JP3788104B2 - Gallium nitride single crystal substrate and manufacturing method thereof - Google Patents

Gallium nitride single crystal substrate and manufacturing method thereof Download PDF

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JP3788104B2
JP3788104B2 JP14415199A JP14415199A JP3788104B2 JP 3788104 B2 JP3788104 B2 JP 3788104B2 JP 14415199 A JP14415199 A JP 14415199A JP 14415199 A JP14415199 A JP 14415199A JP 3788104 B2 JP3788104 B2 JP 3788104B2
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JP2000044400A (en
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健作 元木
拓司 岡久
政人 松島
直樹 松本
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住友電気工業株式会社
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[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a GaN single crystal substrate for a light emitting device such as a light emitting diode or a semiconductor laser using a group 3-5 nitride compound semiconductor or an electronic device such as a high power field effect transistor, and a method for manufacturing the same. . In particular, the present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an n-type GaN substrate. Since the conductivity type of the semiconductor is a problem, the impurity that gives the conductivity type is referred to as a dopant here. Other impurities are simply called impurities and will be distinguished.
[0002]
It is GaAs, InP, GaP, etc. that a substrate crystal can be easily obtained with a 3-5 compound semiconductor. These can grow large single crystals by the Bridgeman method or the Choral Ski method. A single crystal ingot is cut into a substrate. However, GaN still has no technology for producing large single crystals. Therefore, a GaN substrate crystal having a practical size cannot be manufactured.
[0003]
Since GaN has a wide band gap, it is used as a blue light emitting element material. Since there is no GaN substrate, another substance is used as the substrate. A blue light emitting device can be formed by laminating a thin film of GaN or other nitride mixed crystal on a suitable substrate. Since GaN is grown on a substrate of another material, it becomes heteroepitaxial. Since the lattice constant is different and the lattice structure is also different, a large number of defects occur in the GaN thin film. However, despite the high defect density, GaN light emitting diodes glow blue. Long life as a light emitting diode. Efficient light emission despite such high density defects is unique to GaN. Reducing defects in GaAs and InP lasers is completely different from what was the supreme command.
[0004]
Here, the expression nitride-based semiconductor means a light emitting element in which not only GaN but also AlN, InN, and a mixed crystal thin film of GaN, AlN, and InN are stacked. It does not mean a general semiconductor containing nitrogen widely. Although GaN is the main component, AlN is also included in part, so GaN is inaccurate. Thus, nitride semiconductors are mainly GaN.
[0005]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, a light-emitting element using a nitride-based semiconductor has used sapphire as a substrate. A device is fabricated by epitaxially growing a GaN thin film on a sapphire substrate by MOCVD. The raw materials are Ga organometallic and ammonia, which are reacted directly. In order to obtain an n-type epitaxial film, silane gas SiH 4 is added to the raw material. Si is an n-type dopant.
[0006]
Since a GaN thin film is mounted, a GaN substrate should be the best. However, it is unavoidable because there is no GaN substrate. GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and lasers for sapphire substrates have been manufactured. Sapphire is a very stable substrate material. It is chemically stable and well withstands high temperatures. Although the difference in lattice constant with GaN is large, a GaN epitaxial growth film having a practical level of characteristics can be obtained relatively easily. Sapphire is relatively inexpensive. It is an easily available material. For this reason, sapphire is exclusively used for the substrate of the GaN light emitting device. The possibility of other than sapphire is examined in the laboratory stage, but the GaN light emitting device substrate that has been commercialized is sapphire without exception.
[0007]
However, sapphire substrates also have drawbacks. The biggest drawback is that there is no cleavage plane. Another difficulty is that it is very hard. When a semiconductor laser is manufactured, it is preferable to use a cleavage plane as a mirror of the resonator. In GaAs lasers and InP lasers, a natural cleavage plane is used for the resonator. The cleavage plane is easily and neatly cut into a mirror surface. Since it is a cleavage plane, the reflectance is high. Since sapphire has no cleaved surface, it forcibly cuts an appropriate surface with a blade. Cutting is difficult and time consuming. Furthermore, since the cut surface has irregularities, it is polished to increase the reflectance. This is a resonator mirror. It is not as cleaved because it is a polished surface. The reflectivity is low, the threshold current is high, and the loss is increased. This is the disadvantage of semiconductor lasers.
[0008]
When making a light emitting diode, a resonator is not necessary because of surface emission. However, since sapphire has no cleavage plane, dicing is difficult and costly. Even in the case of a light emitting diode, the difficulty of cutting is a problem. If there is a natural cleavage plane, it can be separated from the wafer into chips more easily. The lack of a cleavage plane is the biggest problem with sapphire substrates.
[0009]
Then, using SiC with a cleavage plane as a substrate has been studied. SiC has a lattice constant similar to that of GaN and is hard and heat resistant, and GaN grows on it. Natural cleavage is possible because of the cleavage plane. But this is still in the laboratory stage. SiC is a very expensive material. It cannot be manufactured in large quantities and is difficult to supply. If SiC is used as the substrate, the cost becomes high. Mass production of GaN light emitting devices with SiC substrates is not possible. It is unlikely that the sapphire substrate GaN device that has already been distributed will be overcome.
