JP3496512B2 - Nitride semiconductor device - Google Patents

Nitride semiconductor device

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Publication number
JP3496512B2
JP3496512B2 JP12698998A JP12698998A JP3496512B2 JP 3496512 B2 JP3496512 B2 JP 3496512B2 JP 12698998 A JP12698998 A JP 12698998A JP 12698998 A JP12698998 A JP 12698998A JP 3496512 B2 JP3496512 B2 JP 3496512B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
nitride semiconductor
layer
crystal defects
protective film
region
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JPH11191637A (en
Inventor
修二 中村
徳也 小崎
成人 岩佐
裕之 清久
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日亜化学工業株式会社
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Priority to JP9-288714 priority
Priority to JP9-174494 priority
Priority to JP28871497 priority
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Priority to JP12698998A priority patent/JP3496512B2/en
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Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0001] The present invention relates to an LED (light emitting diode)
C), SLD (super luminescent diode),
Light-emitting elements such as LD (laser diode), solar cells, light
Light receiving elements such as sensors, or transistors, power
Semiconductor used for electronic devices such as electronic devices
(InXAlYGa1-XYN, 0 ≦ X, 0 ≦ Y, X + Y ≦ 1)
The present invention relates to an element comprising: [0002] 2. Description of the Related Art A nitride semiconductor is a high-brightness blue LED, pure green.
As a material for color LED, full color LED display
It has just recently been put to practical use in traffic signals. This
LEDs used in these various devices are n-type nitride
A single quantum well between the semiconductor layer and the p-type nitride semiconductor layer
InGaN with single-quantum-well (SQW) structure
Has a double heterostructure with an active layer
You. The wavelength of blue, green, etc. is the In composition of the InGaN active layer.
It is determined by increasing or decreasing the ratio. In addition, the applicant
Uses this material under pulse current at room temperature at 410 n
m laser oscillation for the first time in the world {for example, Jpn.
J.Appl.Phys.35 (1996) L74, Jpn.J.Appl.Phys.35 (1996) L
217}. This laser device has a high weight using InGaN.
Active layer of subwell structure (MQW: Multi-Quantum-Well)
With a double heterostructure having a pulse width of 2 μs and a
The threshold current is 610 mA and the threshold current is
Flow density 8.7 kA / cmTwo, 410 nm oscillation. Sa
In addition, we developed the improved laser device in Appl.Phys.Lett.69
(1996) 1477. This laser element is a p-type
Ridge stripe formed in part of nitride semiconductor layer
With a pulse width of 1 μs and a pulse period of 1 m
s, duty ratio 0.1%, threshold current 187 mA,
Threshold current density 3 kA / cmTwo, 410 nm oscillation.
Furthermore, the present applicant is also the first to continuously oscillate at room temperature.
Successful and announced. {For example, Nikkei Electronics 19
December 2, 1996 issue, Technical Bulletin, Appl.Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) 303
4-, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) 4056 etc.}, this laser element
The device has a threshold current density of 3.6 kA / cm at 20 ° C.Two,
27 hours at a threshold voltage of 5.5 V and 1.5 mW output
Of FIG. [0003] Both the LED element and the laser element are made of nitride.
Sapphire is used for a semiconductor growth substrate. Week
As you know, sapphire has one lattice mismatch with nitride semiconductor.
3% or more, nitride semiconductor grown on top of this
Crystal has very many crystal defects. Generally has many crystal defects
Semiconductors are not suitable for laser devices, and practical use is difficult.
It has been. In addition to sapphire, ZnO, Ga
Devices using substrates such as As and Si have also been reported.
These substrates also do not lattice match with nitride semiconductors,
It is difficult to grow nitride semiconductors with better crystallinity than
Therefore, even LEDs have not been realized. On the other hand, nitrides lattice-matched with nitride semiconductors
Attempts have also been made to fabricate semiconductor substrates (eg,
Sho 61-7621, JP-B 61-2635, JP-A Sho 5
1-3779, JP-A-7-165498, JP-A-7-2
02265). However, these technologies have good crystallinity.
Insufficient to obtain a nitride semiconductor substrate. [0005] SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Nitriding with few crystal defects
If a semiconductor substrate is made, lattice-matched on the substrate
The nitride semiconductor is grown in the
Nitride semiconductor can be grown. However, with current technology
Is to obtain a nitride semiconductor substrate with no crystal defects
Is almost impossible. For example, a laser device
When crystal defects dislocation into the lasing region of the active layer,
Life is shortened. Therefore, the object of the present invention is:
Example using nitride semiconductor with few crystal defects as underlayer
For example, it can be used for laser elements, LED elements, light receiving elements, etc.
Realizing highly efficient and highly reliable nitride semiconductor devices
It is in. [0006] [Means for Solving the Problems]
A nitride semiconductor underlayer (hereinafter, referred to as a nitride semiconductor underlayer
It may be called an N underlayer. ) By many means
The crystal defects were found to be uniform in the underlayer
Instead, a region with many crystal defects and a region with few crystal defects are mixed.
(The inside of the crystal of the GaN underlayer and the
(There is a tendency for differences in crystal defect density on the surface)
The present inventors have found the present invention and have accomplished the present invention. That is, the nitrogen of the present invention
The first embodiment is a nitride semiconductor device having three types of modes.
IsOn a heterogeneous substrate made of a material different from nitride semiconductor
After forming irregularities on the grown nitride semiconductor surface, the convex portions
And the nitride semiconductor is difficult to grow vertically on the plane of the recess.
Nitride exposed on the side, forming a protective film
Consisting of nitride semiconductor grown laterally from semiconductor
hand,A bond is formed on the nitride semiconductor grown on the protective film.
Having a region with few crystal defects, between the protective film and the protective film.
There are regions with many crystal defects above the growing nitride semiconductor.
A nitride semiconductor layer including an active layer is formed on
Formed on the underlayer in the region where the crystal defects are small.
The length of the active layer is larger than that of the underlying layer in a region with many crystal defects.
The area of the active layer grown on top of the crystal
A margin is formed in a region having many defects, and the margin is formed from the margin.
Split the wafer into a bar, and then split the bar
It is characterized by being formed. [0007] A second aspect of the present invention provides:With nitride semiconductors
Nitride half grown on dissimilar substrates of different materials
After forming irregularities on the surface of the conductor,
Protection that nitride semiconductors are difficult to grow in the vertical direction
A film is formed, and laterally from the nitride semiconductor exposed on the side.
