JP3874911B2 - Plating method for micro plastic balls - Google Patents

Plating method for micro plastic balls Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3874911B2
JP3874911B2 JP29950297A JP29950297A JP3874911B2 JP 3874911 B2 JP3874911 B2 JP 3874911B2 JP 29950297 A JP29950297 A JP 29950297A JP 29950297 A JP29950297 A JP 29950297A JP 3874911 B2 JP3874911 B2 JP 3874911B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
plating
tank
film
cathode
sphere
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP29950297A
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Japanese (ja)
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JPH11124682A (en
Inventor
吉村  公志
文秋 菊井
武司 西内
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株式会社Neomaxマテリアル
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a plating method for efficiently producing microspheres used as bump core materials for semiconductor packages using microplastic spheres having an outer diameter of 1 mm or less, and using a horizontally rotatable plating tank. By periodically repeating forward and reverse rotation at high speed, there is no agglomeration of fine plastic spheres with conductive metal films by electroless plating, and no film quality defects such as uneven composition and film thickness. Further, the present invention relates to a method for plating fine plastic spheres capable of depositing an alloy such as solder or metal with high efficiency.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, a microsphere used as a bump core material of a BGA (Ball Grid Array) type semiconductor package has a diameter of about 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm, and the material is not only solder of a predetermined composition, but recently, electrical characteristics. In consideration of the mechanical properties, a chip carrier is proposed in which a metal ball such as Kovar (Ni—Co—Fe alloy), Cu, or 42Ni—Fe alloy is coated with a brazing material (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 62-112355). )
[0003]
As the method for producing the microspheres, a so-called liquid dropping method (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 7-252510), in which molten metal is dropped into a liquid at a predetermined temperature, spheroidized by the surface tension of the molten metal itself, and solidified as it is, mold A so-called mechanical plastic working method such as forming (Japanese Patent Laid-open No. 4-354808), placing metal particles or metal pieces on a flat plate in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, heating and melting them while applying vibrations, and using the surface tension A vibration heating method (Japanese Patent Publication No. 2-50961) that forms a sphere and solidifies as it is proposed.
[0004]
The brazing material on the outer peripheral surface of the microspheres manufactured in this way is appropriately selected depending on the required dimensional accuracy, the bonding strength between the semiconductor package and the printed circuit board, and the like. For example, solder (Pb—Sn series) having various compositions having a thickness of 5 to 50 μm is coated, and an underlayer such as Ni may be formed as necessary.
[0005]
Conventionally, for Cu balls having an outer diameter of 0.67 to 0.75 mm, generally, a barrel in which a positive electrode is disposed outside a plating tank is rotated in the vertical direction by a horizontal axis or inclined by an inclined axis, and is about 5 to 15 rpm. A barrel plating method in which plating is carried out while energizing at a rotational speed of is performed.
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
With today's high-density semiconductor packages, the ball diameter as a chip carrier is further reduced, and 0.25 mm and 0.15 mm Cu balls are required. Further, the weight of Cu balls for BGA is reduced, and secondary mounting on the package. For the purpose of improving the reliability at the time, there has been proposed a weight-reducing ball that is elastically deformable and has a metal plating film on the surface of a BGA plastic ball.
[0007]
Since the micro plastic sphere is non-conductive, the surface of the sphere cannot be coated with a solder plating film by a highly productive electroplating method. It is necessary to coat the spherical surface with a conductive metal film by electroless plating.
[0008]
Next, a solder plating film is provided by a barrel plating method on a fine plastic sphere provided with a conductive metal film by an electroless plating method, but a microsphere having an outer diameter of 1 mm or less is rotated at any speed in the barrel in any direction. The plastic spheres with a small specific gravity are not sufficiently stirred even if they are rotated, and the spheres tend to agglomerate with each other, and a plating film is formed on the plastic spheres to form two or three pieces. There is a problem that the plating film quality is poor due to insufficient contact with the film.
[0009]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to solve the above-described problems and to produce a micro plastic sphere having excellent mass productivity as a BGA (Ball Grid Array) type semiconductor package bump and the like and having a high dimensional accuracy extremely efficiently. Soldering with high efficiency on the surface of the micro plastic sphere without agglomeration in the micro plastic sphere provided with the conductive metal film by the electroless plating method and without causing poor film quality such as non-uniform composition and film thickness. An object of the present invention is to provide a method for plating fine plastic spheres capable of depositing an alloy or a metal plating.
