JP3884905B2 - A vegetation floating island friendly to aquatic life - Google Patents

A vegetation floating island friendly to aquatic life Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3884905B2
JP3884905B2 JP2000309834A JP2000309834A JP3884905B2 JP 3884905 B2 JP3884905 B2 JP 3884905B2 JP 2000309834 A JP2000309834 A JP 2000309834A JP 2000309834 A JP2000309834 A JP 2000309834A JP 3884905 B2 JP3884905 B2 JP 3884905B2
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dimensional network
net
floating island
dimensional
porous layer
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JP2002112652A (en
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健二 地本
洋 北川
庸輔 高井
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大和紡績株式会社
ダイワボウポリテック株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/60Fishing; Aquaculture; Aquafarming

Description

【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、湖沼、河川やダムなどの水面を利用して植物を繁茂させた浮島を設置することで、当該水系の浄化と共に、魚介類や昆虫の幼虫などの水棲生物の産卵と育成ならびに保護を目的とした、水中下面に、適度な糸条間空隙を持つ立体網状体を配した、植物植生床または植物育成礁である水棲生物に優しい植生浮島に関する。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
従来、景観の向上や生態系の復元を計るための浮島として、特許第3020441号や特開平10−56893号公報での提案があるが、当該浮島のベースとして浮島のたわみ防止のための剛性のある多孔性板がもっぱら使用され、稚魚や水棲生物の住み家となるほどの大きさの空隙を有する立体網状体を浮島のベースまたは当該ベースの下位に配し、積極的に稚魚や水棲生物の住み家とする考えのものはなく、スパイラル状の糸条を用い、上下面の糸条密度が内部より高い立体網状体を用いる場合は有っても、少なくとも浮島の水没する下面を形成する部分に、下面を開口部とした糸条間空隙を持つ立体網状体を用いた浮島はなかった。
【0003】
【発明が解決しょうとする課題】
本発明は、従来の浮島が、もっぱら剛性のある多孔性板を用い、浮島中央部の波による上下の揺動を防止することに注目され、浮島下面の水没部分の積極的な利用が考慮されていないため、稚魚や水棲生物の住み家として十分機能していない問題があった。また、立体網状体を浮島に用いる場合、単に立体網状体を重ねるだけでは、剛性を確保しにくく、かつ、浮力材を立体網状体に固定するに問題があった。
【0004】
【課題を解決するための手段】
本発明は、かかる課題を解決するため、熱可塑性合成樹脂からなる、太さが0.1〜1.5mmの多数の連続糸条が不規則なループをなしてその交差点で接着されて一体化している網状体の実質厚みが0.1〜4mmであり、当該網状体が凹凸状に厚み方向に波打っているため見掛けの厚みが5〜80mmとなり、糸条のない空隙を有する立体網状体を浮島の下面に用いることによつて、適度な大きさの該糸条のない空隙を浮島の下面に形成し、かつ、下面に当該空隙の開口部を設けることで、稚魚や水棲生物の住み家として機能させ、魚介類の産卵などには、当該空隙の壁面を構成している連続糸条が供され、浮島の上部に植生された植物の根は自由に立体網状体の連続糸条間を通じて展開するので、より自然に近い環境の前記空隙が確保される。また、これらの根は、水中より有機物、窒素や燐の養分などを吸収するため、浮島を設置した水系の浄化も期待できるし、浮島に生育している植物によって、水系の美感向上も期待できる。なお、当該立体網状体で構成された浮島の下面を形成する多孔性層はその厚みを20〜400mmとするので、うねりの減衰効果も生じ、浮島の安定性に寄与する。
【0005】
また、立体網状体を浮島に用い、より大きい剛性を要求される場合は、該立体網状体の最上面に、より好ましくは網状体が縦方向のプリーツ形状で縦方向での剛性が強化された網状体を該網状体のプリーツ方向に垂直な方向にプリーツ状に折り曲げ、前記立体網状体の最上面に接着して三角柱断面の構造となし、この三角断面の空隙に、浮力材を挿入することで、浮島の下面を構成する立体網状体の剛性を向上させると共に、浮力材の固定場所も提供することで目的を達する。