[0010]
When a sapphire substrate is used, there is a problem in that a large number of dislocations are generated in the epitaxial layer because the lattice constants of GaN and sapphire are different. A GaN epitaxial layer of a GaN device that is currently commercially available contains dislocations with a high density of about 10 9 cm −2 . In the case of a GaAs substrate, for example, a substrate made by the pulling method has a dislocation of about 10 4 cm −2, and the dislocation density is smaller in the epitaxial layer. Nonetheless, the defect density was too high and no dislocation was achieved. GaN functions as a light-emitting diode even with a surprisingly high defect density of 10 9 cm −2 . This is a mysterious material. However, in the case of GaN lasers, it is thought that such high density defects may severely limit the lifetime. This is because in the case of a laser, the drive current density is high and the heat generation is significant.
[0011]
In the GaN blue light emitting device, the defect density in the GaN epitaxial layer reaches 10 9 cm −2 because the substrate is sapphire. Heteroepitaxial growth is performed in which the substrate is sapphire and the thin film is GaN. The crystal structure is different and the lattice constant is also different. Such high-density defects are not a problem for light-emitting diodes. This is because the lifetime is sufficiently long. However, in the case of a laser diode, since the current is large, the heat generation is intense, and the defect may be expanded due to nonuniformity of heat generation at the defect. It has been confirmed that the laser lifetime is extended by forming a low-defect GaN layer on the sapphire by ELO (Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth), which will be described later, and forming a laser element structure thereon.
[0012]
One direction is to make GaN with fewer defects while using a sapphire substrate. In accordance with such guidelines, an attempt was recently made to attach a mask having a striped window on a sapphire substrate and to grow GaN thereon. This is called epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO).
IEICE Transactions C-II, vol. J81-C-II, p58-64
[0013]
According to this, it is said that the defect density is reduced as compared with the conventional one. GaN is grown through a mask having a number of long windows (stripe windows) parallel to the crystal axis direction of a single crystal sapphire substrate. If the direction is y, the long side of the window can be simply indicated by x = kΔ, x = (k + ε) Δ (k is an integer, Δ is a period in the x direction, and εΔ is a window width). That is, the stripe direction is the [11-2] or [1-10] direction of sapphire. GaN does not grow on the mask because it uses a material that suppresses growth. This creates an isolated nucleus on the underlying sapphire surface that initially appears in the long window. GaN grows from the nucleus. Its orientation is determined by the crystal orientation of the underlying sapphire. When growing so as to fill the parallel windows of the mask, the crystal growth continues further above. The growth surface extends in a lateral direction from the crystal that has come out above the mask, and crystal growth also occurs on the mask.
[0014]
As the growth continues further, the GaN crystal from the adjacent window that has progressed in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the window comes into contact with each other. The direction is the same because it is determined by the underlying sapphire. In other words, GaN is a single crystal. Since the crystals between the adjacent windows have not been matched so far, the internal stress is small and no defects have occurred in the growth so far. Stress distortion occurs when adjacent crystals merge, but the rate is small. In addition, defects are reduced by increasing the thickness of the GaN crystal.
[0015]
Although the defect density of the GaN / sapphire crystal produced by the stripe mask is reduced, sapphire is a chemically and thermally stable substance, and there is no method for removing only sapphire. Although a method of polishing and removing sapphire is also conceivable, it is difficult to polish due to warpage described later. After all, you can only use it with sapphire attached. Then, there is a problem that it cannot be cleaved like the conventional blue light emitting element. There is also a problem that the substrate is warped because the sapphire of the substrate and the thermal expansion coefficient of the GaN thin film are different. If the substrate is warped, the pattern cannot be accurately drawn by lithography. The pattern written on the resist is distorted. There is also a drawback that it is not suitable for the device manufacturing process. Such a problem cannot be solved with a composite substrate attached to sapphire.
[0016]
GaN is the best substrate for the GaN device. When GaN is epitaxially grown on a GaN single crystal, the defect density will be further reduced. Since GaN has a cleavage plane, the chip can be cut by cleavage. Dicing becomes easy. Moreover, since it is cut by a cleavage plane, a mirror surface can be obtained and the performance as a laser can be improved. A GaN substrate will outperform a sapphire substrate, either mechanically or physically.
[0017]
However, GaN crystals cannot be produced by either the chocolate ski method or the Bridgeman method. Since these crystals are grown while maintaining the equilibrium state between the liquid phase and the solid phase, large crystals can be formed. A GaN substrate cannot be manufactured because a method suitable for manufacturing these large single crystals cannot be used. It is said that if super-high pressure is applied, it can be grown while maintaining an equilibrium state. Since it must be heated to ultrahigh pressure, the container is limited and only extremely small crystals can be produced. GaN is a material that cannot produce large crystals from equilibrium. Nevertheless, the present inventor still thinks that a GaN substrate should be made.
