JP3613275B2 - Traffic information system - Google Patents

Traffic information system Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3613275B2
JP3613275B2 JP2003153849A JP2003153849A JP3613275B2 JP 3613275 B2 JP3613275 B2 JP 3613275B2 JP 2003153849 A JP2003153849 A JP 2003153849A JP 2003153849 A JP2003153849 A JP 2003153849A JP 3613275 B2 JP3613275 B2 JP 3613275B2
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
information
vehicle
individual
traffic
center
Prior art date
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Expired - Fee Related
Application number
JP2003153849A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2003346286A (en
Inventor
眞人 吉田
Original Assignee
オムロン株式会社
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Publication date
Priority to JP6-337432 priority Critical
Priority to JP33743294 priority
Application filed by オムロン株式会社 filed Critical オムロン株式会社
Priority to JP2003153849A priority patent/JP3613275B2/en
Publication of JP2003346286A publication Critical patent/JP2003346286A/en
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Description

[0001]
【Technical field】
The present invention relates to a traffic information system for notifying a vehicle traveling on a road of traffic information including traffic jam information, accident information, weather information, and the like.
[0002]
[Prior art]
This type of traffic information system is premised on collecting basic data (number of vehicles, vehicle speed, etc.) for creating traffic jam information, accident information, and weather information. This basic data should be collected accurately and in real time at as many points as possible.
[0003]
In existing facilities, vehicle sensors (including televisions and cameras) are only placed at major points on the road. If the number of data collection points is increased, various sensors must be installed at many points, and the cost for that will be enormous.
[0004]
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is a system capable of collecting traffic-related data accurately and in real time at many points and providing appropriate traffic information without installing sensor devices for data collection at many points. Is to provide.
[0005]
The present invention ascertained from the first viewpoint is used by being mounted on a vehicle and collecting individual information relating to traffic and the like, and a predetermined range based on individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device. And a center device that creates comprehensive information regarding the area within the area.
[0006]
The individual information collecting device includes at least position detection means for measuring position and creating position data, manual operation information input means for manually inputting information representing surrounding conditions, and position created by the position detection means. A first transmission device that transmits individual information including data and information input by the manual operation information input means, a first reception device that receives comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and the first reception An informing device for informing the general information received by the device is provided.
[0007]
The center device includes a second receiving device that receives the individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device, and a predetermined range based on the individual information received by the second receiving device. Information processing means for generating general information regarding the area of the vehicle, and second transmission means for transmitting the general information generated by the information processing means to the individual information collecting apparatus. Preferably, the individual information collecting apparatus is provided with a clock means, and time data measured by the clock means is included in the individual information and transmitted to the center apparatus. However, as the time data, the time when the second receiving device of the center device receives the individual information can be used.
[0008]
For example, information relating to an accident, traffic jam or weather is input by the manual operation information input means of the individual information collection device.
[0009]
The individual information collecting device is mounted on a vehicle and used. There are many vehicles traveling on the road. Information representing the situation around the vehicle is transmitted from many or some of these vehicles to the center device. Based on these pieces of information, the center device can determine where and what kind of situation is occurring (where the accident or traffic jam is occurring at what scale).
[0010]
When an individual information collection device is mounted on a vehicle traveling on a road and used, necessary information is collected without providing vehicle sensors or the like at various locations on the road. In addition, since the driver manually inputs information, information representing the state seen by human eyes is obtained, and appropriate judgment can be made.
[0011]
In one embodiment, the individual information collection device further includes a storage device that stores an identification code of the individual information collection device or a vehicle equipped with the individual information collection device, and the first transmission unit of the individual information collection device includes at least the above-mentioned Position data, time data, and an identification code are transmitted at least twice at predetermined time intervals, and in response to input of information from the manual operation information input means, the input information and at least the identification code are transmitted. . The information processing means of the center device determines the traveling direction of the vehicle on which the individual information collecting device is mounted based on the position data, time data, and identification code received at least twice. The traveling speed of the vehicle can also be calculated.
[0012]
As a result, the traveling direction (traveling lane) of the vehicle equipped with the individual information collecting device is known. In general, the traffic flow on the road is bidirectional. Accidents and traffic jams often occur only in one direction. As described above, since the traveling direction of the vehicle is determined, it is possible to know in which direction of the traffic flow on the road the accident or traffic jam occurs and to provide appropriate traffic information. However, the individual information collecting device mounted on the vehicle calculates the movement vector based on the two position data having a certain time interval, determines the traveling lane of the own vehicle based on the movement vector, and the determination result May be transmitted to the center.
[0013]
The present invention provides the information collecting apparatus used in the traffic information system.
[0014]
This information collecting apparatus includes position detection means for measuring position and creating position data, manual operation information input means for manually inputting information representing the surrounding situation, and position created by the position detection means. A first transmission device for transmitting individual information including data and information input by the manual operation information input means is provided. If necessary, the individual information includes data representing the time of manual input.
[0015]
Preferably, the information collecting device is further provided with a first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device.
[0016]
This information collecting apparatus can be realized using a car navigation system. At least the position detection means and the manual operation information input means are provided in the car navigation system.
[0017]
The invention further provides a car navigation system. This car navigation system includes position detection means for measuring position and creating position data, and manual operation information input means for manually inputting information on at least one of accident, traffic jam and weather. ing.
[0018]
Car navigation systems are becoming increasingly popular. Therefore, by making the car navigation system share a part of the functions of the information collection device, it is possible to reduce the economic burden on the person who installs the information collection device. Of course, it is also possible to prepare a car navigation system having all the functions of the information collecting device.
[0019]
The traffic information system according to the present invention ascertained from the second point of view is used by being mounted on a vehicle, and collects individual information relating to traveling of the vehicle, and an individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device. And a center device that creates traffic information in an area within a predetermined range based on the information.
[0020]
The individual information collecting device is created by position detecting means for measuring at least a position and creating position data, a storage device for storing an identification code of the individual information collecting device or a vehicle on which the individual information collecting device is mounted, and the position detecting means. A first transmission device for transmitting individual information including position data and an identification code stored in the storage device at least twice at predetermined time intervals; a first transmission device for receiving traffic information transmitted from the center device; A receiving device and a notification device for notifying traffic information received by the first receiving device are provided.
[0021]
The center device includes a second receiving device that receives the individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device, and at least two pieces of the individual information received by the second receiving device. Information processing means for creating traffic information in a predetermined area based on the information processing apparatus, and second transmission means for sending the traffic information created by the information processing means to the individual information collecting device.
[0022]
The second invention is characterized in that at least minimum data such as position data and an identification number is transmitted from the individual information collecting device of the vehicle to the center device. The second invention is characterized in that these data are transmitted at least twice with a time interval. This transmission is performed automatically. If necessary, the individual information collecting device of the vehicle also transmits time data together.
[0023]
By receiving the position data and the identification number at least twice from the same vehicle and adding time data (transmitted from the vehicle or obtained by the center device detecting the time of reception) to the center, The device can calculate the traveling direction and speed of the vehicle. Based on this information, the center device can determine the presence or absence of a traffic jam and the location of the traffic jam.
[0024]
The traffic jam information can include the presence and level of traffic jam.
[0025]
In a preferred embodiment, the individual information collecting device includes vehicle speed detecting means for detecting the traveling speed of the vehicle on which the individual information collecting device is mounted. The first transmission device transmits data representing the traveling speed detected by the vehicle speed detection means to the center device.
[0026]
Also in the second invention, since various data can be obtained from a vehicle traveling on the road, it is not necessary to install special information collecting facilities at many points on the road.
[0027]
The second invention also provides an information collecting device used in this traffic information system.
[0028]
This information collection device includes at least position detection means for measuring position and creating position data, a storage device for storing an identification code of the information collection device or a vehicle equipped with the information collection device, and a position created by the position detection means. A first transmission device is provided that transmits the data and the individual information including the identification code stored in the storage device at least twice at predetermined time intervals. Preferably, the information collecting device is provided with a clock means, and the time data output from the clock means is also included in the individual information and transmitted.
[0029]
More preferably, the information collecting device further includes a first receiving device that receives traffic information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the traffic information received by the first receiving device.
[0030]
The traffic information system according to the present invention ascertained from the third point of view is used by being mounted on a vehicle and collecting individual information related to traffic etc. and the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device. And a center device that creates comprehensive information on an area within a predetermined range.
[0031]
The individual information collecting device is a position detecting means for measuring at least a position and creating position data, projecting an electromagnetic wave (including light) to a predetermined range, receiving the reflected wave, and based on the received signal A radar device for creating ambient information representing the situation around the vehicle, a first transmitter for transmitting individual information including the location data created by the position detecting means and the ambient information created by the radar device, the center A first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device are provided.
[0032]
The center device includes a second receiving device that receives the individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device, and a predetermined range based on the individual information received by the second receiving device. Information processing means for generating general information regarding the area of the vehicle, and second transmission means for transmitting the general information generated by the information processing means to the individual information collecting apparatus.
[0033]
The third invention is characterized in that information around the vehicle is collected by a radar device. The collected information is automatically transmitted to the center device. Since a wide variety of information can be obtained by the radar device, more accurate traffic information can be provided.
[0034]
Examples of the ambient information created by the radar device include the position, shape, moving direction and speed of the detection object existing in the vicinity of the vehicle, the number of vehicles, the inter-vehicle distance, the road shape, and the like.
[0035]
Preferably, the individual information collecting device further includes traffic information generating means for generating traffic information based on surrounding information created by the radar device. Then, the first transmission device transmits the traffic information generated by the traffic information generation means to the center device.
[0036]
More preferably, the individual information collecting device is provided with vehicle speed detecting means for detecting the speed of the vehicle.
[0037]
The present invention further provides an information collecting device used in the traffic information system.
[0038]
This information collecting device is a position detecting means for measuring at least a position and creating position data, projecting an electromagnetic wave to a predetermined range, receiving a reflected wave thereof, and detecting a situation around the vehicle based on the received signal. A radar device for generating ambient information to be represented; and a first transmission device for transmitting individual data including the position data created by the position detecting means and the ambient information created by the radar device.
[0039]
Preferably, the information collecting device is provided with a first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device.
[0040]
The traffic information system according to the present invention ascertained from the fourth point of view is used by being mounted on a vehicle and collecting individual information related to traffic and the like, and the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device. And a center device that creates comprehensive information on an area within a predetermined range.
[0041]
The individual information collecting device includes at least position detection means for measuring position and generating position data, a sensor for detecting information representing surrounding conditions, position data generated by the position detection means, and detection by the sensor A first transmission device that transmits individual information including information, a first reception device that receives comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first reception device. I have.
[0042]
The center device includes a second receiving device that receives the individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device, and a predetermined range based on the individual information received by the second receiving device. Information processing means for generating general information regarding the area of the vehicle, and second transmission means for transmitting the general information generated by the information processing means to the individual information collecting apparatus.
[0043]
Preferably, the individual information collecting device includes clock means for measuring time, and the individual information transmitted by the first transmission device includes time data measured by the clock means.
[0044]
The fourth invention is characterized in that in the individual information collecting apparatus mounted on the vehicle, information representing the surrounding situation is automatically detected and transmitted to the center apparatus. The information representing the surrounding situation includes traffic information (accident information, traffic jam information, etc.) and weather information.
[0045]
Therefore, the sensor is at least one of a sensor that detects traffic information and a sensor that detects weather information. Alternatively, the sensor is at least one of a sensor that detects accident information, a sensor that detects traffic jam information, and a sensor that detects weather information. Alternatively, the sensor is at least one of a laser radar, a road surface state determination device, and a rainfall amount detection device.
[0046]
In this way, information representing the situation around the vehicle is automatically collected and transmitted to the center device, thereby reducing the burden on the driver. In addition, since the comprehensive information processed by the center device is transmitted to the vehicle for notification, the driver can have more information.
[0047]
The present invention further provides an information collecting device used in the traffic information system.
[0048]
This information collection device includes at least position detection means for measuring position and creating position data, a sensor for detecting information representing surrounding conditions, position data created by the position detection means, and identification relating to the information collection apparatus A first transmission device is provided for transmitting individual information including a code and information detected by the sensor.
[0049]
Preferably, the information collecting device includes a first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device.
[0050]
In all the traffic information systems described above, communication between the individual information collection device and the center device is relayed by a relay device as necessary. The relay devices are provided at appropriate positions near the road at appropriate intervals.
[0051]
Instead of or in addition to the first receiving device and the notification device being provided in the individual information collection device, they are provided in a large-scale notification device installed in the vicinity of the road. The second transmission means of the center device transmits the comprehensive information to the large-sized notification device. By this large-sized alarm device, traffic information is transmitted to many vehicles at once.
[0052]
The present invention further provides a vehicle equipped with the above-described information collecting device or car navigation system.
[0053]
The present invention ascertained from the fifth aspect is that, in all the traffic information systems described above, the center device receives the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device having each identification code for each identification code. Means is provided for storing the number of times of reception and means for outputting data relating to an identification code corresponding to the number of times of reception that has reached a predetermined value.
[0054]
A list of persons who have provided the individual information for the number of times equal to or greater than the predetermined value is output from the center device. Those who provide a lot of information are given some kind of reward (money, merchandise, etc.). As a result, many people actively try to provide information, and the center device collects a lot of information from many points. It is expected that more accurate traffic information can be created by the center device.
[0055]
【Example】
First embodiment
FIG. 1 shows a spatial arrangement configuration of a traffic information system.
[0056]
The traffic information system basically includes an in-vehicle device 3 mounted on a vehicle 2 traveling on the road 1, a repeater 4 provided at an appropriate location near the road 1, and a center 9. The repeater 4 is preferably attached to equipment such as a building, structure, or facility related to a road such as a traffic light, a streetlight pole, a pedestrian bridge, and an overpass. Of course, the repeater can be mounted on a dedicated tower for the repeater. If necessary, the traffic information system includes a display board 8. The display board 8 is an electronic bulletin board, for example, and displays information in large characters, figures, pictures, etc. so that the displayed information can be read from a distance. The display board 8 will also preferably be attached to the above-mentioned equipment relating to the road.
[0057]
A traffic information system is provided over an area of suitable size. This area may be the whole of Japan, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, or the unit of Tokyo, Kanto, Chubu, or by administrative division (prefecture, municipality) . It may span multiple administrative districts.
[0058]
In any case, the area where the traffic information system is provided is divided into a plurality of areas. This area is preferably determined in units of an area or area suitable for collecting traffic information, an area suitable for traffic flow control, and the like. In FIG. 1, identification codes A to H (hereinafter referred to as area IDs) are assigned to areas.
[0059]
Preferably, at least one repeater 4 is provided in one area. A range that can be covered by one repeater 4 can be set as one area. In the area E, a center 9 is provided, and since the center 9 functions as a repeater, the area E is not provided with a repeater.
[0060]
FIG. 2 shows an example of the electrical configuration of the in-vehicle device 3 mounted on the vehicle. The in-vehicle device 3 mainly includes various sensors, a communication device, and an information processing device.
