Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a micromachine which is a micromachine having a size of a few millimeters or less, and more particularly, energy is supplied from outside the machine without a cable. It is about a micromachine. 2. Description of the Related Art In recent years, a micromachine called a micromachine having a size of several millimeters or less has been proposed, and various researches and developments have been made for practical use.
As a driving method of such a micromachine, a cabled method of externally supplying energy (power) and a control signal to a machine unit equipped with various actuators via a cable, and an energy source such as a storage battery in the machine unit are provided. There is also known a non-wireless system in which only a control signal is supplied wirelessly from the outside. In the case of the cabled system, since the energy source is outside the machine unit, the size of the unit itself can be reduced, and the amount of driving energy is not limited, so that there is an advantage that the degree of freedom in designing the micromachine is large. However, on the other hand, since a cable for supplying energy is indispensable, there are restrictions on the operating range and movement of the machine unit.  On the other hand, in the case of the cableless system, the movement of the machine unit is not restricted, but the energy source for driving the machine unit must be mounted on the unit. There is a disadvantage that the original function is impaired. Therefore, in a cableless micromachine, an energy source is not mounted on the machine unit, and the machine unit is irradiated with electromagnetic waves such as light rays.
A method of supplying energy without a cable from outside has been studied (for example, Japanese Patent Application No. 3-7243). In this case, the surface of the micromachine unit is covered with a photovoltaic element such as a solar cell, and converts the irradiated electromagnetic wave into electric power.  However, in the micromachine, since the miniaturization is made as small as possible, the receiving area (receiving area) of the electromagnetic wave is limited.
Of course, the power conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic element such as a solar cell is low, and is at most about 20 to 30% at present. In addition, when a micromachine is inserted into a pipe by a cordless method for pipe wall inspection or the like and an electromagnetic wave is supplied to the micromachine in the pipe, a transmission source of the electromagnetic wave is installed at an inlet of the pipe. Thus, as the micromachine travels deeper into the tube, the energy of the electromagnetic waves reaching the micromachine weakens.  Even if the micromachine can be moved to a predetermined position, there is a possibility that power shortage may occur when an original operation such as tube wall inspection is performed at that position. An object of the present invention, in the micromachine of untethered mode, micromachines no possibility of occurrence of power shortage
And power systems in micromachines .  A micromachine according to the present invention is provided.
Oite the emission had a light, microwave, a plurality of converting a plurality of energy beam receiving unit to receive the plurality of kinds of energy rays wave or the like, the energy beam received by the energy beam receiving means to the power electromotive Power means and inside the tube
It has a mechanism for self-propelled
The main body has a cylindrical shaft-shaped body and a front end or a rear end of the body.
With a tapered section that protrudes coaxially to the
A photovoltaic element is at least one of the
The thin body is disposed so as to cover the surface of the tapered portion . Further, if necessary, a means for storing the electric power converted by the electromotive force means is provided. In the above-mentioned micromachine , for example, when a photovoltaic element is provided as one of the energy ray receiving means, even if the entire surface of the micromachine is covered by the photovoltaic element, the microwave-power conversion is performed. It is possible to additionally equip other energy ray receiving means such as a vessel. This makes it possible to supply more energy to the micromachine beyond the maximum energy supply by the light beam. Further, for example, a sound wave transmitter (61) is arranged in close proximity to a predetermined position where the original operation of the micromachine is to be performed, and a sound wave as an energy ray is emitted from the sound wave transmitter (61) toward the micromachine. In this case, the sonic energy reaches the micromachine almost without weakening, and can sufficiently cover the power for the predetermined operation. Further, by providing a means for storing the power converted by the electromotive means, the power storage means is charged when the power consumption is low, and the power storage means is discharged when necessary, thereby temporarily storing the power. It is also possible to generate large power. Further, when a light beam is used as one energy ray, the main body of the micromachine is composed of a