[0010]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
As a result of various studies for the purpose of plating methods capable of efficiently forming a uniform and high-quality electroplated film on fine plastic spheres having an outer diameter of 1 mm or less, the inventors have provided a conductive metal film by an electroless plating method. Using a plating vessel that can be rotated horizontally on a micro plastic sphere, and periodically reversing forward and reverse at high speed, and electroplating a metal such as Cu or an alloy such as solder on the surface, agglomeration may occur. The present invention was completed by discovering that a film can be uniformly formed without causing a defect in film quality.
[0011]
That is, the present invention provides a peripheral portion in the tank that can be rotated horizontally on a vertical axis after a conductive metal film having a film thickness of 0.5 μm to 5 μm is formed on a small plastic sphere having an outer diameter of 1 mm or less by an electroless plating method. The horizontal plastic plating tank is configured to discharge the plating solution fed into the plating tank having the cathode and the anode disposed in the center of the tank from the rotating circumferential part, and the fine plastic spheres are mounted in the plating tank. Type, while repeating rotation control periodically to constant speed operation of the forward and then reversed to the required direction at constant rotation speed to select the plating tank from the rotational speed 50~800Rpm, both a forward reversal of the Energize only during constant speed operation.For example, in the case of solder plating, micro plastic balls are placed around the circumference of the tank under plating bath conditions with an ion concentration of 5 to 20 g / l and a current density of 0.1 to 5 A / dm 2 . Microplasty for electroplating the required metal or alloy in electrical contact with the cathode This is a plating method for the hook ball.
[0012]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The structure of a horizontal rotary plating apparatus used in the method of the present invention is shown in FIG. The plating apparatus mainly includes a conical plating tank 3 mounted on a table 2 supported by a vertical shaft 1, and the plating tank 3 rotates horizontally by the rotation of the vertical shaft 1. A ring-shaped cathode part (cathode) 4 is provided on the circumference, and an anode part (anode) 6 is provided in the central part of the plating tank 3. As shown in the figure, the plating solution is pumped into the plating tank 3 from the chemical solution pipe 7. In addition to being fed in, it is discharged out of the circumferential portion of the plating tank 3 at a flow rate according to the horizontal rotation speed through a porous ring 5 made of a porous plate having good air permeability provided at the lower part of the cathode part 4. The plating solution is discharged from the discharge port 9 of the drip-proof tank 8 arranged so as to cover the surface.
[0013]
When the plating tank 3 rotates, the plating solution flowing out from the porous ring 5 is replenished by the liquid level sensor 10 attached in the plating tank 3 according to the number of rotations, and the plating solution level is maintained at a predetermined height. .
[0014]
In the plating method according to the present invention, the plating tank 3 is normally rotated at a specific rotation number, and then inverted, and this is periodically repeated. The micro plastic ball 11 is rotated when the plating tank 3 is rotated and stopped. It is characterized by the fact that it is difficult to agglomerate because plating is performed while gradually changing the position by repeatedly depositing and collapsing on the circumferential wall surface by the centrifugal force and inertial force that occur.
[0015]
An example of a basic control pattern for controlling the rotation of the plating tank 3 is shown in FIG. Basically, it consists of acceleration rotation-> constant speed (high speed) rotation-> deceleration rotation-> pause operation, and the time setting of each part can be freely programmed. In the present invention, plating is performed by energizing only during a constant speed operation at a predetermined high speed rotation. Since the micro plastic sphere is sufficiently in contact with the cathode by the centrifugal force due to rotation, a uniform and high-quality metal film is produced. A fine metal sphere of good quality can be obtained.
[0016]
In this invention, the outer diameter of the micro plastic sphere is 1.0 mm or less, but if it exceeds this, it will exceed the outer diameter of the ball used as the bump core material of the semiconductor package. Any general plastics such as polypropylene, vinyl chloride, polyphenylene sulfide and the like that can be microsphered can be used.
[0017]
In this invention, a conductive metal film having a film thickness of 0.5 μm to 5 μm is formed on a small plastic sphere by electroless plating. However, since the sphere itself is non-conductive, the intended electroplating is performed. For example, metals such as Ni, Cu, and solder, and alloys can be formed. If the film thickness is less than 0.5 μm, the necessary conductivity cannot be ensured during the electroplating process. In order to raise a problem from the viewpoint of time and cost of the plating solution, 0.5 μm to 5 μm is desirable, and preferably 1 μm to 3 μm.