[0018]
Based on this belief, the present inventor has devised a new method for producing a GaN substrate in which GaN is grown on a GaAs substrate by ELO and then the GaAs substrate is etched away. A mask material is attached to a GaAs substrate having an appropriate orientation, and windows are provided in stripes or dots by lithography. The provision of a striped window has the advantage that the growth rate is fast although it has the disadvantage that warpage is likely to occur. The one with a zigzag dot-shaped window has the advantage that warpage is small. Therefore, the gallium nitride single crystal substrate of the present invention can be obtained by any of the above methods. Here, a case where dot windows are provided in a staggered manner will be described. A window is opened at the position of the vertex of an equilateral triangle group having one side in a certain direction. The shape of the window itself is arbitrary. The size d of one side of the equilateral triangle is also arbitrary and may be about several μm. It is important to fill the surface with an equilateral triangle having one side in a certain direction y and open a window at the apex of the equilateral triangle.
[0019]
It is a point-like window group distributed at the triangle vertices of a repeating regular triangle pattern. GaN is vapor grown on the GaAs surface through such a window. The vapor phase growth method is a technique for epitaxially growing a thin film. By utilizing this technology, a large GaN substrate can be obtained easily.
[0020]
The lateral growth method is described in Japanese Patent Application Nos. 9-298300 and 10-9008 by the present inventors. A mask is attached to the GaAs (111) A surface or B surface, and an equilateral triangle group having one side in the [11-2] direction is assumed, and a window is provided at the apex of the equilateral triangle. FIG. 1 shows the arrangement of the mask windows. The (111) A plane is a plane in which Ga atoms are arranged on the plane. The minus amount of the crystal orientation is expressed by adding-on the number, but since it cannot be expressed in the patent specification,-is added before the number. Two axes orthogonal to the GaAs (111) A plane are [11-2] and [1-10]. Therefore, coordinates are taken on the (111) plane as y = [11-2] and x = [1-10]. If one side of the triangle is d, the window is
First group x = 3 1/2 kd, y = hd (1)
Second group x = 3 1/2 (k + 0.5) d, y = (h + 0.5) d (2)
[0022]
Here, k and h are integers. One window has six nearest windows. The unit vectors in that direction are (± 3 1/2 / 2, ± 1/2 ) and (0, ± 1).
[0023]
When a window is opened at the apex of these equilateral triangles and GaN is grown from the GaAs surface, isolated nuclei are generated in the window, and the GaAs [1-10] direction and the GaN [1-210] direction with the c-axis as the top And grow in parallel. A crystal with the same orientation as the crystal orientation of GaAs grows. It does not grow into a mask. When it grows by the thickness of the window, it goes around the window and crystal grows GaN sideways. There are six closest windows around a window. Since the crystal grows at a constant speed toward the closest window, the crystal spreads in a regular hexagonal shape. FIG. 2 shows the state in the middle. GaN grows in a regular hexagon from the window. In other words, the most advanced plane of the crystal is parallel to the perpendicular bisector drawn between the nearest atoms. Since the crystals grow in a regular hexagonal shape from all windows, the crystals come into contact with the entire circumference at the same time. This is shown in FIG. It is important to have almost simultaneous contact. Thereafter, the crystal grows so as to increase the thickness upward.
[0024]
In other words, when the substrate surface is covered by repeating a regular hexagon, a position corresponding to the center of the regular hexagon is defined as a window. When GaN nucleates on the GaAs (111) A plane and spreads into a hexagon, one side thereof is perpendicular to the y-axis. The remaining sides are 30 ° to the y-axis. A regular hexagon is formed on the (111) A plane, but one side thereof is perpendicular to [11-2]. The remaining sides are [2-1-1] and [-12-1]. These orientations are all GaAs crystal orientations.
[0025]
The orientation of the epitaxially grown GaN is different from this. GaAs is zinc blende cubic. Since GaN is hexagonal, the orientation is expressed by four parameters (klmn). Of these, k, l, and m are parameters in one plane and are not independent. This is the reciprocal of k, l, m when the plane cuts the main axes (referred to as a, b, d) that form 120 ° relative to each other. There is a rule of k + 1 + m = 0. n is the reciprocal of the value that cuts the c-axis. The c-axis is perpendicular to these planes (a, b, d-planes) and has 6-fold symmetry around the c-axis. Crystal growth is performed so that the [111] axis of GaAs and the c axis of GaN are parallel. Since the GaAs (111) plane has a three-fold symmetry, GaN is placed on the six-fold symmetry on it. The c-axis of GaN is orthogonal to the GaAs (111) plane. The GaN (0001) plane is parallel to the GaAs (111) plane. GaN [10-10] is parallel to the [11-2] direction (y-axis) of GaAs. [1-210] of GaN is parallel to the [−110] direction (x-axis) of GaAs.
[0026]
The inventor has developed a process for manufacturing a GaN substrate using such ELO, and has succeeded in growing a considerably thick GaN single crystal on a GaAs substrate. Further, the GaAs substrate was removed by etching to obtain a GaN free-standing film.