[0061]
As various sensors, in this embodiment, a vehicle speed sensor 13, a laser radar 14, a road surface discriminating device 15, a raindrop sensor 16, and a position sensor are provided. The vehicle speed sensor 13 can be realized by a speedometer provided in a normal vehicle.
[0062]
The laser radar 14 projects laser light toward the front of the vehicle and scans the projected laser light one-dimensionally in the horizontal direction or two-dimensionally in the horizontal and vertical directions, and reflects the reflected light from an object ahead. It receives light and generates information related to the surrounding situation (relative speed, distance to the object, object shape, road shape, traffic jam information, accident information, weather condition, etc.) by signal processing using this received light signal.
[0063]
The road surface discrimination device 15 projects light toward the road surface, and detects the road surface condition (wet, frozen, rain, etc.) based on the reflected light and, if necessary, the road surface temperature detected by the road surface thermometer. To do.
[0064]
The raindrop sensor 16 uses light to measure the size of the raindrop, the amount of rainfall, and the like. In this embodiment, the laser radar 14, the road surface discrimination device 15 and the raindrop sensor 16 are not necessarily required. Details of the laser radar, road surface discrimination device, and raindrop sensor will be described later.
[0065]
In this embodiment, the car navigation system 20 is used as the position sensor. The position sensor outputs data representing the position of the vehicle (latitude, longitude, and altitude if necessary). Of course, the car navigation system may not be used as the position sensor.
[0066]
The communication device is composed of a transmitter 11 and a receiver 12, and is mainly for communicating with the repeater 4.
[0067]
The information processing apparatus 10 includes a small computer or a microprocessor, a memory (ROM, RAM, or a disk storage device if necessary), an interface circuit, and the like. The information processing apparatus 10 sends the various information obtained from the sensors 13, 14, 15, 16 and the car navigation system 20 as it is or processes them and sends them from the transmitter 11 to the repeater 4, which is sent from the repeater 4. In addition, traffic information, weather information, and the like received by the receiver 12 are controlled to be output using the display device 25 of the car navigation system 20 or an audio output device (buzzer, microphone, etc.). A display device dedicated to traffic and weather information may be provided without using the display device 25 of the car navigation system 20.
[0068]
As is well known, a car navigation system displays a map and clearly indicates a current position, a target position, an optimum route, etc. on the map, and includes a processor 21, a GPS receiver for position measurement. 22 and various sensors 24, a map data base 23, a display device 25 as a man-machine interface, and a key group 26.
[0069]
The map data base 23 is generally realized by a CD-ROM, and stores data representing several scale maps.
[0070]
There are various methods for measuring the position, but generally an accurate position is required by using a plurality of methods together. The GPS (Global Positioning System) system is a system in which a radio wave emitted from a plurality of artificial satellites is received by a GPS receiver 22, its arrival time is measured, and the position is known by calculating the distance from the satellite. There is also a method of measuring a position by receiving radio waves from a radio wave transmission facility (called a beacon) provided on the roadside. The repeater 4 serves as a beacon. A signal for position measurement is received by the receiver 12 and given to the processor 21. The sensor 24 includes a gyro and a wheel speed difference sensor. Based on these received radio waves and signals from the sensors, the processor 21 corrects the position using a road map represented by the map data base as needed (map matching), and obtains data representing an accurate position.
[0071]
FIG. 3 shows a man-machine interface portion (display device 25 and key group 26) in the car navigation system 20.
[0072]
A display device (display screen) 25 is provided in the center, and displays a map, information from the center 9, or a menu (input guidance) described later. A key group 26 is provided around the display device 25.
[0073]
The key group 26 includes a manual transmission operation unit 31 for the driver to manually input traffic information (accident, traffic jam information, etc.), weather information, and other information around the vehicle. The operation unit 31 is also used for inputting a command for causing the display device 25 to display the received traffic information, weather information, and the like. The operation unit 31 includes five touch switches 31A to 31E, and the functions of the touch switches 31A to 31E are variably displayed (details will be described later). In particular, the touch switch 31E is used to select one of the information manual input mode and the information notification mode, and these modes are alternately selected each time the button is pressed. However, the touch switch 31E is not necessary in this embodiment that uses the operation unit 31 only for the driver to input various information using the touch switches 31A to 31D. In this case, the operation unit 31 is always used. Information manual input mode is selected. Even in the second embodiment in which the driver does not need to input various information, the touch switch 31E is unnecessary, and in this case, the operation unit 31 is always in the information notification mode.
[0074]
The key group 26 further includes a key 32 for manual adjustment of the displayed vehicle position, a power switch 33 for the car navigation system, keys 34 and 35 for instructing reduction and enlargement of the displayed map, television / A radio / navigation changeover switch 36, a screen brightness adjustment switch 37, a volume adjustment knob 38, and the like are included. The knob 38 adjusts the volume of a beep generated when the vehicle arrives at the destination, the sound for guiding traffic information, and weather information.
[0075]
4 to 7 show examples of map display on the display device 25 of the car navigation system 20.
[0076]
FIG. 4 is a reduced map similar to that shown in FIG. When the enlargement key 35 is pressed, an enlarged map is displayed as shown in FIG. When the reduction key 34 is pressed from this state, the scale shown in FIG. 4 is restored. When the reduction key 34 is pressed again, a reduced map is displayed as shown in FIG. A region before reduction (range shown in FIG. 4) is indicated by a chain line. When the reduction key is further pressed, a further reduced map is displayed as shown in FIG. In FIG. 7 as well, the region before reduction (range shown in FIG. 6) is indicated by a chain line.
[0077]
FIG. 8 shows a configuration example of the repeater 4. The repeater 4 includes a transmitter 41, a processing device 42, and a receiver 43. The receiver 43 receives radio waves from the in-vehicle device 3 or the center 9 of the vehicle 2 and passes the information contained therein to the processing device 42. The processing device 42 passes the received information to the transmitter 41 as it is or after processing it. The transmitter 41 transmits radio waves including the received information to the center 9 or the in-vehicle device 3 of the vehicle 2. In this way, information obtained by the in-vehicle device 3 is sent to the center 9 through the relay device 4, and information created at the center 9 is sent to the in-vehicle device 3 through the relay device 4. The processing device 42 may be a simple amplifier.
[0078]
FIG. 9 shows a system provided in the center 9. This center system (also denoted by reference numeral 9) is basically a computer system, and is configured by connecting a transmitter 51 and a receiver 52 thereto. The center computer 50 is connected to a memory (semiconductor memory, disk memory, etc.) 53 and an input / output device (keyboard, display device, printer, mouse, etc.) 54.
[0079]
In this embodiment, the driver uses the display device 25 of the car navigation system 20 and the touch switches 31A to 31E of the manual transmission operation unit 31 to input traffic information, weather information, and other information. The information is sent from the in-vehicle device 3 to the center 9 via the relay device 4. The information sent is accidents, traffic jams, weather, and other information.
[0080]
As shown in FIG. 3, in the normal state, characters “accident”, “congestion”, “weather”, “others”, and “input / notification” are displayed on the touch switches 31A to 31E.
[0081]
When the driver discovers an accident and tries to transmit information about the accident, first, the information manual input mode is selected by the touch switch 31E. As shown in FIG. 10, the character of the touch switch 31E changes from “input / notification” to “input”.
[0082]
Subsequently, the driver presses the touch switch 31A. Then, the display of the touch switches 31A to 31D is switched as shown in FIG. The characters “own lane” are displayed on the switch 31A, and the characters “opposite lane” are displayed on the switch 31B. Nothing is displayed on the switches 31C and 31D. The driver presses one of the switches 31A and 31B and inputs the lane where the accident has occurred.
[0083]
The display of the touch switches 31A to 31D is switched as shown in FIG. In order to input an approximate distance from the host vehicle to the accident site, the touch switches 31A to 31C display “0 to 50 m”, “50 to 100 m”, and “100 m or more”. No characters are displayed on the touch switch 31D. The driver inputs the distance using the touch switches 31A to 31C.
[0084]
Since the vehicle is running, its position is constantly changing. The distance from the vehicle to the accident site also changes every moment. In order to make the information accurate, data representing the position of the vehicle at the time the driver pressed any of the touch switches to enter the distance is stored in its memory by the processor 21.
[0085]
Subsequently, the display of the touch switches 31A and 31B changes as shown in FIG. 13, and asks whether the position of the accident is “front” or “rear” of the own vehicle. The driver inputs the direction.
[0086]
Finally, in order to obtain information about the scale of the accident, the display of the touch switches 31A to 31C is as shown in FIG. The driver selects “Large”, “Medium” or “Small” by sensory judgment and inputs the scale of the accident.
[0087]
Along with changes in display on these touch switches 31A to 31D, guidance for prompting input of lane, distance, direction, and scale is displayed on the display device 25.
[0088]
In this way, detailed information about the accident discovered by the driver is input using the manual transmission operation unit 31 of the car navigation system. These pieces of information are collected by the information processing apparatus 10 and sent to the center 9 via the relay 4.
[0089]
When the series of input operations described above is completed, the display screen of the display device 25 and the touch switches 31A to 31E return to the normal state shown in FIG.
[0090]
Detailed information about traffic jams will be entered in two stages as follows: When the touch switch 31B indicating a traffic jam is pressed, the display of the touch switches 31A and 31B changes to a lane input state of “own lane” and “opposite lane”. When a lane is input, the touch switches 31A and 31B are displayed as “front” and “rear”, respectively, in order to input a traffic jam location (direction). You may make it input the degree of traffic jam.
[0091]
Detailed information about the weather will be input in three stages as follows, for example. First, in order to input the current weather type, the touch switches 31A to 31D are displayed as “snow”, “rain”, “cloudy”, and “sunny”. Next, “Large”, “Medium”, and “Small” are displayed on the touch switch to input the degree. Finally, "Recovery direction" and "Deterioration direction" are displayed for inputting the weather change state.
[0092]
The switch 31D indicating “other” indicates information other than the above-described accident, traffic jam and weather information, for example, “wet”, “freeze”, presence / absence of a restaurant, congestion of a particular restaurant, etc. Will be used to input. Also in this case, an item menu to be input by the driver is preferably created in advance and displayed on the display device 25 and the touch switches 31A to 31D. Of course, the driver may use an alphabet key or the like.
[0093]
FIG. 15 shows a processing procedure of the information processing apparatus 10 in the vehicle-mounted device 3 of the vehicle.
[0094]
The vehicle-mounted device 3 is given an identification code (this is called a vehicle ID). The vehicle ID may be a manufacturing number of the vehicle-mounted device 3, a serial number, or a vehicle number. The identification code of the driver may be used. The vehicle ID is stored in advance in the memory of the information processing apparatus 10. The information processing apparatus 10 has a built-in clock.
[0095]
The information processing apparatus 10 performs time data obtained from a clock, position data obtained from the car navigation system 20 and vehicle speed data obtained from the vehicle speed sensor 13 at regular intervals (relatively short time, about seconds or minutes). In addition, a message is created by adding the vehicle ID, and the message is transmitted from the transmitter 11 (steps 101 and 102).
[0096]
When the above-described series of operations is performed from the manual transmission operation unit 31, these input data are temporarily stored in the memory, and an interrupt is generated when the operation is completed (step 103).
[0097]
In response to this interruption, data (information) input from the operation unit 31 (including position data when the distance is input), and data of time, position, and vehicle speed at that time are transmitted together with the vehicle ID. (Step 104).
[0098]
FIG. 16 shows a processing procedure of the processing device 42 in the repeater 4.
[0099]
It is determined whether or not the receiver 43 has received a message, and when it has been received, whether the message is from the vehicle-mounted device 3 of the vehicle or from the center 9 (steps 111 and 112). In the case of a message from the center 9, it is transmitted as it is from the transmitter 41 toward the vehicle 2 (over the range covered by the repeater 4) (step 113).
[0100]
When a message from the vehicle 2 is received, it is determined whether or not the message is from a vehicle existing in the area covered by the relay device 4 based on the position data included in the message (step 114). The processing device 42 of the repeater 4 is preliminarily set with position data indicating the boundary of the area handled by the repeater 4, and the position data transmitted from the vehicle is compared with the position data indicating the boundary. , It is determined whether the vehicle is within the area managed by the aircraft.
[0101]
In the case of a message from a vehicle that exists in an area managed by the repeater 4, the own area ID (codes A to H described above) is added to the message and transmitted to the center 9 (step 115). If it is not a message from a vehicle in its own area, the message is ignored and not sent to the center 9.
[0102]
In this way, since each relay station transmits only a message from a vehicle existing in its own area to the center 9, the center 9 does not receive the same message from the same vehicle. Is reduced.
[0103]
But the relay machine 4 may be the structure which transmits the message | telegram from a vehicle to the center 9 as it is. In this case, the processing device 42 may be a simple amplifier or a simple logic circuit. The center 9 determines whether there is the same message from the vehicle ID and the time data in the received message, and when two or more same messages are received, it leaves one of them and rejects all others. Become.
[0104]
FIG. 17 shows a vehicle information area provided in the memory 53 of the center 9. In this area, for each vehicle ID, an area ID of the area where the vehicle is sent (transmitted in steps 102 and 115) and data of time, position and vehicle speed (these are sent) Is received last time). These area ID, time, position and vehicle speed data are updated each time they are received.
[0105]
The center computer 50 determines the traveling lane of the vehicle by comparing the position data in the previous received data with the position data in the current received data. This lane data is also stored corresponding to the vehicle ID. For example, the movement vector of the vehicle is calculated based on the position data in the current received data and the position data in the previous received data. This movement vector is compared with the direction vector in the upward direction of the road. If the angle formed by both vectors is smaller than 90 degrees, it is determined that the vehicle is traveling in the upward lane. Based on the comparison between the vehicle movement vector and the down direction vector of the road, it can be determined whether the vehicle is traveling in the down direction lane. Lanes will be stored in association with road map data. The direction of the road is encoded on the map, and the lane is encoded with respect to this direction. If the information processing apparatus 10 of the vehicle performs such a moving direction (traveling lane) determination process and transmits the determination result to the center, the above-described lane determination process at the center becomes unnecessary.
[0106]
Further, for each vehicle ID, traffic information, weather information, etc. (including time, position, and vehicle speed data) input and transmitted (transmitted in step 104) using the manual transmission operation unit 31 of the in-vehicle device 3 are the vehicles. Stored in association with the ID. These pieces of information are also updated when new information is received.
[0107]
FIG. 18 shows a processing procedure for traffic information, weather information, etc. by the center computer 50.
[0108]
The traffic information, weather information, and the like stored in the vehicle information area are classified for each area where the vehicle that transmitted them is present (step 121), and the information is determined for each area (step 122).
