JP3755840B2 - Electrode for polymer electrolyte fuel cell - Google Patents

Electrode for polymer electrolyte fuel cell Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3755840B2
JP3755840B2 JP08210696A JP8210696A JP3755840B2 JP 3755840 B2 JP3755840 B2 JP 3755840B2 JP 08210696 A JP08210696 A JP 08210696A JP 8210696 A JP8210696 A JP 8210696A JP 3755840 B2 JP3755840 B2 JP 3755840B2
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Prior art keywords
catalyst
ion exchange
fuel cell
gas
electrode
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JPH09245802A (en
Inventor
悦子 只野
多田  智之
庸仁 戸島
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ストンハルト・アソシエーツ・インコーポレーテッドStonehart Associates Incorporated
渡辺 政廣
田中貴金属工業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/50Fuel cells
    • Y02E60/52Fuel cells characterised by type or design
    • Y02E60/521Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells [PEMFC]

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode, and more particularly to the fuel cell electrode in which the performance of the catalyst layer in a fuel cell electrode comprising a catalyst layer and a gas diffusion layer is improved.
[0002]
[Prior art and problems]
Since fuel cells are high-efficiency, pollution-free power generation devices that use hydrogen and various fossil fuels, there is great social expectations as a “post-nuclear power generation device” that can deal with energy and global pollution problems. It is sent. Various fuel cells have been developed for various uses, such as thermal power generation, on-site power generation for buildings and factories, and space. In recent years, the greenhouse effect centered on carbon dioxide and acid rain caused by NOx, SOx, etc. have been recognized as serious pollution that threatens the future of the earth. Since one of the main emission sources of these pollutant gases is an internal combustion engine such as an automobile, there is a rapid increase in the use of a fuel cell as a motor power source that operates in place of an in-vehicle internal combustion engine. In this case, as in many incidental facilities, it is desirable that the battery be as small as possible. To that end, it is essential that the output density and output current density of the battery body be high. A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell (hereinafter referred to as PEMFC) using an ion exchange membrane has attracted attention as a promising candidate fuel cell that satisfies this condition.
[0003]
Here, the basic structure, operation, and problems of the PEMFC main body will be described. As shown in FIG. 1, the base of the battery is configured by joining the anode and the cathode indicated by 4A and 4C to both sides of the PEM 1 by hot pressing. The anode and cathode are composed of a porous catalyst layer indicated by 2A or 2C and a gas diffusion layer such as carbon paper indicated by 3A or 3C. The electrode reaction takes place on the catalyst surface in parts 2A and 2C. The anode reaction gas (H 2 ) is supplied through the reaction gas supply holes 5A through 3A, and the cathode reaction gas (O 2 ) is supplied through the reaction gas supply holes 5C through 3C.
The in 2A, anode reaction: H 2 → 2H + + 2e - is the cathode reaction in 2C: 1 / 2O 2 + 2H + + 2e - → H 2 O reactions occur, H 2 as a total of these reactions in the whole cell + 1 / 2O 2 → H 2 O + Q (heat of reaction) occurs. An electromotive force is obtained in this process, and electrical work is performed when electrons flow through the external load 8 by this electric energy.
[0004]
The reaction of the fuel cell occurs on the catalyst, and how to effectively use the catalyst, in other words, whether to improve the performance of the catalyst layer and hence the performance of the fuel cell, affects the amount of energy obtained by the fuel cell. Is the biggest factor. However, conventional fuel cells have the disadvantage that the performance of the catalyst layer cannot be maximized for various reasons, and expensive catalysts, particularly platinum group metal catalysts, cannot be effectively utilized.
As a result of considering the reason why the performance of the fuel cell cannot be maximized, the present inventors have found that one reason is that the catalyst layer is uniform. Conventionally, a catalyst layer of an electrode for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell has a suspension in which a catalyst and an ion exchange resin, or a catalyst, an ion exchange resin, and a water-repellent resin are suspended in a mixture of an organic solvent and water. It is manufactured by coating on an electrode substrate at a time, drying and firing. In this method, since the coating is performed at once, the mixed raw material of the catalyst layer cannot be changed in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer, and an optimum catalyst layer corresponding to each in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer cannot be obtained. The main function of the catalyst layer is to conduct protons and electrons generated at the anode and cathode to promote the fuel cell reaction. On the other hand, the catalyst layer also has the function of supplying the reaction gas and discharging the generated gas, and the function of facilitating the gas flow rather than the function of promoting the reaction and conducting protons as the distance from the reaction site increases even in the same catalyst layer. Will become more important. However, the conventional catalyst layer is uniform as described above, and the denseness of the catalyst carrier that gives smoothness of the gas flow is also uniform.
