JP3746377B2 - AC motor drive control device - Google Patents

AC motor drive control device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3746377B2
JP3746377B2 JP20984998A JP20984998A JP3746377B2 JP 3746377 B2 JP3746377 B2 JP 3746377B2 JP 20984998 A JP20984998 A JP 20984998A JP 20984998 A JP20984998 A JP 20984998A JP 3746377 B2 JP3746377 B2 JP 3746377B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
torque
motor
phase
voltage
drive control
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JP20984998A
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JP2000050689A (en
Inventor
栄次 佐藤
裕樹 大谷
幸雄 稲熊
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トヨタ自動車株式会社
株式会社豊田中央研究所
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a drive control device for an AC motor.
[0002]
[Prior art]
When driving an AC motor using a DC power source, it is widely used to apply a pulse width modulation (PWM) waveform voltage using an inverter. However, there is a limit to the voltage utilization rate when applying the PWM waveform voltage to the AC motor. Therefore, for example, there is a problem that a sufficiently high output cannot be obtained in a high rotation range.
[0003]
In this regard, there is a technique in which a rectangular wave voltage is applied to an AC motor and the AC motor is rotationally driven. According to this technique, it is possible to improve the output in the high rotation range, and at that time, it is not necessary to flow a lot of field weakening current, and the copper loss can be reduced. Moreover, since the number of times of switching in the inverter can be reduced, switching loss can be suppressed.
[0004]
A control technique for applying such a rectangular wave voltage to an AC motor is disclosed, for example, in the 1997 JEVA Electric Vehicle Forum entitled “High-Performance Control Method of Drive System Using Surface Magnet Structure PM Motor”. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an example of a motor drive control system employing the technology.
[0005]
In the figure, an inverter 106 is connected to a motor 108 which is a permanent magnet synchronous AC motor. A rectangular wave generation unit 104 is connected to the inverter 106, and the rectangular wave generation unit 104 is a voltage phase ψ supplied from the phase calculation unit 102 and an output from a resolver 110 provided adjacent to the motor 108. Based on the rotor angle θ, the inverter 106 is subjected to switching control so that a rectangular wave voltage having a voltage phase ψ is applied to the motor 108.
[0006]
The phase calculation unit 102 receives a torque command value T generated by an electronic control unit (ECU) (not shown), and also receives a voltage Vdc of a battery (not shown) connected to the inverter 106. Yes. The phase calculation unit 102 calculates and outputs a voltage phase ψ corresponding to the torque command value T using these input values.
[0007]
That is, the voltage equation in the steady state of the system can be expressed as
[0008]
[Expression 1]
Vd = R * Id−ω * Lq * Iq (1)
Vq = R * Iq + ω * Ld * Id + ω * Φ (2)
Here, Vd and Vq are d-axis and q-axis voltage values, respectively. Id and Iq are d-axis and q-axis current values, respectively. Furthermore, Ld and Lq are the d-axis and q-axis inductances, and ω is the angular velocity of the motor 108. Φ is the number of flux linkages.
[0009]
Here, when Vd and Vq are expressed using the magnitude | V | of the voltage vector and the phase ψ with reference to the q axis, the following equation is obtained.
[0010]
[Expression 2]
Vd = − | V | * sinψ (3)
Vq = | V | * cosψ (4)
In the following, it is assumed that the motor 108 is a non-salient pole motor (Ld = Lq = L) for simplicity of explanation. However, in principle, salient pole motors can be similarly applied.
[0011]
First, the torque of the motor 108 can be expressed as:
[0012]
[Equation 3]
T = p * Φ * Iq + p * (Ld−Lq) * Id * Iq (5)
Here, T represents torque and p represents the number of pole pairs. In the above equation, the first term on the right side represents the torque by the permanent magnet, and the second term on the right side represents the reluctance torque. However, the second term is zero in order to describe a non-salient pole motor here.
[0013]
When the relational expression between the torque and the voltage vector is derived from the above expression, the following expression is obtained.
[0014]
[Expression 4]
T = p * Φ * | V | * sinψ / (ω * L) (6)
Here, the magnitude | V | of the voltage vector can be expressed as follows using the battery voltage Vdc.
[0015]
[Equation 5]
| V | = (√6 / π) * Vdc (7)
That is, the phase calculation unit 102 shown in FIG. 6 can calculate the voltage phase ψ based on the battery voltage Vdc and the torque command value T using the above equations (6) and (7).
[0016]
As described above, according to the conventional motor drive system shown in FIG. 6, the motor 108 is driven with a desired torque.