[0109]
For example, accident information sent from a vehicle includes a lane, a distance, a direction, a scale, a vehicle position, a time at which the distance is input, and a vehicle speed. Assuming a certain point in time, establish a reference point in the area. From the data of the lane, the position of the vehicle, the time of the vehicle, and the vehicle speed sent from the vehicle, the position (with reference to the reference point) of the vehicle at the reference time is calculated. The approximate position where the accident has occurred is calculated from the calculated position, distance, direction, and lane data. When information is obtained from a plurality of vehicles in one area, the average value of the positions of the accident sites calculated based on the information from each vehicle is calculated, and the position of the accident is determined. The scale of the accident is determined according to the principle of majority vote.
[0110]
The accident information determined in this way is transmitted from the center 9 to each vehicle through the area relay device 4 (in the case of global information, through a plurality of area relay devices). In each vehicle, accident information is displayed on the display device 25 of the vehicle-mounted device 3. When the driver desires to display the accident information, the driver selects the information notification mode by the touch switch 31E, and then selects information on the accident by the touch switch 31A. However, when it is absolutely necessary to inform the driver of a serious accident, it may be automatically displayed without operating the touch switch. The location of the accident site will preferably be represented on the map displayed on the display device 25 by appropriate marks or letters, symbols, etc. Or, using the place name, building name, intersection point name, etc. on the map as a reference, the display device 25 displays a message that “a medium-scale accident has occurred at a location approximately XXm upstream from the XX intersection”. May be displayed. A display example will be described later.
[0111]
Other information, that is, traffic congestion, weather, and the like are also determined for each area based on information from the vehicle by the same processing as described above, and the result is notified to the vehicle.
[0112]
In the above description, the car navigation system 20 is configured to input traffic, weather information, and the like in considerable detail. However, a simpler configuration may be used. For example, in a man-machine interface as shown in Fig. 3 of a car navigation system, characters such as traffic jams, accidents, clear weather, snow, freezing, chain attachment, etc., and buttons corresponding to these characters are arranged for the driver. May simply press any one or more buttons. In this case, the data indicating the pressed button and the position data of the vehicle and the data indicating the time when the button is pressed (more preferably, the vehicle ID is added) are sent to the center. The center determines the state of the road for each area by majority of the pressed buttons. The determination result is transmitted to the vehicle.
[0113]
In general, a car navigation system displays the position of a vehicle on a map and does not perform any action on the outside world. Considering the above-mentioned system centered on the car navigation system, the data collected by the car navigation system is transmitted to the center, and the data obtained by processing at the center is received and displayed by the car navigation system. (Output). This is a car navigation system that interacts with the outside world, so to speak, it can be said to be a car navigation system with bidirectionality.
[0114]
Second embodiment
The second embodiment mainly relates to processing for detecting a traffic jam by the center computer 50 in the center 9. The configurations of the in-vehicle device 3, the relay device 4 and the center 9 are basically the same as those shown in the first embodiment. Differences from the first embodiment will be described below.
[0115]
In the in-vehicle device 3, the driver does not need to input information on accidents, traffic jams, weather, and the like. In the second embodiment, based on only information automatically transmitted from the vehicle-mounted device 3 to the center 9, the center 9 determines whether there is a traffic jam. The car navigation system 20 will act as a position sensor.
[0116]
Information transmitted from the in-vehicle device 3 to the center 9 via the relay device 4 includes at least a vehicle ID, time data, and position data.
[0117]
The information processing apparatus 10 of the in-vehicle device 3 transmits the information at least twice with an appropriate interval (relatively short time, about seconds or minutes). The center computer 50 of the center 9 can calculate the vehicle speed of the vehicle 2 in which the in-vehicle device 3 is mounted using the time data and the position data received twice from the same in-vehicle device 3. However, since the vehicle-mounted device 3 includes the vehicle speed sensor 13, it is preferable to transmit vehicle speed data obtained from the vehicle speed sensor 13 from the vehicle-mounted device 3 to the center 9. As a result, the burden on the center computer 50 can be reduced.
[0118]
The center computer 50 uses the information (at least time data and position data) sent twice from the same vehicle-mounted device 3, as in the case of the first embodiment. 2. Determine the second lane.
[0119]
In addition to the above, the in-vehicle device 3 of the vehicle 2 determines the distance between the vehicle and the road surface condition (dry, wet, frozen, rain, etc.) with the traveling vehicle that is traveling in front of the vehicle 2 equipped with the in-vehicle device 3. The road surface information to be represented, information on rain, and the like may be transmitted to the center 9. Such information is obtained from a laser radar, a road surface discriminating device, a raindrop sensor, etc. (see the third embodiment).
[0120]
FIG. 19 shows an example of a vehicle information area provided in the memory 53 of the center 9. This vehicle information area may be the same as that of the first embodiment shown in FIG. 17, but is drawn slightly differently in order to highlight the features of the second embodiment.
[0121]
This vehicle information area stores previous data, current data, travel lanes, and other information for each vehicle ID. As described above, information is transmitted from the in-vehicle device 3 of the vehicle 2 at least twice at regular time intervals. The latest information is the current data, and the information sent before that is the previous data. These data include time data, position data, and vehicle speed data (may be calculated at the center). When new information is received from the vehicle, the current data stored is stored as the previous data, and the data included in the new information is stored as the current data, so that the current data and the previous data are updated. . The travel lane is determined based on the current data and the previous data. Other information includes the above-mentioned inter-vehicle distance and road surface information.
[0122]
The center computer 50 of the center 9 performs processing for determining the presence / absence of a traffic jam and the level thereof as necessary based on the data in the vehicle information area.
[0123]
FIG. 20 shows an example of the traffic jam determination process. This is the simplest process that pays attention to the fact that the average vehicle speed becomes slower if there is traffic.
[0124]
Each vehicle is divided into blocks on the map plane based on the position data for each vehicle stored in the vehicle information area (included in the current data) (step 131). The block may be the same as the area in the first embodiment, but preferably the lane is taken into consideration. For example, a vehicle traveling on an up lane of a specific road in area A is included in one block. A vehicle traveling on the down lane of the same road belongs to another block. A block may be considered as a unit of a range in which a traffic jam should be judged.
[0125]
For each block, the average vehicle speed is calculated using the vehicle speeds of all the vehicles belonging to that block (included in the current data) (step 132).
[0126]
It is assumed that there are N blocks in the area controlled by the center 9. A block counter is provided for counting these blocks. The contents of this block counter are cleared to zero (step 133).
[0127]
It is determined for each block whether the average vehicle speed is 30 km / h (30 km / h) or more (step 135). If the average vehicle speed is less than 30 km / h, the block is congested (step 136), and if it is 30 km / h or more, it is determined that there is no traffic jam (step 137). The reference speed for determining the traffic jam is not limited to 30 km / h and may be any speed.
[0128]
The block counter is incremented (step 138) and the processing described above is performed for the next block. When the above process is completed for all N blocks (step 134), the congestion determination process is completed.
[0129]
FIG. 21 and FIG. 22 show another example of processing for determining a traffic jam. This processing focuses on the fact that the speed of all the vehicles is reduced in the block where the vehicles are congested.
[0130]
All the vehicles for which data is stored in the vehicle information area are distributed to one of N blocks according to the position data as in the process of FIG. 20 (step 141).
[0131]
For each block, the average vehicle speed, the vehicle speed width, and the number of vehicles are calculated for all the vehicles belonging to that block (step 142). The vehicle speed width means a difference between the maximum value and the minimum value of the speeds of the vehicles belonging to the block (speed difference between the maximum vehicle speed vehicle and the minimum vehicle speed vehicle). The number of vehicles is the total number of vehicles belonging to the block.
[0132]
For each block, only when the number of vehicles exceeds 10 (step 145), the average vehicle speed is less than 30 km / h (step 146), and the vehicle speed width is less than 30 km / h (step 147). It is determined that there is a traffic jam (step 148), otherwise it is determined that there is no traffic jam (step 149). Needless to say, the number of vehicles, the vehicle speed, and the vehicle speed range, which are the criteria for judgment, can be set arbitrarily.
[0133]
The above processing is performed for all N blocks (steps 143, 144, 150).
[0134]
The information indicating the presence or absence of traffic jam obtained by the processing shown in FIG. 20 or FIG. 21 and FIG. 22 is transmitted to the in-vehicle device 3 of the vehicle 2 through the relay device 4 together with the position information of the block determined to have traffic jam. In the in-vehicle device 3, traffic jam information is displayed together with position information. When the display device 25 of the car navigation system 20 is used to display traffic jam information, for example, as shown in FIG. 23, a specific color or pattern is displayed on a block determined as traffic jam on the displayed map. (Indicated in hatching in FIG. 23) is displayed that there is a traffic jam. It is also possible to display the position where the traffic is congested in characters such as “upstream lane 1 km leading to the XX intersection”. It will be displayed on the display panel 8 as necessary.
[0135]
The traffic jam determination process shown in FIG. 24 and FIG. 25 determines traffic jam based on only the vehicle ID, time data, and position data transmitted from the vehicle (vehicle speed data is not required). Moreover, the degree of traffic jam is also judged.
[0136]
This process is performed for each block. That is, the vehicle in which data is stored in the vehicle information area is divided into blocks prior to processing.
[0137]
The number of vehicles belonging to one block to be processed is counted (step 151). Let M be the number of vehicles.
[0138]
The vehicle IDs belonging to one block are sorted (rearranged) in ascending order (step 152).
[0139]
A vehicle counter for counting the number of processed vehicles is provided, and this vehicle counter is cleared (step 153).
[0140]
For each vehicle (for each vehicle ID), the difference between the position data in the current data and the position data in the previous data is calculated. The difference between the time data in the current data and the time data in the previous data is calculated. By dividing the difference in position data by the difference in time data, the position change amount (speed) of the vehicle per unit time is calculated (step 155). This position change amount calculation processing is performed for all M vehicles while incrementing the vehicle counter (steps 154 and 156).
[0141]
An average value of the position change amount is calculated for the vehicles included in one block to be processed (step 157). This average value has substantially the same meaning as the above-mentioned average vehicle speed.
[0142]
The calculated average vehicle speed is compared with the reference vehicle speeds of 50 km / h, 20 km / h and 5 km / h, respectively (steps 158, 159 and 160). This reference vehicle speed can be set arbitrarily.
[0143]
If the average vehicle speed is 50 km / h or more, it is determined that the block is not congested (step 161).
[0144]
If the average vehicle speed is less than 50 km / h and greater than or equal to 20 km / h, it is determined that the traffic is congested but the degree is small (step 162).
[0145]
If the average vehicle speed is less than 20 km / h and greater than or equal to 5 km / h, the traffic is congested but the degree is determined to be medium (step 163).
[0146]
If the average vehicle speed is less than 5 km / h, it is determined that the vehicle is congested and the degree is large (step 164).
[0147]
The greater the number of vehicles belonging to one block, the higher the accuracy of the above determination. A table or function for converting the number of vehicles into a value representing the certainty (accuracy) is set in advance, and using this table or function, the number of vehicles M belonging to one block to be processed is displayed as information. It is converted into a value representing the certainty (step 165).
[0148]
The processing in steps 151 to 165 described above is performed for each block for all blocks. Therefore, for each block, the presence / absence of traffic jam in that block, the level of traffic jam, and the probability of this traffic jam information can be obtained.
[0149]
The traffic jam information obtained in this way is transmitted to the in-vehicle device of the vehicle together with the position information indicating the position of the block. In the in-vehicle device, the traffic jam information is notified to the driver in the diagram as shown in FIG. 23 or in the text as described above. At this time, the degree of traffic jam is also notified. For example, on the map shown in FIG. 23, the degree of traffic congestion is displayed in different colors.
[0150]
In the processing shown in FIG. 24 and FIG. 25, the number of vehicles and the vehicle speed width included in the block can also be used as basic data for determining the presence and degree of traffic congestion.
[0151]
Third embodiment
The third embodiment utilizes the laser radar to provide not only information on the own vehicle but also information on the location where the own vehicle is traveling and the environment in the vicinity thereof (including information on the preceding vehicle). This relates to a form of collecting and transmitting these to the center 9. In the third embodiment, information on the road surface state determined by the road surface determination device 15 and information on raindrops or rainfall measured by the raindrop sensor 16 are also transmitted from the in-vehicle device 3 to the center 9. The configurations of the in-vehicle device 3, the relay device 4 and the center 9 are basically the same as those of the first embodiment described above. The configuration and operation unique to the third embodiment, particularly the configuration and operation relating to the laser radar 14, the road surface discrimination device 15 and the raindrop sensor 16, will be described below.
[0152]
FIG. 26 shows the configuration of the laser radar 14. The laser radar 14 includes a head 60. The head 60 is attached to the vehicle so as to project laser light toward the front or rear (generally forward) of the vehicle. The head 60 includes a light projecting optical system that projects projection light and a light receiving optical system that receives reflected light. When the laser beam is projected toward the front of the vehicle, the head 60 is attached to the front portion of the vehicle 2, for example, a bumper or the vicinity thereof, as shown in FIG. It is not necessary to expose the entire head 60 to the outside of the vehicle body of the vehicle 2 as long as at least a laser light exit window and a reflected light entrance window are provided. Various signal processing circuits will generally be provided inside the vehicle body.
[0153]
As will be described later in detail, the projected laser light is pulsed light, and its projection direction is scanned two-dimensionally. FIG. 29 shows how the projection laser scans. FIG. 29B is a plan view, and the projection light is projected from the head 60 to the fan-shaped range (detection area) using the head 60 as a main component. FIG. 29A shows a measurement range (detection area) at a position away from the maximum measurable distance from the head 60 on a vertical plane. In these figures, the projection light (FIG. 29B) and the scanning order (FIG. 29A) are indicated by chain lines. The projection light is scanned in the vertical direction while reciprocating in the horizontal direction.
[0154]
The overall operation of the laser radar 14 is controlled by the CPU 61. The CPU 61 outputs a light emission command and a mirror rotation command. The CPU 61 receives the light emission timing signal, the horizontal scanning angle θ H , Vertical scanning angle θ V , A measured distance d, and a received signal level S are taken in, and coordinate conversion processing, measurement data processing, etc. described later are performed.
[0155]
When the CPU 61 gives a light emission command to the pulse generation circuit 62, the pulse generation circuit 62 starts generating a series of light emission pulses having a fixed period. The period of the light emission pulse has a time longer than the time required for the light to reciprocate the maximum measurable distance. The light emission pulse is supplied to the drive circuit 63 and also to the CPU 61 and the measurement circuit 69 as a light emission timing signal.
[0156]
The CPU 61 also gives a mirror rotation command to the mirror rotation device 71. In response to this, the mirror rotation device 71 reciprocates the projection light scanning mirror 70 in the horizontal direction within a predetermined angle range, and rotates the projection light scanning mirror 70 by a slight angle in the vertical direction at both ends of the predetermined angle range.
[0157]
FIG. 28 shows a part of the mirror 70 and the mirror rotating device 71.
[0158]
The mirror 70 is attached directly to the rotating shaft of the horizontal scanning motor 76 or via a speed reduction mechanism. The horizontal scanning motor 76 is attached to the turntable 75. A shaft 77 fixed to the turntable 75 is rotatably received by a bearing (not shown). One shaft 77 is rotated by a vertical scanning motor 78 through a speed reduction mechanism as necessary. The vertical scanning motor 78 is supported by a frame (not shown) of the head 60.
