure substrate and n-type GaN film on the processed structure substrate) 200 manufactured by the method described in Embodiment 2 was transported to an MOCVD apparatus, and thermal cleaning was performed at 1050 ° C. Among the source gases equipped in the MOCVD apparatus, NH is used as a group V source gas. Three Gas, group III gas TMG (trimethylgallium) and donor impurity SiH Four The first Si-doped n-type GaN layer 201 was grown on the nitride semiconductor structure by 3 μm at a growth temperature of 1000 ° C. using (silane) gas.
[0081]
Subsequently, NH is used as a source gas in order to produce the second cladding layer. Three TMG and TMA (trimethylaluminum) as donor impurities Four Si-doped n-type Al using gas 0.1 Ga 0.9 The N layer 202 was grown by 0.4 μm.
[0082]
Next, NH is used as a source gas in order to produce the third light guide layer Three And TMG as SiH as donor impurities Four A Si-doped n-type GaN layer 203 was grown by 0.1 μm using a gas.
[0083]
Next, NH 4 as a source gas is used to form the fourth multiple quantum well active layer. Three , TMG and TMI (trimethylindium) as donor impurities Four Si-doped n-type multiple quantum well In 0.2 Ga 0.8 N (2 nm) / In 0.05 Ga 0.95 Five cycles of N (3 nm) layer 204 were produced. Subsequently, p-type Al is used to prevent In in the quantum well active layer from evaporating during growth of the nitride semiconductor layer immediately above the active layer. 0.2 Ga 0.8 The N evaporation preventing layer 205 was grown to 30 nm.
[0084]
Next, NH is used as a source gas in order to produce the fifth light guide layer. Three And TMG as acceptor impurities EtCp 2 Using Mg (bisethylcyclopentadienylmagnesium), an Mg-doped p-type GaN layer 206 was grown by 0.1 μm.
[0085]
Next, in order to produce the sixth cladding layer, NH is used as a source gas. Three , TMG and TMA as acceptor impurities EtCp 2 Using Mg gas, Mg doped p-type Al 0.1 Ga 0.9 The N layer 207 was grown by 0.4 μm.
[0086]
Finally, in order to produce the seventh contact layer, NH is used as a source gas. Three , TMG and TMA (trimethylaluminum) as acceptor impurities EtCp 2 Using Mg gas, an Mg-doped p-type GaN layer 208 was grown by 0.5 μm.
[0087]
Further, a positive electrode 210 and a negative electrode 209 were formed on the Mg-doped p-type GaN layer 208 and the Si-doped n-type GaN layer 201, respectively, for LD element formation. In the method of laminating the n-type layer and the p-type layer of the LD element structure, the p-type layer may be laminated first, and the active layer and the n-type layer may be laminated.
[0088]
The LD element structure uses the processed structure substrate 200 with the flat n-type GaN film produced in the second embodiment, but the GaN produced by the methods of the first and third to ninth embodiments. A membrane may be used. Furthermore, the formation of the GaN film in each embodiment and the production of the LD element structure in the present embodiment may be produced consistently within one apparatus. Alternatively, a GaN film obtained by removing the processed structure substrate from the GaN film obtained in each embodiment may be used.
[0089]
When the LD device manufactured according to the tenth embodiment was subjected to a high-temperature acceleration test of 2 mW light output in a 50 ° C. atmosphere, a continuous oscillation life of 8000 hours or more was confirmed in terms of use at room temperature. This continuous oscillation lifetime was an improvement of about 20% or more of the lifetime obtained by subjecting an LD device manufactured by the conventional technique to the same high temperature accelerated test. The reason why such a highly reliable LD element can be realized is due to the effect of the reduction of dislocation density and the prevention of impurity mixing according to the above embodiment.
[0090]
(Embodiment 11) FIG. 7 shows an LED element structure as a light-emitting element structure fabricated according to Embodiment 11. Show . In this embodiment, an example in which an LED element structure is manufactured using an MBE device over the nitride semiconductor structure manufactured in the above embodiment will be described.
[0091]
The processed structure substrate 300 with the n-type GaN film produced in the first embodiment was transferred to the MBE apparatus, and the first n-type GaN layer 301 was grown by 2 μm. Next, the second n-type single quantum well In 0.45 Ga 0.55 The N layer 302 was formed to 4 nm. Subsequently, p-type Al is used to prevent In in the quantum well active layer from evaporating during growth of the nitride semiconductor layer immediately above the active layer. 0.1 Ga 0.9 The N evaporation preventing layer 303 was grown to 100 nm. Finally, the third p-type GaN contact layer 304 was grown by 0.4 μm.
[0092]
Further, a positive electrode 306 and a negative electrode 305 were formed on the Mg-doped third p-type GaN contact layer 304 and the first n-type GaN layer 301, respectively, for LED elements.
[0093]
When the electron-photon conversion efficiency of the LED device manufactured according to the eleventh embodiment was measured, there were about 88% or more of the entire wafer that could be regarded as practically no problem, and the conventional technology. The LED element yield rate was increased by about 13%. Further, when the LED element was subjected to a reliability test after 1000 hours, a light emission intensity of 97% or more at the start of the test could be obtained. This ensured practical reliability. The reason why such a highly reliable LED element can be realized is due to the effect of reducing dislocation density, preventing impurities from being mixed, and preventing cracks according to the above embodiment.