Consisting of grown nitride semiconductor,On top of the protective film
A region with few crystal defects is formed on the growing nitride semiconductor.
A nitride semiconductor having between the protective film and the protective film
Above the underlayer, which has an area with many crystal defects,
A nitride semiconductor layer including at least an active layer;
And a nitride semiconductor layer that is not
The surface of the nitride semiconductor layer is exposed and no electrodes are provided
In the state, the nitride semiconductor layer not including the active layer is exposed
The area of the surface of the active layer in the nitride semiconductor layer including the active layer
The area larger than the product and having many crystal defects is cut off.
Form and break the wafer from the cutting margin to form a bar
And further formed by breaking the bar.
You. However, the active layer referred to in the present invention is a current, light, or the like.
Stimulus causes a predetermined area of the nitride semiconductor
It is an operation area that performs the operation of, for example, a homostructure,
The pn junction in a single heterostructure is an advantage of the present invention.
Contained in the active layer. Further, a third aspect of the present invention provides a laser device
Apply to the child,Materials different from nitride semiconductors
Of nitride semiconductor surface grown on heterogeneous substrate
After forming the irregularities, the nitride semiconductor is placed on the plane of the convex and concave portions.
Forming a protective film with the property that the body is difficult to grow in the vertical direction
And grow laterally from the nitride semiconductor exposed on the side.
Nitride semiconductorGrows on the protective film
The upper part of the nitride semiconductor has a region with few crystal defects,
On the nitride semiconductor grown between the protective film and the protective film
Laser oscillation above the underlayer having a region with many crystal defects
The laser oscillation region has few crystal defects.
Is provided on the upper part of the underlayer, which has no crystal defects.
Forming a margin in the region, and removing the wafer from the margin.
Cracked to form a bar, further formed by breaking the bar
It is characterized by the following. This is a surface emitting laser, stripe
It can be applied to type laser devices. Laser element having stripe type oscillation region
In the crystal, the region having many crystal defects and the region having few crystal defects
The region has a stripe shape that is almost parallel to the
The laser oscillation region above the underlayer has few crystal defects.
Have a stripe shape that is almost parallel to the area
It is characterized by. However, in the present invention, a crystal defect is
Refers to crystal defects that appear near the surface of the formation. Further, the first, second, and third aspects of the present invention.
In another embodiment, the underlayer is made of a material different from a nitride semiconductor.
Formed on a heterogeneous substrate made of
Horizontally over the protective film, which has the property of not growing easily in the vertical direction
Characterized by being made of a nitride semiconductor grown on a substrate. Further, the underlayer has many crystal defects.
The region is a nitride semiconductor that grows between the protective films
The upper portion, where the underlayer has few crystal defects, is protected.
It is characterized by being a nitride semiconductor upper part grown on the protective film
And In the present invention, the region having many crystal defects is
In the part with many crystal defects appearing near the surface of the GaN underlayer
As a part where crystal defects are likely to be increased, for example, G
An aN underlayer is grown laterally on the protective film (lateral growth).
Long), the protective film and protective
Surface portion of nitride semiconductor growing between protective film (window)
Is mentioned. Further, in the present invention, the number of crystal defects is small.
The region where crystal defects appear near the surface of the GaN underlayer
It is a small part and a part with few crystal defects.
If the GaN underlayer is formed using lateral growth
In this case, the nitride semiconductor growing on top of the protective film
Surface portion. Such uneven distribution of crystal defect density
Shows the relationship between the growth direction of nitride semiconductors and the dislocation of crystal defects.
It is speculated that [0013] BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION A region having many crystal defects and a region having few crystal defects
The GaN underlayer having
Is obtained. The first method uses a material different from a nitride semiconductor.
After growing a nitride semiconductor on a heterogeneous substrate
Before growth, the surface of the nitride semiconductor layer
It is difficult for nitride semiconductors to grow vertically on the surface of the substrate
Quality protective film, for example, stripe, dot,
It is formed in a cross-cut shape or the like, and the nitride semiconductor is formed on the protective film.
This is a method of growing the body laterally. (In claim 4
The shape of the protective film is limited to a stripe. ) In the first way
Indicates the protective film formation area and the exposed surface when forming the protective film.
When comparing with the product (window), reduce the area of the window
It is more inclined to obtain an underlayer with many regions with few crystal defects.
In the direction. [0014] On the other hand, the second method is to grow on a heterogeneous substrate.
Forming an uneven portion on the surface of the nitride semiconductor,
After forming the protective film on the plane of the recess, the exposed side surface
Grown laterally from the nitride semiconductor
A method of connecting nitride semiconductors grown laterally to each other.
You. (Similarly, in the second method, the shape of the unevenness is
Also limited to stripes. ) In either method, the protective film is formed.
The lattice constant between the heterogeneous substrate and the nitride semiconductor
Nitride generated by factors such as number irregularity and difference in thermal expansion coefficient
Reduce or stop dislocations in semiconductor crystal defects
be able to. That is, it is made of a material different from the nitride semiconductor.
Is formed on a heterogeneous substrate and the nitride semiconductor is
Upper part of the stripe-shaped protective film, which is difficult to grow
The nitride semiconductor grown laterally appears on its surface
Crystal defect density is very low, but there are many crystal defects
It has an area and a small area. This is a protective film type
After the formation, the protective film and the window portion (the protective film is not formed
Portion), the nitride semiconductor is grown again.
Lateral growth of nitride semiconductor from underlying nitride semiconductor
Promotes the growth of the nitride semiconductor to the top of the protective film.
Depending on [0016] Thus, it is possible to obtain by utilizing the lateral growth.
Crystal defects appearing on the surface of the GaN underlayer
It is very small compared to. However, the growth of GaN underlayer
The initial connection between the top of the window and the top of the protective film
The number of crystal defects differs significantly. In other words, the protection of
Growing on the part where the protective film is not formed (window part)
In the portion of the nitride semiconductor layer, a heterogeneous substrate and a nitride semiconductor
Crystal defects tend to dislocate from the interface of
The portion of the nitride semiconductor layer grown on top of
There is almost no crystal defect dislocation in the direction. For example, the method of growing the nitride semiconductor shown in FIG.