[0159]
The horizontal scanning motor 76 is driven by a horizontal scanning motor drive circuit (not shown) included in the mirror rotating device 71, and the mirror 70 is rotated in a horizontal plane. The vertical scanning motor 78 is driven by a vertical scanning motor drive circuit (not shown), and the rotating table 75 (also the mirror 70 and the horizontal scanning motor 76) is rotated to rotate the mirror 70 in the vertical plane. The
[0160]
The light projecting device 64 includes a laser diode and a collimating lens. Since the laser diode is pulse-driven by the drive circuit 63 in response to the light emission pulse, collimated laser light is emitted from the light projecting device 64. This laser light is reflected by the mirror 70 and projected through the light projection lens 65. The light projection lens 65 is not always necessary.
[0161]
As the mirror 70 rotates in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction, the projection light is scanned two-dimensionally within a predetermined angle range (detection area) as described above.
[0162]
Horizontal scanning angle θ of mirror 70 H Is a light emitting diode (LED) 72H that projects light toward the opposite surface of the mirror 70 (this surface is also a reflective surface), and a position detection element (PSD) 73H that detects the position of the reflected light from the mirror 70. , And the angle detection circuit 74H that converts the position signal of the position detection element 73H into a horizontal scanning angle signal, and supplies it to the CPU 61.
[0163]
The vertical scanning angle θ of the mirror 70 V Is a light emitting diode 72V that projects toward the opposite surface of the mirror 70, a position detection element 73V that detects the position of reflected light from the mirror 70, and an angle detection that converts the position signal of the position detection element 73V into a vertical scanning angle signal. It is detected by the circuit 74V and given to the CPU 61.
[0164]
A large number of reflectors (roadside reflectors) are provided on the road along the roadside at appropriate intervals. The line that separates the center line or lane of the road is drawn by a white line or a yellow line. Reflectors (road surface reflectors) are also provided on these white lines or yellow lines. In general, four or more vehicles such as passenger cars, buses, trucks, etc. have two reflectors (vehicle reflectors), one on each end (near the place where the tail is attached). . One reflector (vehicle reflector) is attached to the two-wheeled vehicle. These roadside reflectors, road surface reflectors and vehicle reflectors are called retroreflectors, and have the property that the reflection direction is almost the same as the incident direction.
[0165]
The laser light projected from the head 60 of the laser radar 14 is reflected by the vehicle body, a white line or a yellow line on the road surface, various reflectors, etc., and returns to the head 60. Generally, the reflected light intensity from the reflector is high, and the reflected light intensity from the vehicle body, white line, etc. is low. In general, the reflected light intensity changes according to the distance from the head 60 to the reflecting object, and the closer the distance is, the higher the reflected light intensity is. Even reflected light from a vehicle body or the like has detectable light intensity when it is at a relatively short distance.
[0166]
The reflected light from such a reflecting object is collected by the light receiving lens 66 and enters a light receiving element (for example, a photodiode) 67. The light reception signal of the light receiving element 67 is input to the measurement circuit 69 through the amplifier 68.
[0167]
The measurement circuit 69 measures the time from the input timing of the light emission timing signal to the input timing of the light reception signal, and using this time and the speed of light, the distance d to the reflecting object (distance that the light reciprocates: FIG. 29B). Reference) is calculated. Further, a level signal representing the level S of the received light signal input from the amplifier 68 is output. A signal representing the distance d and a signal representing the light reception level S are input to the CPU 61.
[0168]
Referring again to FIG. 29, with the position of the head 60 as the origin, the Y axis is taken forward and the X axis is taken to the right in the horizontal plane. The Z axis is taken upward.
[0169]
The CPU 61 determines the horizontal scanning angle θ for each scanning point. H , Vertical scanning angle θ V When the distance d is received, the values represented by these polar coordinates are converted into the values in the orthogonal coordinates composed of the X, Y, and Z axes.
[0170]
The maximum measurable distance is, for example, 150 m. The distance resolution is 0.01 m. It is assumed that the horizontal scanning angle is 400 mrad, the angular range is divided into 4000, and measurement is performed at 4000 angular positions (4000 pulsed projection lights are projected). It is assumed that the vertical scanning angle is 100 mrad, the scanning angle is divided into 40, and 40 measurements are performed. The level S of the received light signal is assumed to have a resolution of 20 levels.
[0171]
The CPU 61 performs rounding processing (averaging processing) on the obtained distance d and level S. For example, 4000 measured values obtained in the range of horizontal scanning angles are collected into 100-direction data. Forty pieces of data are combined into one piece of data. The measurement values for 40 times obtained in the range of the scanning angle in the vertical direction are collected into data in 10 directions. Four pieces of data are combined into one piece of data. This rounding process may be performed before or after the XYZ coordinate conversion.
[0172]
In any case, in one two-dimensional scan, 100 position data in the horizontal direction (X-axis direction) and 10 position data in the vertical direction (Z-axis direction), a total of 1000 position data are obtained. . For each of these 1000 pieces of position data (1000 detection points), data on the distance to the reflecting object (in the Y-axis direction) and data on the light reception level are attached.
[0173]
FIG. 30 summarizes the above data obtained by one two-dimensional scanning. Detection point numbers are assigned to 1000 pieces of position data. The CPU 61 creates such data for each two-dimensional scan and stores it in the memory.
[0174]
For a position where a reflecting object is not detected (a position where the reflected light level is very low or equal to zero), both the Y-axis value and the received light signal level value are set to zero. As a result, the position and the number (a position and the number of detection points) at which any reflecting object is detected are known.
[0175]
The information processing apparatus 10 of the in-vehicle device 3 creates various feature quantities or state quantities based on the data shown in FIG. The information processing apparatus 10 also creates traffic jam information, accident information, weather information, and other information based on these feature quantities and state quantities, and transmits the information to the center 9.
[0176]
First, a representative process in which the information processing apparatus 10 creates a feature amount or state amount will be described.
[0177]
Data obtained by the one-dimensional two-dimensional scan created by the CPU 61 includes data representing the signal level. Since data having a low signal level is likely to cause a processing error, only data at a detection point having a signal level higher than a certain threshold level is processed.
[0178]
Whether it is a reflector or a vehicle body, the distance between adjacent detection points (when the horizontal scanning angle of 400 mrad is divided by 100 detection lights, at a position of 1 m from the head 60 in the Y-axis direction). , The distance in the X-axis direction between two adjacent detection points is about 4 mm). Therefore, reflected light is obtained from a plurality of points (detection points) on the surface of one detection object. Therefore, the data based on the reflected light from the same detection object is collected so as to form one group.
[0179]
Processing (identification processing) for grouping data for each identical detection object is performed based on X, Y, and Z coordinate data. If the X coordinate data and the Z coordinate data of the two detection points are included within a predetermined allowable range, these two detection points are determined as detection points on the same detection target. The predetermined allowable range will be determined according to the distance Y data.
[0180]
When a vehicle is present at a position close to the head 60, the reflected light from the vehicle body and reflector of the vehicle forms detection points, and these detection points are distributed within the range of the contour line of the vehicle body viewed from the head 60. , The above processing is combined so as to form one group on the same detection object (one vehicle).
[0181]
For a vehicle that is located far from the head 60, only the reflected light from the reflector attached to the vehicle will constitute the detection point. Two reflectors are attached to the vehicle. There is a fixed interval slightly smaller than the vehicle width between these two reflectors. Therefore, the detection point based on the reflected light from the two reflectors having the same position on the Y axis and a difference in position in the X axis direction that is substantially equal to the above-mentioned fixed interval (determined according to the Y axis coordinate value) is They are grouped as belonging to the same object to be detected (one vehicle).
[0182]
The positions (X, Y and Z coordinate values) of the objects to be detected thus identified and their numbers are detected.
[0183]
The laser radar 14 is mounted on a traveling vehicle. The relative speed of the detection object detected as described above with respect to the vehicle on which the laser radar 14 is mounted is obtained as follows.
[0184]
The relative speed is calculated using at least two (preferably three) two-dimensional scan data (shown in FIG. 30). A window is set in the Y-axis direction on these scan data. This window is set to be slightly larger than the distance at which the moving object is displaced at the maximum possible relative speed during the period (time interval) of two two-dimensional scans. If the object detected based on the previous (first) two-dimensional scanning data and the object detected based on the current (second) two-dimensional scanning data are included in this window, These objects are determined to be the same.
[0185]
A movement vector starting from the previous position of the same object and reaching the current position is set. Preferably, based on this movement vector, a position where the object will exist in the next (third) two-dimensional scan is estimated. If the object detected based on the third two-dimensional scan data is in the vicinity of the estimated position, the object identified based on the first and second two-dimensional scan data is surely Are determined to be the same object.
[0186]
Based on the above-described movement vector, the movement direction and relative speed (for each of the X, Y, and Z axis directions, and a combination thereof) of the detection target are calculated. The vehicle speed sensor 13 detects the traveling speed of the vehicle on which the laser radar 14 is mounted. The absolute speed of the object to be detected is obtained by adding a relative speed (having positive and negative signs) to the detected vehicle speed.
[0187]
As described above, a large number of reflectors are provided along the shape of the road at regular intervals on the center line of the road or on the road side. These reflectors are determined to be separate detection objects in the same detection object identification process described above. These reflectors are arranged along a straight line or curve at regular intervals, and have the property that the relative speed is substantially the same as the vehicle speed detected by the vehicle speed sensor 13 and the moving direction is opposite. Using these properties, the road surface reflector and the road side reflector are distinguished from other detection objects. Since the road surface reflector and the road-side reflector are provided with different height positions, these reflectors can be distinguished from each other using the Z-axis coordinate data. Since the direction of the arrangement of the road surface reflector and the roadside reflector represents the shape of the road, the shape of the road is determined. Further, the presence or absence of the road gradient and its degree are determined based on the height position or the movement vector of these reflectors.
[0188]
Details of the above-described identification, detection, and determination processing of feature quantities or state quantities are described in the patent application filed by the same applicant, Japanese Patent Application No. 4-305019, Japanese Patent Application No. 6-52512, and Japanese Patent Application No. 6-83793. Has been.
[0189]
If most of the roads, especially those on highways, are vehicles (including motorcycles), road reflectors, and roadside reflectors, the number of roadside reflectors and roadside reflectors is subtracted from the number of all detected objects. Thus, the approximate number of vehicles present is calculated.
[0190]
As described above, a set of detection points determined to belong to one detection object forms one two-dimensional image, particularly in the XZ plane. It is determined what the detection target is based on the shape of the two-dimensional image.
[0191]
For example, the two-dimensional image shown in FIG. 31 (A) is determined to be that of a large truck in a horizontal direction (a direction crossing a road). The two-dimensional image shown in FIG. 31 (B) is for a large truck facing forward or backward, and the two-dimensional image shown in FIG. 31 (C) is for a regular vehicle facing forward or backward because the height is low. It is judged that there is. Such a determination may be made by other methods based on pattern matching techniques, height, width, and area comparisons. Naturally, the distance from the head 60 (Y coordinate value) is taken into account in calculating the height, width, and area.
[0192]
It is possible to determine what the detection target is or the shape of the detection target, and also determine the direction of the detection target (sideways, forward, etc.) as described above. As described above, if the detection target is stationary, moving, or moving, its direction and speed are also detected from the movement vector.
[0193]
If detection points with low signal levels are also used, the shape of many objects existing on the road is expressed as a two-dimensional image, so that even more types of objects can be recognized. Also in this case, identification processing is performed to determine whether or not all detection points belong to the same object, and a two-dimensional image of the object is obtained from a set of detection points determined to belong to the same detection object.
[0194]
An example of a criterion for recognition of an object is as follows.
[0195]
An object having a width of about 50 cm, a height of less than 2 m, and a small absolute velocity is a person.
A motorcycle having a width of about 50 cm, a height of about 1.5 m, and a relatively high absolute speed is a motorcycle. (If the absolute speed is small, it may be judged as a person.)
An object having a width of about 2 m and a height of about 1.5 m is an ordinary car.
An object having a width of about 3 m and a height of about 3 m is a large truck.
An object having a width of 3 m or more and an absolute velocity of almost zero is a wall.
The object whose absolute velocity is almost zero and whose position is on the upper side is a signboard.
Objects that are long and continuous are white lines.
A roadside reflector is one that has a high level of received light signal, a small width, and almost zero absolute speed.
[0196]
The recognition process of what the object is is performed by fuzzy reasoning or threshold processing (judgment based on comparison with the threshold).
[0197]
The information processing apparatus 10 determines the presence / absence of traffic congestion, the degree thereof, the presence / absence of an accident, the degree thereof, and the like mainly based on the above-described feature quantity or state quantity.
[0198]
First, the traffic jam information generation process will be described. This is performed by fuzzy reasoning, and traffic congestion is determined based on the number of detected vehicles, the average inter-vehicle distance, the average speed, and the time that these factors have a certain size.
[0199]
The number of vehicles is the number of vehicles existing in the detection area of the laser radar 14 as described above.
[0200]
The inter-vehicle distance is a distance between a reference vehicle and a vehicle closest to the reference vehicle among vehicles traveling in front of the reference vehicle, based on one vehicle. With the above feature value creation process, almost all vehicles in the laser radar detection area (when viewed from behind, the vehicle position cannot be detected when the preceding vehicles are almost invisible. Position) is detected. The distance between the vehicles adjacent to each other in the front-rear direction (inter-vehicle distance) is calculated. The average value of the calculated inter-vehicle distance is the average inter-vehicle distance.
[0201]
The relative speeds are calculated from the movement vectors of almost all vehicles existing in the laser radar detection area, and the absolute speed is calculated by adding the vehicle speed of the host vehicle to the relative speed. The average absolute speed of the vehicles in the detection area is the average speed.
[0202]
If and then rules as shown below are prepared.
[0203]
R1: If the number of vehicles is large, it is a traffic jam.
R2: No traffic jam if the number of vehicles is small.
R3: If the average inter-vehicle distance is short, there is a traffic jam.
R4: If the average inter-vehicle distance is long, there is no traffic jam.
R5: If the average speed is slow, there is a traffic jam.
R6: If the average speed is high, there is no traffic jam.
R7: If the state with a large number of vehicles continues for a long time, it is a traffic jam.
R8: If the state with a small number of vehicles continues for a long time, it is not a traffic jam.
R9: If the state where the average inter-vehicle distance is short continues for a long time, it is a traffic jam.
R10: If there is a long average inter-vehicle distance for a long time, there is no traffic jam.
R11: If the state where the average speed is slow continues for a long time, it is a traffic jam.
R12: If the state where the average speed is high continues for a long time, it is not traffic jam.
[0204]
Examples of membership functions used in these rules R1 to R12 are shown in FIGS.
[0205]
FIGS. 32A and 32B are used in rules R1 and R2, respectively. The degree of congestion is a degree that can be said to be a traffic jam, and the degree of non-congestion is a degree that can be said not to be a traffic jam.