[0094]
Further, the LED element structure uses the processed structure substrate 300 with the n-type GaN film produced in the first embodiment, but the GaN film produced by the method of the second to ninth embodiments can be used. Good. Furthermore, the formation of the GaN film in each embodiment and the production of the LD element structure in the present embodiment may be produced consistently within one apparatus. Alternatively, a GaN film obtained by removing the processed structure substrate from the GaN film obtained in each embodiment may be used.
[0095]
(Embodiment 12)
FIG. 9A shows a configuration diagram of the GaN film 405 fabricated according to the present embodiment. Further, a broken line (boundary line between the GaN layer 402 and the GaN film 405) in FIG. 9A corresponds to the uneven shape of the groove 403 in FIG. 9C. The twelfth embodiment includes a GaN buffer layer 401 grown on a sapphire substrate 400, a GaN layer 402, a groove 403 formed on the GaN layer 402, a cavity 404 formed by the groove 403, and a GaN film 405. Has been.
[0096]
Next, a manufacturing method of Embodiment 12 will be described. The growth substrate was a C-plane of a sapphire substrate. First, the sapphire substrate 400 is transferred into a MOCVD apparatus furnace, and the substrate temperature is 1100 ° C., H 2 Thermal cleaning was performed in an atmosphere for 10 minutes. Subsequently, trimethylgallium (TMG) as a group III source and ammonia (NH Three ) Was supplied into the growth furnace, and the GaN buffer layer 401 was grown to 30 nm at a growth temperature of 550 ° C. For the growth, an AlN buffer layer may be used in addition to the GaN buffer layer. The growth of these buffer layers is a well-known technique in the growth of nitride semiconductor crystals. After growing the GaN buffer layer 401, the substrate temperature was raised to 1050 ° C. to grow the GaN layer 402 by 3 μm. Next, the substrate (hereinafter referred to as a GaN substrate with sapphire) grown to the GaN layer 402 is taken out from the MOCVD apparatus furnace, and <11-20 with respect to the GaN crystal using the FIB method on the GaN layer 402 surface. A groove 403 was formed in the> direction. The side wall surface of the groove 403 includes a {1-100} plane that is a cleavage plane of the GaN crystal. A top view and a cross-sectional view of the groove 403 formed at this time are shown in FIGS. 9B and 9C, respectively. As shown in FIG. 9, the substrate is provided with a GaN film on the growth surface side.
[0097]
The groove 403 has a width b = 5 μm, a depth h = 2 μm, and a groove-to-groove interval (one cycle) L = 10 μm. At this time, the relationship between the groove width b and the groove depth h is at least h ≧ 0.2 × b.
[0098]
A GaN film 405 was grown to 200 μm on the GaN layer 402 including the groove 403 formed by the above method using the HVPE method. A method for forming the GaN film 405 will be described below.
[0099]
First, the sapphire-attached GaN film substrate is sufficiently washed with an organic solvent and transported into the HVPE apparatus. Next, NH is used as a group V gas for crystal growth of the GaN film 405. Three Gas and carrier H 2 Gas mixed at 2000 cc / min and 10000 cc / min for each gas, and for group III gas, HCl gas 100 cc / min was supplied onto Ga metal previously held at a temperature of about 700 ° C. in the HVPE apparatus by Ga gas. Group III chloride and carrier H, which is a reaction product of HCl and HCl gas 2 A gas mixed with 1000 cc / min of gas was sent to the HVPE growth furnace, and a GaN film 405 was grown to 200 μm. The GaN film 405 grew smoothly with the trench 403 completely buried. When the surface of the GaN film 405 was observed with an optical microscope, no cracks were generated. The threading dislocation density of the GaN film 405 obtained in the twelfth embodiment is about 10 6 -10 7 cm -2 Met. Also, like the above embodiment, SiO 2 Since a mask pattern such as the above is not used, contamination of impurities can be prevented.
[0100]
The cross-sectional shape of the groove 403 was rectangular, but the {1-101} facet surface was self-formed when the GaN film 405 was grown (FIG. 9D). This is because the {1-101} plane has a slower GaN crystal growth rate than other plane orientations. The groove 403 is formed in the <11-20> direction in the twelfth embodiment because the nitride semiconductor crystal (especially GaN crystal) has a {1-101} plane that has a slower crystal growth rate than the {0001} plane. Is caused to appear as a side wall surface of the groove 403. Therefore, the method is not limited to the <11-20> direction of the groove as long as the {1-101} plane (or facet plane) of the nitride semiconductor crystal appears.
[0101]
As a result of observing the process of burying the groove 403 by the GaN film 405, the following was found. The depth of the groove 403 formed on the GaN layer 402 increased with the growth of the GaN film 405. This is because the growth in the {0001} plane is faster than the crystal growth in the {1-101} plane, and the growth is promoted in the growth axis direction without being filled, so that the depth of the groove is increased. This is because it looks like this (FIG. 9D). That is, since the {1-101} plane has a slower crystal growth rate of GaN than the other plane (the surface diffusion long distance is long), Ga atoms flying to the {1-101} plane are taken in as GaN. It is considered that Ga atoms were previously ejected to the {0001} plane and bonded to N atoms on the {0001} plane to grow GaN.