As shown in the schematic sectional view showing the structure of the wafer,
It is shown from the substrate 1 toward the surface of the first GaN layer 2.
The crystal defects are schematically shown by a plurality of thin lines.
Such crystal defects are caused by dissimilar substrate 1 and first GaN layer 2.
Due to mismatch of lattice constant with
Very much occurs in the lengthened first GaN layer 2. So
As a result, crystal defects at the window where the protective film 11 is not formed
Most of them grow in the direction of the surface during the growth of the second GaN layer 3.
Once transposed. However, the crystal generated from this window
As shown in FIG. 3, the defect is caused at the beginning of the growth of the second GaN layer 3.
Most of the second GaN layer 3
As the growth continues, crystal vacancies dislocations toward the surface
The number of depressions tends to decrease sharply, and the surface of the second GaN layer 3
The number of crystal defects that cause dislocations is extremely reduced. Meanwhile, protection
The second GaN layer 3 formed on the film 11 is composed of a substrate.
The adjacent second GaN layer 3 is not elongated but grows.
The number of crystal defects is
Very little from the beginning of growth
It becomes. As a result, the surface of the second GaN layer 3 after the growth is completed
Dislocation crystal defects on the surface (upper protective film and upper window)
Is very low or observed by transmission electron microscope
And hardly seen above the protective film. As described above, on the window of the second GaN layer 3
Crystal defects on both the top surface and the top surface of the protective film
However, it grows on top of the window where there were many crystal defects in the early stage of growth.
On the surface of the second GaN layer 3 thus grown,
There is a tendency that the number of crystal defects is slightly increased as compared with the one obtained by the method. this
This is probably due to the growth of the second GaN layer 3 growing on the window.
During the process, dislocations of many crystal defects stopped,
Crystal defects that continue to dislocate are dislocations almost immediately above the window
It is considered that this is likely to be easy. Also window
Dislocation occurs early in the growth of a portion of the nitride semiconductor, and the second GaN layer
The crystal defects that interrupted the dislocation during the growth of
The possibility of rearrangement during movement is conceivable. Therefore, the second
Crystal defect density on the surface of GaN layer 3 is significantly reduced
However, the surface of the second GaN layer 3 above the window is
The region has many crystal defects. Above crystal defects
The second GaN layer 3 having a relatively small thickness is formed by a nitride
Use for conductor growth substrate makes it more crystalline than before
It is possible to realize a nitride semiconductor device having excellent characteristics. As described above
The crystal defect density of the GaN underlayer of the present invention obtained by
According to surface transmission electron microscopy, a region with many crystal defects
1 × 106Pieces / cmTwoBelow, the preferred article
1 × 10 in the caseFivePieces / cmTwoLess than crystal defects
1 × 10 5FivePieces / cmTwoLess than
Below, under preferable conditions, 1 × 10FourPieces / cmTwoBelow
Desirably. For example, when a stripe-shaped protective film is formed,
In the case of lateral growth of nitride semiconductor,
Growing from both sides (stripe width direction)
Connect at the center of the stripe. The crystal defect density at the top of the window is
1 × 106Pieces / cmTwoThe following, stripe-shaped protective film
The upper crystal defect density is 1 × 10FivePieces / cmTwoIt becomes below.
The preferred number of crystal defects is as described above.
This crystal defect can be caused, for example, by dry etching a nitride semiconductor.
Of the etch pits that appear on the etched surface when
It can be measured by counting the number. The nitride half of the present invention
In a conductive element, the active layer above the region with many crystal defects
Reduce the area. Especially for laser devices,
Without providing an oscillation region, a laser is
The oscillation region is provided. FIGS. 1 to 3 show GaN according to the first method.
The structure of the nitride semiconductor wafer when fabricating the underlayer
It is a typical sectional view shown. In these figures, 1 is
Heterogeneous substrate, 2 a first GaN layer, 3 a second GaN layer,
Reference numeral 11 denotes a protective film, which specifically serves as a GaN underlayer.
This is the second GaN layer 3. Based on these figures
An example of a method for manufacturing a GaN underlayer will be described. As shown in FIG. 1, on the surface of the heterogeneous substrate 1,
The first GaN layer 2 is grown to a thickness of, for example, 10 μm or less.
Let This first GaN layer can be directly on the substrate or
This is a layer grown through the
In cross section, for example, 1 × 108Pieces / cmTwoBecause of the above,
It cannot be a GaN substrate or a GaN underlayer. Heterogeneous
The substrate 1 may be a substrate made of a material different from the nitride semiconductor
Anything is acceptable, for example, sapphire C surface
In addition, sapphire, spinel (M
gA1TwoOFour), An insulating substrate such as SiC (6H, 4
H, 3C), ZnS, ZnO, GaAs, Si, etc.
Uses a substrate material different from the conventionally known nitride semiconductor
Can be. Grow the first GaN layer 2
First, the growth temperature of the first GaN layer such as GaN, AlN, etc.
A low-temperature growth buffer layer having a lower
It can also be grown with a thickness of less than μm. Next, a nitride semiconductor is formed on the first GaN layer 2.
Does not grow vertically or is difficult to grow
The protective film 11 is formed, for example, in a stripe shape.
The stripe width depends on the exposed portion of the first GaN layer,
The area of the protective film compared to the area where the film is not formed (window)
It is preferable to increase the thickness of the second GaN layer 3 having few crystal defects.
Is easy to grow and is good for setting the laser oscillation part.
It is convenient. As a material of the protective film 11, for example,
I (SiO)X), Silicon nitride (SiXNY), Titanium oxide
(TiOX), Zirconium oxide (ZrO)XOxidation such as
Materials, nitrides, and these multi-layered films, 1200 ° C or higher
And the like having a melting point of. these
The material for the protective film is a nitride semiconductor growth temperature of 600 ° C. to 11 ° C.
Withstands temperature of 00 ° C, nitride semiconductor grows on its surface
Or have the property of not easily growing. Protective film material
Can be formed on the nitride semiconductor surface by, for example, evaporation, spa
And a vapor phase film forming technique such as CVD.
In FIG. 1, a striped protective film is formed on the first GaN layer 2.
In the direction perpendicular to the stripe.
Fig. 3 shows a partial cross-sectional view when c is cut.