【0006】
【発明の実施の形態】
発明の実施の形態について実施例の図示に基づいて以下に説明する。本発明の水棲生物に優しい植生浮島の構成は、図1に略示する様に浮島の水没する下面を、下面に開口部を有する適度な大きさの糸条間空隙を持つ立体網状体で構成するもので、該立体網状体の上部に独立気泡の発泡体もしくは木材などの微細空隙を持つ浮力材とそれを覆う植栽用着根材が配され、これらの固定のためネットを使用している。
【0007】
具体的に本発明に用いる立体網状体を説明すると、図2に示す様な、凹凸が彫刻された金型4に、多数の連続糸条1を溶融紡糸の紡糸口金2より吐出させて、連続糸条を金型に添わせて集積させて交差点を熱接着させて一体化させた網状体3を得る。該網状体は金型に添って大部分は平板状となり、その厚みは、連続糸条の径の1〜3倍となる。該網状体が冷却して形状を固定すると、図4〜6に例示する金型に添った凹凸のある目的の立体網状体5となり、少なくとも金型が占めていた部分には糸条のない空隙ができ、立体網状体の一面に該空隙は開口部を持つものとなる。壁面を構成する前記網状体は多数の糸条で構成されているため、糸条間隙の多い多孔性壁であり、全体として一定の見掛け厚みを持つ多孔性層となる。また、さらに大きな空隙を確保できる請求項3の可撓性ネット7に連続糸条1が部分的に引っ掛かり、底面では網状体3を形成するボックス状空隙を有する立体網状体6を図7に例示する。
【0008】
本発明に使用する立体網状体は溶融押出できる熱可塑性樹脂であれば良く、経済的には合成樹脂が好ましく、ポリプロピレンやポリエチレンなどのポリオレフィン樹脂、ポリエステル樹脂、ポリアミド樹脂などやこれらの共重合体や混合物が好ましく用いられる。より好ましくは、柔軟性を配慮した樹脂もしくは配合物で作ると、タフネスが向上し脆さのないものとできる。
【0009】
本発明に使用する立体網状体の連続糸条は、その径を0.1〜1.5mmとすることが好ましく、過小であると立体網状体の圧縮応力が劣り嵩がでにくく、過大であると糸条数が減り、形状が保ちにくくなるので好ましくない。またこの範囲の繊維径では、網状体の厚みは0.1〜4mmとなる。
【0010】
本発明に使用する立体網状体の見掛け厚みは、5〜80mmであるが、20〜80mmが好ましく、図4〜5に例示するものは、15〜40mm、図7に例示するものは40〜80mmが特に好ましく、これらの立体網状体を組合せて積層して使用することも好ましい。
【0011】
立体網状体で構成する、本発明の浮島の下部の多孔性層は、その厚みを20〜400mmとするのが良く、一般的には80〜200mmが好ましい。20mm未満では水棲生物に対し効果が低く、400mmを超えると、波浪などの外力で容易に破損し易く好ましくない。また、一枚の立体網状体はその目付けを0.6〜2Kg/m2 とするのが都合良く、これらを重ねて上記多孔性層を構成することも好ましい。
【0012】
本発明の立体網状体の剛性に問題がある場合、請求項5の様に、多孔性層の最上部の立体網状体に、上方に凸の三角形状に別の立体網状体をプリーツ状に折畳んで、谷部分を接着し、三角柱が横に並んだ状態として容易に補強できる。またこのプリーツ状に接着する立体網状体は、図6例示する波板状もしくはプリーツ状に成形されたものを用いると補強効果を増進でき、上記プリーツの高さをHとすると、約2/ルート3Hの間隔ごとに図6に例示する波板の稜線に直交する方向に幅約5〜10mmの熱プレスして折れ易くすると組み立てに都合が良い。また、三角断面の空隙に、浮力材を挿入すると、浮力材の固定もでき好都合である。
【0013】
また、請求項3の可撓性ネットは、漁網やスクリムネツトで良く、ホリエステルマルチフィラメントからなる目合い30〜80mmの漁網が特に好ましい。また、本発明の立体網状体は目合い20〜100mmの該可撓性ネットで補強されていることも好ましい。
【0014】
本発明の多孔性層の最上部に位置する立体網状体は、その上面に不織布や紙などを接着して、植栽用着根材の流出を防止することも好ましい。
【0015】
本発明に用いる浮力材は、ポリスチレンなどの独立気泡の発泡体およびこれらをシートや樹脂で被覆して耐久性を高めたもの、樹脂製の中空パイプなどの中空体の両端を密閉したものやこれらに発泡樹脂を封入したもの、乾燥した木材の表面をワツクスなどで防水したものなどが都合良く、発泡ビーズなどを耐久性のある袋などに入れたものなど、浮力を生じるものであれば良く、特には限定されない。最も好ましくは少なくともこれらの浮力材の一部に剛性のある素材を使用し、これらを連結して浮島の剛性を高めるのが望ましく、中空パイプを一定間隔で配置し、これらを少なくとも両端で金属材などで固定して井桁状にして強度を高めるのも好ましい。
【0016】
本発明に用いる植栽用着根材は、ヤシ殻繊維などの植物繊維、ホリエステル繊維などの合成繊維などの繊維類や前記立体網状体にこれら繊維類を挿入したものが都合良く用いられ、これら植栽用着根材の一部にピートモスなどの腐葉土を混合することも好ましく、この混合場所に所望の育成したい植物を直植もしくはポットを挿入することで、所望の植物を植生できる。望ましい植物は、淡水ではヨシ、マコモ、稲などの稲科の植物、アヤメなどのアヤメ科の植物、猫柳などの柳、汽水ではマングローブなどが推薦できる。また、手入れのし易い場所では、季節の花を随時植生することも好ましい。