[0027]
FIG. 4 shows the process of epitaxial growth of GaN. FIG. 4A shows a state where a mask is attached to a GaAs substrate and a window is opened. FIG. 4B shows a state in which a GaN buffer layer is grown at a low temperature in the window portion of the mask. FIG. 4 (3) shows the case where GaN is further deposited and the thickness is increased. The buffer layer grown at a low temperature is microcrystalline GaN, but the buffer layer is not clearly shown because it becomes a crystal with many stacking faults in the process of growing GaN at a high temperature. A thick crystal is produced by epitaxial growth over time. Thereafter, GaAs is removed by etching. The mask portion is removed by polishing. Then, a GaN free-standing crystal is formed. Since it has a sufficient thickness, it becomes a GaN substrate. Although the large GaN single crystal does not exist so far, the substrate could not be formed, but the present invention has made the possibility of the GaN substrate practical. However, even if a self-supporting film is obtained, there are still problems to be overcome such as thickness, strength, size and warpage.
[0028]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Here, the conduction type is taken up. Conventionally, GaN thin films have been made by MOCVD. In order to make the GaN epitaxial layer n-type, Si was doped. Silane gas (SiH 4 ) is the most readily available gas compound containing Si. However, silane gas is a dangerous gas that tends to explode. I don't want to use it if possible. An n-type dopant that is safer and has a higher activation rate is desired.
[0029]
Usually, the GaN epitaxial growth layer is non-doped and exhibits n-type conductivity. Here, even if GaN produced by the lateral growth method is non-doped, it exhibits an n-type electron conduction type.
[0030]
Why n-type when it is non-doped? What determines the conductivity type of non-doped GaN? How can I go one step further and increase or decrease my carrier concentration? This is the subject of the present invention. What is the cause of n-type conduction? There are various possibilities. Is it an empty lattice? Is it because hydrogen is mixed in? Is it because of carbon atoms? Is it because other elements are mixed as impurities?
[0031]
If a semiconductor is intentionally not doped with impurities, it is not necessarily an intrinsic semiconductor (n = p). Even if it is non-doped, there are many that become one of the conduction types. Non-doped Si becomes n-type. GaAs exhibits n-type unless impurities are intentionally added. GaN is an n-type semiconductor when it is non-doped. Why is n-type without dopant? This is still unknown. It is a first object of the present invention to provide a method for clarifying the conduction mechanism of GaN that is non-doped but becoming n-type and controlling the conduction. Furthermore, it is a second object of the present invention to provide a GaN single crystal in which the n-type carrier concentration is controlled.
[0032]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
It is oxygen that imparts n-type to the GaN crystal. Even if oxygen is not doped, oxygen is contained as an impurity in the gas. The present inventor has found that this oxygen functions as an n-type dopant that emits electrons in the GaN crystal.
[0033]
For example, when GaN is epitaxially grown by the HVPE method (halide vapor phase epitaxy), the raw materials are Ga metal, hydrogen chloride HCl, and ammonia NH 3 . Oxygen should not be included in the raw material. Nevertheless, the GaN epitaxial layer is n-type. Oxygen contained as an impurity in the source gas makes GaN n-type.
[0034]
In the GaN crystal, oxygen is an n-type dopant, and exhibits n-type conductivity without intentionally adding oxygen. This means that oxygen impurities contained in the source gas must be strictly controlled in order to freely give the conductivity type of GaN. The source gas contains an unexpectedly large amount of oxygen as an impurity. If oxygen does not have any role in GaN, oxygen can be mixed. However, according to experiments by the present inventors, it has become clear that oxygen functions as an n-type dopant for GaN.
[0035]
Therefore, oxygen is adopted as a dopant for the n-type GaN substrate. This is the gist of the present invention. As described later, oxygen exhibits an activation rate of almost 100% as an n-type dopant. This means that oxygen is excellent as an n-type dopant.
A shallow donor level will be formed.
[0036]
Moreover, oxygen exhibits a high activation rate in a wide range. In the range of 1 × 10 16 cm −3 to 1 × 10 20 cm −3 , oxygen is an n-type dopant and has a high activation rate. The carrier concentration of the n-type substrate thus obtained is 1 × 10 16 cm −3 to 1 × 10 20 cm −3 .
[0037]
When an organic metal is used as the source gas, specifically, there are MOCVD, metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, etc. In this case, carbon is taken into the crystal by the decomposition of the methyl group and exists as a carbon impurity. It has been known. According to the studies by the inventors, it is known that carbon is unstable with respect to the generation of carriers in electrical characteristics, and n-type carriers are generated and become donors depending on the growth conditions. In addition, according to the study by the inventors, it has been clarified that when the carbon concentration is high and becomes 1 × 10 18 cm −3 or more, the photoluminescence intensity decreases. In these situations, in order to make the oxygen carrier function effectively, it is desirable to control the carbon concentration to 1 × 10 18 cm −3 or less, preferably 10 17 cm −3 or less. It was found that this control is possible when growing on a GaAs substrate.
[0038]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
There are four known GaN epitaxial growth methods.