The depression is schematically represented by a thin line inside the first GaN layer 2.
Is shown. As shown in this figure, the first GaN layer 2
Is a GaN substrate
Alternatively, it is impossible to form a GaN underlayer. this
The stripe width of the protective film is 1 μm or more, more preferably
The thickness is adjusted to 2 μm or more, most preferably 5 μm or more. 1
If it is smaller than μm, the area with few crystal defects becomes smaller.
Laser oscillation area above the area with few crystal defects
Tends to be difficult to do. The upper limit of the stripe width is
Although not particularly limited, it is usually adjusted to 100 μm or less.
Is desirable. On the wafer on which the protective film 11 is formed,
Then, a second GaN layer 3 is grown. As shown in FIG.
On the first GaN layer 2 on which the protective film 11 is formed, a second
When the GaN layer 3 is grown, the first protective film 11
The GaN layer does not grow on top of the first GaN layer 2 in the window.
A second GaN layer 3 is selectively grown thereon. Figure 2 shows the window
GaN grows on the first protective film 11
It shows that it is hardly grown. However, the growth of the second GaN layer 3 is continued.
And the second GaN layer 3 on the first protective film 11
It grows in the lateral direction and is connected by adjacent second GaN layers 3.
Therefore, as shown in FIG.
It is as if the second GaN layer 3 had grown. No.
2 has few crystal defects on the surface of GaN layer 3 on average
However, according to surface transmission electron microscopy,
Has almost no crystal defects (in contrast to crystal defects).
Small area), slightly more crystal defects above the window
(A region with many crystal defects). This means that
In the initial stage of growth of the nitride semiconductor growing in the window,
Many defects continue to dislocations, and the number of dislocations decreases dramatically during growth
However, because there is a crystal defect that continues dislocation slightly
It is speculated that there is not. In addition, a nitride semiconductor
When the body grows on the protective film by lateral growth, crystals
Defects also continue to dislocation in the horizontal direction, but nitride semiconductors
Dislocation does not occur in the crystal defect even when grown in the vertical direction
It is thought that it is. In FIG. 3, from the substrate
Pluralities shown over the surface of the first nitride semiconductor layer
Thin lines schematically show crystal defects as in FIGS.
You. In other words, crystal defects grown from the window are
In the early stage of body growth, it is dislocated, but it decreases sharply in the middle,
In the upper part of the protective film, there are almost no crystal defects that displace vertically.
There is a tendency not to be seen. Therefore, the top surface of the protective film
Some crystal defects are 10FivePieces / cmTwoBelow and at the top of the window
10 on the surface6Pieces / cmTwoIt is as follows. FIGS. 4 and 5 show GaN according to the second method.
3 shows a method of manufacturing an underlayer. This method uses different substrates
On top, directly or via low temperature growth buffer layer
Irregularities are provided on the surface of the formed first GaN layer 2. So
Then, as shown in FIG.
1 'is formed, and the second GaN layer 3 is further grown.
And the first GaN layer 2 exposed at the end face as shown in FIG.
From the above, the second GaN layer grows in the lateral direction and
GaN underlayer with few crystal defects
it can. In the case of this second method, the protective films 11 and 11 '
As a result, the second GaN layer 3 is formed on the protective film.
Compared to the first method, the region with many crystal defects and the region with
The difference is small and the crystal defects are small on average. in this way,
In the case of the second method, the second GaN layer 3 is a first GaN layer.
In order to grow from the side surface of No. 2, compared to the first method,
The number of crystal defects tends to decrease in regions with many crystal defects
is there. However, the method of manufacturing the GaN underlayer described above is just an example.
GaN underlayer of the laser device of the present invention
The layers are not bound by the above two processes. FIG. 6 shows a more preferred method of manufacturing a GaN underlayer.
After the growth of the second GaN layer 3, the second
The surface of the GaN layer 3 corresponding to the region with many crystal defects is
By forming the second protective film 12, the crystal defects are blocked.
Go. Further, a third GaN layer 4 is laterally formed on the protective film.
Growing the third GaN layer into the second protection layer
Even if connected at the top of the film 12, the original window has few crystal defects.
Because there are no more crystalline defects than the second GaN layer.
A small GaN underlayer is obtained. [0027] [Embodiment 1] FIG. 7 shows an embodiment of the present invention.
It is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the structure of the nitride semiconductor device,
Specifically, the structure of the LED element is shown. FIG. 8
A flat view showing the shape of the LED element shown in FIG.
FIG. Hereinafter, the method of manufacturing the GaN underlayer in FIGS. 1 to 3 will be described.
While explaining the nitride semiconductor device of the present invention.
I will tell. 2 inch φ, sapphire with C-plane as main surface
The substrate 1 is set in the reaction vessel and sapphire at 500 ° C.
A 200 GaN buffer layer on substrate 1
After growing at a thickness of 10 g
The first GaN layer 2 made of GaN is formed to a thickness of 5 μm.
Grow with. This first GaN layer has an Al mixed crystal ratio X value.
0.5 or less AlXGa1-XGrowing N (0 ≦ X ≦ 0.5)
It is desirable to make it. If it exceeds 0.5, crystal defects and
Rather than cracking the crystal itself rather than
Therefore, the crystal growth itself tends to be difficult. Also membrane
The thickness is 10 μm
It is desirable to adjust the film thickness to the following. Note that in Figure 1
The buffer layer is not specifically shown. After growing the first GaN layer 2, the wafer is reacted.
Take it out of the container and put the stratum on the surface of the first GaN layer 2.
A photomask in the shape of an arrow is formed, and
S with a stripe width of 20 μm and stripe interval (window) of 5 μm
iOTwoThe protective film 11 is formed to a thickness of 0.1 μm.
You. Figure 1 shows the stripe cut in a direction perpendicular to the long axis direction.
FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a partial wafer structure when
You. After the formation of the protective film 11, the wafer is reacted again.
Set in a vessel and at 1050 ° C, 1 × 1018/cm
ThreeThe second GaN layer 3 made of doped GaN is
It is grown to a thickness of μm (FIGS. 2 and 3). Second GaN
The preferable growth film thickness of the layer 3 is the same as that of the protective film 11 formed earlier.
Depending on the film thickness and size, the surface of the protective film 11
A second GaN layer 3 is grown to cover. Protective film 11
The size of the protective film 11 is not particularly limited.