【0017】
これら、浮力材や植栽用着根材は、立体網状体よりなる多孔性層に固定するため、少なくともこれらの表面をネットで覆うのが好ましく、当該ネットで立体網状体も収納することが、制作上、運搬上都合が良い。この場合は、植栽用着根材を覆う部分より、多孔性層を覆うネツトの目合いを大きくすることが、好ましい。また、植栽用着根材に植物を植える時、必要に応じ、ネットを切り裂いても良い。本発明の浮島は、予め植生孔を植栽用着根材に開けておくことも好ましい。
【0018】
(作用)本発明の水棲生物に優しい浮島は、水没した下面が、多数の連続糸条が不規則なループをなしてその交差点で接着されて一体化している、実質厚みが数mmの網状体が凹凸状に厚み方向に波打っているため、見掛けの厚みが大きく糸条のない空隙を有する立体網状体で構成されており、下面に当該空隙の開口部があるため、稚魚や水棲生物の住み家として機能させ、魚介類の産卵などには、けることで、面を構成している連続糸条が供され、浮島の上部に植生された植物の根は自由に立体網状体の連続糸条間を通じて展開するので、より自然に近い環境の前記空隙が確保される。また、これらの根は、水中より有機物、窒素や燐の養分などを吸収するため、浮島を設置した水系の浄化も期待できるし、浮島に生育している植物によって、水系の美感向上も期待できる。なお、当該立体網状体で構成された浮島の下面を形成する多孔性層はその厚みを20〜400mmとするので、うねりの減衰効果も生じ、浮島の安定性に寄与する。
【0019】
【実施例】
次に本発明の効果を実施例と、比較例で具体的に説明する。 (実施例1) 立体網状体として、約0.7mmの繊径のポリプロピレンからなる目付け0.8Kg/m2 で、畦と畦の間隔が約25mmの厚み25mmのダイワボウ製タングレツトを3枚重ね、所々を紐で縛って、1m幅で1m2 の多孔性層とし、その上に外径約9cmで長さが1.1mのパイプに発泡ポリスチレンの円筒を挿入したパイプを4角を45゜に切断し4角を溶接して、□形としたパイプ構造物を浮力材として紐で固定し、この浮力材の内側に厚さ10cmのヤシ殻繊維マットを植栽用着根材として乗せ、目合い4cmの約1mmの2子撚りポリエステルマルチフィラメントの漁網で上面を覆い、浮力材に紐で縛って、固定して、下面が立体網状体でなる浮島とした。当該浮島は下面に十分空隙を有するものであり、小型の水棲生物が自由に空隙に入れ、かつ、糸条によって構成されている壁にも1cm2 〜0.3cm2 程の穴があり、ここからさらに内部の立体網状体にも侵入可能なものとなった。さらに腐葉土を入れたポットで育苗したアヤメをポットのまま上面の9箇所に、漁網の一部を切り、その下のヤシ殻繊維マットに十字の切れ目を入れて押し込んで、植生したものを、池に入れたところ、浮島とできた。これを近隣の溜め池に約1月浮かべておいたところ、めだかがこの周辺で群れており、隠れ家としての機能を発揮している様子であった。
【0020】
(実施例2)立体網状体として、約0.7mmの繊径のポリプロピレンからなる連続糸条を、山谷間が20mmの機械方向に三角柱が寝ている形状で、20cm毎に幅1cmの帯鉄が三角柱の上端の稜線と直交している様になした金型を有している図2の設備を用いて、20cm毎に折り目が入っている厚み20mmのプリーツ形状の立体網状体を作成した。一枚を底辺とし、もう一枚を20cm毎に折り目よりプリーツ状におり、一辺が20cmの木製の三角柱の稜線に前記の折った立体網状体の折り目に合わせ、底辺となる立体網状体の折り目をこれに合わせて押しつけながら、ガストーチでこれらを部分的に溶接した、折った立体網状体を底辺の立体網状体の反対側で折り曲げ、この折り曲げた次の折り目を底辺となる立体網状体の次の折り目と合わせ、同様に溶接することで、高さが約17cmの片面が一枚の立体網状体に溶接されたプリーツ形状の、立体網状体の組み立て物とした。この組み立て物の底面を構成している立体網状体に実施例1に用いた25mmのタングレットを2枚紐で所々縛り、これらを固定した。次に、立体網状体の組み立て物の三角柱空間に、これに合う様、発泡スチロールの三角柱を作り、挿入して浮力材とした。立体網状体組み立て物の谷間に、ヤシ殻繊維を充填して、植栽用着根材とし、これを実施例1に用いた漁網で覆い、立体網状体組み立て物の端面に紐で縫い付けて、浮島とし、池に浮かべたところ、浮島とすることができた。
【0021】
【発明の効果】
本発明の浮島の下面は、小型の水棲生物が自由に出入りできる程の空隙を有しており、従来の浮島に比べ小型の水棲生物の隠れ家として有利となっており、前記した立体網状体の組み立て物を使用すると、低重量で浮島の強度補強と浮力材の固定ができ都合が良い。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】 本発明の浮島の概略斜視図である。
【図2】 本発明に用いる立体網状体の製造装置の概略図である。
【図3】 図2のA部側面図である。
【図4】 図3の金型上の網状体の部分拡大図である。
【図5】 本発明に用いる立体網状体の一形態を示す斜視図である。
【図6】 本発明に用いる波板状立体網状体の一形態を示す斜視図である。
【図7】 本発明に用いるボックス状空隙を有する立体網状体の一形態を示す斜視図である。
【符号の説明】
1 連続糸条
2 紡糸口金