[0102]
As the crystal growth of the GaN film 405 proceeds, the growth area of the {0001} plane decreases, and finally a trench having a triangular uneven shape surrounded by the {1-101} facet plane is formed. The configuration at this time is indicated by a solid line in FIG. A broken line in FIG. 9A corresponds to the groove 403 in FIG. Further, as the GaN crystal growth proceeds, there is no {0001} plane as a discharge destination (since there is only a {1-101} facet plane), and this time, the {1-101} facet plane starts to grow. This is because growth of the {0001} plane is growth in the growth axis direction, whereas growth of the {1-101} facet plane is pseudo growth in the lateral direction (transverse to the growth axis). is there. As the growth of the {1-101} facet surface begins, the groove 403 begins to fill. However, since the growth progressed in the growth axis direction until the groove portion was covered with the {1-101} facet surface, the groove depth was deeper than the depth when the groove 403 was formed (the source gas was GaN, which has grown from both sides of the groove by lateral growth, meets at the center of the groove, but due to a slight difference in crystal orientation, a gap is formed without being completely bonded. The configuration at this time is shown in FIG. The broken line and the dotted line in FIG. 9 (e) correspond to the configuration diagrams of FIG. 9 (c) and FIG. 9 (d), respectively. The above factors form the cavity 404.
[0103]
The cavity 404 formed in this way is considered to cause strain relaxation as in the above embodiment. Regarding the reduction of threading dislocation density, in addition to the above-mentioned cavity, when the cavity 404 is filled by lateral growth, the threading dislocation is bent from the growth axis direction to the horizontal axis direction with the {1-101} facet plane as a boundary surface. It is considered that the threading dislocation density reaching the outermost surface of 405 is reduced.
[0104]
Nitride semiconductor Body membrane When the depth h of the groove portion formed above is h ≧ b with respect to the width b of the groove portion, the groove portion is sufficiently deep and the source gas does not reach the bottom portion of the groove portion, so that the groove portion is not buried. Part is formed. Therefore, when the depth of the groove is sufficiently deep, a hollow portion is formed as in the second or third embodiment, for example, instead of the twelfth embodiment.
[0105]
(Embodiment 13)
The thirteenth embodiment is the same as the twelfth embodiment except that the groove direction of the twelfth embodiment is changed to the <1-100> direction of the nitride semiconductor crystal.
[0106]
Accordingly, as in the twelfth embodiment, the present embodiment will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0107]
9A shows a sapphire substrate 400, a GaN buffer layer 401, a GaN layer 402, a groove 403 formed on the GaN layer 402, and a GaN film 405 laminated on the GaN layer 402 on which the groove 403 is formed. In some cases, the GaN film 405 is composed of the cavity 404 remaining without being buried by the GaN film 405 and the GaN film 405. However, the broken line in FIG. 9A is shown for convenience in order to show the shape of the groove 403, and the shape shown by the broken line disappears when the GaN film 405 is laminated.
[0108]
Next, a method for manufacturing the GaN film 405 of the present embodiment will be described. The growth substrate was a C-plane of a sapphire substrate. First, the sapphire substrate 400 is transferred to the MOCVD apparatus furnace, and the substrate temperature is 1100 ° C., H 2 Thermal cleaning was performed in an atmosphere for 10 minutes. Subsequently, trimethylgallium (TMG) as a group III source and ammonia (NH Three ) Was supplied into the growth furnace, and the GaN buffer layer 401 was grown to 30 nm at a growth temperature of 550 ° C. For the growth, an AlN buffer layer may be used in addition to the GaN buffer layer. The growth of these buffer layers is a well-known technique in the growth of nitride semiconductor crystals. After growing the GaN buffer layer 401, the substrate temperature was raised to 1050 ° C., and the GaN layer 402 was grown by 2 μm. Next, the substrate (hereinafter referred to as a GaN substrate with sapphire) grown to the GaN layer 402 is taken out of the MOCVD apparatus furnace, and the surface of the GaN layer 402 is subjected to reactive ion etching on the surface of the GaN crystal. Grooves 403 were formed in the 1-100> direction. The side wall surface of the groove 403 includes the {11-20} plane of the GaN crystal. A top view and a cross-sectional view of the groove 403 formed at this time are shown in FIGS. 9B and 9C, respectively. As shown in FIG. 9, the substrate is provided with a GaN film on the growth surface side.
[0109]
The groove 403 has a width b = 3 μm, a depth h = 1 μm, and a groove-to-groove interval (one cycle) L = 7 μm. The relationship between the groove width b and the groove depth h at this time satisfies h ≧ 0.2 × b.