[0017]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, the battery voltage Vdc decreases with power consumption by the motor 108, and the inductance L also decreases due to magnetic saturation at high load. Further, the flux linkage number Φ varies with a change in magnet temperature. Therefore, even if the phase calculation unit 102 calculates the above equation (6), it is difficult to output the required torque from the motor 108.
[0019]
The present invention has been made in view of the above problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide a drive control device that can reduce an error between a torque command value and an actual output torque when driving an AC motor.
[0020]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to solve the above-mentioned problem, the present invention calculates a voltage phase that is a phase of a rectangular wave (excluding a pulse width modulation waveform) with respect to a rotor angle corresponding to a torque command value, and the rectangular of the calculated voltage phase. In a drive control device that applies a wave voltage to rotationally drive a synchronous AC motor, torque detection means for detecting an output torque value of the synchronous AC motor, and a difference between the detected torque value and a given torque command value And a phase setting unit for setting a voltage phase of the rectangular wave voltage applied to the synchronous AC motor so as to eliminate the torque deviation based on the torque deviation. And
[0022]
That is, in the present invention, unlike the voltage phase control according to the prior art, the output torque value of the AC motor is fed back, and the phase of the rectangular wave voltage or the AC voltage is set so that the torque deviation is eliminated. In this way, the actual output torque and the torque command value can be output without being affected by fluctuations in the motor constant, as compared to the conventional method of calculating the voltage phase based on the motor constant so that torque according to the torque command value can be output. Can be brought closer.
[0023]
In one aspect of the present invention, the phase setting means sets the phase of the rectangular wave voltage within a predetermined phase range. The voltage phase-torque curve of an AC motor has an extreme value. For example, a non-salient AC motor has an extreme value of a voltage phase-torque curve at a point where the voltage phase is ± 90 °. For this reason, if the phase set by the phase setting means is performed indefinitely, torque feedback control will fail. According to this aspect, since the phase set by the phase setting means is limited within a predetermined phase range, control failure can be prevented. In the AC motor drive control apparatus of the present invention, it is preferable that the means for generating the torque deviation includes a compensator for compensating the torque deviation by multiplying the torque deviation by ω / (Vdc * cosψ). .
[0024]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
[0025]
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing an overall configuration of an AC motor drive control device according to an embodiment of the present invention. In the figure, a torque command value generated by an electronic control unit (ECU) (not shown) is input to the adder 13, while the torque value output from the torque detection means 14 is also input to the adder 13. Have been entered. The torque detection means 14 can be configured using a torque sensor, but can also be calculated based on the following equation.
[0026]
[Formula 6]
Here, Pin represents electric power supplied to the motor 24. Ω represents the angular velocity of the motor 24. Furthermore, iu, iv, and iw represent the values of the respective phases of the three-phase alternating current supplied to the motor 24, and vu, vv, and vw represent the voltages of the respective phases.
[0027]
Note that voltage command values set in the inverter 22 may be used for vu, vv, and vw, or actual values supplied from the inverter 22 to the motor 24 may be detected by a sensor.
[0028]
Alternatively, the torque detection means 14 can also calculate from a direct current and a direct voltage as shown in the following equation.
[0029]
[Expression 7]
Here, IB and VB represent DC current and DC voltage of a battery (not shown) connected to the inverter 22.
[0030]
The adder 13 subtracts the torque value supplied from the torque detection means 14 from the torque command value supplied from the ECU to generate a torque deviation ΔT. This torque deviation ΔT is supplied to the compensator 12. The compensator 12 generates a compensated torque deviation ΔT ′ based on the torque deviation ΔT.
[0031]
That is, if both sides of the above equation (6) are differentiated by the voltage phase ψ, and the voltage amplitude | V | is eliminated using the equation (7), the following equation (10) is obtained.
[0032]
[Equation 8]
dT / dψ = p * Φ * (√6 / π) * Vdc * cosψ / (ω * L) (10)
As can be seen from the equation (10), the slope of the voltage phase-torque curve is proportional to the battery voltage Vdc and cos ψ and inversely proportional to the angular velocity ω of the motor 24. FIG. 2 shows how the voltage phase-torque curve is affected by changes in the battery voltage Vdc. As shown in the figure, when the battery voltage Vdc increases, a large torque T can be exhibited even if the voltage phase ψ is small. Therefore, the compensator 12 generates a compensated torque deviation ΔT ′ using the torque deviation ΔT according to the following equation (11).
[0033]
[Equation 9]
ΔT ′ = ω / (Vdc * cosψ) * ΔT (11)
In this way, the equation (10) becomes the following equation (12), and the torque deviation ΔT ′ and the voltage phase difference Δψ can be made to have a proportional relationship. As a result, good control characteristics can be obtained.