cylindrical shaft-shaped body and a tapered portion, and when the light beam is irradiated toward the tapered portion, the light is generated on the vertical wall. Light absorption efficiency at the tapered portion can be increased as compared with the case where a power element is arranged. In this case, an optical means such as a diffraction grating plate is protruded from the body of the machine body so that a parallel light beam traveling in the direction of the tube axis toward the gap between the body and the inner wall of the tube emits light onto the surface of the body. If a configuration in which the light is refracted or reflected toward the power element is employed, the amount of received light can be further increased. According to the micro machine according to the present invention,
For example, it is possible to obtain an electromotive force larger than a case where all the electric power is covered by the photovoltaic power, and thus there is no possibility that power shortage occurs. An embodiment of the present invention will be described below in detail with reference to the drawings. Micro machine unit as shown in Figure 1
(1) is a device which is inserted into a tube (9) having a diameter of about 5 to 10 mm and performs a predetermined operation such as a tube wall inspection, and includes a plurality of drive legs (2) and a micromachine unit (1). It is possible to move forward and backward in the pipe (9) by the expansion and contraction operation of the main body. In this embodiment, laser beams, microwaves, sound waves, and lines of magnetic force are used as energy beams to be irradiated from the outside. In the micro machine unit (1), the machine main body is composed of an expandable and contractible cylindrical shaft portion and a tapered portion protruding from the front end of the body portion, and a laser supplied from outside the machine. A large number of photovoltaic elements (3) are disposed over the surface of the body and the tapered part to convert light into electric power. Further, the machine body includes a plurality of diffraction grating plates (30) extending from the boundary between the cylindrical portion and the tapered portion toward the inner wall of the tube (9).
2. A light beam that travels in the tube axis direction toward the gap between the main body tube and the inner wall of the tube is refracted toward the photovoltaic element (3) on the surface of the body as shown in FIG. The amount of light received by the element (3) is increased. The photovoltaic element (3) has an a-S as shown in FIG.
An i solar cell in which a transparent electrode (35), an a-Si substrate (31), and a back electrode (36) are stacked on a transparent insulating substrate (37) by, for example, a plasma CVD method. a-S
The i-substrate (31) has a p-layer (3
2), i with a thickness of about 5,000 to 10,000 angstroms
Layer (33), and n-layer (34) approximately 500 Å thick
Has a well-known joining structure. According to the photovoltaic element (3), for example, when the incident light intensity is 1 mW / mm 2 , the light receiving area is 50 mm 2 , and the conversion efficiency is 30%, the transparent electrode (35) and the back electrode (36) In the meantime, a power P of about 15 mW is obtained. As shown in FIG. 1, an antenna (5) for receiving a microwave serving as a second energy ray is provided at the tip of the micro machine unit (1). Is a microwave-power converter (51)
Supplied to For example, the microwave-to-power converter (51) is constituted by a monolithic microwave IC. The microwave power supplied from the outside is 2 mW / mm 2 , the receiving area is 20 mm 2 , and the antenna efficiency is 60%. In case, 24m
The output of W will be obtained. On the outer wall of the pipe (9), a sound wave transmitter (61) for emitting an ultrasonic wave serving as a third energy ray is installed. The ultrasonic wave from the sound wave transmitter (61) passes through the tube wall to the tube (9).
It is radiated into the inside and reaches a photovoltaic element (6) projecting from the rear of the micromachine unit (1). The sound electromotive force element (6) is a diaphragm made of a piezoelectric material, for example, having an intensity of an incident sound wave of 20 mW / mm.
2. If the sound receiving area is 25mm 2 and the conversion efficiency is 0.2%,
Generates 1 mW of power. Further, a primary coil (71) for surrounding the outer wall of the pipe (9) and emitting a magnetic field line as a fourth energy ray is provided. On the other hand, a secondary coil (7) to be electromagnetically coupled to the primary coil (71) is arranged inside the micro machine unit (1). By connecting an AC power supply to the primary coil (71), an induced electromotive force is generated in the secondary coil (7). For example, if the input magnetic field to the secondary coil (7) is 32
5T, 2mm coil gap, secondary side coil
Assuming that after charging the output of (7), a Ni-Cd battery having a diameter of 13.5 mm and a length of 3.5 mm is charged, power of about 3.75 mW can be obtained. As a self-propelled mechanism of the micro machine (1),
As shown in FIG. 5, a front main body (1a) capable of expanding and contracting the machine main body.