[0110]
On the GaN layer 402 including the groove 403 formed by the above method, a GaN film 405 was grown to 80 μm using the HVPE method in the same manner as in the twelfth embodiment. The GaN film 405 grew smoothly with the trench 403 buried therein. When the surface of the GaN film 405 was observed with an optical microscope, no cracks were generated. The threading dislocation density of the GaN film 405 obtained in the thirteenth embodiment is about 10 6 -10 7 cm -2 Met. Also, like the above embodiment, SiO 2 Since a mask pattern such as the above is not used, contamination of impurities can be prevented.
[0111]
The cross-sectional shape of the groove 403 was rectangular, but the {11-2i} facet surface was self-formed when the GaN film 405 was grown. Here, i is 0 ≦ i ≦ 3. The multiple types of {11-2i} facet surfaces exist because the self-formed facet surface changes depending on the growth conditions. According to the findings by the present inventors, depending on the partial pressure ratio of the group V material and the group III material, if the group V material / group III material is relatively high, a {11-20} facet surface is likely to be formed. If it is low, a facet surface similar to the {11-22} plane or the {11-23} plane appears.
[0112]
Such a self-formed facet surface appears because the {11-2i} plane has a slower crystal growth rate of GaN than the {0001} plane. In particular, the {11-20} facet plane is perpendicular to the growth plane {0001} and the GaN crystal growth rate is also slow.
[0113]
The groove 403 is formed in the <1-100> direction in the thirteenth embodiment because the {11-2i} plane has a slower crystal growth rate than the {0001} plane in the nitride semiconductor crystal (particularly the GaN crystal). This is because (0 ≦ i ≦ 3) appears as the side wall surface of the groove 403. Therefore, the method is not limited to the <1-100> direction of the groove as long as the {11-2i} plane (or facet plane) of the nitride semiconductor crystal appears. As a result of observing the process in which the GaN film 405 covers the groove 403, the following was found.
[0114]
The depth of the groove 403 formed on the GaN layer 402 increased with the growth of the GaN film 405. This is because the growth in the {0001} plane is faster than the crystal growth in the {11-2i} plane, and the growth is promoted in the growth axis direction without being filled, so that the depth of the groove is increased. Because it looks like. That is, since the {11-2i} plane has a slower GaN crystal growth rate than the {0001} plane (the surface diffusion long distance is long), Ga atoms flying into the {11-2i} plane are taken in as GaN. It is considered that Ga atoms are expelled to the {0001} plane before being bonded, and GaN grows by combining with N atoms on the {0001} plane. As a result of further detailed investigation, the depth of the groove obtained in the present embodiment was somewhat shallower than that in the twelfth embodiment. This is because the GaN crystal growth rate of the {11-2i} facet surface (0 ≦ i ≦ 3) is faster than the {1-101} facet surface of the twelfth embodiment (the surface diffusion long distance is short). This is presumably because the groove is buried before it deepens (the cavity 404 becomes smaller). Therefore, when the groove 403 is formed in the <1-100> direction, the hollow portion 404 may be difficult to form. As a solution, only when the groove 403 is formed in the <1-100> direction, the bottom of the groove is not dug down to the sapphire substrate even if the relationship h ≧ 0.2 × b or h ≧ b is satisfied. good. That is, it is preferable that at least the nitride semiconductor is in contact with the bottom of the groove 403. Although the reason for this is not clear, by doing in this way, Ga atoms flying to the {11-2i} facet surface are discharged to both the bottom of the groove and the surface of the GaN layer 402 ({0001} surface), and {11 -2i} It seems that the growth rate of the facet surface can be suppressed. Although Ga atoms spouted to the bottom of the groove grow on the bottom of the groove, gas is less likely to enter the groove compared to the surface of the GaN layer 402, and as a result, the depth of the groove 403 becomes deeper. Conceivable. On the other hand, when the bottom of the groove is sapphire, Ga atoms spouted from the {11-2i} facet surface are unlikely to adhere to the sapphire, and thus return to the {11-2i} facet surface again, so {11-2i The growth rate of the facet surface could not be suppressed, and the depth of the groove 403 was very shallow compared to the above, and the cavity 404 was hardly formed.
[0115]
In the growth on the GaN layer 402 in which the groove 403 is formed, the growth area of the {0001} plane decreases as the crystal growth of the GaN film 405 proceeds, and is finally surrounded by the {11-2i} facet plane. A groove having a triangular irregular shape is formed. However, in the case of the {11-20} facet plane, it grows while maintaining the rectangular shape.
[0116]
Among the facet shapes, when a {11-2i} facet surface (0 <i ≦ 3) appears as the side wall surface of the groove, if the GaN crystal growth further proceeds after the triangular shape, it becomes a discharge destination { Since there is no 0001} plane, this time the {11-2i} facet plane begins to grow. This is because the growth of the {0001} plane is growth in the growth axis direction, whereas the growth of the {11-2i} facet is pseudo growth in the lateral direction (lateral to the growth axis). is there. As the growth of the {11-2i} facet starts, the groove 403 begins to fill. However, since the growth progressed in the growth axis direction until the groove portion was covered with the {11-2i} facet surface, the groove depth was deeper than the depth when the groove 403 was formed (the source gas was GaN, which has grown from both sides of the groove by lateral growth, meets at the center of the groove, but due to a slight difference in crystal orientation, a gap is formed without being completely bonded. The above factors form the cavity 404.