[0005]
The function of facilitating the gas flow, that is, gas permeability and proton (electron) conductivity are in a trade-off relationship. When one is increased, the other is decreased, and it is impossible to increase both by the conventional technique. A conventional fuel cell is manufactured by sandwiching an ion exchange membrane between two electrodes (anode and cathode) manufactured as described above, and binding them with a hot press. In this method, catalyst carriers having a shape close to a sphere are filled almost without gaps, and are firmly adhered to each other by hot pressing to increase the density, and a gas flow passage is not sufficiently formed, so that gas permeability is greatly impaired.
Since the fuel cell reaction does not occur unless the fuel gas is supplied to the reaction site, no reaction occurs unless the fuel gas is supplied to the reaction site, no matter how high the catalyst activity is. Therefore, it can be considered that the gas permeability is more important than the catalyst activity, and it can be said that the catalyst activity is not fully utilized in the conventional fuel cell which hardly considers the improvement of the gas permeability.
Further, the portion closer to the ion exchange membrane in the catalyst layer has a greater contribution to the fuel cell reaction, and the utilization rate of the catalyst is higher. Conversely, the closer to the gas diffusion layer, the lower the utilization rate of the catalyst. In the case of a uniform fuel cell, there is no idea of operating the fuel cell at an optimum value by further improving the catalyst utilization rate.
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
The present invention has a feature in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer, both functions are in a relationship that is reciprocal of gas permeability and proton conductive heat transfer of the catalyst layer of the fuel cell by changing the specific surface area wife Risawa medium carrier It aims at providing the fuel cell which improved each.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides a catalyst carrier and an ion exchange resin on which a catalyst is supported, or a catalyst layer on which a catalyst is supported, an ion exchange resin and a water repellent resin, an ion exchange membrane and a gas. A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode formed between diffusion layers, wherein the performance of the catalyst layer is varied in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer. . As the performance, there is a specific surface area of the catalyst carrier. The performance need not change with a uniform gradient from the ion exchange membrane side of the catalyst layer to the gas diffusion layer side, as long as the performance of the catalyst layer on the ion exchange membrane side as a whole is different from the performance of the gas diffusion layer side. .
[0008]
The present invention will be described in detail below.
As described above, in the fuel cell, the fuel gas is supplied from the gas diffusion layer side, the fuel gas passes through the gas diffusion layer, further passes through the catalyst layer, reaches the ion exchange membrane surface, and the reaction proceeds. This reaction is generation of protons by oxidation of hydrogen gas at the anode, and generation of electrons by reduction of oxygen gas at the cathode. Protons (electrons) generated at the anode (cathode) are extracted as energy from the catalyst layer through the gas diffusion layer and through a load connected to the cathode (anode) by a conductive wire. Therefore, when viewed from proton (electron) conductivity, which is one of the functions of the catalyst layer, it is desirable that the catalyst carrier on which the ion exchange resin having the function is supported is dense. However, from the viewpoint of gas permeability, which is another function of the catalyst layer, the catalyst carrier is preferably porous.
[0009]
In other words, in terms of the denseness of the catalyst carrier, it is desirable from the viewpoint of improving both the gas permeability and proton (electron) conductivity that the catalyst carrier is dense throughout the catalyst layer. Not that.
Therefore, in the present invention, the gas permeability and proton (electron) conductivity, which are the main performances of the catalyst layer which is usually in a trade-off relationship, are improved by making the denseness of the catalyst carrier different in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer. It is possible to make it.
That is, in the present invention, a dense catalyst carrier is disposed on the ion exchange membrane side of the catalyst layer disposed between the ion exchange membrane and the gas diffusion layer of the fuel cell, and a porous catalyst carrier is disposed on the gas diffusion layer side. The catalyst has excellent catalytic activity in the vicinity of the ion exchange membrane, which is the reaction site. On the other hand, a porous catalyst carrier is placed on the gas diffusion layer side, which is especially required on the gas diffusion layer side of the catalyst layer. Gas permeability is improved. Furthermore, since a porous catalyst carrier is used in the present invention, the catalyst carrier is not completely crushed even by hot pressing or the like, a gas flow path is secured, and excessive gas permeability is not lowered. The denseness of the catalyst support, for example, the primary particle size is 100 to 300 mm on the ion exchange membrane side and 300 to 1 μm on the gas diffusion layer side.