1. 1. HVPE (Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy) chloride vapor phase growth method 2. MOC (Metalorganic Chloride Vapor Phase Epitaxy) organometallic chloride vapor phase growth method 3. MOCVD (Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Phase Deposition) organometallic CVD method Sublimation method [0039]
The chloride vapor phase growth method uses Ga metal as a raw material. GaCl is once made by a reaction of Ga + HCl → GaCl, and GaN is generated by a reaction of ammonia NH 3 and GaCl. It is called chloride because it makes GaCl. MOC uses Ga organometallic Ga (CH 3 ) 3 as a raw material. GaCl is once made by a reaction of Ga (CH 3 ) 3 + HCl → GaCl. GaN is synthesized by the reaction of ammonia NH 3 and GaCl. As a result, only the present applicant has epitaxially grown high-quality GaN on a GaAs substrate at a high temperature of 900 ° C. or higher.
[0040]
The MOCVD method uses Ga organometallic Ga (CH 3 ) 3 as a raw material. Directly reacted with NH 3, causing a reaction called Ga (CH 3) 3 + NH 3 → GaN. Almost all epitaxial growth of GaN is currently performed by this method.
[0041]
The present invention is suitable for the methods 1 and 2. However, it was found to be unsuitable for the 3 most commonly used MOCVD methods. This method uses organometallic Ga as a raw material. Moreover, there is no process of making GaCl once. Therefore, carbon which is a constituent element of the organic metal is mixed into the GaN epitaxial layer. In other words, when trying to obtain high quality GaN while keeping the carbon concentration at 10 18 cm −3 or less, the growth rate is too slow in the MOCVD method, and it cannot economically compete with the HVPE method and the MOC method. Carbon also seems to act as an n-type or p-type impurity. If carbon is included, a direct proportional relationship may not be established between the number of electrons (n-type carrier) and the number of oxygen. Oxygen functions as an n-type dopant, and the number of electrons and the number of oxygen is proportional when there is almost no carbon (10 18 cm −3 or less). It is still unclear how carbon is related to oxygen in GaN. However, very little carbon is a condition for controlling n-type carriers by oxygen.
[0042]
Therefore, the present invention is suitable for the HVPE method or the MOC method for producing GaN via GaCl. In either case, carbon is not contained in GaN at all or very little, and the number of oxygen dopants and carriers is proportional. In order to intentionally control the n-type carrier by the oxygen doping amount, it is necessary to be able to accurately define the amount of oxygen in the raw material. The raw material is refined to remove oxygen and water. After purification until oxygen and water are below the detection limit, oxygen is included in the raw material so that the desired number of carriers is obtained.
[0043]
In order to dope oxygen, oxygen gas, water, or the like can be used. Oxygen gas and water may be included in any of the raw material gases, but naturally the raw material gases are also unsuitable. Both MOC and HVPE use HCl gas. Actually, hydrogen + HCl is used. Ammonia NH 3 is also a gas. Of these three kinds of gas raw materials, it is most effective to include oxygen and water in HCl. When oxygen and water are contained in HCl, it reacts with Ga metal and Ga organometal to form Ga 2 O, and is thus considered to be effectively incorporated into the GaN crystal.
[0044]
In addition, as another effective method for doping oxygen, it was confirmed that inclusion of oxygen and water in NH 3 gas was also effective. NH 3 gas is used as NH 3 + hydrogen gas diluted with hydrogen gas. In this gas, oxygen or water is added as a gas. In carrying out this method, it is easy and effective to mix hydrogen gas containing oxygen and water with ammonia gas.
[0045]
According to the present invention, it is possible to control electrical conductivity with high accuracy for a GaN crystal. Oxygen concentration I the range of 1 × 10 16 cm -3 ~1 × 10 20 cm -3, n -type carrier concentration of 1 × 10 16 cm -3 ~1 × 10 20 cm- 3 range of GaN crystal I can make it. The oxygen concentration and carrier concentration are preferably 5 × 10 17 cm −3 to 5 × 10 19 cm −3 . More preferably 1 × 10 18 cm -3 ~1 × 10 19 cm -3. When the carrier concentration is high, the resistivity is lowered and good. On the other hand, if the oxygen concentration is too high, the crystallinity decreases.
[0046]
GaN has been conventionally produced on a sapphire substrate by MOCVD. In that case, the n-type dopant is Si, and silane gas (SiH 4 ) is used as a doping gas. However, silane gas is a dangerous gas. The present invention can produce an n-type GaN crystal without using such a dangerous gas. However, Si is mixed into the GaN single crystal from the glass container. Or it mixes in a GaN crystal as an impurity in source gas. This amount is difficult to control. It is important to reduce the Si content in GaN. It is necessary to be 1 × 10 17 cm −3 or less.
[0047]
【Example】
[Example 1: GaN / GaAs: HVPE method, three kinds of HCl gas]
A SiO 2 insulating film was uniformly formed on the GaAs (111) A surface substrate. A mask having regularly a large number of dotted windows was formed by photolithography (FIG. 1). One dotted window is 2 μm square. They are arranged in a line at a pitch of 4 μm (= d) in the <11-2> direction of the GaAs substrate. Another point-like window is arranged in one row at the same pitch with a half-pitch shift to a position 3.5 μm (= 3 1/2 d / 2) away from the row. Thereafter, a mask in which similar dot windows are arranged is produced. That is, when the centers of the dotted windows are connected, a group of equilateral triangles having a side of 4 μm on one side in the <11-2> direction is formed.