[0117]
On the other hand, when the {11-20} facet surface appears as the side wall surface of the groove, the crystal growth proceeds with the rectangular shape, the growth in the growth axis direction of the {0001} surface, and the lateral direction of the {11-20} facet surface Growth in the same direction (lateral to the growth axis) occurs in the same way. Groove 403 begins to be filled by the growth of the {11-20} facet. However, since the growth in the growth axis direction has progressed until the groove portion is covered with the {11-20} facet surface, the groove depth is deeper than the depth when the groove 403 is formed (the source gas is GaN, which has grown from both sides of the groove by lateral growth, meets at the center of the groove, but due to a slight difference in crystal orientation, a gap is formed without being completely bonded. The above factors form the cavity 404.
[0118]
The cavity 404 formed in this way is considered to cause strain relaxation as in the above embodiment. Regarding the reduction of threading dislocation density, in addition to the above-mentioned cavity part, when the cavity part 404 is filled by lateral growth, the threading dislocations bend from the growth axis direction to the lateral axis direction with the {11-2i} facet plane as a boundary surface. It is considered that the threading dislocation density reaching the outermost surface of 405 is reduced.
[0119]
Nitride semiconductor Body membrane When the depth h of the groove portion formed above is h ≧ b with respect to the width b of the groove portion, the groove portion is sufficiently deep and the source gas does not reach the bottom portion of the groove portion, so that the groove portion is not buried. Part is formed.
[0120]
When the groove part is formed in the <1-100> direction as in the present embodiment, the lateral growth rate is faster than when formed in the <11-20> direction described in the twelfth embodiment. Even if the GaN film 405 is not thickened, a flat GaN film 405 can be obtained. Further, since the lateral growth rate is high, the width of the groove can be increased, and the threading dislocation density can be further reduced.
[0121]
As a method of using this embodiment, for example, the sapphire substrate 400 can be peeled off with a polishing machine, and the GaN film 405 can be taken out and used as a GaN substrate.
Alternatively, an element with excellent emission characteristics can be manufactured by manufacturing the light-emitting element of Embodiment 10 or 11 on the GaN film 405 obtained in this embodiment.
[0122]
In particular, a light emitting device structure having an active layer that emits light is preferably formed above the groove. For example, in the case of a nitride semiconductor laser diode, it is preferable that the direction of the ridge stripe and the direction of the groove are formed in parallel above the groove. More preferably, the formation position of the ridge stripe is formed along the direction of the groove part at an upper part at a position at least 1 μm away from the center line of the groove part. The reason why the distance from the center of the groove is 1 μm is that the central portion of the groove is a portion where the GaN films meet as a result of the lateral growth, and the threading dislocation density is somewhat high and is easily broken. The direction of the ridge stripe is preferably the <1-100> direction in consideration of the formation of the mirror end face of the laser diode. Therefore, the groove forming direction is also preferably the <1-100> direction. By forming a ridge stripe at a position sufficiently above the groove as described above, a laser diode having a long oscillation lifetime and a low oscillation threshold current density can be manufactured. Of course, a light emitting element may be formed on the GaN substrate, or the sapphire substrate 400 may be peeled off after the light emitting element is formed.
[0123]
If the direction of the groove shown in this embodiment is within ± 5 ° from the <1-100> direction, the same effect as this embodiment can be obtained. Also in the direction of the groove portion of the twelfth embodiment, the same effect as that of the twelfth embodiment can be obtained as long as it is within ± 5 ° from the <11-20> direction. However, a facet surface similar to the facet surface described in the above embodiment appears on the side wall surface of the groove.
[0124]
(Embodiment 14)
The fourteenth embodiment is the same as the twelfth embodiment or the thirteenth embodiment except that the bottom of the groove is dug down to the low-temperature GaN buffer layer of the twelfth or thirteenth embodiment.
[0125]
The structure of the GaN film 505 manufactured in this embodiment is shown in FIG.
FIG. 10A includes a sapphire substrate 500, a low-temperature GaN buffer layer 501, a GaN layer 502, a cavity 504, a GaN film 505, and polycrystalline GaN 506.
Next, a method for manufacturing the GaN film 505 according to the present embodiment will be described. First, the sapphire substrate 500 is transferred to the MOCVD apparatus furnace, and the substrate temperature is 1100 ° C., H 2 Thermal cleaning was performed in an atmosphere for 10 minutes. Subsequently, trimethylgallium (TMG) as a group III source and ammonia (NH Three ) Was supplied into the growth furnace, and a low-temperature GaN buffer layer 501 was grown to 30 nm at a growth temperature of 550 ° C. The above growth is performed by using a low temperature AlN buffer layer or a low temperature Al in addition to the low temperature GaN buffer layer. x Ga 1-x N buffer layers (0 <x <1) may be used. Here, the low-temperature nitride semiconductor buffer layer refers to a layer in which a nitride semiconductor is grown at a growth temperature of 600 ° C. or lower.