3 交差点が接着して一体化した網状体
4 凹凸のある金型の例
5 立体網状体
6 ボックス状空隙を有する立体網状体
7 可撓性ネット(漁網)
11 多孔性層
12 浮力材
13 植栽用着根材
14 ネット
15 固定用紐(ビニロン紐など)
16 圧着ロール
17、18 ガイドロール
20 植生浮島
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention installs floating islands where plants are proliferated using the water surface of lakes, rivers, dams, etc., and in addition to purifying the water system, spawning, breeding and protection of aquatic organisms such as seafood and insect larvae For vegetation floating islands that are friendly to aquatic organisms that are plant vegetation beds or plant reefs, with a three-dimensional network with moderate inter-thread gaps on the underwater surface.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, there are proposals in Japanese Patent No. 3020441 and Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-56893 as floating islands for improving the landscape and restoring ecosystems, but as a base of the floating islands, rigidity for preventing deflection of the floating islands has been proposed. A porous net is used exclusively, and a three-dimensional network with voids that are large enough to be a resident of fry and aquatic organisms is placed on the base of floating islands or below the base to actively live fry and aquatic organisms. There is nothing to think of as a house, even if there are cases where spiral threads are used and solid meshes with higher and lower thread density than the inside are used, at least on the part that forms the submerged bottom surface of the floating island There was no floating island using a three-dimensional network having a gap between yarns having an opening on the lower surface.
[0003]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In the present invention, a conventional floating island uses a rigid porous plate to prevent vertical swinging due to waves at the center of the floating island, and the active use of the submerged portion of the lower surface of the floating island is considered. There was a problem that it did not function as a resident of fry and aquatic organisms. In addition, when a three-dimensional network is used for a floating island, it is difficult to ensure rigidity by simply overlapping the three-dimensional network, and there is a problem in fixing the buoyancy material to the three-dimensional network.