[0010]
FIG. 2 shows an electrode of a fuel cell in which the density of the catalyst carrier is varied in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer. The electrode shown in the figure is laminated in order of the ion exchange membrane 11, the catalyst layer 12 and the gas diffusion layer 13 from the top. The ion exchange membrane 11 side of the catalyst layer 12 is formed by the dense catalyst carrier 14 and the gas diffusion layer 13 side. Is constituted by a porous catalyst carrier 15. A hydrogen or oxygen fuel gas is supplied to the electrode from the lower side of the gas diffusion layer 13, and protons (electrons) to be generated and a generated gas are taken out from the ion exchange membrane 11.
The fuel gas supplied from the gas diffusion layer 13 side easily passes through the catalyst carrier 15 on the gas diffusion layer 13 side and reaches the interface between the catalyst carriers 14 and 15. Since the catalyst carrier 14 on the side of the ion exchange membrane 11 from this interface is dense, the gas permeability is lowered, but since the distance to be permeated is halved, the gas permeability is improved as a whole.
[0011]
On the other hand, protons (electrons) generated at the reaction site in the vicinity of the ion exchange membrane 11 are taken out to an external conductor via a conductive catalyst carrier such as carbon, but the catalyst carrier on the ion exchange membrane 11 side of the catalyst layer 12 Since 14 is dense, that is, the concentration of the conductor is high, it easily reaches the interface between the catalyst supports 14 and 15. Since the catalyst carrier 15 on the gas diffusion layer 13 side from this interface is porous, the conductivity is reduced, but since the distance to be conducted is halved, the conductivity is improved as a whole. . Further, the gas generated at the reaction site is also taken out through the catalyst layer 12, but in this case as well, the entire gas permeability is improved due to the porous catalyst carrier 15 on the gas diffusion layer 13 side.
Such properties that vary in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer are not limited to the porosity of the catalyst carrier, and other properties such as the specific surface area of the catalyst carrier, the amount of ion-exchange resin, and the catalyst concentration can be determined in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer. It may be different.
[0012]
Although the influence of the specific surface area of the catalyst carrier on the catalyst activity and gas permeability cannot be determined uniformly, if the specific surface area is increased when the particle size of the catalyst carrier is constant, in other words, the pores of the carrier are increased. Then, the gas flow passage is increased, the gas permeability is improved, and the continuity of the carrier is impaired, so that the proton (electron) conductivity is lowered. Conversely, if the specific surface area is reduced when the particle size of the catalyst carrier is constant, in other words, if the pores of the carrier are reduced, the gas flow path is reduced and the gas permeability is lowered and the proton (electron) conduction of the carrier is reduced. Increases conductivity. Therefore, by reducing the specific surface area of the catalyst support on the ion exchange membrane side and increasing the specific surface area of the catalyst support on the gas diffusion layer side, it is possible to provide a fuel cell that maintains high gas permeability and high reaction activity. The specific surface area of the preferred catalyst support is a gas diffusion layer side 250 ~2000m 2 / g, the ion-exchange resin side is 50~400 m 2 / g.
Next, the ion exchange resin that forms the catalyst layer together with the catalyst carrier and water-repellent resin (for example, polytetrafluoroethylene or fluorinated polyethylene-polypropylene) contributes to the improvement of proton (electron) conductivity, and conversely, gas permeability. Reduce. Therefore, by increasing the ion exchange resin concentration on the ion exchange membrane side and lowering the gas diffusion layer side, both proton (electron) conductivity and gas permeability can be maintained high. The preferred ion exchange resin concentration is 20 to 50% by weight on the gas diffusion layer side and 40 to 70% by weight on the ion exchange resin side.
[0013]
FIG. 3 shows an electrode of a fuel cell in which the amount of ion exchange membrane is varied in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer. The electrode in the figure is laminated in the order of the ion exchange membrane 21, the catalyst layer 22 and the gas diffusion layer 23 from the top, and the ion exchange membrane 21 side of the catalyst layer 22 is supported by a catalyst carrier 24 having a large amount of ion exchange resin supported. Further, the gas diffusion layer 23 side is constituted by a catalyst carrier 25 with a small amount of ion exchange resin to be supported. Also in this electrode, gas supply and gas discharge are performed in the same manner as in FIG. 2, and the fuel gas supplied from the gas diffusion layer 23 side has a small amount of ion exchange resin in the catalyst carrier 25 on the gas diffusion layer 23 side. Easily passes and reaches the interface between the catalyst supports 24 and 25. From this interface, the catalyst carrier 24 on the ion exchange membrane 21 side has a large amount of ion exchange resin, so the gas permeability is lowered, but the distance to be permeated is halved, so the gas permeability is improved as a whole. .