[0206]
FIGS. 33A and 33B show membership functions for rules R3 and R4.
[0207]
FIGS. 34A and 34B show membership functions used in rules R5 and R6, respectively.
[0208]
FIGS. 35A and 35B show membership functions used in rules R7 and R8, respectively. The state where the number of vehicles is large refers to a state where the number of detected vehicles is, for example, 10 or more, and the state where the number of vehicles is small refers to a state where the number of detected vehicles is, for example, less than 10.
[0209]
FIGS. 36A and 36B show the membership functions for rules R9 and R10, respectively. The state where the average inter-vehicle distance is short indicates a state where the average inter-vehicle distance is, for example, 10 m or less. The state where the average inter-vehicle distance is long refers to a state where the average inter-vehicle distance is, for example, 20 m or more.
[0210]
FIGS. 37A and 37B show membership functions used in rules R11 and R12, respectively. The state where the average speed is slow means a state where the average speed is, for example, 20 km / h or less. The state where the average speed is high refers to a state where the average speed is 30 km / h or more, for example.
[0211]
Since rules R7 to R12 measure and apply the duration of a certain state, processing based on these rules will be performed at regular time intervals (for example, every 30 minutes).
[0212]
Although the membership function expressed by a straight line is shown in FIGS. 32 to 37, it goes without saying that the membership function can be expressed by a curve.
[0213]
The number of detected vehicles, the average inter-vehicle distance, the average speed, the duration of the state where the number of vehicles is large, the duration of the state where the average inter-vehicle distance is short and the continuous time of the state where the average speed is slow are represented by rules R1, R3, R5, R7, According to R9 and R11, the membership functions shown in FIGS. 32 (A), 33 (A), 34 (A), 35 (A), 36 (A) and 37 (A) are applied to the degree of congestion. Get. The total sum of these congestion levels is calculated.
[0214]
Similarly, the number of detected vehicles, the average inter-vehicle distance, the average speed, the duration of the state where the number of vehicles is small, the duration of the state where the average inter-vehicle distance is long, and the duration of the state where the average speed is fast are represented by rules R2, R4. Applied to the membership functions of FIGS. 32 (B), 33 (B), 34 (B), 35 (B), 36 (B) and 37 (B) according to R6, R8, R10 and R12. And obtain the degree of non-congestion respectively. The total sum of these non-congestion levels is calculated.
[0215]
The total sum of the congestion levels and the total sum of the non-congestion levels are compared, and if there is more total traffic congestion level, it is determined that the traffic is in a congested state, and vice versa. When it is determined that there is a traffic jam, the difference between the above two sums is taken as the traffic jam level (preferably normalized).
[0216]
Any one or more of the rules described above may be omitted, or other rules may be added.
[0217]
Accident information is created based on the type of detection object, its direction, absolute speed, road shape, etc. among the above-described feature quantities.
[0218]
For example, as shown in FIG. 38, in a road 1 having roadside reflectors 81 on both sides, a detection object that is recognized as a large truck is placed sideways across the center line 83 (substantially orthogonal). When the absolute speed is determined to be zero (stopped), it is determined that there is an accident. The number of vehicles related to this accident and the distance to the accident site are also detected.
[0219]
The accident information includes the presence / absence of the accident, the situation of the accident, the number of vehicles related to the accident, the distance from the position of the own vehicle to the accident site, and the like.
[0220]
Weather information can also be obtained using a laser radar.
[0221]
For example, in the case of fine weather, disturbance noise due to sunlight is received by the light receiving optical system (light receiving element 67) of the laser radar 14. When a high-level light reception signal is obtained from the light receiving element 67 at a timing when the laser diode of the light projecting device 64 is not emitting light, it is determined that sunlight is incident and it is determined that the sky is clear.
[0222]
When small detection objects (those having a very small width and height) are detected discretely and discontinuously at a close distance, it is determined as rain or snow. If a temperature sensor is provided, it will be determined whether it is rain or snow based on the detected temperature.
[0223]
Rain or snow is also recognized by detecting water droplets or snow adhering to the front of the laser radar. For example, if there is a detection point at a distance of 0 m, it is determined as a water drop or snow.
[0224]
In addition, rain or a puddle is detected by determining the splash of water splashed by the preceding vehicle.
[0225]
Although the detection and determination of the external environment surrounding the host vehicle using the laser radar has been described, each vehicle can collect more accurate information by providing other sensor groups. Examples of these sensors include a solar radiation sensor, a raindrop sensor, a handle angle sensor, a wiper on / off sensor, a temperature sensor, a road surface state sensor (road surface discrimination device), and the like. The road surface discrimination device and the raindrop sensor will be described in detail below.
[0226]
For example, it is possible to count the number of times the driver has stepped on the brake or the accelerator within a certain time, and to take this count value into consideration in the above-described congestion determination.
[0227]
Weather information based on information from raindrop sensors (which also measure precipitation), solar radiation sensors, sensors that detect the number of wiper on / off times, road surface sensors (detection of dryness, wetness, freezing, rain, etc.) Can be created.
[0228]
By providing an airbag impact sensor that detects the impact of the host vehicle when it collides, it can be detected that the host vehicle has an accident.
[0229]
Accident information can also be obtained by inter-vehicle communication. When a traveling vehicle causes an accident or detects an accident, the information is transmitted to the following vehicle by communication. The information processing apparatus 10 for the following vehicle creates information related to the accident by combining the information obtained from the laser radar described above and the information obtained by communication.
[0230]
A specific configuration example of the road surface discrimination device 15 will be described in detail. This road surface discrimination device is described in International Publication No. WO95 / 01549 (PCT / JP94 / 01053).
[0231]
At least the optical system 200 (configuration shown in FIGS. 40, 41, and 42) of the road surface discriminating device 15 is fixed downward at an appropriate position below the vehicle 2 as shown in FIG. Light is projected from the optical system of the road surface discrimination device 15 toward the road surface LD of the road 1, and reflected light from the road surface LD is received by the optical system. The road surface state is determined by a signal processing circuit (see FIG. 44) based on an electrical signal obtained from the optical system.
[0232]
A typical example of the road surface condition to be identified is as follows.
[0233]
snow
Asphalt (or concrete)
Gravel (or soil or sand)
[0234]
It is also determined whether the road surface is frozen.
[0235]
Furthermore, the asphalt (concrete) road surface can be subdivided into the following two states.
[0236]
Wet asphalt (concrete)
Dry asphalt (concrete)
[0237]
Therefore, the mode of determination includes identifying any one road surface state among the above-described road surface states and distinguishing any two or more road surface states. The typical discrimination modes are as follows.
[0238]
a. Snow road identification
b. Identification of asphalt road (concrete road)
c. Identification of gravel road (soil or sand road)
d. Identification of road surface freezing
e. Identification of wet asphalt roads
f. Identification of dry asphalt roads
g. Distinguishing between snowy roads and asphalt roads
h. Distinguishing between snowy roads and gravel roads
i. Distinguishing between asphalt road and gravel road
j. Differentiation between snowy road, asphalt road and gravel road
k. G. , I. And j. Discriminating asphalt roads between wet and dry conditions
m. G. H. , I. , J. And k. The presence or absence of freezing
[0239]
In the following, m. However, by extracting only a necessary part of the optical configuration, a necessary part of the electrical configuration, and a necessary part of the algorithm, the above-mentioned a. ~ K. Needless to say, the road surface can be discriminated in any manner.
[0240]
40 to 42 show the configuration of the optical system 200 of the road surface discrimination device 15. In order to reduce the number of drawings, this optical system has all the optical elements necessary to actually execute all of several road surface discrimination algorithms described in detail later. In other words, the optical system also includes optical elements that are not required to execute a certain road surface discrimination algorithm. 40 to 42 can be said to represent all the optical elements included in the optical systems of several road surface discrimination devices. This also applies to the signal processing circuit shown in FIG. Therefore, when this optical system and the signal processing circuit shown in FIG. It is possible to discriminate the road surface. A. ~ K. When realizing the road surface discriminating apparatus capable of discriminating the road surface according to any one of the above, unnecessary optical elements and electric circuit elements may be omitted.
[0241]
A light source 211 for road illumination and a light source 212 for regular reflection light are included in the optical system. These light sources 211 and 212 are both constituted by light emitting diodes. The road surface illumination light source 211 projects light obliquely downward in the traveling direction of the vehicle. The regular reflection light source 212 projects light obliquely downward in a direction perpendicular thereto. Preferably, the wavelengths of light emitted from these light sources 211 and 212 are different. Thereby, the reflected light from the road surface LD of the light of these light sources can be separated by the optical filter.
[0242]
The light receiving optical system for diffusely reflected light from the road surface includes a light receiving lens 221, a slit plate 222, and a collimating lens 224. The focal point of the light receiving lens 221 and the focal point of the collimator lens 224 are at the same position, and the slit (aperture) 222a of the slit plate 222 is located at these focal points. The slit 222a is elongated in a direction perpendicular to the traveling direction of the vehicle. Such an optical system is called a telecentric optical system. That is, of the reflected light from the road surface LD, only the light perpendicular to the road surface LD and parallel to each other (in FIG. 41) is condensed at the focal point of the light receiving lens 221 and passes through the slit 222a. The light that has passed through the slit 222a is collimated by the collimating lens 224. Light from the light source 211 is incident on the road surface LD obliquely. Only light that reflects vertically from the road surface LD passes through the slit 222a. In this way, only the diffusely reflected light from the road surface LD is collimated by the comelite lens 224 and enters the spatial filter optical system (that is, the regular reflected light from the road surface LD does not enter the spatial filter optical system).
[0243]
The optical filter 223 is preferably disposed at the position of the slit 222a of the slit plate 222. This filter 223 has wavelength selectivity that allows only the light projected from the road illumination light source 211 to pass therethrough. This prevents light from the specularly reflected light source 212 and other disturbance light (sunlight, light from road lights, etc.) from entering the spatial filter optical system. The projection light of the light source 211 is preferably infrared light.
[0244]
The spatial filter optical system includes a grating plate (slit array) 225, a prism array 226, a condenser lens 227, and two photodetectors (light receiving elements such as photodiodes or phototransistors) 231A and 231B. Basically, the prism array 226 performs spatial filtering.
[0245]
The prism array 226 is composed of a number of prisms. These prisms are arranged in the traveling direction of the vehicle and extend in a direction perpendicular to the traveling direction. Preferably, the prism array 226 is integrally formed. The light collimated by the collimating lens 224 is separated by refraction by the prisms of the prism array 226 by a predetermined pitch width alternately back and forth (based on the traveling direction). These separated lights are respectively collected by the condenser lens 227 and enter the two photodetectors 231A and 231B.
[0246]
In FIG. 41, light indicated by a chain line is incident on the photodetector 231A, and light indicated by a broken line is incident on the photodetector 231B. The width of these lights depends on the arrangement period of the prisms. The arrangement period of the prisms defines the characteristic (period) of the spatial filter.
[0247]
The grid plate (slit array) 225 is formed with a large number of slits arranged in the traveling direction of the vehicle and extending in a direction perpendicular to the traveling direction. The arrangement period of these slits is ½ times the arrangement period of the prisms in the prism array 226. Of the light collimated by the collimator lens 224, the light passing through the slit is incident on the prism array 226 as described above, separated, and spatially alternately received by the photodetectors 231A and 231B. . The grating plate 225 prevents stray light from entering the prism array 226.
[0248]
The photodetectors 231A and 231B are arranged at intervals in the traveling direction of the vehicle. This interval is determined by the prism period in the prism array 226 and the magnification of the condenser lens 227. Mirrors 228 are provided on both sides of the photodetectors 231A and 231B, and the lens 227 serves to make light that is not condensed on the light receiving surfaces of the photodetectors 231A and 231B enter the photodetectors 231A and 231B as much as possible.
[0249]
As will be described later, the output signals of the two photodetectors 231A and 231B are given to the differential amplifier circuit, and the difference between them is calculated. The output signal of the differential amplifier circuit includes a frequency component (depending on the speed of the vehicle) corresponding to the spatial frequency component representing the state of the road surface that causes the diffuse reflected light to fluctuate, including road surface unevenness.
[0250]
The light incident on the photodetector 231A and the light incident on the photodetector 231B are out of phase by a half period of the spatial period selected by the spatial filter. Therefore, by taking the difference between the output signals of both photodetectors 231A and 231B, the spatial center frequency component is doubled. Mainly direct current (DC) components are canceled out by this differential processing.
[0251]
The light source 212 for regular reflection light and the photodetector 232 for regular reflection light are incident on the light detector 232 and the incident angle of the projection light from the light source 212 with respect to the road surface LD in a plane orthogonal to the traveling direction of the vehicle. The reflection angle of the reflected light from the road surface is arranged to be equal. Since the incident angle and the reflection angle can be made smaller than the Brewster angle (53 degrees), a reduction in the size of the optical system can be expected. Preferably, an optical filter that permits passage of only light having a wavelength of the projection light of the light source 212 and a condenser lens are disposed on the front surface of the photodetector 232.
[0252]
The road surface thermometer 233 measures the road surface temperature and is realized by, for example, an infrared radiation thermometer. The road surface thermometer 233 may not be included in the optical system but may be provided at another appropriate position of the vehicle.
[0253]
Furthermore, a light quantity monitor light detector 234 for receiving a part of the projection light of the regular reflection light source 212 is provided.
[0254]
FIG. 43 shows an actual measurement example of a spatial frequency spectrum represented by a differential signal between the output signal of the photodetector 231A and the output signal of the photodetector 231B. This graph is measured for three types of road surface conditions, namely snowy roads, gravel roads and asphalt roads.
[0255]
The frequency (electrical center frequency) f of the center frequency signal component included in the output differential signals of the photodetectors 231A and 231B is the product of the spatial center frequency μ selected by the configuration of the spatial filter and the vehicle speed v. Is represented by
[0256]
f = μ × v Equation (1)
[0257]
The spatial center frequency μ is uniquely determined by the configuration of the spatial filter. The road surface period selected by the spatial filter (the period of the road surface state that causes a change in the diffuse reflected light including the unevenness of the road surface) is set to 4 (mm) here. FIG. 43 shows a frequency spectrum obtained by performing Fourier transform (FFT: high-speed Fourier transform) on an electric signal obtained by actual measurement, and this is normalized by the spatial center frequency μ. In addition, data on snow, gravel and asphalt are normalized so that the peak values (intensities) at the spatial center frequency μ match.
[0258]
As can be seen from this graph, there is a large and obvious difference between the snow road, gravel road and asphalt road in the intensity of the spatial frequency component lower than the spatial center frequency μ (for example, a band of μ / 4 or less). is there. These differences are around one digit (10 times) or more than one digit. The difference in intensity in the three road surface conditions increases as the spatial frequency decreases.