[0004]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to solve such a problem, the present invention integrates a plurality of continuous yarns made of a thermoplastic synthetic resin, each having a thickness of 0.1 to 1.5 mm, which are irregularly looped and bonded at their intersections. The net thickness of the mesh body is 0.1 to 4 mm, and since the mesh body is undulated in the thickness direction, the apparent thickness is 5 to 80 mm, and the three-dimensional network body has voids without threads. Is formed on the lower surface of the floating island, and an opening of the void is formed on the lower surface of the floating island. For the spawning of seafood, etc., the continuous yarn that forms the wall surface of the gap is provided, and the roots of the plants vegetated on the upper part of the floating island are freely spaced between the continuous yarns of a three-dimensional network Because it expands through, the above-mentioned voids in a more natural environment are secured. It is. In addition, these roots absorb organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients from the water, so purification of the water system where floating islands are installed can be expected, and the aesthetics of the water system can also be improved by the plants growing on the floating islands. . In addition, since the porous layer which forms the lower surface of the floating island composed of the three-dimensional network has a thickness of 20 to 400 mm, a swell attenuation effect also occurs, contributing to the stability of the floating island.
[0005]
In addition, when a three-dimensional network is used for floating islands and greater rigidity is required, the uppermost surface of the three-dimensional network is more preferably a pleated shape in the vertical direction, and the rigidity in the vertical direction is reinforced. Folding the mesh body into a pleat shape in a direction perpendicular to the pleat direction of the mesh body and adhering it to the uppermost surface of the three-dimensional network body to form a triangular prism section structure, inserting a buoyancy material into this triangular section gap Thus, the object is achieved by improving the rigidity of the three-dimensional network constituting the lower surface of the floating island and also providing a fixing place for the buoyancy material.
[0006]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Embodiments of the present invention will be described below based on the illustrations of the embodiments. The structure of the vegetation floating island friendly to aquatic organisms of the present invention is composed of a three-dimensional network having a moderately sized inter-yarn gap having an opening on the lower surface of the floating island as shown in FIG. The buoyancy material having fine voids such as closed cell foam or wood and the planting root material covering it are arranged on the upper part of the three-dimensional net-like body, and a net is used for fixing them. Yes.
[0007]
Specifically, the three-dimensional network used in the present invention will be described. A continuous thread 1 is ejected from a spinneret 2 for melt spinning onto a mold 4 with engraved irregularities as shown in FIG. The net 3 is obtained by accumulating the yarn along the mold and integrating the intersections by heat bonding. Most of the mesh body is in the form of a flat plate along the mold, and its thickness is 1 to 3 times the diameter of the continuous yarn. When the net is cooled and fixed in shape, the target three-dimensional net 5 having irregularities along the mold illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 6 is obtained, and at least the gap occupied by the mold is free of yarn. The gap has an opening on one surface of the three-dimensional network. Since the network constituting the wall surface is composed of a large number of yarns, it is a porous wall with many yarn gaps, and a porous layer having a constant apparent thickness as a whole. Further, FIG. 7 illustrates a three-dimensional network 6 having a box-shaped gap in which the continuous yarn 1 is partially hooked on the flexible net 7 according to claim 3 and can form a net 3 on the bottom. To do.
[0008]
The three-dimensional network used in the present invention may be a thermoplastic resin that can be melt-extruded, and is preferably a synthetic resin economically, a polyolefin resin such as polypropylene or polyethylene, a polyester resin, a polyamide resin, or a copolymer thereof. Mixtures are preferably used. More preferably, when it is made of a resin or a compound considering flexibility, it can be improved in toughness and free of brittleness.
[0009]
The continuous thread of the three-dimensional network used in the present invention preferably has a diameter of 0.1 to 1.5 mm, and if it is too small, the compression stress of the three-dimensional network is inferior and is not easily bulky and is excessive. This is not preferable because the number of yarns is reduced and the shape is difficult to maintain. Moreover, in the fiber diameter of this range, the thickness of a mesh body will be 0.1-4 mm.
[0010]
The apparent thickness of the three-dimensional network used in the present invention is 5 to 80 mm, preferably 20 to 80 mm, those illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 5 are 15 to 40 mm, and those illustrated in FIG. 7 are 40 to 80 mm. Is particularly preferable, and it is also preferable to use these three-dimensional networks in combination.
[0011]
The thickness of the porous layer in the lower part of the floating island of the present invention constituted by a three-dimensional network is preferably 20 to 400 mm, and generally 80 to 200 mm. If it is less than 20 mm, the effect on aquatic organisms is low, and if it exceeds 400 mm, it is not preferred because it is easily damaged by external forces such as waves. In addition, it is convenient for one solid network to have a basis weight of 0.6 to 2 Kg / m 2, and it is also preferable that the porous layer is formed by stacking them.