Similarly to the case of FIG. 2, the extraction of protons (electrons) generated at the reaction site near the ion exchange membrane 21 and the generated gas is improved as a whole.
[0014]
Also in the case where the above-mentioned catalyst concentration is varied, as in FIG. 3, the amount of catalyst supported on the catalyst carrier near the ion exchange membrane is increased and the amount of catalyst supported on the catalyst carrier near the gas diffusion layer is decreased. A fuel cell electrode is formed. The concentration of a preferred catalyst, particularly a noble metal catalyst, is 30 to 60% by weight on the ion exchange membrane side and 10 to 40% by weight on the gas diffusion layer side.
In this case, the gas permeability is not improved, but the catalyst utilization rate is improved because the catalyst concentration close to the reaction site is high, and the overall catalyst activity is increased.
The catalyst layer having different performance in the thickness direction described above, for example, by repeatedly applying a suspension using different mixing ratios (compositions) or raw materials several times, preferably 2 to 10 times, on the surface of the gas diffusion layer, Alternatively, it can be obtained by joining a plurality of catalyst layer precursors having different performances which are separately prepared. The thickness of the thin film formed by one application is not particularly limited, but is preferably 5 to 20 μm. When heat treatment is performed, hot pressing is performed at 130 to 180 ° C. and a pressure of 10 to 30 kg / cm 2. It ’s fine.
[0015]
【Example】
Examples of the polymer solid electrolyte fuel cell electrode of the present invention will be described together with reference examples and comparative examples, but these do not limit the present invention.
[ Reference Example 1]
A carbon support having a specific surface area of 300 m 2 / g carrying 1 mg / cm 2 of platinum (30% by weight with respect to the carbon support) was prepared. These three carbon carriers were mixed with 20 g of a concentrated solution of ion exchange resin (Nafion, a product name of DuPont) having a weight ratio of 58.5%, 50% and 38.5% with respect to the carbon carrier, and 6 g of distilled water and planets. The paste was obtained by mixing with a ball mill for 50 minutes. The paste with an ion exchange resin concentration of 38.5% was applied to a gas diffusion layer made of carbon paper that had been subjected to a water repellent treatment with 30% by weight of a water-repellent resin polytetrafluoroethylene, dried at 60 ° C. for 10 minutes, and further 130 Baked for 1 minute at 20 kg / cm 2 at 20 ° C., and then applied and fired a paste with an ion exchange resin concentration of 50% on the above-mentioned paper under the same conditions, and a paste with an ion exchange resin concentration of 58.5% Was applied onto the paste under the same conditions and baked to form a catalyst layer on the gas diffusion layer to obtain an electrode (electrode area πcm 2 ).
[0016]
[ Reference Example 2]
A carbon support having a particle size of 0.03 μm and a surface area of 1300 m 2 / g was used. The weight ratio of ion exchange resin to carbon carrier is 50%, the same paste as in Example 1 with a platinum loading of 50% by weight, and then the same paste as in Reference Example 1 with a platinum loading of 40% by weight is a gas diffusion layer. Then, each electrode was dried at 60 ° C. for 10 minutes, and further calcined at 130 ° C. and 20 kg / cm 2 for 1 minute to produce electrodes having different catalyst concentrations in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer (electrode area πcm 2 ).
[0017]
[Comparative Example 1]
The catalyst layer was formed into an electrode by forming a catalyst layer on the gas diffusion layer under the same conditions as in Reference Example 1, except that the weight ratio of the ion exchange resin was 50% with respect to the carbon support. .
[0018]
An ion exchange membrane (DuPont Nafion 112) is sandwiched between each of the electrodes of Reference Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 1 manufactured as described above, and hydrogen gas is supplied at a cell temperature of 80 ° C. and 350 ml / min, respectively. When the relationship between voltage and current density was measured while supplying oxygen gas at 250 ml / min, the results shown in the graph of FIG. 4 were obtained.