[0048]
Thereafter, a buffer layer made of GaN of 80 nm was formed on the mask / GaAs at a low temperature of about 490 ° C. by HVPE. The temperature was further raised, and the GaN epitaxial layer was formed to a thickness of about 200 μm at a high temperature of 920 ° C. to 1050 ° C.
[0049]
In other words, the growth condition is (GaN buffer layer) 490 ° C 80nm
(GaN epitaxial layer) 920 ° C. to 1050 ° C. 200 μm
It is.
[0050]
In the early stage of this growth, isolated GaN crystal nuclei are formed on the GaAs surface in the mask window (2 μm square). The GaN crystal gradually spreads from the nucleus in the surface direction on the mask, but the orientation coincides with the orientation of the nucleus, so that it has a predetermined orientation relationship with the underlying GaAs (FIG. 2). It spreads in a hexagonal shape according to the symmetry of the crystal. The crystal orientation should match the crystal orientation in the window. Eventually, the GaN crystal grown isolated from the adjacent window comes into contact (FIG. 3). Since the hexagonal shape that spreads from the equilateral triangle arrangement window at a constant speed comes into contact, the contact surface becomes a hexagonal repetition like a honeycomb. In this way, the film thickness is further increased.
[0051]
In this embodiment, the HVPE (HALIDE VAPOR PHASE EPITAXY) method is a method in which a boat containing Ga metal is accommodated inside a normal pressure reactor, the Ga boat is heated to 800 ° C. or more, and HCl gas is allowed to flow. , GaCl is synthesized and reacted with NH 3 flowing in the vicinity of the substrate to grow GaN on the substrate. The carrier gas is all hydrogen.
[0052]
FIG. 5 shows a schematic apparatus configuration. A cylindrical heater 2 is provided around the vertically long reactor 1. Raw material gas inlet pipes 3 and 4 are inserted above the reaction furnace 1. There is a Ga reservoir 5 directly under the shorter source gas inlet pipe 3. Here, Ga6 is accommodated in a molten state. Below the reaction furnace 1, a susceptor 7 is supported by a shaft 8 so as to be rotatable up and down. A GaAs substrate 9 is placed on the susceptor 7. An exhaust port 10 is provided below the reaction furnace 1 and is evacuated by a vacuum exhaust device. HCl + H 2 gas is introduced from the source gas inlet 3. This reacts with molten Ga6. Ammonia NH 3 + H 2 gas is introduced from the raw material gas inlet 4.
[0053]
The reaction formula is 2Ga + 2HCl → 2GaCl + H 2 . Metal Ga is used as a raw material. Since it is a metal and does not become a gas, Ga chloride GaCl is once made with hydrogen chloride. This becomes vapor at high temperatures and can be carried by hydrogen. It is called Halide VPE because it uses chloride Ga material. Ga → GaCl, and no organic metal is used. The difference in the epitaxial method is in the form of giving Ga. A gaseous ammonia NH 3 is used as a nitrogen source. The other methods use ammonia as well.
[0054]
Here, the following three types of HCl gas were used.
(A) HCl gas containing about 2000 ppm of water as an impurity (b) HCl gas containing about 150 ppm of water as an impurity (c) High-purity HCl gas obtained by repeated purification
As described above, HCl gas usually contains oxygen and water as impurities, and purification must be repeated many times in order to remove oxygen and water.
[0056]
When the GaAs wafer was taken out of the reaction furnace, the GaN film formed a continuous film in a mirror shape. Since this is a GaN / GaAs structure, it was placed in aqua regia and the GaAs substrate was dissolved and removed. What remains is a GaN film. This is a self-supporting film because the thickness is about 200 μm. A GaN free-standing film was obtained. It is a single crystal and can be a GaN substrate for crystal growth or the like.
[0057]
For HCl, a plurality of GaN substrates were produced under the conditions (a) to (c), and the oxygen concentration O and the carrier concentration n were measured. The oxygen concentration was measured by SIMS (Secondary Ion-Mass Spectrography). In this method, ions of an inert gas are applied to the output to generate secondary ions, and the generation amount is examined for each mass to determine the ratio of elements present on the surface. The carrier concentration is based on Hall measurement.
[0058]
Purified HCl gas also contains oxygen and water. The carrier gas hydrogen also contains some oxygen and water. Ammonia, which is a nitrogen source, also contains a small amount of oxygen and water. For this reason, GaN using HCl in (c) still contains a small amount of oxygen.
[0059]
[Example 2: GaN / GaAs: HVPE method, water-added HCl gas]
A GaN crystal was produced on a GaAs substrate by the same method as in Example 1. In other words, the GaN buffer layer and the GaN epitaxial layer are generated by the HVPE method using the mask. HCl gas is a little different. Although HCl gas is supplied to Ga together with hydrogen gas as a carrier, water is included in the carrier gas. Oxygen can be intentionally included in GaCl by adding water to the gas.