[0126]
The crystallinity of the low temperature buffer layer is amorphous. After growing the low-temperature GaN buffer layer 501, the substrate temperature was raised to 1050 ° C. to grow the GaN layer 502 by 4 μm. FIG. 10B shows the growth film laminated structure thus fabricated. The low-temperature GaN buffer layer 501 is amorphous. However, in order to stack the GaN layer 502, the growth temperature is increased to at least 1000 ° C., so that the amorphous GaN buffer layer 501 changes from amorphous to polycrystalline. Therefore, most of the low-temperature GaN buffer layer after the growth of the GaN layer 502 is polycrystallized.
[0127]
Next, the substrate having the crystal grown up to the GaN layer 502 was set in a reactive ion etching apparatus, and a groove 503 was formed on the surface of the GaN layer 502. The structure of the groove at this time is shown in FIG. The groove 503 has a width b = 8 μm, a depth h = 3.99 μm, and a distance between grooves (one cycle) L = 20 μm. In this way, the bottom of the groove 503 is formed so as to reach the low temperature GaN buffer layer 501. The direction of the groove 503 is preferably formed in the <11-20> direction or the <1-100> direction as in the twelfth or thirteenth embodiment.
[0128]
On the GaN layer 502 including the groove 503 formed by the above method, a GaN film 505 was grown by 300 μm using the HVPE method in the same manner as in the twelfth embodiment. As a result, the GaN film 505 covered the groove 503 and grew smoothly. When the surface of the GaN film 505 was observed with an optical microscope, no cracks were generated. The threading dislocation density of the GaN film 505 obtained in the fourteenth embodiment is about 5 × 10 6 cm -2 Met. Also, like the above embodiment, SiO 2 Since a mask pattern such as the above is not used, contamination of impurities can be prevented.
[0129]
As a result of observing the process in which the GaN film 505 covers the groove 503, the following was found. The depth of the groove 503 formed on the GaN layer 502 became deep as the GaN film 505 grew. This is because the bottom of the groove 503 reaches the low-temperature GaN buffer layer, and the bottom of the groove 503 is composed of polycrystalline GaN. That is, although a GaN single crystal grows in the growth axis direction on the surface (convex part) of the GaN layer 502 other than the groove 503, only the polycrystalline GaN 506 is grown in the groove part, and in all directions. Growth progresses and the groove 503 is hardly filled, and as a result, the cavity 504 is formed. In this way, the growth is promoted in the growth axis direction without filling the groove portion, so that it looks as if the depth of the groove is increased.
[0130]
From the above, the following can be considered as factors for forming the cavity 504.
On the surface (convex portion) of the GaN layer 502 other than the groove 503, the growth in the growth axis direction of the {0001} plane is the same as the crystal growth in the lateral direction (lateral growth) with respect to the growth axis. The groove 503 starts to be covered by the lateral growth. However, the groove 503 is not easily filled due to the polycrystalline GaN 506, and during that time, the growth in the growth axis direction has progressed. It ’s harder to get in). Furthermore, since the groove is polycrystalline, the GaN film 505 cannot be continuously connected and grown, and the groove is covered only by lateral growth from the surface (convex portion) of the GaN layer 502 other than the groove 503. Is done.
[0131]
In addition, since the polycrystalline GaN 506 is composed of crystal orientations different from each other, it has a grain boundary shape and has numerous minute gaps. Therefore, even if the cavity 504 is filled with the polycrystalline GaN 506, the GaN film 505 immediately above the polycrystalline GaN 506 is subjected to strain relaxation.
[0132]
The cavity 504 or the polycrystalline GaN 506 formed in this way relaxes the strain as in the above embodiment. Regarding the reduction of threading dislocation density, in addition to the above-mentioned cavity, when the cavity 504 is filled by lateral growth, the threading dislocation is bent from the growth axis direction to the horizontal axis direction. It is considered to be reduced.
[0133]
As a method of using the present embodiment, for example, the sapphire substrate 500 can be peeled off with a polishing machine, and a 300 μm GaN film 505 can be taken out and used as a GaN substrate.
[0134]
Alternatively, an element with excellent emission characteristics can be manufactured by manufacturing the light-emitting element of Embodiment 10 or 11 on the GaN film 505 obtained in this embodiment.
[0135]
In particular, an element having an active layer that emits light is preferably formed above the groove. For example, in the case of a nitride semiconductor laser diode, it is preferable that the direction of the ridge stripe and the direction of the groove are formed in parallel above the groove. More preferably, the ridge stripe is formed along the direction of the groove part above a position at least 1 μm apart from the center line of the groove part in the lateral direction.
[0136]
The reason why the distance from the center line of the groove is 1 μm is that the position of the center line of the groove is a portion where the GaN films meet as a result of the lateral growth, and the threading dislocation density is somewhat high and is easily broken. It is not preferable to form a ridge stripe above. The direction of the ridge stripe is preferably the <1-100> direction in consideration of the formation of the mirror end face of the laser diode. Therefore, the groove forming direction is also preferably the <1-100> direction. By forming a ridge stripe at the above position, a laser diode having a long oscillation lifetime and a low oscillation threshold current density can be manufactured. Of course, a light emitting element may be formed on the GaN substrate, or the sapphire substrate 500 may be peeled off after the light emitting element is formed.