From this graph, the electrodes of Reference Example 1 and Reference Example 2 can obtain a higher voltage than the current of Comparative Example 1 in the high current density region, and in particular, Reference Example 2 (electrodes with different ion exchange resin concentrations). It can be seen that the electrode produced a better effect than Reference Example 1 (electrode having a different catalyst concentration).
[0019]
[Example 1 ]
A carbon carrier carrying 40% by weight of platinum as the carrier on the gas diffusion layer side (platinum amount is 0.5 mg / cm 2 ) and a specific surface area of about 1300 m 2 / g, and 40% by weight of platinum as the carrier on the ion exchange membrane side It was supported (amount of platinum is 0.5 mg / cm 2) by using each of the carbon support having a specific surface area of about 300 m 2 / g, was prepared an electrode in the same manner as in reference example 1 (electrode area πcm 2).
[0020]
[Comparative Example 2]
The catalyst layer is a carbon carrier having a weight ratio of ion exchange resin of 50% with respect to the carbon carrier and 30% by weight of platinum (platinum amount is 1 mg / cm 2 ) and a specific surface area of about 300 m 2 / g. An electrode having a uniform catalyst layer was prepared (electrode area πcm 2 ).
[0021]
An ion exchange membrane (DuPont Nafion 112) was sandwiched between each of the electrodes of Example 1 and Comparative Example 2 produced as described above, and hydrogen gas was 250 ml / min at a cell temperature of 80 ° C. and 350 ml / min, respectively. When the relationship between voltage and current density was measured while supplying oxygen gas in minutes, results as shown in the graph of FIG. 5 were obtained. From this graph, it can be seen that the electrode of Example 1 was able to obtain a higher voltage than the current of Comparative Example 2 in the high current density region.
[0022]
[Example 2 ]
The carrier on the gas diffusion layer side has a particle size of 0.03 μm and a surface area of 1300 m 2 / g, and the carrier on the ion exchange membrane side has a particle size of 0.015 μm and a surface area of 1500 m 2 / g. An electrode having an electrode area of πcm 2 supported by 40% by weight (platinum amount: 1 mg / cm 2 ) was produced.
When this electrode was used and the relationship between voltage and current density was measured under the same conditions as in Reference Example 1, the results shown in the graph of FIG. 6 were obtained. From this graph, it can be seen that energy could be extracted at a relatively high voltage even in a high current density region.
[0023]
【The invention's effect】
In the present invention, a catalyst support and an ion exchange resin on which a catalyst is supported, or a catalyst layer including a catalyst support on which a catalyst is supported, an ion exchange resin and a water-repellent resin are formed between an ion exchange membrane and a gas diffusion layer. In a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode, a catalyst support having a small specific surface area is used on the ion exchange membrane side of the catalyst layer, and a catalyst support having a large specific surface area is used on the gas diffusion layer side. Is an electrode for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, wherein the catalyst layer is made different in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer.
Fuel cell catalyst layers are required to have the opposite properties of gas permeability and proton (electron) conductivity, but in conventional fuel cells, a relatively dense catalyst carrier or ion exchange resin is bound by hot pressing or the like. Manufactured. In this manufacturing method, catalyst carriers having a shape close to a sphere are filled with almost no gaps, and they are firmly adhered to each other by hot pressing to increase the density, so that almost no gas flow passage is formed, and the gas permeability is greatly impaired.
[0024]
In other words, the conventional fuel cell is intended to improve the conductivity of protons and the like at the expense of gas permeability among the gas permeability and the conductivity such as protons, which are the main functions of the catalyst layer of the fuel cell. ing. However, the reaction does not proceed unless the fuel gas is supplied to the reaction site and the product gas is taken out. Therefore, in the conventional fuel cell, the reaction does not proceed sufficiently fast, and energy generation, which is a characteristic of the fuel cell, is insufficient.
If the binding by the hot press is weakened to eliminate this drawback, the conductivity of protons and the like is impaired, and even if the gas is smoothly supplied and discharged, energy generation due to the movement of protons and the like is impaired.
[0026]
In the above-mentioned present invention, by making the specific surface area of the catalyst carrier different in the thickness direction of the catalyst layer, the performance achieved mainly on the ion exchange membrane side and the gas diffusion layer side of the catalyst layer is made different, For example, it is possible to provide a fuel cell electrode having excellent gas permeability and proton conductivity as described above.