GaN base with less crystal defects is larger than the area of
It is very preferable for obtaining a board. After growing the second GaN layer 3, the wafer is reacted.
Take out of the container and wrap the surface of the second GaN layer 3
To obtain a GaN underlayer with a mirror surface. (Hereafter,
The GaN layer 2 is referred to as a GaN underlayer 50. ) This G
In the aN underlayer 50, observation with a surface transmission electron microscope
According to this, the number of crystal defects corresponding to the upper part of the protective film 11 is 10FivePieces
/cmTwoBelow, the crystal defect corresponding to the upper part of the window is 106
Pieces / cmTwoThe following shows that crystal defects are
In addition, regions with few crystal defects are better than regions with more defects.
Had a large area. Next, a GaN substrate having a sapphire substrate 1
50 is placed in the reaction vessel again, and S
i is 1 × 1018/cmThreeN-side doped GaN
The lad layer 51 is grown. This n-side cladding layer 51
Act as a buffer layer before growing the active layer 52;
Al with an Al mixed crystal ratio of 0.5 or lessYGa1-YGrow N
It is desirable. Subsequently, a film thickness of 2 is formed on the n-side cladding layer 51.
Undoped I of 0 Å, single quantum well structure
n0.4Ga0.6N active layer 52 having a thickness of 0.3 μm
Mg 1 × 1020/cmThreeDoped Al0.2Ga0.8N
P-side cladding layer 53, 0.5 μm thick Mg
× 1020/cmThreeP-side contact made of doped GaN
Layer 54 is sequentially grown. After the growth, the wafer is taken out of the reaction vessel,
Anneal at 600 ° C in a nitrogen atmosphere to
The resistance of the pad layer 53 and the p-side contact layer 54 is reduced. So
Thereafter, etching is performed from the p-side contact layer 54 side,
n-side cladding layer 51 or the surface of GaN substrate 50
Expose. Thus, the nitride semiconductor below the active layer
The layer is exposed by etching.
By providing a “margin”, it is possible to impinge on the pn junction surface during cutting.
Because it is difficult to hit, the yield is also improved and high reliability
An element is obtained. Note that this "strip margin" is striped
By forming in the part corresponding to the window part of the protective film of
Wafer can be cut at the center line of the striped window
To do. In addition, by providing this "cut margin"
Later, when the sapphire substrate and protective film were removed,
Clarified chip cutting position showing large area and small area
Can be determined. After the etching, the surface of the p-side contact layer 54 is
A translucent p-electrode 55 made of Ni / Au is provided on almost the entire surface.
Is formed to a thickness of 200 angstroms, and its p-electrode is formed.
A p-pad electrode 56 for bonding is placed on the.
It is formed with a thickness of 5 μm. After the formation of the p pad electrode 56, the wafer
Polishing and removing the via substrate and the buffer layer, the GaN substrate 5
0 and expose W and Al almost all over the back surface.
An n-electrode 57 having a thickness of 0.5 μm is formed. Next, the wafer is divided from the above-mentioned "cutting margin".
Into a bar, and in the direction perpendicular to the short side of the bar
Break the bar to make an LED chip. Of this LED chip
Crystal defects in the nitride semiconductor layer below the active layer
There are overwhelmingly many. In such a region with few crystal defects
High reliability due to large active layer area
An element is obtained. This LED is 52 mA at 20 mA.
It emits green light of 0 nm and the output is a conventional sapphire substrate
Compare the nitride semiconductor device structure to the grown one
Extremely excellent characteristics, more than twice and electrostatic withstand voltage more than twice
Indicated. In this embodiment, the shape of the protective film is striped.
Shape, but match the shape of the chip to be cut out in advance.
Make sure that the protective film (for example, square)
Dots are formed in a grid pattern, and crystal defects in the protective film
Cut out chips at locations corresponding to areas with many depressions
You can also. Embodiment 2 FIG. 9 shows another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a structure of the nitride semiconductor device,
Specifically, it shows the structure of a laser element. Hereinafter, based on FIG.
Next, a second embodiment will be described. In Example 1, the thickness of the GaN underlayer was set to 6 μm.
Except for growing with the film thickness,
The grown GaN underlayer 50 is obtained. (Second Buffer Layer 71) Obtained in Example 1
Wafer with the GaN underlayer 50 as the main surface
Set on the GaN underlayer 50 at 1050 ° C.
1 × 10 Si18/cmThreeSecond made of doped GaN
Is grown. Second buffer layer 71
Is a nitride semiconductor single crystal grown at a high temperature of 900 ° C or higher
Between the substrate and the nitride semiconductor
Nitride semiconductor to be grown next to reduce lattice mismatch
A distinction is made from a buffer layer grown at a lower temperature than the body.
When a laser element is manufactured, the second buffer layer 71
Is 100 Å or less in film thickness, more preferably
70 angstroms or less, most preferably 50 angstroms
Stack nitride semiconductors with different compositions
It is preferable to form a layered strained superlattice layer. Strained superlattice
Layer improves the crystallinity of the single nitride semiconductor layer.
Therefore, a high-power laser element can be realized. LED element
A strained superlattice layer may be applied to the n-side cladding layer 51 described above. (Crack Prevention Layer 72) Next, 5 × 1 of Si
018/cmThreeDoped In0.1Ga0.9Crack made of N
The anti-blocking layer 42 is grown to a thickness of 500 angstroms.
Let This crack preventing layer 72 is made of n-type nitride containing In.
By growing the semiconductor material, preferably InGaN.
Cracks in the nitride semiconductor layer containing Al
Can be prevented. Crack prevention layer is 100 angstroms
It can be grown to a film thickness of not less than storm and not more than 0.5 μm.
Is preferred. If it is thinner than 100 angstroms,
As described above, it is difficult to act as a crack prevention,
If it is thicker than m, the crystals themselves tend to turn black. What
The crack prevention layer 72 can be omitted. (N-side cladding layer 73) Next, 5 ×
1018/cmThreeDoped n-type Al0.2Ga0.8Consisting of N
The first layer, 20 Å, and undoped
pe) second layer of GaN, 20 Å
And a total thickness of more than 0.4 μm formed by alternately laminating 100 layers.