[0034]
[Expression 10]
dT ′ / dψ = p * Φ * (√6 / π) / L (12)
The torque deviation ΔT ′ generated by the compensator 12 is supplied to the PI calculator 16 where the voltage phase ψ is output so that the torque deviation ΔT ′ is zero. This voltage phase ψ is then input to the phase limiter 18. The phase limiter 18 is a means for limiting the value of the voltage phase ψ supplied from the PI calculator 16 to a range of −90 ° to + 90 °. For example, when the voltage phase ψ output from the PI calculator 16 exceeds 90 °, the value is clipped and corrected to 90 °, and then the value is supplied to the subsequent rectangular wave generator 20.
[0035]
FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating the relationship between the voltage phase ψ and the torque of the motor 24. As shown in the figure, when the voltage phase ψ is in the range of −90 ° to + 90 °, the torque T increases as the voltage phase ψ increases. However, when the voltage phase ψ exceeds the range, the voltage phase ψ increases. As the torque T decreases, the torque T decreases. Therefore, the phase limiter 18 limits the voltage phase ψ output from the PI calculator 16 within the phase control range indicated by the arrow 28. For this reason, as shown in FIG. 4, the end point of the voltage vector is limited to be located only on the locus 30 in the dq plane. In this way, it is possible to effectively prevent the control from failing in the drive control apparatus 10 that performs torque feedback.
[0036]
The rectangular wave generator 20 supplies the inverter 22 with a switching signal for generating a rectangular wave voltage based on the voltage phase ψ output from the phase limiter 18 and the rotor angle θ supplied from the resolver 26. Thus, the motor 24 can be driven with a rectangular wave voltage having the voltage phase ψ.
[0037]
FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a rectangular wave voltage supplied to the motor 24. In the drawing, a voltage waveform applied to the U phase among the three-phase AC voltages applied to the motor 24 is shown as an example. The windings of the motor 24 are star-connected, and the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value in the rectangular wave matches the battery voltage Vdc. Further, the voltage phase ψ corresponds to the difference between the timing when the rotor angle θ is 0 ° and the falling timing of the rectangular wave in FIG.
[0038]
According to the AC motor drive control apparatus 10 described above, the torque detection means 14 is provided, and the voltage phase ψ is set so that the torque deviation ΔT, which is the difference between the actual output torque and the torque command value, becomes zero. Since the rectangular wave voltage having the voltage phase ψ is applied to the motor 24, it is possible to prevent the deterioration of the torque accuracy due to the fluctuation of the motor constant.
[0039]
The AC motor drive control device 10 described above can be variously modified . Ie, if the torque feedback control is provided a torque detection means 14, even when the motor constant is varied, it is possible to reduce the difference between the torque command value and the actual output torque.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an overall configuration of a drive control apparatus for an AC motor according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing how voltage phase-torque characteristics change due to changes in battery voltage.
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing a voltage phase-torque characteristic and a voltage phase limit range;
FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a locus of a voltage vector.
FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a relationship between a voltage waveform supplied to a motor, a battery voltage, and a voltage phase.
FIG. 6 is a diagram showing an overall configuration of a drive control apparatus for an AC motor according to a conventional technique.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Drive control apparatus, 12 Compensator, 13 Adder, 14 Torque detection means, 16 PI calculator, 18 Phase limiter, 20 Rectangular wave generation part, 22 Inverter, 24 motor, 26 Resolver

Claims (3)

  1. Calculate the voltage phase corresponding to the torque command value, which is the phase of the rectangular wave (excluding the pulse width modulation waveform) with respect to the rotor angle, and apply the rectangular wave voltage of the calculated voltage phase to rotate the synchronous AC motor In the drive control device to drive,
    Torque detecting means for detecting an output torque value of the synchronous AC motor;
    Means for generating a torque deviation representing a difference between the detected torque value and a given torque command value;
    Phase setting means for setting a voltage phase of the rectangular wave voltage applied to the synchronous AC motor so as to eliminate the torque deviation based on the torque deviation ;
    A drive control apparatus for a synchronous AC motor, comprising:
  2. In the synchronous AC motor drive control device according to claim 1,
    Wherein the phase setting means, drive control apparatus for a synchronous AC motor and sets the phase of the rectangular wave voltage within a predetermined phase range.
  3. In the synchronous AC motor drive control device according to claim 1 or 2,
    The means for generating the torque deviation includes a compensator for compensating for the torque deviation by multiplying the torque deviation by ω / (Vdc * cos ψ).
JP20984998A 1998-07-24 1998-07-24 AC motor drive control device Expired - Lifetime JP3746377B2 (en)

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