[0018]
In this invention, the anode uses a metal corresponding to the target metal type and alloy composition as in general electroplating, but the cathode is used with an insoluble electrode such as titanium or platinum attached to the circumferential wall in a ring shape. be able to.
[0019]
In this invention, it is possible to plate micro plastic spheres on all metals that can form a metal film by electroplating, such as Cu, solder, Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy), and the ion concentration in the plating solution. The cathode current density is appropriately selected according to the conductive film of the target fine plastic sphere and the plating metal. The plating bath conditions include an ion concentration of 1 to 70 g / l and a current density of 0.05 to 10 A / dm 2. Is desirable.
[0020]
For example, in the production of Cu-coated microplastic spheres, the Cu ion concentration in the plating solution is less than 40 g / l, and a high voltage is generated between the electrodes, and if it exceeds 70 g / l, disproportionation occurs and high quality plating occurs. Since a film cannot be obtained, 40-70 g / l is preferable, and more preferable conditions are 50-60 g / l. If the current density is less than 1 A / dm 2 , the productivity is poor, and the coating surface is rough and a good coating cannot be obtained. If the current density exceeds 10 A / dm 2 , there is a concern about the generation of pinholes due to the large amount of gas generated during the plating reaction. Therefore, 1-10 A / dm < 2 > is preferable, More preferably, it is 3-5 A / dm < 2 >.
[0021]
In the production of Au-coated microplastic spheres, the Au ion concentration in the plating solution is preferably 1 to 15 g / l, more preferably 2 to 12 g / l, and the current density is 0.05 to 2 A / dm. 2 is preferable, and 0.1 to 1 A / dm 2 is more preferable.
[0022]
In the present invention, when the solder-coated micro plastic sphere is produced, the total ion concentration of tin and lead in the plating solution is less than 5 g / l, and the interelectrode voltage is high and gas is generated. 5 to 20 g / l is preferable, and a more preferable range is 7 to 15 g / l.
[0023]
Further, in the production of solder-coated fine plastic spheres, the cathode current density is less than 0.1 A / dm 2 , and the productivity is poor, and a good plating film with a rough surface cannot be obtained, and the cathode current density exceeds 5 A / dm 2 . Gas generation at the time of plating reaction and plating with many pinholes, and a good plating film cannot be obtained. Therefore, the cathode current density is preferably 0.1 to 5 A / dm 2 , and a more preferable current density range is 0.2. it is a ~2A / dm 2.
[0024]
In this invention, with respect to the number of rotations of the plating tank, sufficient centrifugal force cannot be obtained at less than 50 rpm, and contact with the cathode is not sufficient, so that a good plating film cannot be obtained due to a lot of protrusions on the plating surface, On the other hand, if it exceeds 800 rpm, the plating solution is scattered and stable plating cannot be performed. Therefore, 50 to 800 rpm is preferable.
[0025]
In the present invention, the period of forward and reverse rotation is not efficient when the current passing time is less than 3 seconds, and when it exceeds 8 seconds, the contact time with the cathode is long, and the metal sphere partially covers the cathode portion. The period of forward rotation and reverse rotation is preferably 3 to 8 seconds, so that the constant speed rotation time for energization is preferably 2 seconds to 6 seconds. The normal rotation time and the reverse time may be the same or different.
[0026]
In this invention, the plating solution used is suitably selected according to the metal species in the case of Cu plating, copper sulfate, copper pyrophosphate and the like. In the case of solder plating, A Luke Nord sulfonic tin, alkanol sulfonic lead, A plating solution containing tin phenol sulfonate, lead phenol sulfonate, or the like can be used.
[0027]
【Example】
Example 1
By electroless Ni-B plating, 100,000 cross-linked acrylic spheres with an outer diameter of 0.1 mm coated with a Ni film were used as a 2 μm conductive metal film, tin 7.9 g / l, lead 2. A plating solution with an alkanol sulfonic acid containing 1 g / l and a pH <1 containing a semi-brightening agent is used, a Sn / Pb = 6/4 solder plate is used for the anode plate, a Ti ring is used as the cathode ring, and a bath temperature of 23 Electroplating was performed at ° C.
[0028]
Plating conditions were as follows: electroplating using a negative electrode Ti ring, horizontal rotation speed of plating tank of 600 rpm, current density of 0.5 Adm 2 , forward rotation and inversion period of 6 seconds for 6 hours as a conductive metal film The surface of the acrylic sphere coated with the Ni film was coated with a eutectic solder plating layer having a thickness of 35 μm.