A lattice structure is used. The n-side cladding layer 73 confines the carrier
Acting as an optical confinement layer and an optical confinement layer and containing Al
A superlattice layer containing an oxide semiconductor, preferably AlGaN
It is desirable that the thickness of the entire superlattice layer be 100 Å.
Not less than Trom and not more than 2 μm, more preferably 500
It is desirable to grow at more than 1 μm
Good. Good crystallinity without cracks when made into a superlattice layer
A carrier confinement layer can be formed. Note that it is a superlattice layer
In the case, nitrides with different band gap energies
Stack semiconductor layers and increase the impurity concentration of either one.
And do modulation doping so that the other is smaller
The threshold value tends to decrease. (N-side light guide layer 74)
× 1018/cmThreeN-side light source made of doped n-type GaN
Id layer 74 is grown to a thickness of 0.1 μm. This n side
The light guide layer 74 acts as a light guide layer of the active layer,
It is desirable to grow GaN and InGaN, usually
100 Å to 5 μm, more preferably 2 Å
Growing to a thickness of 00 Å to 1 μm
Is desirable. The n-side light guide layer 74 is usually made of Si, G
e is doped with an n-type impurity such as e to have an n-type conductivity.
In particular, it can be undoped. Super lattice
Has n-type impurities in at least one of the first layer and the second layer.
The material may be doped or undoped. (Active Layer 75) Next, undoped In
0.2Ga0.8N well layer, 25 Å
And undoped In0.01Ga0.99N barrier layer, 5
Total thickness 175 of 0 Angstroms alternately stacked
Angstrom multiple quantum well structure (MQW) activity
Grow layer 75. (P-side cap layer 76) Next, the band gap
Is higher than the p-side light guide layer 77,
Mg larger than one active layer 7520/cmThreeDo
P-type Al0.3Ga0.7P-side cap layer made of N
76 is grown to a thickness of 300 angstroms. This
The p-side cap layer 76 was p-type, but the thickness was small.
Therefore, the carrier compensated i is doped by n-type impurities.
It may be shaped or undoped, most preferably
The layer is doped with a p-type impurity. p-side cap layer 76
Has a thickness of 0.1 μm or less, and more preferably 500 on.
Å or less, most preferably 300 Å
Adjust to less than Grown with a thickness greater than 0.1 μm
Cracks easily in the p-type cap layer 76
And it is difficult to grow a nitride semiconductor layer with good crystallinity.
It is. AlGaN with a higher Al composition ratio is formed thinner.
Then, the LD element easily oscillates. For example, if the Y value is 0.
2 or more AlYGa1-Y500 angstroms for N
It is desirable to adjust to less than p-side cap layer 76
The lower limit of the film thickness is not particularly limited.
It is desirable that the film be formed with a film thickness not less than the film thickness. (P-side light guide layer 77)
Mg energy is smaller than p-side cap layer 76.
Is 1 × 1020/cmThreeP-side made of doped p-type GaN
The light guide layer 77 is grown to a thickness of 0.1 μm. this
The layer acts as a light guide layer for the active layer and the n-side light guide
As with the layer 44, it is possible to grow with GaN or InGaN.
desirable. This layer also grows the p-side cladding layer 78.
Also acts as a buffer layer at the time of
ROHM to 5 μm, more preferably 200 Å
It is preferable to grow with a film thickness of 1 μm to 1 μm.
Acts as a light guide layer. This p-side light guide layer is usually
Is doped with a p-type impurity such as Mg to have a p-type conductivity.
However, it is not particularly necessary to dope impurities. Note that this p
The side light guide layer may be a superlattice layer. Superlattice layer
In this case, at least one of the first layer and the second layer
May be doped with a p-type impurity or undoped.
Is also good. (P-side cladding layer 78) Next, Mg was added to 1 ×
1020/cmThreeDoped p-type Al0.2Ga0.8Consisting of N
First layer, 20 angstroms and 1 × 10 Mg20
/cmThreeA second layer of doped p-type GaN,
And a total film thickness of 0.4μ
growing a p-side cladding layer 78 composed of a superlattice layer of m
You. This layer has the same carrier closure as the n-side cladding layer 73.
Acts as a confining layer and has a superlattice structure,
It acts as a layer for lowering the layer side resistivity. This
The thickness of the p-side cladding layer 78 is not particularly limited.
0 angstrom or more and 2 μm or less, more preferably
Is grown at 500 Å or more and 1 μm or less
Is desirable. Especially nitride semiconductor with super lattice structure
When the body layer is a cladding layer, a superlattice layer is provided on the p-layer side.
Is more effective in lowering the threshold current. What
As with the n-type cladding layer, when forming a superlattice layer,
Nitride semiconductor layers with different band gap energies
Laminate and increase the impurity concentration of one of the
When modulation doping is performed so that
It tends to decrease. An active layer having a quantum well layer is provided.
In the case of a nitride semiconductor device with a double heterostructure, the active layer
In contact with and have a higher bandgap energy than the active layer
Thicker than nitride semiconductor containing Al with a thickness of 0.1 μm or less.
A cap layer, and the active layer is
In a remote position, the bad gap energy is larger than the cap layer.
Providing a p-side light guide layer having a small energy,
At a position farther from the active layer than the p-side light guide layer
Also contain a nitride semiconductor containing Al with a large band gap.
It is very difficult to provide a p-side cladding layer consisting of a superlattice layer.
Preferred. In addition, the band gap of the p-side cap layer
Due to the large energy, the power injected from the n-layer
Electrons are blocked by this cap layer, so that electrons pass through the active layer.
Low leakage current of the element to prevent overflow
It becomes. (P-side contact layer 79) Finally, Mg
2 × 1020/cmThreeP-side core made of doped p-type GaN
Contact layer 79 is grown to a thickness of 150 Å
Let it. 500 angstrom or less for p-side contact layer
Lower, more preferably 400 angstrom or less, 2
If the film thickness is adjusted to 0 Å or more, the p-layer resistance
Is effective in lowering the voltage at the threshold because
It is profitable. After the completion of the reaction, the way is placed in the reaction vessel.
C is annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 700 ° C.
Further lowering the resistance of the layer. After annealing, remove the wafer
Removed from the reaction vessel, and as shown in FIG.
The uppermost p-side contact layer 79 and the p-side cladding
The layer 78 is etched to have a stripe width of 4 μm.