[0259]
Therefore, a value obtained by normalizing the low frequency component intensity of the spatial frequency (for example, at a frequency of μ / 4 or μ / 10) by the center frequency component intensity (this is [low frequency component intensity / center frequency component intensity] = Db / Da Can be distinguished from snowy roads, gravel roads and asphalt roads. The thresholds TH1 and TH2 used for distinguishing these may be determined to be intermediate between the above values Db / Da in each state. Referring to FIG. 43, if value Db / Da is greater than threshold value TH1, it is determined that it is a snowy road, if it is between threshold values TH1 and TH2, gravel road, and if it is less than threshold value TH2, it is determined as an asphalt road. .
[0260]
Here, the snow road means that there is traffic of vehicles and people rather than fresh snow immediately after snowfall (snow on the whole surface), the surface of the snow is rough, and there are relatively large (much larger than gravel) unevenness etc. It is a state (a surface state that causes a change in the amount of diffusely reflected light).
[0261]
The gravel-laden soil road and sand road show the same tendency as the gravel road, and the frequency spectrum of the concrete road is almost the same as the spectrum of the asphalt road.
[0262]
FIG. 44 shows an example of the configuration of a signal processing circuit included in the road surface discrimination device.
[0263]
The output signals of the photodetectors 231A and 231B are applied to the differential amplifier circuit 251 and a signal representing the difference is output from the circuit 251.
[0264]
An example of the configuration of the photodetectors 231A and 231B and the differential amplifier circuit 251 is shown in FIG. The photodetectors 231A and 231B are each constituted by a photodiode, and these photodiodes are connected in series. The differential amplifier circuit 251 includes an operational amplifier 251A having a feedback resistor R. Current I flowing through the photodiode 231A 1 And the current I flowing through the photodiode 231B 2 And the difference current between them is calculated at these nodes, and this difference current is input to the operational amplifier 251A. The operational amplifier 251A converts the input difference current into the voltage signal V 0 Convert to and output. This output voltage V 0 Is given by:
[0265]
V 0 = R (I 2 -I 1 ) ... Formula (2)
[0266]
Output voltage V of differential amplifier circuit 251 0 Is provided to a tracking band pass filter (tracking BPF (C)) 252 and a tracking low pass filter (tracking LPF (L)) 255.
[0267]
The output signal of the tracking BPF 252 is given to a frequency / voltage (F / V) conversion circuit 253. The output signal of the F / V conversion circuit 253 represents the speed (ground speed) v of the vehicle on which the road surface discrimination device is mounted. The output signal of the F / V conversion circuit 253 is fed back to the tracking BPF 252 and the tracking LPF 255 and used to change the cutoff frequency (frequency band) in these filter circuits following the vehicle speed v.
[0268]
The output signal of the tracking BPF 252 is also input to the amplitude detection circuit 254. The amplitude detection circuit 254 outputs a signal representing the above-described center frequency component intensity Da.
[0269]
The output signal of the tracking LPF 255 is input to the amplitude detection circuit 256. The amplitude detection circuit 256 outputs a signal representing the above-described low frequency component intensity Db.
[0270]
A configuration example of the tracking BPF 252 is shown in FIG. The tracking BPF 252 includes a high pass filter (HPF) and a low pass filter (LPF), and these HPF and LPF are connected in series via a buffer amplifier 275. The HPF includes a capacitor 271 and a voltage control variable resistance element 273. The LPF is composed of a capacitor 272 and a voltage controlled variable resistance element 274. The voltage controlled variable resistance elements 273 and 274 are constituted by, for example, FETs. These elements 273 and 274 are supplied with a control voltage from the control voltage generation circuit 276, and the resistance values of the elements 273 and 274 change according to the control voltage. When the resistance values of the elements 273 and 274 are changed, the cutoff frequency of the HPF and the LPF is changed. The pass band of the tracking BPF 252 is a band between the cutoff frequency of the HPF and the cutoff frequency of the LPF (higher than the cutoff frequency of the HPF). A control voltage generation circuit 276 generates a control voltage corresponding to the output voltage signal (representing the vehicle speed v) of the F / V conversion circuit 253.
[0271]
For example, if the road surface (irregularity) selected by the spatial filter in the optical system described above is 5 (mm), the spatial center frequency μ is 0.2 (mm). -1 ) The vehicle speed (ground speed) is assumed to be v (Km / h).
[0272]
v (Km / h) = 1000 v / 3.6 (mm / s) Formula (3)
[0273]
From the expression (1), the center frequency f of the electric signal obtained from the differential amplifier circuit 251 is
f = μ × v = 200 v / 3.6 (Hz) Equation (4)
It becomes.
[0274]
Therefore, the center frequency of the pass band of the tracking BPF 252 may be set to the frequency expressed by the equation (4) and changed according to the vehicle speed v according to the equation (4).
[0275]
The tracking LPF 255 has the same configuration as the LPF (capacitor 272, voltage control variable resistance element 274 and control voltage generation circuit 276) in the tracking BPF 252 (however, the cutoff frequency is different), and the cutoff frequency changes according to the vehicle speed v.
[0276]
When the frequency of the low frequency component to be extracted by the tracking LPF 255 is set to 1/10 of the center frequency, the cutoff frequency is set to 20 v / 3.6 (Hz) with reference to the equation (4). )And it is sufficient.
[0277]
A specific configuration example of the amplitude detection circuit 254 is shown in FIG. This circuit 254 includes a half-wave rectifier circuit 277 and a low pass filter (LPF) 278. A full-wave rectifier circuit can be used instead of the half-wave rectifier circuit 277. The pass band of the LPF 278 is determined from the viewpoint of response time required for road surface detection. For example, if the response time is 0.1 (S) and the LPF 278 is a first-order low-pass filter, the cutoff (cut-off) frequency is 3.7 (Hz).
[0278]
The output signal of the photodetector 231B (which may be the photodetector 231A) passes through a low-pass filter (LPF) 257 and is output as a signal representing the diffuse reflection light amount Dc. The LPF 257 is for removing the fluctuation of the extremely low frequency included in the output signal of the photoelectric detector 231B, and the cutoff frequency is set to about 1 (Hz) (fixed), for example.
[0279]
The output signal of the regular reflection light photodetector 232 is a signal representing the regular reflection light amount Dd. A low pass filter having an appropriate pass band may also be connected to the output side of the photodetector 232.
[0280]
The output signal of the road surface thermometer 233 is a signal representing the road surface temperature De. A thermometer (temperature sensing element) that detects the outside air temperature instead of the road surface may be used. In this case, the thermometer is provided in a place where it is exposed to the outside air.
[0281]
The road illumination light source 211 and the regular reflection light source 212 are controlled by automatic power control (APC) circuits 261 and 262, respectively. As a result, the amount of light projected from these light sources 211 and 212 is always kept constant.
[0282]
A signal indicating the center frequency component intensity Da output from the amplitude detection circuit 254, a signal indicating the low frequency component intensity Db output from the amplitude detection circuit 256, a signal indicating the diffuse reflection light amount Dc output from the LPF 257, a photodetector A signal indicating the regular reflection light amount Dd output from 232 and a signal indicating the road surface temperature De output from the road surface thermometer 233 are input to the discrimination circuit 260.
[0283]
The discrimination circuit 260 identifies or discriminates the road surface state using two or more of these input signals according to a road surface discrimination algorithm described later. The determination circuit 260 is preferably composed of a CPU (for example, a microcomputer), a memory and other peripheral circuits. In this case, the signals Da to De described above are converted to digital data by the A / D conversion circuit and then given to the discrimination circuit 260.
[0284]
FIG. 48 shows the simplest road surface discrimination algorithm. Processing according to this road surface discrimination algorithm is executed in the discrimination circuit 260. The same applies to other road surface discrimination algorithms.
[0285]
A ratio Db / Da between the low frequency component intensity Db and the center frequency component intensity Da is calculated, and this ratio is compared with the threshold values TH1 and TH2. If the ratio Db / Da is greater than the threshold value TH1 (referred to as “large”), if it is between the threshold values TH1 and TH2 (referred to as “medium”), a gravel road, if it is less than the threshold value TH2. Each is determined as an asphalt road (referred to as “small”).
[0286]
Only the threshold value TH1 may be set in the discrimination circuit 260, and only discrimination between snow and gravel may be performed.
[0287]
Only the threshold value TH2 (or an appropriate value between TH1 and TH2) may be set in the discrimination circuit 260, and only discrimination between snow and asphalt may be performed.
[0288]
Only the threshold value TH2 may be set in the discrimination circuit 260, and only discrimination between gravel and asphalt may be performed.
[0289]
FIG. 49 shows a road surface determination algorithm that further discriminates whether the asphalt road is in a wet state or a dry state by further using a signal representing the specularly reflected light amount Dd given from the photodetector 232.
[0290]
When the ratio Db / Da is equal to or less than the threshold value TH2, it is an asphalt road.
[0291]
When the surface (road surface) of the asphalt road is wet (wet), the road surface is close to a mirror surface, and the amount of specular reflection light Dd increases compared to the dry state. The threshold value is set to a level approximately halfway between the amount of specular reflection obtained when the asphalt road is wet and the amount of specular reflection obtained when the asphalt road is dry. If the regular reflection light quantity Dd is greater than or equal to this threshold value, it is determined as wet asphalt (referred to as “large”), and if it is less than the threshold value (referred to as “small”), it is determined as dry asphalt.
[0292]
The determination of gravel road and snow road is the same as that by the algorithm shown in FIG.
[0293]
Needless to say, only a distinction between a wet asphalt road and a dry asphalt road may be performed, or a gravel road may be determined or a snow road may be determined.
[0294]
FIG. 50 further determines the road surface state in further detail by further utilizing the signal representing the diffuse reflection light amount Dc output from the LPF 257 and the signal representing the road surface temperature De output from the road surface thermometer 233.
[0295]
In general, water freezes at 0 (° C). Therefore, if the road surface temperature De is 0 (° C.) or less, there is a possibility of freezing. It is determined whether the road surface temperature De exceeds the freezing temperature (referred to as “high”) or is equal to or lower than the freezing temperature (referred to as “low”).
[0296]
The freezing temperature does not have to be exactly 0 (° C.), and may be determined to an optimum value empirically. When air temperature is used in place of the road surface temperature, the temperature at which the frozen road surface can remain without melting, the air temperature at which the road surface begins to freeze, and the like will be threshold values.
[0297]
Since the frozen road surface is close to a mirror surface in the same way as the wet road surface, the regular reflection light amount Dd is “large”.
[0298]
Therefore, if the road surface temperature De is “low” and the regular reflection light quantity Dd is “large”, it is determined that the road surface is frozen. In this case, the diffuse reflection light amount Dc is generally “small”.
[0299]
Even if the road surface temperature De is “low”, if the specular reflection light amount Dd is “small”, it is not a frozen road surface. In this case, the road surface condition is determined based on the ratio between the low frequency component intensity Db and the center frequency component intensity Da (dry asphalt road or gravel road). The reason for removing snow in this determination is that snow is determined based on the diffuse reflection light amount Dc. However, the snow determination based on the ratio Db / Da and the snow determination based on the diffuse reflection light amount Dc are slightly different in the snow state (they may be the same state), so the snow is determined based on the ratio Db / Da. You may judge.
[0300]
New snow and snow that remains white even when stepped on by traffic (vehicles, people) diffusely reflect light. Since the amount of diffusely reflected light due to snow is extremely large compared to other road surface conditions, it is possible to determine snow and other road surface conditions based on the diffusely reflected light amount Dc. The threshold value for this determination is set to a level between the amount of diffuse reflection during snow and the amount of diffuse reflection during other road conditions.
[0301]
When the road surface temperature De is “low” and the diffused reflected light amount Dc is equal to or greater than a threshold value (“large”), it is determined as snow. Needless to say, the threshold value of the road surface temperature at the time of determining that it is frozen and the threshold value of the road surface temperature at the time of determining that it is snow may be different.
[0302]
The snow determined based on the diffuse reflection light amount Dc is snow having a white surface partially or entirely. On the other hand, snow determined based on the ratio Db / Da changes the amount of diffusely reflected light at a longer period than gravel, and includes snow that has been crushed and blackened as well as white snow. .
[0303]
The determination algorithm when the road surface temperature De is “high” is the same as that shown in FIG.
[0304]
Only a portion of the determination algorithm shown in FIG. 50 can be used to identify or determine only one or more types of road surface conditions among frozen, snow, gravel, dry asphalt and wet asphalt. Needless to say.
[0305]
The road surface determination algorithm shown in FIG. 51 is similar to that shown in FIG. In FIG. 51, gravel and asphalt are distinguished based on the ratio Db / Da. The point which does not determine snow based on this ratio Db / Da differs from what is shown in FIG. The algorithm in FIG. 51 may be considered as a variation of the algorithm in FIG.
[0306]
In this manner, various road surface state determination results can be obtained from the road surface determination device 15. In particular, the results of discrimination between wet, snow and freezing will be used effectively in traffic information systems.
[0307]
Details of the configuration of the raindrop sensor 16 will be described. The raindrop sensor 16 also includes an optical system (FIGS. 52 and 53) and a signal processing circuit (FIG. 60).
[0308]
As shown in FIG. 52, the optical system of the raindrop sensor 16 includes a light projector 301 and a light receiver 302 disposed to face each other. A slit-like (band-like) light is projected from the projector 301 to the light receiver 302. The projector 301 and the light receiver 302 are built in the case 303. The case 303 includes a head portion 303B that houses the light projector 301 and the light receiver 302, and a connecting portion 303A that connects them.
[0309]
As shown in FIG. 53, the projector 301 includes a light emitting element 311, a collimating lens 312 for collimating light from the light emitting element 311, and a slit plate 313 having a slit 313 a. The light collimated by the collimator lens 312 passes through the slit 313a and is shaped into the slit light SL and projected.
[0310]
The light receiver 302 includes a slit plate 323 having a slit 323a that allows the slit light SL from the projector 301 to pass through, a condensing lens 322 that condenses the light that has passed through the slit 323a, and a light receiving device that receives the collected light. An element 321 is provided. Infrared light will preferably be used as the slit light SL.
[0311]
Such an optical system of the raindrop sensor 16 is provided at the boundary between the hood 304 of the vehicle 2 and the windshield (including a frame supporting the windshield) 305 of the vehicle 2 as shown in FIG. The optical system is arranged so that the slit light SL directed from the light projector 301 to the light receiver 302 proceeds in the horizontal direction in the width direction of the vehicle body.
[0312]
Preferably, as shown in FIG. 55, the optical system is attached so that the front end portion of the bonnet 304 is sandwiched between the head portion 303B and the connecting portion 303A of the case 303 of the optical system.
[0313]
When the vehicle 2 is traveling, raindrops fall toward the vehicle 2 obliquely from the upper front of the vehicle 2. The optical system is arranged so that such raindrops pass the slit light SL perpendicularly to the thickness direction thereof. That is, the optical system is arranged so that the normal line of the surface of the slit light SL is parallel to the falling raindrop (the width direction of the slit light SL is the direction from the front lower part to the rear upper part of the vehicle). The
[0314]
More preferably, in order to measure the size of the raindrop or the speed at which the raindrop traverses (passes) the slit light SL as accurately as possible, the raindrop detection area (the distance between the projector 301 and the light receiver 302 and the slit light SL The size of the raindrop is determined so that one raindrop enters within (defined by the width).