[0060]
(D) High-purity HCl gas purified repeatedly (e) Wet hydrogen obtained by bubbling a bubbler containing ultrapure water with hydrogen gas
A gas (d + e) obtained by mixing these two kinds of gases at an appropriate ratio is used as HCl gas. The ratio of water to HCl was varied in the range of 3000 ppm or less. That is, it was continuously changed in the range of H 2 O / HCl = 0 to 3000 ppm. Since there is water in the first reaction of 2Ga + 2HCl → 2GaCl + H 2 , oxygen is mixed into a part of GaCl. It has been found that water can be used because oxygen is used as a dopant.
[0062]
[Example 3: GaN / GaAs: HVPE method, oxygen-added HCl gas]
A GaN crystal was produced on a GaAs substrate by the same method as in Example 1. The GaN buffer layer and the GaN epitaxial layer are generated by the HVPE method using a mask having an equilateral triangular distribution window. The hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas is a little different. Oxygen gas is intentionally mixed with HCl gas. By including water in the HCl gas, oxygen can be intentionally included in GaCl.
[0063]
(F) High purity HCl gas purified repeatedly (g) High purity oxygen gas
A gas (f + g) obtained by mixing these two kinds of gases at an appropriate ratio is used as HCl gas. The ratio of oxygen to HCl was varied in the range of 3000 ppm or less. That is, it was continuously changed in the range of O 2 / HCl = 0 to 3000 ppm. Since oxygen is present in the first reaction of 2Ga + 2HCl → 2GaCl + H 2 , oxygen is mixed into a part of GaCl.
[0065]
Example 4: GaN / GaAs: HVPE method, water is added NH 3 gas]
A GaN crystal was produced on a GaAs substrate by the same method as in Example 1. That is, it is the same in that the GaN buffer layer and the GaN epitaxial layer are generated by the HVPE method using the mask. NH 3 gas is different. NH 3 gas uses hydrogen gas as a carrier gas. By adding water to the hydrogen gas, oxygen can be intentionally included in the NH 3 gas.
[0066]
(H) High purity NH 3 gas purified repeatedly (i) Wet hydrogen obtained by bubbling a bubbler containing ultra pure water with hydrogen gas
A gas (h + i) obtained by mixing these two kinds of gases at an appropriate ratio is used as ammonia gas. Further, it is not always necessary to pass all the hydrogen carrier gas through the bubbler, and a part of the hydrogen carrier gas may be passed through the bubbler. The temperature of the bubbler was changed, and the amount of water contained in the ammonia gas was changed. As a result, the amount of water in the ammonia gas was changed from 5 ppm to 50 ppm. Since NH 3 gas is used in a larger amount than conventional HCl gas, the amount of water contained in ammonia gas can be reduced. It was found that it was incorporated into GaN relatively efficiently even if it was at least.
[0068]
[Example 5: GaN / GaAs: HVPE method, oxygen-added NH 3 gas]
A GaN crystal was produced on a GaAs substrate by the same method as in Example 1. That is, it is the same in that the GaN buffer layer and the GaN epitaxial layer are generated by the HVPE method using the mask. NH 3 gas is different. NH 3 gas in which a trace amount of oxygen was mixed in NH 3 gas was used. An ammonia gas having an oxygen amount of 10 ppm or 100 ppm was used. Since NH 3 gas is used in a larger amount than conventional HCl gas, the amount of oxygen in the ammonia gas can be reduced.
[0069]
FIG. 6 shows the measurement results of oxygen concentration / carrier concentration for 38 samples in Examples 1 to 5. Here, the carrier is an electron. The horizontal axis represents the oxygen concentration O (cm −3 ). The vertical axis represents the carrier concentration n (cm −3 ). The diagonal diagonal line is a straight line with O = n. A group of measurement points is arranged slightly above this straight line. There are also two points on the O = n line. There are 4 points below. There are 32 points on the O = n line. The fact that the measurement points are arranged approximately in parallel with the O = n straight line means that oxygen is an n-type dopant. Furthermore, since O = n is almost the same, it means that almost all of the oxygen dopant emits electrons and the activity rate is 100%. In addition, since there are more measurement points with O <n, the oxygen activity rate apparently exceeds 100%.
[0070]
I don't know why it exceeds 100%. A difference due to distribution caused by the difference between the SIMS analysis position and the Hall measurement position can be considered. However, it can be said from the measurement results of FIG. 6 that the carrier concentration n is proportional to the oxygen concentration O. That is, the carrier concentration can be controlled by the oxygen concentration. The carrier concentration can be controlled in a wide range of 1 × 10 16 to 1 × 10 20 cm −3 .