Ridge shape. The ridge formation position is
Formed in the direction parallel to the
A region having a large number of ip-shaped crystal defects is removed. That is, on a protective film having a width of 20 μm and a window of 5 μm.
The GaN layer formed at the top of the window of about 5 μm
It has a stripe region with relatively many crystal defects,
The ridge does not cover the 5 μm stripe region
To be designed. With this design, the strike
The active layer under the wedge-shaped ridge is
Region, the laser oscillation region has many crystal defects
It can be made so as not to cover the area. The ridge in the device of FIG.
To concentrate the light emission on the active layer below the ridge.
The method of fabricating the oscillation region was adopted.
For example, a current confinement can be achieved by forming an insulating layer on the uppermost layer of the p-layer.
Provision of thin stripe width electrode, nitride semiconductor
The active layer can also be activated by forming a current confinement layer in the body layer.
A laser oscillation region may be provided in the conductive layer. like this
In the same case, the active layer above the region with many crystal defects
Is shifted from the laser oscillation region. After forming the ridge, as shown in FIG.
Centering on the stripe, both sides of the ridge stripe
The p-side cladding layer 77 exposed to the
The surface of the n-side cladding layer 71 on which the pole 82 is to be formed is exposed.
Let The surface on which the n-electrode 82 is formed is as shown in FIG.
The surface of the n-side cladding layer 71 may be used.
The surface of the formation 50 may be used,
It is desirable to expose the surface of the n-type nitride semiconductor layer. Ma
In the laser device according to this embodiment, the n-electrode is on the same plane as the p-electrode.
On the back side of the GaN underlayer 50 as shown in FIG.
Needless to say, it can be provided. Next, the entire surface of the ridge surface is made of Ni / Au.
A p-electrode 80 is formed. Next, as shown in FIG.
P-side cladding layer 78 excluding pole 80, p-side contact layer 7
9 on the surface ofTwoAn insulating film 83 made of
A p-type electrode electrically connected to the p-type electrode 80 via the insulating film 83
The pad electrode 81 is formed. On the other hand, the n-side
On the surface of the lad layer 71, an n-electrode 82 made of W and Al is provided.
Form. After the formation of the electrodes, the way
After polishing the sapphire substrate only to a thickness of 50 μm,
Striped p-electrode 80 and n-electrode 82
The sapphire substrate 1 is cleaved in a vertical direction to cleave the active layer.
The open surface is defined as a resonance surface. Figure 9 shows the laser device shape after cleavage.
Is shown. Thus, the n-electrode and the p-electrode are
With few crystal defects in the structure of the laser element provided with
Region and a region having many crystal defects.
When an active layer is provided above the underlying layer, an n-electrode is provided.
The exposed area of the nitride semiconductor layer not including the active layer
By making it larger than the active layer area on the side having the layer,
The active layer where heat is concentrated may be destroyed by crystal defects
Since the number is small, a highly reliable and long-life element can be realized. What
When this laser element was oscillated at room temperature, the threshold
Value Current density 2.0 kA / cmTwoWith a threshold voltage of 4.0V
Continuous oscillation of vibration wavelength 405 nm was confirmed, and 1000 hours
The above life was shown. [Embodiment 3] FIG. 10 shows another embodiment of the present invention.
It is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the structure of a laser device according to,
Specifically, the structure of the surface emitting laser element is shown. this
In the figure, reference numeral 50 denotes a region having a large number of crystal defects and a region having a small number of crystal defects.
Under a GaN having dots or stripes
It is a stratum. This laser device is placed on the GaN underlayer 50.
An n-side buffer layer 9 made of a Si-doped n-type GaN layer
0 (however, this buffer layer is also different from the low-temperature growth buffer layer).
You. ), Si-doped n-type Al0.3Ga0.7N layer 40 ang
Storm and undoped GaN layer 40 Å
Made of 0.2 μm strained superlattice
n-side cladding layer 91, In0.2Ga0.8N and In0.01Ga
0.99N and an active layer 92 having an MQW structure
g-doped p-type Al0.3Ga0.7N layer 40 Å
And the Mg-doped p-type GaN layer 40 angstroms
P-side layer made of laminated 0.2 μm strained superlattice
Rad layer 93, p-side contact made of Mg-doped GaN
Layer 94 has a basic structure of being laminated. Furthermore, the n side
The periphery of the cladding layer 91 to the p-side cladding layer 93 is inverted by np.
Surrounded by a current blocking layer made of an AlGaN layer having a junction
It has a structure. The current blocking layer has an n-side
Except for the lad layer 91 to the p-side cladding layer 93,
Is to surround. Furthermore, this surface emitting laser device
Is a hole provided from the GaN base layer side, and the n-side buffer layer
N-side reflecting mirror 101 made of a dielectric multilayer film is provided on the surface of
On the surface of the p-side contact layer corresponding to the n-side reflector
Is also provided with a p-side reflecting mirror 100 made of a dielectric multilayer film.
I have. Surface emitting laser devices are the same as ring-shaped p-electrodes.
Energizing the ring-shaped n-electrode causes resonance between the reflectors
Then, the laser oscillates in the thickness direction. A place for manufacturing such a surface emitting laser device.
Even in this case, the laser oscillation region was surrounded by a current blocking layer.
The active layer 92 is located inside, and the position of this active layer is
By setting it on the upper part of the GaN underlayer 50 with few depressions
Thus, a long-life laser element can be manufactured. In addition,
In the case of a laser element, the resonator length is in the thickness direction and its area
Is very small, so when fabricating a GaN underlayer,
And the protective film can be freely selected such as dot-shaped, stripe, etc.