[0315]
FIG. 56 shows a change in the amount of light received by the light receiver 302 (light receiving element 321) when raindrops pass through the slit light SL. When raindrops pass through the slit light SL, the amount of light received decreases.
[0316]
Decrease start time t 1 When the amount of received light returns to the original time t 3 In the meantime, raindrops have passed through the slit light SL. Time T = t 3 -T 1 Is the transit time of raindrops. Time t 1 ~ T 3 Between (time t 2 ) The amount of received light is the minimum mi.
[0317]
FIG. 57 shows a time T during which raindrops having diameters of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm (represented by symbols a, b, c, d and e, respectively) pass through the slit light SL. 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 And T 5 In addition, the minimum values mi1, mi2, mi3, mi4, and mi5 of the received light amount are shown.
[0318]
Threshold e 1 , E 2 , E 3 And e 4 Are set between adjacent minimum received light amount values, so that the size of raindrops can be discriminated based on the minimum received light amount value.
[0319]
FIG. 58 shows the relationship between the drop rate dv of raindrops near the ground surface and the size (diameter) of raindrops. Threshold value g for drop speed dv 1 , G 2 , G 3 And g 4 The size of raindrops can also be discriminated by setting.
[0320]
As shown in FIG. 59A, since the vehicle 2 is traveling at the speed v, the speed pv at which the raindrops pass through the slit light SL is not equal to the falling speed dv of the raindrops. The relationship among these velocities v, pv and dv is shown in FIG.
[0321]
The drop rate dv of the raindrop is obtained by the following equation.
[0322]
dv = [(pv) 2 -V 2 ] 1/2 ... Formula (5)
[0323]
Here, the traveling speed v of the vehicle 2 is obtained from the vehicle speed sensor 13 or the like. The passage speed pv is calculated based on the passage time T and the thickness of the slit light SL. Therefore, the raindrop fall speed dv can be obtained.
[0324]
FIG. 60 shows a signal processing circuit of the raindrop sensor 16.
[0325]
The synchronization signal generation circuit 331 generates a high frequency pulse signal. This pulse signal is supplied to the drive circuit 332 and the A / D conversion circuit 334.
[0326]
The drive circuit 332 drives the light emitting element 311 in synchronization with the input pulse signal. The waveform of the projection light (slit light SL) output from the light emitting element 311 is shown in FIG.
[0327]
FIG. 61B shows the waveform of the light reception signal of the light receiving element 312. When raindrops pass through the slit light SL, the level of the light reception signal decreases. The light receiving signal output from the light receiving element 312 is amplified by the amplifier 333 and then applied to the A / D conversion circuit 334.
[0328]
The A / D conversion circuit 334 converts the received light reception signal into a digital signal representing the level in synchronization with the pulse signal supplied from the synchronization signal generation circuit 331. This digital signal is input to the processor 330.
[0329]
The processing device 330 includes a CPU, a memory, and the like. The processor 330 measures the minimum value mi of the amount of received light or the raindrop passage time T based on the input digital signal. The size of the raindrop is determined based on the measured minimum value of the received light amount. Instead, the falling speed dv of the raindrop is calculated using the equation (5) based on the measured transit time T and the vehicle speed v input to the device 330. The size of the raindrop is determined based on the falling speed dv. The amount of rainfall per unit time is calculated using the number of raindrops entering the slit light SL per unit time, the size of the determined raindrop, and a predetermined coefficient. A signal representing the calculated rainfall is output from the processing device 330.
[0330]
In this way, the laser radar 14 mainly obtains information on traffic jams, the road surface discriminator 15 obtains information on road surface conditions (wet, frozen, snow, etc.), and the raindrop sensor 16 obtains information on rainfall. (The road surface information and rainfall information may be collectively called weather information).
[0331]
These pieces of information are transmitted from the in-vehicle device 3 to the center 9 through the relay device 4 or directly.
[0332]
There are various methods for transmitting various types of information from the in-vehicle device 3 to the center.
[0333]
The first is manual transmission. A transmission button is provided in the in-vehicle device 3. Transmission is performed only when the driver presses this transmission button. If necessary, the type of information to be transmitted (congestion information, accident information, weather information, etc.) is displayed (touch switches 31A to 31C), and the information to be transmitted to the driver is selected from the information. The selected information is sent to the center.
[0334]
The second is automatic transmission at regular intervals. In this case, information at that time is automatically transmitted at regular time intervals (for example, 1 minute).
[0335]
The third is variable interval auto transmission. This is sent at a specific point in time. For example, it is sent when the created information changes. It is transmitted only when the number of detected vehicles is small. When the number of detected vehicles is large, it is considered that other vehicles collect the same information and transmit the created information to the center, which increases the burden on the center. In such a case, the transmission time interval is increased or transmission is not performed.
[0336]
The message sent to the center will include the created information, vehicle ID, time data, and position data. However, since the time data can be changed by the time received by the center, it is not always necessary to transmit the time data from the vehicle to the center.
[0337]
The center computer 50 of the center 9 that has received information from each vehicle, in the same manner as in the first embodiment described above, for each area or block, for each type of information, based on the average value or the principle of majority vote. Determine the status of an area or block. This determination result is distributed to each vehicle through the repeater 4 for each area.
[0338]
An example of processing in the center 9 will be described with reference to FIGS. 62 and 63. FIG.
[0339]
FIG. 62 shows a process for traffic jam information. When a telegram from the vehicle onboard device 3 is received (step 170), the position data contained therein is extracted (step 171), and it is determined in which area the vehicle is located (step 172).
[0340]
The following processing is performed for each area. Traffic jam information (presence / absence of traffic jam) is extracted from the message (step 173). Over a certain period of time (for example, 10 minutes), the number of information indicating the presence of traffic jams included in messages from vehicles existing in the area is accumulated (step 174). If the number of information that there is traffic jam is greater than or equal to a predetermined threshold (generally different for each area) for the area, it is determined that the area is traffic jam (step 175), and the repeater 4 ( Information indicating that there is a traffic jam is transmitted along with the area ID to the relay machine ID (step 176). The traffic jam information may be sent together with the area ID to a relay device in another area. Needless to say, this information is transmitted from the repeater 4 to each vehicle or the like existing in the area.
[0341]
When the information on the degree of traffic jam is included in the traffic jam information, an average value of the traffic jam level is obtained or the degree of traffic jam is determined by majority vote. Information representing the determined degree of traffic jam is also transmitted to the repeater 4 and the vehicle.
[0342]
You may perform said process for every block which considered the lane instead of every area. Since the presence or absence of traffic congestion generally differs on the same road depending on the lane, the above processing for each area will be performed in consideration of the lane. At this time, as described above, the lane is discriminated from the traveling direction of the vehicle, or the lane information is included in the message from the vehicle.
[0343]
FIG. 63 shows a determination process for weather information. In the weather information, whether the weather is fine (this does not have to be), whether it is rainy (when the in-vehicle device 3 creates detailed information representing three levels of large, medium and small according to the amount of rainfall) Includes this detailed information), whether there is snow on the road surface, whether the road surface is frozen, or whether the road surface is wet (wet). Steps 170 to 172 are the same as those shown in FIG.
[0344]
For each area, weather information is extracted from the telegram (step 181), and the number of clear information, rain information, snow information, freezing information, and wet information is accumulated separately (step 182). For rain information, detailed information on large, medium and small is added as necessary. When the integration for a certain time (for example, 5 minutes) is completed, the largest integrated value is selected as the definite information (steps 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188). However, when the rain information is determined, the wet information is also determined when the wet information is as much as the rain information. In this way, two or more pieces of information may be determined. The confirmed weather information is transmitted to the vehicle via the relay.
[0345]
The processing at the center and the display on the vehicle-mounted device of the vehicle related to the accident and the traffic jam that occurs with the accident will be described. Regarding the accident, it is necessary for the center to judge details such as its position and scale.
[0346]
In FIG. 64, it is assumed that an accident has occurred at the three-way intersection. Information about the accident is transmitted to the center from the vehicles 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, etc. close to the accident site. As described above, the accident information includes the presence / absence of the accident, the situation of the accident, the number of vehicles related to the accident, the distance from the position of the own vehicle to the accident site, and the like. In addition to this, the vehicle ID, position data, time, etc. of the vehicle that transmitted the accident information are included in the message.
[0347]
Since the position data of the vehicle and the distance to the accident site are transmitted from a plurality of vehicles, the center 9 can accurately determine the location of the accident site on the map. In addition, the scale (spread) of the accident can be determined from the number of vehicles related to the accident and the situation of the accident. The elapsed time from when the accident information was first received is also counted.
[0348]
Information related to the traffic congestion occurring in the accident is also transmitted from other vehicles that are facing the accident site or away from the accident site. The traffic lane is determined from the traveling direction of the vehicle. The start point and end point of the traffic jam are determined from the position of the vehicle that transmitted the traffic jam information.
[0349]
Information on accidents and traffic jams obtained in this way is transmitted from the center not only to areas where accidents and traffic jams occur, but also to relay stations in the vicinity. Since the repeater ID (transmission address) is also assigned to the repeater, the center can send information by designating the repeater.
[0350]
In the vehicle-mounted device 3 of the vehicle that has received the accident and traffic jam information, the information is driven by graphic display, message display using characters, or voice output by sound or words, as in the first embodiment. Inform the person. For example, when the driver selects the information notification mode with the touch switch 31E and selects the accident information with the touch switch 31A, the accident information is displayed on the display device 25 together with the map.
[0351]
For example, in the graphic display, as shown in FIGS. 65 and 66, first, it is displayed globally that an accident has occurred in the area A. Next, according to the driver's instruction (for example, by pressing the enlargement key 35) or automatically as shown in FIG. 67, the accident site is enlarged on the map so that the position can be accurately identified. To do. When traffic jam information is selected by the touch switch 31B, a traffic jam area is also displayed as shown in FIG.
[0352]
On the map, in addition to the location of the accident, the scale of the accident, the number of related vehicles, the elapsed time since the occurrence of the accident, etc. are displayed using characters.
[0353]
Examples of message display and voice output are “Accident has occurred in area A” (global notification), “Medium-scale accident involving 5 vehicles on the three-way crossing in area A is around 2:00 pm Has occurred "(detailed notification).
[0354]
The weather information (weather) information may be reported in various forms as described above.
[0355]
For example, the driver selects the information notification mode with the touch switch 31E, and selects weather information with the touch switch 31C. Then, as shown in FIG. 69, the raining road is displayed on the display device 25. The position of the host vehicle is also displayed (black circle). When the touch switch 31C is pressed again, the display is switched to a wet road as shown in FIG. When the driver further presses the touch switch 31C, a frozen road is displayed as shown in FIG. When the touch switch 31C is further pressed, as shown in FIG. 72, a snowed or snowy road is displayed. Thus, the display is switched every time the touch switch 31C is pressed. Of course, these multiple weather conditions (road surface conditions) may be displayed superimposed on a single map.
[0356]
As described above, the role of the repeater 4 is to relay a telegram from the in-vehicle device 3 to the center 9 and vice versa, but the repeater may further have the following functions.
[0357]
When local information is transmitted from the in-vehicle device 3 of the vehicle 2 to the repeater 4, the repeater transmits the information as it is or processed to a vehicle in the area that the repeater is responsible for. . The same applies to information that needs to be notified immediately such as accident information. For example, when accident information is sent from a plurality of vehicles, the above-described processing of the center is executed on behalf of the repeater, and the result is transmitted directly to the vehicle without passing through the center. In this way, the repeater has a function of selectively transmitting information from the vehicle to the center, processing the information as necessary, and transmitting the information to the vehicle.
[0358]
The repeater 4 also has a function of processing vehicle information from the area in which it is in charge and transmitting it to the center 9. For example, when rain information is sent from 50 vehicles, the data is collected in the area managed by itself, such as “rain, 50”, and transmitted to the center. This reduces the burden on the center.
[0359]
The repeater 4 may also be provided with various sensors such as the laser and radar described above, and the repeater itself may collect and process various information and transmit it to the center or to the vehicle.
[0360]
As described above, the transmission address is assigned to the repeater, and the center transmits the global information by designating a plurality of repeaters. The local information is transmitted only for the repeater in one area. In some cases, the center or the relay station may attach a vehicle ID (vehicle address) to a message including information and send information only to a specific vehicle.
[0361]
Fourth embodiment
In the first to third embodiments, the in-vehicle device 3 mounted on the vehicle basically collects information about the host vehicle and the surrounding environment and processes it as necessary. The vehicle owner must be equipped with an on-board unit capable of collecting information, processing it as needed, and transmitting the information to a repeater or center. As in the first embodiment, the driver must provide the effort of manually entering information. Furthermore, in order to collect, process, and transmit information, power must be supplied to the in-vehicle device from the battery installed in the vehicle. On the other hand, some drivers may try to receive information without providing information.
[0362]
The traffic information system of the present invention is based on the premise that there is a person who collects and provides various types of information. It can be said that this system cannot be established if there is no information provider.
[0363]
In that sense, it is important to reward according to the amount of information provided to the information provider. In the fourth embodiment, a reward is given according to the amount of information provided to the information provider.
[0364]
As shown in FIG. 73, in the memory 53 of the center computer 50 of the center 9, the identification code of the person who intends to provide information and has mounted the above-described vehicle-mounted device 3 in his own vehicle is registered in advance. Yes. This identification code is here the vehicle ID. An area for storing the number of times of information provision is provided corresponding to the vehicle ID.
[0365]
FIG. 74 shows processing in the center. In this processing, the information distribution processing of the center as in the first to third embodiments described above is omitted.
[0366]
When a message including various information from the vehicle is received directly from the vehicle onboard device 3 or via the relay device 4 (step 190), the center computer 50 extracts the vehicle ID included in the message (step 190). 191).
[0367]
The information providing circuit stored in the memory 53 corresponding to the extracted vehicle ID is incremented by 1 (step 192).
[0368]
When the information providing circuit reaches a predetermined number of times (10 times, 20 times, 50 times, 100 times, etc.), the vehicle ID (and possession registered in relation to the vehicle ID if necessary) The name, address, etc. of the person is output from the printer and displayed on the display device (step 194).
[0369]
Rewards such as prize money, merchandise, or special information are given to those who have reached the predetermined number of times.
[0370]
The number of times of providing information corresponding to the vehicle ID whose number of times of providing information reaches the predetermined number is cleared (step 195). For this vehicle ID, the number of times of information provision is counted again from 0.
[0371]
The vehicle ID may not be output immediately when the number of times of providing information reaches a predetermined number. You may make it output regularly vehicle ID in which the frequency | count of information provision became more than predetermined number. In this case, the result of subtracting the predetermined number of times from the number of times of providing information when the vehicle ID is output is stored as a new number of times of providing information corresponding to the vehicle ID.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 shows a spatial arrangement configuration of a traffic information system.
FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing an electrical configuration of the in-vehicle device.
FIG. 3 shows a man-machine interface part in the car navigation system.
FIG. 4 shows a display example of a road on the display device.
FIG. 5 shows an enlarged display example of a road on the display device.
FIG. 6 shows a reduced display example of a road on the display device.
FIG. 7 shows a further reduced display example of a road on the display device.
FIG. 8 is a block diagram showing an electrical configuration of the repeater.
FIG. 9 is a block diagram showing an electrical configuration of the center.
FIG. 10 shows an initial state when inputting information from the car navigation system.
FIG. 11 shows a display screen and key group when inputting accident information.
FIG. 12 shows a display screen and a group of keys when inputting accident information.
FIG. 13 shows a display screen and a key group when inputting accident information.
FIG. 14 shows a display screen and a key group when inputting accident information.
FIG. 15 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure in the in-vehicle device.
FIG. 16 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure in the relay.
FIG. 17 shows a center vehicle information area.
FIG. 18 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 19 shows another example of the vehicle information area of the center.
FIG. 20 is a flowchart showing a traffic jam detection processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 21 is a flowchart showing another example of the traffic jam detection processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 22 is a flowchart showing another example of the traffic jam detection processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 23 shows a display example of traffic information on a vehicle.
FIG. 24 is a flowchart showing still another example of the traffic jam detection processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 25 is a flowchart showing still another example of the traffic jam detection processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 26 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a laser radar.
FIG. 27 is a perspective view showing a vehicle equipped with a laser radar.
FIG. 28 is a perspective view showing a light projection optical system of a laser radar.
FIG. 29 shows a detection area of a laser radar, where (A) represents a vertical plane of the detection area and (B) represents a plane.
FIG. 30 shows detection point data obtained by a laser radar.
FIGS. 31A, 31B and 31C show how different shapes are detected. FIG.
FIGS. 32A and 32B are graphs showing examples of membership functions used in fuzzy inference for determining traffic jams.
FIGS. 33A and 33B are graphs showing examples of membership functions used in fuzzy inference for determining traffic jams.
FIGS. 34A and 34B are graphs showing examples of membership functions used in fuzzy inference for determining a traffic jam.
FIGS. 35A and 35B are graphs showing examples of membership functions used in fuzzy inference for determining a traffic jam.
FIGS. 36A and 36B are graphs showing examples of membership functions used in fuzzy inference for determining a traffic jam.
FIGS. 37A and 37B are graphs showing examples of membership functions used in fuzzy inference for determining a traffic jam.
FIG. 38 shows a state where it is detected that an accident has occurred.
FIG. 39 shows a vehicle equipped with an optical system of a road surface discrimination device.
FIG. 40 is a perspective view of an optical configuration of a road surface discrimination device.
FIG. 41 is a longitudinal sectional view of an optical configuration of a road surface discrimination device.
FIG. 42 is a front view of an optical system for regular reflection light.
FIG. 43 is a graph showing actual measurement results.
FIG. 44 is a block diagram showing an electrical configuration of the road surface discrimination device.
FIG. 45 is a circuit diagram showing a specific example of a differential amplifier circuit;
FIG. 46 is a circuit diagram showing a specific example of a tracking band pass filter.
FIG. 47 is a block diagram illustrating a specific example of an amplitude detection circuit.
FIG. 48 is a flowchart showing an example of a road surface determination algorithm.
FIG. 49 is a flowchart showing another example of a road surface determination algorithm.
FIG. 50 is a flowchart showing still another example of a road surface determination algorithm.
FIG. 51 is a flowchart showing still another example of a road surface determination algorithm.
FIG. 52 is a perspective view showing a head of a raindrop sensor.
FIG. 53 is a perspective view showing an optical system of a raindrop sensor.
FIG. 54 is a perspective view showing a vehicle equipped with a raindrop sensor.
FIG. 55 is a cross-sectional view showing a mounting state of the raindrop sensor head.
FIG. 56 is a graph showing changes in the amount of received light when raindrops enter the slit light.
FIG. 57 is a graph showing changes in the amount of received light with respect to raindrops of various sizes.
FIG. 58 is a graph showing the relationship between raindrop size and drop speed.
59A shows the vehicle speed and the falling speed of raindrops, and FIG. 59B is a vector diagram showing the relationship between the vehicle speed, the falling speed of raindrops, and the passing speed of the raindrop slit light.
FIG. 60 is a block diagram showing a signal processing circuit of a raindrop sensor.
FIG. 61A shows the waveform of the emitted light, and FIG. 61B shows the waveform of the received light signal.
FIG. 62 is a flowchart showing a traffic jam information processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 63 is a flowchart showing a weather information processing procedure in the center.
FIG. 64 shows the location of an accident.
FIG. 65 shows a display example of accident information.
FIG. 66 shows another display example of accident information.
FIG. 67 shows a display example of accident information.
FIG. 68 shows another display example of accident information.
FIG. 69 shows a display example of rain information.
FIG. 70 shows a display example of wet information.
FIG. 71 shows a display example of freezing information.
FIG. 72 shows a display example of snow information.
FIG. 73 shows the contents of a center memory.
FIG. 74 is a flowchart showing a processing procedure for giving a reward to an information provider.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 road
2,2A, 2B, 2C, 2D vehicles
3 Onboard equipment
4 repeaters
9 Center
10 Information processing equipment
11, 41, 51 Transmitter
12, 43, 52 Receiver
13 Vehicle speed sensor
14 Laser radar
15 Road surface discrimination device
16 Raindrop sensor
20 Car navigation system
25 Display device
26 key group
31 Operation unit
31A, 31B, 31C, 31D, 31E Touch switch
50 Center computer
53 memory
60 Laser radar head

Claims (28)

  1. An individual information collecting device that is mounted on a vehicle and collects individual information about traffic, etc., and a center device that creates comprehensive information about a region within a predetermined range based on the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device; Consisting of
    The individual information collection device
    Position detection means for measuring position and creating position data,
    Manual operation information input means for manually inputting information representing the surrounding situation,
    A storage device for storing an identification code of the individual information collecting device or a vehicle equipped with the individual information collecting device;
    The first individual information including the identification code stored in the position data Contact and the storage device created by at least said position detecting means transmits at least twice at predetermined time intervals, and information from the manual operation information input means In response to the input of the first transmission device that transmits the second individual information including the input information and at least the identification code ,
    A first receiving device for receiving comprehensive information transmitted from the center device;
    A notification device for reporting the comprehensive information received by the first reception device;
    The center device
    A second receiving device for receiving the first and second individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device;
    Information processing means for creating comprehensive information relating to a predetermined range of area based on the first and second individual information received by the second receiving device, and the comprehensive information created by the information processing means as the individual information A second transmission means for transmitting to the collection device;
    The information processing means of the center device further determines the traveling direction and traveling speed of the vehicle on which the individual information collecting device is mounted based on the first individual information including the position data and the identification code received at least twice. Is,
    Traffic information system.
  2. The individual information collecting device includes clock means for measuring time, and the first or second individual information transmitted by the first transmission device includes time data timed by the clock means. Item 2. The traffic information system according to item 1.
  3. The traffic information system according to claim 1, wherein information related to at least one of an accident, traffic jam and weather is input by the manual operation information input means of the individual information collection device.
  4. Based on the information collecting device that is used in a vehicle and collects individual information on traffic etc., and the traveling direction and speed of the vehicle equipped with the information collecting device based on the individual information transmitted from the information collecting device. The information collection device used in a traffic information system including a center device that creates comprehensive information about an area within a predetermined range, including information obtained ,
    Position detection means for measuring position and creating position data,
    Manual operation information input means for manually inputting information representing the surrounding situation,
    A storage device for storing an identification code of the information collecting device or a vehicle on which the information collecting device is mounted; and
    The first individual information including the identification code stored in the position data Contact and the storage device created by at least said position detecting means transmits at least twice at predetermined time intervals, and information from the manual operation information input means There in response to input, and a first transmitter for transmitting a second individual information including information input and at least the identification code, information collection device.
  5. 5. The information collection according to claim 4, further comprising clock means for measuring time, wherein the first or second individual information transmitted by the first transmission device includes time data measured by the clock means. apparatus.
  6. A first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device;
    The information collection device according to claim 4, further comprising:
  7. Equipped with car navigation system,
    A car navigation system including at least the position detection means and the manual operation information input means;
    The information collection device according to claim 4.
  8. An individual information collecting device that is mounted on a vehicle and collects individual information related to the travel of the vehicle, and a center that creates traffic information in an area within a predetermined range based on the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device. Equipment and
    The individual information collection device
    Position detection means for measuring position and creating position data,
    A storage device for storing an identification code of the individual information collecting device or a vehicle equipped with the individual information collecting device;
    A first transmission device for transmitting individual information including position data created by the position detection means and an identification code stored in the storage device at least twice at predetermined time intervals;
    A first receiving device that receives the traffic information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the traffic information received by the first receiving device;
    The center device
    A second receiving device for receiving the individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device;
    Based on at least two times of the individual information received by the second receiving device, traffic information in an area within a predetermined range including information obtained from the traveling direction and traveling speed of the vehicle on which the individual information collecting device is mounted. An information processing means for creating, and a second transmission means for sending the traffic information created by the information processing means to the individual information collecting device,
    Traffic information system.
  9. 9. The traffic according to claim 8, wherein the individual information collecting device includes clock means for measuring time, and the individual information transmitted by the first transmission device includes time data measured by the clock means. Information system.
  10. The traffic information system according to claim 8, wherein the traffic information created by the information processing means in the center device is traffic jam information.
  11. 11. The traffic information system according to claim 10, wherein the traffic jam information includes the presence / absence of a traffic jam and its level.
  12. The individual information collecting device includes vehicle speed detecting means for detecting a traveling speed of a vehicle in which the individual information collecting device is mounted;
    The first transmission device transmits data representing the traveling speed detected by the vehicle speed detection means to the center device;
    The traffic information system according to claim 8.
  13. An information collecting device that is mounted on a vehicle and collects individual information on the traveling of the vehicle, and a traveling direction and traveling of the vehicle equipped with the information collecting device based on the individual information transmitted from the information collecting device. The information collection device used in a traffic information system including a center device that creates traffic information in an area within a predetermined range including information obtained from speed ,
    Position detection means for measuring position and creating position data,
    A storage device for storing an identification code of the information collecting device or a vehicle equipped with the information collecting device, and individual information including the position data created by the position detecting means and the identification code stored in the storage device at predetermined time intervals. A first transmitter for transmitting at least twice,
    An information collection device.
  14. 14. The information collecting apparatus according to claim 13, further comprising clock means for measuring time, wherein the individual information transmitted by the first transmitting apparatus includes time data measured by the clock means.
  15. A first receiving device for receiving traffic information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device for notifying traffic information received by the first receiving device;
    14. The information collection device according to claim 13, further comprising:
  16. An individual information collecting device that is mounted on a vehicle and collects individual information about traffic, etc., and a center device that creates comprehensive information about a region within a predetermined range based on the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device; Consisting of
    The individual information collection device
    Position detection means for measuring position and creating position data,
    Sensors that detect information representing the surrounding situation,
    A storage device for storing an identification code of the individual information collecting device or a vehicle equipped with the individual information collecting device;
    The first individual information including the identification code stored in the position data Contact and the storage device created by at least said position detecting means transmits at least twice at predetermined time intervals, and information and is detected by the sensor A first transmission device for transmitting second individual information including an identification code stored in the storage device ;
    A first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device;
    The center device
    A second receiving device for receiving the first and second individual information transmitted from the first transmitting device of the individual information collecting device;
    Information processing means for creating comprehensive information relating to a predetermined area based on the first and second individual information received by the second receiving device, and the comprehensive information created by the information processing means as the individual information A second transmission means for transmitting to the collection device;
    The information processing means of the center device further determines the traveling direction and traveling speed of the vehicle on which the individual information collecting device is mounted based on the first individual information including the position data and the identification code received at least twice. Is,
    Traffic information system.
  17. The individual information collecting device includes clock means for measuring time, and the first or second individual information transmitted by the first transmission device includes time data timed by the clock means. Item 16. The traffic information system according to item 16.
  18. 17. The traffic information system according to claim 16, wherein the sensor is at least one of a sensor that detects traffic information and a sensor that detects weather information.
  19. 17. The traffic information system according to claim 16, wherein the sensor is at least one of a sensor that detects accident information, a sensor that detects traffic jam information, and a sensor that detects weather information.
  20. 17. The traffic information system according to claim 16, wherein the sensor is at least one of a laser radar, a road surface state determination device, and a rainfall detection device.
  21. Based on the information collecting device that is used in a vehicle and collects individual information on traffic etc., and the traveling direction and speed of the vehicle equipped with the information collecting device based on the individual information transmitted from the information collecting device. The information collection device used in a traffic information system including a center device that creates comprehensive information about an area within a predetermined range, including information obtained ,
    Position detection means for measuring position and creating position data,
    Sensors that detect information representing the surrounding situation,
    A storage device for storing an identification code of the information collecting device or a vehicle on which the information collecting device is mounted; and
    The first individual information including the identification code stored in the position data Contact and the storage device created by at least said position detecting means transmits at least twice at predetermined time intervals, and information and is detected by the sensor A first transmission device for transmitting second individual information including an identification code stored in the storage device ;
    An information collecting device.
  22. The information collection according to claim 21, further comprising clock means for measuring time, wherein the first or second individual information transmitted by the first transmission device includes time data measured by the clock means. apparatus.
  23. A first receiving device that receives the comprehensive information transmitted from the center device, and a notification device that notifies the comprehensive information received by the first receiving device;
    The information collection device according to claim 21, further comprising:
  24. 22. The information collecting apparatus according to claim 21, wherein the sensor is at least one of a sensor that detects traffic information and a sensor that detects weather information.
  25. 22. The information collection device according to claim 21, wherein the sensor is at least one of a sensor that detects accident information, a sensor that detects traffic jam information, and a sensor that detects weather information.
  26. 22. The information collection device according to claim 21, wherein the sensor is at least one of a laser radar, a road surface state determination device, and a rainfall detection device.
  27. The center device
    For each identification code, means for storing the number of times of receiving the first or second individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting apparatus having each identification code, and an identification corresponding to the number of times of reception that has reached a predetermined value Means for outputting data relating to the sign,
    21. The traffic information system according to any one of claims 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20.
  28. An individual information collecting device that is used by being mounted on a vehicle and collects and transmits individual information on traffic including an identification code of the own vehicle, and generates comprehensive information based on the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting device. Center device,
    The center device
    For each identification code, a means for storing the number of times the individual information transmitted from the individual information collecting apparatus having each identification code is received, and data relating to the identification code corresponding to the number of receptions reaching a predetermined value are output. Equipped with means,
    Traffic information system.
JP2003153849A 1994-12-28 2003-05-30 Traffic information system Expired - Fee Related JP3613275B2 (en)

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JP33743294 1994-12-28
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