[0029]
Aggregation state, composition variation, film thickness accuracy, and aggregation state of solder plating of the obtained acrylic sphere were measured. The results are shown in Table 1. The composition variation and film thickness accuracy were obtained from the average value, the maximum value, and the minimum value measured by sampling 50 samples.
[0030]
Comparative Example 1
Except for using an acrylic sphere having the same conductive metal film as in Example 1, using a barrel plating apparatus that rotates in the vertical direction on the horizontal axis in the plating apparatus, and without reversing at a rotation speed of 10 rpm, Plating was performed under the same conditions, and the agglomeration state, composition, and film thickness accuracy of the solder plating were measured, and the results are shown in Table 1.
[0031]
[Table 1]
[0032]
Example 2
Using an electroless Ni-B plating method, 100,000 cross-linked acrylic spheres having an outer diameter of 0.1 mm coated with a Ni film as a 2 μm conductive metal film were used, and a sulfuric acid bath containing 55 g / l of Cu was used as a Cu plating bath. The electroplating was performed at a bath temperature of 30 ° C.
[0033]
As for the plating conditions, a Ti ring is used as a cathode ring, phosphorous copper is used as an anode plate, a plating tank has a horizontal rotation speed of 500 rpm, a current density of 3 Adm 2 , a forward rotation, and a reversal period of 6 seconds. After 30 hours, a 30 μm thick Cu plating layer was coated on the surface of an acrylic sphere coated with a Ni film as a conductive metal film.
[0034]
The surface state, film thickness accuracy, and aggregation state of the copper plating of the obtained acrylic sphere were measured. The results are shown in Table 2. The surface condition and film thickness accuracy were determined from the average value, the maximum value, and the minimum value obtained by sampling 50 samples.
[0035]
Comparative Example 2
Except for using an acrylic sphere having the same conductive metal film as in Example 1 and using a barrel plating apparatus that rotates in the vertical direction on the horizontal axis in the plating apparatus, and that there is no inversion at a rotational speed of 10 rpm, Plating was performed under the same conditions, and the agglomeration state, composition, and film thickness variation of the solder plating were measured, and the results are shown in Table 2.
[0036]
[Table 2]
[0037]
【The invention's effect】
As shown in the examples, the present invention uses a plating tank that can be rotated horizontally on the surface of a fine plastic sphere having a conductive metal film by an electroless plating method, and periodically repeats normal inversion at high speed. This makes it possible to deposit alloy and metal plating such as solder with high efficiency without causing agglomeration of fine plastic spheres or causing poor film quality such as non-uniform composition and film thickness. It is possible to efficiently mass-produce micro plastic balls having a required outer diameter with high accuracy plated with a solder film.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal explanatory view of a horizontal rotary plating apparatus used in the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram showing an example of a basic control pattern for controlling the rotation of the plating tank.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Vertical axis 2 Table 3 Plating tank 3a Plating tank bottom part 4 Cathode part 5 Porous ring 6 Anode part 7 Chemical solution pipe 8 Drip-proof tank 9 Outlet 10 Liquid level sensor 11 Micro plastic sphere

Claims (2)

  1. After a conductive metal film with a film thickness of 0.5 μm to 5 μm is formed on a small plastic sphere with an outer diameter of 1 mm or less by electroless plating, the cathode and the center of the tank are placed around the circumference of the tank that can be rotated horizontally around the vertical axis. Using a horizontal rotating plating tank configured to discharge the plating solution fed into the plating tank having an anode disposed at the part thereof from the rotating circumferential part, the fine plastic sphere is charged into the plating tank, and the plating tank the while the rotation control for constant speed operation of the forward and then reversed to the required direction at constant rotation speed to be selected from the rotation speed 50~800rpm periodically and repeatedly, both a forward reversal only during the constant speed operation A plating method for micro plastic spheres, in which energization is carried out and the required metal or alloy is electroplated by bringing the micro plastic spheres into electrical contact with the cathode in the circumferential part of the tank.
  2. 2. The method for plating fine plastic spheres according to claim 1, wherein the plating bath conditions are an ion concentration of 1 to 70 g / l and a current density of 0.05 to 10 A / dm 2 .
JP29950297A 1997-10-15 1997-10-15 Plating method for micro plastic balls Expired - Fee Related JP3874911B2 (en)

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