It is. [0058] As described above, the nitride semiconductor of the present invention
According to the conductive element, a new GaN base layer
In a regular structure, a region with many crystal defects in the GaN underlayer
Is configured to reduce the active layer area,
Damage to active layers such as light emitting devices and power devices
When a device with a limited element life is realized, crystal defects
Has a very long life and high reliability
Device can be realized.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one structure of a nitride semiconductor wafer obtained by a first method for producing a GaN underlayer. FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one structure of a nitride semiconductor wafer obtained by a first method for producing a GaN underlayer. FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one structure of a nitride semiconductor wafer obtained by a first method for producing a GaN underlayer. FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one structure of a nitride semiconductor wafer obtained by a second method for producing a GaN underlayer. FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one structure of a nitride semiconductor wafer obtained by a second method for producing a GaN underlayer. FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing one structure of a nitride semiconductor wafer obtained by a preferred first method for producing a GaN underlayer. FIG. 7 is a schematic sectional view showing the structure of an LED element according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 8 is a plan view of the element of FIG. 5 as viewed from a p-electrode side. FIG. 9 is a schematic sectional view showing a structure of an LD device according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 10 is a schematic sectional view showing the structure of an LD device according to another embodiment of the present invention. DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1... Heterogeneous substrate 2. First GaN layer 3. 2nd GaN layer 11. Protective film 50... GaN underlayer 71. Layer 72 Crack prevention layer 73 n-side cladding layer 74 n-side light guide layer 75 active layer 76 p-side cap layer 77 p-side light guide layer 78 ..P-side cladding layer 79 ... P-side contact layer

──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continuation of the front page (56) References JP-A-7-142763 (JP, A) JP-A-5-343742 (JP, A) JP-A-8-70139 (JP, A) JP-A-4- 127521 (JP, A) WO 97/011518 (WO, A1) (58) Fields investigated (Int. Cl. 7 , DB name) H01L 33/00 H01S 5/00-5/50

Claims (1)

  1. (57) [Claims] [Claim 1] Different kinds of materials different from nitride semiconductors
    Forming irregularities on the surface of a nitride semiconductor grown on a substrate
    After that, the nitride semiconductor is vertically
    Form a protective film that is difficult to grow on
    Nitride semiconductor grown laterally from the released nitride semiconductor
    The nitride semiconductor grown on the protective film has a region with few crystal defects, and the nitride semiconductor grown between the protective film and the protective film has a region with many crystal defects. A nitride semiconductor layer including an active layer is grown on the underlying layer having an active layer, and the area of the active layer grown on the underlying layer in a region with few crystal defects is located above the underlying layer in a region with many crystal defects. Forming a cutout in a region larger than the area of the grown active layer and having a large number of crystal defects, breaking the wafer from the cutout into a bar, and further forming the bar by breaking the bar; Object semiconductor device. 2. A heterogeneous material made of a material different from a nitride semiconductor
    Forming irregularities on the surface of a nitride semiconductor grown on a substrate
    After that, the nitride semiconductor is vertically
    Form a protective film that is difficult to grow on
    Nitride semiconductor grown laterally from the released nitride semiconductor
    The nitride semiconductor grown on the protective film has a region with few crystal defects, and the nitride semiconductor grown between the protective film and the protective film has a region with many crystal defects. A nitride semiconductor layer including at least an active layer, and a nitride semiconductor layer not including an active layer, on the upper side of the underlying layer having, and the surfaces of the nitride semiconductor layers are exposed on the same surface side; In a state where the electrode is not provided, an exposed area of the nitride semiconductor layer not including the active layer is larger than an area of the active layer in the nitride semiconductor layer including the active layer, and a margin is formed in a region having many crystal defects. A nitride semiconductor device formed by dividing a wafer from the cutting margin into a bar shape and further dividing the bar. 3. A heterogeneous material made of a material different from a nitride semiconductor
    Forming irregularities on the surface of a nitride semiconductor grown on a substrate
    After that, the nitride semiconductor is vertically
    Form a protective film that is difficult to grow on
    Nitride semiconductor grown laterally from the released nitride semiconductor
    The nitride semiconductor grown on the protective film has a region with few crystal defects, and the nitride semiconductor grown between the protective film and the protective film has a region with many crystal defects. A laser oscillation region is provided above the base layer having the laser oscillation region, the laser oscillation region is provided above the underlayer having few crystal defects, a margin is formed in the region having many crystal defects, and a wafer is formed from the margin. A nitride semiconductor element formed by splitting the bar to form a bar, and further splitting the bar. 4. A region having a large number of crystal defects and a region having a small number of crystal defects have a stripe shape substantially parallel to each other, and a laser oscillation region on an underlayer is substantially the same as a region having a small number of crystal defects. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 3, wherein the nitride semiconductor device has a parallel stripe shape. 5. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein said nitride semiconductor device is a surface emitting laser device or a stripe laser device. 6. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein a different substrate of the wafer is removed, and an n-electrode is formed on substantially the entire back surface. Nitride semiconductor device. 7. The sapphire, spinel, SiC, ZnS, Zn having a C-plane, an R-plane, and an A-plane as main surfaces.
    7. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein the substrate is a substrate selected from the group consisting of O, GaAs, and Si. 8. The protective film is formed of silicon oxide, silicon nitride,
    8. The protective film according to claim 1, wherein the protective film is selected from the group consisting of titanium oxide, zirconium oxide, and a multilayer film thereof, and a metal having a melting point of 1200 ° C. or higher. Nitride semiconductor device. 9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the protective film has a stripe shape, a dot shape,
    The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 8, wherein the nitride semiconductor device has a shape selected from the group consisting of a grid and a square. 10. The protective film has a stripe width of 1 μm.
    The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 8, wherein the thickness is at least 100 μm. 11. The method according to claim 1, wherein a density of crystal defects in a region where the number of crystal defects is small is 1 × 10 5 / cm 2 or less. Nitride semiconductor device.
JP12698998A 1997-06-30 1998-05-11 Nitride semiconductor device Expired - Fee Related JP3496512B2 (en)

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US6500257B1 (en) * 1998-04-17 2002-12-31 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Epitaxial material grown laterally within a trench and method for producing same
JP3623713B2 (en) 2000-03-24 2005-02-23 日本電気株式会社 Nitride semiconductor light emitting device
JP4741055B2 (en) * 2000-05-25 2011-08-03 ローム株式会社 Semiconductor light emitting device
JP2002170986A (en) * 2000-11-29 2002-06-14 Kyocera Corp Semiconductor light emitting diode
JP4656782B2 (en) * 2001-09-12 2011-03-23 シャープ株式会社 Nitride semiconductor laser device and semiconductor optical device thereof
JP5254521B2 (en) * 2002-04-15 2013-08-07 ザ リージェンツ オブ ザ ユニバーシティ オブ カリフォルニア Reduction of dislocations in nonpolar gallium nitride thin films.
US7372077B2 (en) 2003-02-07 2008-05-13 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Semiconductor device
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