If the specific surface area is increased when the particle size of the catalyst carrier is constant, in other words, if the pores of the carrier are increased, the gas flow passage is increased, the gas permeability is improved, and the continuity of the carrier is impaired. The conductivity of protons and the like decreases. Conversely, if the specific surface area is reduced when the particle size of the catalyst support is constant, in other words, if the pores of the support are reduced, the gas flow path is reduced and the gas permeability is lowered and the protons of the support are conducted. Sex increases. Therefore, by reducing the specific surface area of the catalyst carrier on the ion exchange membrane side of the catalyst layer and increasing the specific surface area of the catalyst carrier on the gas diffusion layer side, it is possible to provide a fuel cell that maintains high gas permeability and high reaction activity. .
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing a basic structure of a fuel cell using a conventional ion exchange membrane.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view showing an embodiment of an electrode for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing another embodiment of the electrode for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell of the present invention.
4 is a graph showing the relationship between current density and voltage in Reference Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 1. FIG.
FIG. 5 is a graph showing the relationship between current density and voltage in Example 1 and Comparative Example 2.
6 is a graph showing the relationship between current density and voltage in Example 2. FIG.
[Explanation of symbols]
11, 21, ... ion exchange membrane
12, 22 ... Catalyst layer
13, 23 ... Gas diffusion layer
14, 24 ... Ion exchange membrane side catalyst carrier
15, 25 ... Gas diffusion layer side catalyst carrier

Claims (1)

  1. A solid polymer electrolyte in which a catalyst support and an ion exchange resin on which a catalyst is supported, or a catalyst layer comprising a catalyst support on which a catalyst is supported, an ion exchange resin and a water repellent resin are formed between an ion exchange membrane and a gas diffusion layer In the type fuel cell electrode, a catalyst carrier having a small specific surface area is used on the ion exchange membrane side of the catalyst layer, and a catalyst carrier having a large specific surface area is used on the gas diffusion layer side. solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes, characterized in that made different in the thickness direction.
JP08210696A 1996-03-11 1996-03-11 Electrode for polymer electrolyte fuel cell Expired - Fee Related JP3755840B2 (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6818339B1 (en) 1999-08-27 2004-11-16 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Polymer electrolyte type fuel cell
CN1311578C (en) * 1999-09-21 2007-04-18 松下电器产业株式会社 Polymer electrolytic fuel cell and method for producing the same
JP3594533B2 (en) * 2000-05-30 2004-12-02 三洋電機株式会社 Fuel cell
JP4923319B2 (en) * 2000-07-25 2012-04-25 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Fuel cell
CA2419384A1 (en) * 2000-10-27 2002-05-30 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Production of catalyst coated membranes
JP5002874B2 (en) * 2001-01-25 2012-08-15 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Method for forming electrode catalyst layer of fuel cell
KR100528020B1 (en) 2003-03-31 2005-11-15 세이코 엡슨 가부시키가이샤 Method for forming functional porous layer, method for manufacturing fuel cell, electronic device, and automobile
JP4493954B2 (en) * 2003-09-01 2010-06-30 パナソニック株式会社 Polymer electrolyte membrane-electrode assembly and polymer electrolyte fuel cell using the same
JP4826057B2 (en) * 2003-12-11 2011-11-30 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Fuel cell
FR2863777B1 (en) * 2003-12-16 2006-02-17 Commissariat Energie Atomique Alkaline fuel cell insensitive to carbonation.
JP4760027B2 (en) * 2004-01-30 2011-08-31 富士電機株式会社 Method for producing membrane / electrode assembly of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell
JP4996822B2 (en) * 2004-11-10 2012-08-08 本田技研工業株式会社 Manufacturing method of electrode layer for fuel cell
JP5204382B2 (en) * 2006-05-11 2013-06-05 パナソニック株式会社 Cathode catalyst layer, membrane catalyst assembly, cathode gas diffusion electrode, membrane electrode assembly and polymer electrolyte fuel cell using the same
CN101578730A (en) 2006-11-09 2009-11-11 住友化学株式会社 Membrane-electrode assembly
JP5031340B2 (en) * 2006-11-30 2012-09-19 Jsr株式会社 Membrane-electrode assembly
CN101689647A (en) 2007-06-15 2010-03-31 住友化学株式会社 Membrane-electrode assembly, method for producing the same and solid polymer fuel cell
CN102484255B (en) 2009-06-29 2015-09-30 株式会社爱考斯研究 Fuel cell conversion zone

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