[0012]
When there is a problem in the rigidity of the three-dimensional network of the present invention, as in claim 5, another three-dimensional network is folded in a pleated shape on the uppermost three-dimensional network of the porous layer in a triangular shape protruding upward. It can be easily reinforced by folding and adhering the valleys and placing the triangular prisms side by side. In addition, if the three-dimensional network bonded to the pleat shape is formed in the corrugated plate shape or the pleated shape illustrated in FIG. 6, the reinforcing effect can be enhanced. If the height of the pleat is H, about 2 / route It is convenient for assembling if it is easy to break by hot pressing with a width of about 5 to 10 mm in the direction orthogonal to the ridgeline of the corrugated plate illustrated in FIG. 6 at intervals of 3H. In addition, it is convenient to fix the buoyancy material by inserting the buoyancy material into the gap having a triangular cross section.
[0013]
Further, the flexible net of claim 3 may be a fishing net or a scrimnet, and a fishing net having a mesh size of 30 to 80 mm made of a polyester multifilament is particularly preferable. Moreover, it is also preferable that the three-dimensional network body of this invention is reinforced with this flexible net | network of 20-100 mm of meshes.
[0014]
It is also preferable that the three-dimensional network located at the top of the porous layer of the present invention adheres a nonwoven fabric or paper to the upper surface to prevent the rooting material for planting from flowing out.
[0015]
The buoyancy material used in the present invention includes closed-cell foams such as polystyrene and those that are covered with a sheet or resin to enhance durability, and those that are sealed at both ends of a hollow body such as a resin-made hollow pipe. Conveniently encapsulated with foamed resin, waterproofed dry wood surface with wax, etc., such as foam beads in a durable bag, etc., as long as it produces buoyancy, There is no particular limitation. Most preferably, it is desirable to use a rigid material for at least a part of these buoyancy materials, and to connect them to increase the rigidity of the floating islands. It is also preferable to increase the strength by fixing with a cross-beam and the like.
[0016]
The planting root material used in the present invention is conveniently used as a fiber such as a palm fiber such as a coconut shell fiber, a synthetic fiber such as a horiester fiber, or a material obtained by inserting these fibers into the three-dimensional network. It is also preferable to mix humus such as peat moss into a part of these planting root materials, and a desired plant can be vegetated by directly planting a desired plant to be cultivated or inserting a pot. Desirable plants include rice plants such as reed, macomo and rice in fresh water, iris plants such as iris, willows such as pussy willow, and mangroves in brackish water. In an easily cared place, it is also preferable to vegetate seasonal flowers as needed.
[0017]
These buoyancy materials and planting root materials are fixed to a porous layer made of a three-dimensional network, so that at least these surfaces are preferably covered with a net, and the three-dimensional network can also be stored with the net. Convenient for production and transportation. In this case, it is preferable to make the mesh of the net covering the porous layer larger than the portion covering the planting root material. Further, when planting a planting root material, the net may be cut as necessary. In the floating island of the present invention, it is also preferable to open a vegetation hole in a rooting material for planting in advance.
[0018]
(Function) The floating island friendly to aquatic organisms according to the present invention has a submerged lower surface, and a net-like body having a substantial thickness of several millimeters, in which a large number of continuous yarns are bonded together at an intersection of irregular loops. Is formed in a three-dimensional net-like body having a large apparent thickness and voids without threads, and since there is an opening of the voids on the bottom surface, By functioning as a dweller, and for spawning seafood, etc., the continuous threads that make up the surface are provided, and the roots of the plants vegetated on the upper part of the floating island are freely continuous threads in a three-dimensional network Since it develops through the interstices, the air gap in a more natural environment is secured. In addition, these roots absorb organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients from the water, so purification of the water system where floating islands are installed can be expected, and the aesthetics of the water system can also be improved by the plants growing on the floating islands. . In addition, since the porous layer which forms the lower surface of the floating island composed of the three-dimensional network has a thickness of 20 to 400 mm, a swell attenuation effect also occurs, contributing to the stability of the floating island.