[0137]
In this embodiment, since the cavity 504 is formed by growing the polycrystalline GaN 506 in the groove, it does not basically depend on the width of the groove, but in order to form the cavity 504 more efficiently. The relationship between the groove width b and the groove depth h is preferably h ≧ 0.2 × b or h ≧ b.
[0138]
(Embodiment 15)
The fifteenth embodiment is the same as the twelfth embodiment except that the groove direction of the twelfth embodiment is formed in two directions of [11-20] and [-2110] directions of the nitride semiconductor crystal.
[0139]
The method of forming the GaN film of this embodiment is the same as that of Embodiment 12. However, as for the direction of the groove, two of the three directions of [11-20] direction, [-2110] direction, and [1-210] direction of the nitride semiconductor were selected to form the groove.
[0140]
The groove has a width b = 10 μm, a depth h = 5 μm, and a groove-to-groove interval (one cycle) L = 15 μm. The thickness of the GaN layer grown on the sapphire substrate is 6 μm. As a result, the threading dislocation density is about 7 × 10. Five cm -2 Reduced to
The groove satisfies the relationship of h ≧ 0.2 × b, but h ≧ b may be satisfied. Further, as in the fourteenth embodiment, the groove may be formed so that the position of the bottom of the groove reaches the low temperature buffer layer. Further, the groove width, the groove depth, and the interval between the grooves in the grooves may not be the same.
[0141]
(Embodiment 16)
The sixteenth embodiment is the same as the twelfth embodiment except that the groove direction of the twelfth embodiment is formed in the [11-20], [-2110], and [1-210] directions of the nitride semiconductor crystal. .
[0142]
The method of forming the GaN film of this embodiment is the same as that of Embodiment 12. However, the grooves were formed by selecting all three directions of the nitride semiconductor [11-20] direction, [-2110] direction, and [1-210] direction.
[0143]
The groove has a width b = 5 μm, a depth h = 5.5 μm, and a groove-to-groove interval (one cycle) L = 10 μm. The thickness of the GaN layer grown on the sapphire substrate is 6 μm. As a result, the threading dislocation density is about 2 × 10. Five cm -2 Reduced to
The groove satisfies the relationship of h ≧ b, but b> h ≧ 0.2 × b may be satisfied. Further, as in the fourteenth embodiment, the groove may be formed so that the position of the bottom of the groove reaches the low temperature buffer layer. Further, the groove width, the groove depth, and the interval between the grooves in the grooves may not be the same.
[0144]
(Embodiment 17)
The seventeenth embodiment is the same as the thirteenth embodiment except that the groove direction of the thirteenth embodiment is formed in the [1-100] and [10-10] directions of the nitride semiconductor crystal.
[0145]
The method of forming the GaN film of this embodiment is the same as that of Embodiment 13. However, as for the direction of the groove, two of the three directions of the [1-100] direction, [10-10] direction, and [01-10] direction of the nitride semiconductor were selected to form the groove.
[0146]
The groove has a width b = 8 μm, a depth h = 0.99 μm, and a groove-to-groove interval (one cycle) L = 16 μm. The thicknesses of the low-temperature GaN buffer layer and the GaN layer grown on the sapphire substrate are 30 nm and 1 μm, respectively. As a result, the threading dislocation density is about 7 × 10. 6 cm -2 Reduced to
[0147]
The groove is formed so that the position of the groove bottom reaches the low-temperature buffer layer, but may satisfy the relationship of h ≧ 0.2 × b or the relationship of h ≧ b. Further, the groove width, the groove depth, and the interval between the grooves in the grooves may not be the same.
[0148]
(Embodiment 18)
The eighteenth embodiment is the same as the thirteenth embodiment except that the groove direction of the thirteenth embodiment is formed in the [1-100], [10-10], and [01-10] directions of the nitride semiconductor crystal. is there.
[0149]
The method of forming the GaN film of this embodiment is the same as that of Embodiment 13. However, the grooves were formed by selecting all three directions of the [1-100] direction, [10-10] direction, and [01-10] direction of the nitride semiconductor.
[0150]
The groove has a width b = 4 μm, a depth h = 0.98 μm, and an interval between the grooves (one period) L = 10 μm. The thicknesses of the low-temperature GaN buffer layer and the GaN layer grown on the sapphire substrate are 30 nm and 1 μm, respectively. As a result, the threading dislocation density is about 2 × 10. Five cm -2 Reduced to
[0151]
The groove is formed so that the position of the groove bottom reaches the low-temperature buffer layer and satisfies the relationship h ≧ 0.2 × b, but may satisfy the relationship h ≧ b. . Further, the groove width, the groove depth, and the interval between the grooves in the grooves may not be the same.
[0152]
(Embodiment 19)
The nineteenth embodiment is the same as the twelfth or thirteenth embodiment except that the groove directions are formed in the <11-20> direction and the <1-100> direction.