[0071]
In semiconductor research, carrier concentration is a frequently measured object, but oxygen concentration is not. Therefore, it is not clear what the dopant that delivers the carrier is, but there are a few things that were found by measuring the oxygen concentration. Even if any HCl gas of a to c in which the ratio of oxygen is constant is used, the amount of oxygen taken into the GaN substrate is not uniform. In addition to the amount of oxygen in HCl as a raw material, there are parameters that determine oxygen mixed in the crystal. The growth temperature T and growth rate v of GaN have a strong influence on the oxygen concentration. Even if grown under the same conditions, the oxygen concentration varies within the plane. However, it is clear that the input amount of water or oxygen should be increased to increase the oxygen concentration, and the input amount of water or oxygen should be decreased to decrease the oxygen concentration.
[0072]
The above results are based on the HVPE method (halide vapor phase epitaxy). In addition, the same correlation was observed even when a GaN crystal was grown on a GaAs substrate by a metal organic chloride vapor phase growth method (MOC method: Metall Organic Chloride) to form a free-standing film. In this method, HCl gas is applied to Ga (CH 3 ) 3 to generate GaCl once, and ammonia NH 3 is allowed to act on this to produce GaN. Carbon is excluded at the stage of making GaCl, and the amount taken into the GaN crystal is extremely small.
[0073]
【The invention's effect】
The present invention reveals for the first time that oxygen acts as an n-type dopant in GaN and the activation rate is close to 100%. By controlling the amount of oxygen taken into the GaN crystal, an n-type GaN substrate having an arbitrary carrier concentration can be produced. Since Si is not used as a dopant, there is no need to use dangerous silane gas. High safety.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a partial plan view of a mask showing an arrangement of a window of a mask attached on a GaAs (111) A surface as a substrate.
FIG. 2 is a mask plan view showing that when GaN is epitaxially grown from above the mask, GaN spreads in a regular hexagonal shape onto the mask when grown beyond the mask thickness.
FIG. 3 is a plan view showing that a regular hexagonal GaN crystal grown beyond the mask thickness comes into contact with regular hexagonal GaN grown from an adjacent window and fills the mask without a gap.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing a process of epitaxial growth of GaN. (1) is the figure which attached the mask to the GaAs substrate. (2) is the figure which grew the GaN buffer layer in the window part of a mask. (3) is a diagram in which GaN is further deposited. (4) is the figure which removed etching.
FIG. 5 is a schematic configuration diagram of an apparatus for HVPE (halide vapor phase epitaxy).
FIG. 6 is a graph showing the relationship between oxygen concentration (cm −3 ) and carrier concentration (cm −3 ) in a GaN crystal.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 reactor 2 heater 3 source gas inlet pipe 4 source gas inlet pipe 5 Ga reservoir 6 Ga
7 susceptor 8 shaft 9 GaAs substrate 10 exhaust port

Claims (3)

  1. Oxygen having a concentration of 1 × 10 16 cm −3 to 1 × 10 20 cm −3 is added as a dopant exhibiting n-type electron conduction, and the n-type carrier concentration is 1 × 10 16 cm −3 to 1 × 10. A gallium nitride single crystal substrate characterized by being 20 cm −3 and having an activation rate of oxygen as an n-type dopant of 100% .
  2. A mask is attached on a GaAs (111) substrate, a window located at the apex of an equilateral triangle having one side in the [11-2] direction is provided in the mask, H 2 is used as a carrier gas, and GaCl is added with Ga metal and HCl. The HVPE method for producing GaN with ammonia or the MOC method for producing GaCl with Ga organometallic and HCl using H 2 as a carrier gas and producing GaN with ammonia, further growing HCl containing oxygen or water, Using NH 3 gas and H 2 gas as raw material and carrier gas, a GaN epitaxial layer is formed thickly exceeding the mask thickness by HVPE method or MOC method, GaAs substrate and mask are removed, and oxygen concentration is 1 × 10 16 cm -3 ~1 × 10 20 cm -3 der Ri, n-type carrier concentration of 1 × 1 16 cm -3 ~1 × 10 20 cm -3 and is the production method of the gallium nitride single crystal substrate, characterized in that oxygen activation rate of the n-type dopant and n-type GaN free-standing film is 100% .
  3. A mask is attached on the GaAs (111) substrate, and a plurality of windows parallel to the [11-2] direction or [1-10] direction are provided to be parallel to the [11-2] direction or [1-10] direction. and such stripe-like mask, GaN by ammonia produce a GaCl by Ga organometallic and HCl and H 2 is used as HVPE method or a carrier gas to generate a GaN by ammonia produce a GaCl by Ga metal and HCl and H 2 is used as carrier gas The GaN buffer layer is grown by the MOC method that generates oxygen, and the GaN epitaxial layer is formed beyond the mask thickness by the HVPE method or the MOC method using HCl, NH 3 gas, or H 2 gas containing oxygen or water as a raw material and a carrier gas. thickened product, and removing the GaAs substrate and the mask, the oxygen concentration of 1 × 10 16 c -3 Ri to 1 × 10 20 cm -3 der, with n-type carrier concentration of 1 × 10 16 cm -3 ~1 × 10 20 cm -3 and is oxygen activation rate of the n-type dopant 100% A method for producing a gallium nitride single crystal substrate, characterized in that the n-type GaN self-supporting film is formed.
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