[0019]
【Example】
Next, the effects of the present invention will be specifically described with reference to examples and comparative examples. (Example 1) As a three-dimensional network, three pieces of Daiwabo tanglets with a basis weight of 0.8 kg / m 2 made of polypropylene having a fine diameter of about 0.7 mm and a thickness of 25 mm with a gap between the ridges of about 25 mm, Each part is tied with a string to form a porous layer with a width of 1 m and a width of 1 m 2 , and a pipe with an expanded polystyrene cylinder inserted into a pipe having an outer diameter of about 9 cm and a length of 1.1 m is set to 45 ° on each side. Cut and weld four corners, fix the □ -shaped pipe structure with a string as a buoyancy material, and place a 10 cm thick coconut shell fiber mat as a planting root material inside the buoyancy material, The upper surface was covered with a fishing net of about 1 mm twin-twisted polyester multifilament of 4 cm in size, tied to a buoyant material with a string, and fixed to form a floating island with a lower surface made of a solid network. The floating island is one having a sufficient air gap to the lower surface, a small aquatic organisms freely placed in the gap, and there is 1cm 2 ~0.3cm 2 degree holes in the wall that is configured by the yarn, wherein Therefore, it is possible to penetrate into the internal three-dimensional network. In addition, cut a part of the fishing net in the top nine places of the iris that grew in the pot containing humus, cut a part of the fishing net, put a cross cut into the coconut shell fiber mat below, and planted the vegetation. When I put it in, I made floating island. When this was floated in a nearby pond for about one month, Medaka gathered around here and seemed to function as a retreat.
[0020]
(Example 2) As a three-dimensional network, a continuous thread made of polypropylene having a diameter of about 0.7 mm is shaped such that a triangular prism is lying in a machine direction with a mountain space between 20 mm, and a band iron with a width of 1 cm every 20 cm. A pleated three-dimensional network having a thickness of 20 mm with a crease every 20 cm was created using the equipment shown in FIG. 2 having a mold that is perpendicular to the ridgeline at the top of the triangular prism. . One sheet is the base, and the other sheet is pleated from the folds every 20 cm, and the folds of the three-dimensional network that forms the bottom are aligned with the folds of the folded three-dimensional network on the edge of a wooden triangular prism with one side of 20 cm. The folded three-dimensional network body was partially welded with a gas torch while being pressed in accordance with this, and the folded three-dimensional network body was bent at the opposite side of the three-dimensional network body at the bottom, and the next crease was the next to the three-dimensional network body serving as the bottom. By combining the creases and welding in the same manner, a three-dimensional network assembly of a pleat shape in which one side having a height of about 17 cm was welded to a single three-dimensional network was obtained. The three-dimensional network forming the bottom surface of the assembly was bound with two 25 mm tongues used in Example 1 with a string, and these were fixed. Next, in the triangular prism space of the assembly of the three-dimensional net-like body, a styrene foam triangular prism was made and inserted to make a buoyancy material. Fill the valleys of the three-dimensional network assembly with coconut shell fibers to make a rooting material for planting, cover this with the fishing net used in Example 1, and sew the end surface of the three-dimensional network assembly with a string. When floating on a pond, it was possible to make a floating island.
[0021]
【The invention's effect】
The lower surface of the floating island of the present invention has a gap that allows small aquatic organisms to freely enter and exit, and is advantageous as a hideout for small aquatic organisms compared to conventional floating islands. Using an assembly is convenient because it can reduce the weight and strengthen the strength of the floating island and fix the buoyancy material.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a floating island of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an apparatus for producing a three-dimensional network used in the present invention.
3 is a side view of part A in FIG. 2. FIG.
4 is a partially enlarged view of a mesh body on the mold in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of a three-dimensional network used in the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of a corrugated three-dimensional network used in the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of a three-dimensional network having a box-shaped gap used in the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Continuous thread 2 Spinneret 3 Reticulated body 4 which the crossing point adhere | attached and integrated 4 Example of uneven | corrugated metal mold | die 3 Solid network body 6 Solid network body 7 which has box-shaped space | gap 7 Flexible net (fishing net)
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 11 Porous layer 12 Buoyancy material 13 Planting root material 14 Net 15 Fixing string (Vinylon string etc.)