[0153]
The method for forming the GaN film of this embodiment was manufactured in the same manner as in Embodiment 12 or Embodiment 13. However, the directions of the grooves are the <11-20> direction and the <1-100> direction of the nitride semiconductor. The groove has a width b = 2 μm, a depth h = 1 μm, and a groove-to-groove interval (one cycle) L = 6 μm. The thickness of the GaN layer grown on the sapphire substrate is 2 μm. As a result, the threading dislocation density is about 5 × 10 Five cm -2 Reduced to
[0154]
The groove satisfies the relationship of h ≧ 0.2 × b, but h ≧ b may be satisfied. Further, as in the fourteenth embodiment, the groove may be formed so that the position of the bottom of the groove reaches the low temperature buffer layer. Further, the groove width, the groove depth, and the interval between the grooves in the grooves may not be the same.
[0155]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, by applying the present invention, a crystal dislocation density is low on a substrate having a lattice constant or thermal expansion coefficient different from that of a nitride semiconductor, and there is no crack even when a thick nitride semiconductor film is formed. In addition, it has become possible to epitaxially grow a high-quality nitride semiconductor with little impurity contamination without performing complicated two-stage growth.
[0156]
Furthermore, when a light-emitting element structure was fabricated on a high-quality nitride semiconductor film grown by the above-described nitride semiconductor film manufacturing method, an LED or LD with a high yield rate and very high luminous efficiency could be fabricated. .
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a nitride semiconductor according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a processed structure substrate according to the first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing a processed structure substrate according to a second embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing a processed structure substrate according to a third embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a processed structure substrate and a nitride semiconductor according to a ninth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a laser diode element structure according to a tenth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a light-emitting diode element structure according to an eleventh embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining a growth method in the present invention.
FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a nitride semiconductor film structure according to a twelfth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a nitride semiconductor film structure according to a fourteenth embodiment of the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
100 Processed structure substrate
110 Groove
111, 112, 115 grooves
113 Irregularities
114 Convex
116 cavity
120 GaN buffer layer
121 n-type GaN film
122 GaN film
123 Nitride semiconductor film on convex part
124 Nitride semiconductor film on trench
125 Nitride semiconductor
200, 300 Nitride semiconductor structure
201 Si-doped n-type GaN layer
202 Si-doped n-type AlGaN layer
203 Si-doped n-type GaN layer
204 n-type InGaN / InGaN multiple quantum well layers
205 p-type AlGaN evaporation prevention layer
206 Mg-doped p-type GaN layer
207 Mg-doped p-type Al 0.1 Ga 0.9 N layers
208 Mg-doped p-type GaN layer
209, 305 Negative electrode
210, 306 Positive electrode
301 first n-type GaN layer
302 Second n-type single quantum well InGaN layer
303 p-type AlGaN evaporation prevention layer
304 Third p-type GaN contact layer
400 Sapphire substrate
401 GaN buffer layer
402 GaN layer
403 groove
404 cavity
405 GaN film
500 Sapphire substrate
501 Low temperature GaN buffer layer
502 GaN layer
503, 504 Cavity
505 GaN film
506 Polycrystalline GaN

Claims (12)

  1. A single member substrate having a growth surface on which a concave portion and a convex portion made of the same material are formed, and the same nitride semiconductor film grows on the concave portion and the convex portion, and
    The nitride semiconductor film formed on the growth surface;
    A nitride semiconductor structure having a cavity in the recess.
  2. The nitride semiconductor film is
    A nitride semiconductor buffer layer;
    The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 1, comprising a nitride semiconductor film grown on the nitride semiconductor buffer layer.
  3.   The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 1, wherein the concave portion and the convex portion are configured by a plurality of parallel grooves.
  4.   The groove width (b) is 10 μm or less, the groove depth (h) is h ≧ 0.2 × b, and the distance between the center lines of adjacent grooves is 20 μm or less. 4. The nitride semiconductor structure according to 3.
  5.   The width b of the groove is 10 μm or less, the depth h of the groove is h ≧ b, and the distance between the center lines of adjacent grooves is 20 μm or less. Nitride semiconductor structure.
  6.   The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 3, wherein the groove is formed along a <1-100> direction with respect to the nitride semiconductor film.
  7.   The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 3, wherein the groove is formed along a direction of a cleaved surface or an etching stable surface of the substrate.
  8.   At least the growth surface of the substrate is made of a nitride semiconductor, and the groove is provided along the <11-20> direction or the <1-100> direction with respect to the nitride semiconductor film. The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 3.
  9.   9. The nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 8, wherein the nitride semiconductor at the bottom of the groove is polycrystalline.
  10. Forming a growth surface having a concave portion and a convex portion made of the same material on a single member substrate, or a plurality of parallel grooves made of the same material, and growing the same nitride semiconductor film on the growth surface of the substrate And a step of forming a cavity in the recess or groove in order.
  11.   10. A light emitting device comprising: the nitride semiconductor structure according to claim 1; and a light emitting device structure having an active layer made of a nitride semiconductor formed on the nitride semiconductor structure.
  12.   The ridge stripe structure provided in the light emitting element structure is provided above the center line of the recess in the nitride semiconductor structure at a position of at least 1 μm or more in the lateral direction, and the direction of the ridge stripe is at least one. The light emitting device according to claim 11, wherein the light emitting device is parallel to the direction of the groove.
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