16 Crimp rolls 17 and 18 Guide roll 20 Vegetation Ukishima

Claims (6)

  1. 立体網状体が1枚または複数枚重ね合わされた厚みが20〜400mmの多孔性層と、前記多孔性層の上面に浮力材と植栽用着根材を配して、大部分の当該上部表面を植栽用着根材で形成し、少なくとも浮力材と植栽用着根材の表面をネットで覆い平板形状とした浮島からなり、
    前記立体網状体は、熱可塑性合成樹脂からなる太さが0.1〜1.5mmの多数の連続糸条が不規則なループをなしてその交差点で接着されて一体化している厚み0.1〜4mmの網状体が凹凸状に波打って、網状体により多数の糸条で構成された壁面と、糸条のない空隙からなる開口部を有する凹凸を形成した立体網状体であり、
    前記立体網状体の見掛けの厚みが5〜80mmであり、
    前記浮島は、1つまたは水平方向に連結した複数個で構成されることを特徴とする水棲生物に優しい植生浮島。
    A porous layer having a thickness of 20 to 400 mm in which one or more three-dimensional nets are superposed, a buoyancy material and a planting root material on the upper surface of the porous layer, and most of the upper surface It is made of a floating island made of planting root material, covered with a net at least the surface of the buoyancy material and planting root material,
    The three-dimensional network has a thickness of 0.1 in which a large number of continuous yarns having a thickness of 0.1 to 1.5 mm made of a thermoplastic synthetic resin form irregular loops and are bonded together at their intersections. A -3 mm mesh body in which a mesh body of ~ 4 mm undulates in a concavo-convex shape to form a concavo-convex having a wall surface composed of a number of yarns by the mesh body and an opening made of voids without yarns,
    The apparent thickness of the three-dimensional network is 5 to 80 mm,
    The floating island is composed of one or a plurality of horizontally connected vegetation floating islands friendly to aquatic organisms.
  2. 前記立体網状体の開口部が浮島の下面を形成している、請求項1記載の水棲生物に優しい植生浮島。 The vegetation floating island kind to aquatic organisms according to claim 1, wherein the opening of the three-dimensional network forms the lower surface of the floating island.
  3. 前記立体網状体は、可撓性ネットに多数の連続糸条が少なくとも部分的に引っ掛かり可撓性ネットの30〜80mm下位で網状に重ね合わされ、その交差点で接着されて一体化している網状体で形成されており、前記可撓性ネットが浮島の下面を形成している、請求項1または2に記載の水棲生物に優しい植生浮島。 The three-dimensional net-like body has a net-like shape in which a large number of continuous yarns are caught at least partially on a flexible net, overlapped in a net shape 30-30 mm below the flexible net, and are bonded and integrated at the intersection . The vegetation floating island kind to aquatic organisms according to claim 1 or 2 , wherein the floating net is formed by a body and the flexible net forms a lower surface of the floating island.
  4. 前記多孔性層を構成する立体網状体の最上面に不織布または紙が接着してい、請求項1〜3のいずれかに記載の水棲生物に優しい植生浮島。The nonwoven fabric or paper on top of the three-dimensional net-like body constituting the porous layer that has adhered, friendly vegetation island to aquatic organisms according to claim 1.
  5. 前記多孔性層を構成する立体網状体の最上面に、プリーツ状に折り畳んで上方向に凸の三角形状となるように形成された補強用立体網状体が配されており、
    前記補強用立体網状体の下側谷線と、多孔性層を構成する立体網状体が接着されており、
    前記補強用立体網状体に形成された三角形状の空隙の少なくとも一部に浮力材が収納、固定されており、
    前記補強用立体網状体の上部に植栽用着根材が配されている、請求項1〜4のいずれかに記載の水棲生物に優しい植生浮島。
    On the uppermost surface of the three-dimensional network constituting the porous layer, a reinforcing three-dimensional network formed so as to be folded upward in a pleated shape to form a triangular shape,
    The lower valley line of the reinforcing three-dimensional network and the three-dimensional network constituting the porous layer are bonded,
    A buoyancy material is housed and fixed in at least a part of the triangular gap formed in the reinforcing three-dimensional network,
    The vegetation floating island kind to aquatic organisms according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein a rooting material for planting is arranged on an upper part of the reinforcing three-dimensional network .
  6. 前記補強用立体網状体が、当該プリーツ方向に直交する方向にジグザグのプリーツ状の形状となって一体化されている立体網状体組み立て物である、請求項5記載の水棲生物に優しい植生浮島。 6. The aquatic organism-friendly vegetation floating island according to claim 5 , wherein the reinforcing three-dimensional network is a three-dimensional network assembly that is integrated in a zigzag pleated shape in a direction perpendicular to the pleating direction .
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