And a rear body (1b), a front body (1a) and a rear body.
On the outer peripheral surface of (1b), a plurality of extendable front drive legs are respectively provided.
(2a) and the rear drive leg (2b) protrude. The telescopic drive mechanism of the main body and the drive leg includes:
A multilayer piezoelectric actuator (4) as shown in FIG. 4 can be employed. The laminated piezoelectric actuator (4) has a positive electrode (41) and a negative electrode (42) on both sides of the piezoelectric ceramic piece (43).
Are arranged opposite to each other, and by applying a predetermined voltage Vd between the electrodes (41) and (42), the piezoelectric ceramic piece (43)
Expands and contracts like a dashed line. When the micro machine (1) moves forward,
As shown in FIG. 5 (a), the front main body (1a) and the rear main body (1b) are contracted from each other, and the front drive leg (2a) and the rear drive leg (2b) protrude so that the front end is formed on the inner wall of the pipe (9). From the pressed state, FIG.
As shown in (b), the front drive leg (2a) is contracted, and the front body (1a) is further extended forward. Next, as shown in FIG. 5 (c), the front drive leg (2a) is extended to press the front end thereof against the inner wall of the pipe (9).
With the (2b) contracted, the rear body (1b) is retracted toward the front body (1a). After that, the rear drive leg (2b) is extended and FIG.
It returns to the state of. By the above process, the micro machine (1)
Moves forward by the amount L of expansion and contraction of the front body (1a) and the rear body (1b). By repeating this process, the forward movement can be continued. Similarly, backward movement is possible. FIG. 6 shows a circuit configuration of the micromachine unit (1). The output of the photovoltaic element (3) is supplied to a control circuit (81), and the microwave-power converter (5) is provided.
1) The output of the sound electromotive element (6) and the secondary coil (7) is A
After being converted to DC through the C-DC converter (8),
It is supplied to the control circuit (81). The control circuit (81) includes a drive system (11) such as a piezoelectric actuator constituting the self-propelled mechanism and an operation system for realizing the original operation function of the micro machine such as tube wall inspection.
(12), each of which distributes necessary power.The output of the control circuit (81) is subjected to voltage adjustment and the like by a DC-DC converter (83), and then the drive system (11) and the operation system are operated. (12). A storage battery (82) such as a Ni-Cd battery or a lithium secondary battery is connected to the control circuit (81), and is configured to store surplus power. According to the micromachine unit (1), when all the energy rays are supplied simultaneously, the maximum output exceeds 40 mW. For example, it is difficult to supply power only by the photovoltaic element (3). High load work becomes possible. Further, by storing the surplus power at low load in the storage battery (82) under the control of the control circuit (81), the storage battery (82) can be discharged at high load to cover the required power. You can also. The sound wave transmitter (61) and the primary coil shown in FIG.
If the (71) is configured to follow the micromachine unit (1), the power conversion efficiency can be further increased. However, the storage battery (8) is stored in the micromachine unit (1) as described above.
By equipping 2), a configuration is also possible in which the sound wave transmitter (61) and the primary side coil (71) are provided at arbitrary positions, and these positions are used as power supply stations. The description of the above embodiments is for the purpose of illustrating the present invention, and should not be construed as limiting the invention described in the claims or reducing the scope thereof. Further, the configuration of each part of the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and it is needless to say that various modifications can be made within the technical scope described in the claims. For example, in the above embodiment, the energy of a plurality of energy rays is not distinguished and is used as a common power source. Efficient energy use becomes possible. Further, as energy rays, the use of electric lines of force can be considered.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a configuration of a power system in a micro machine according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating the operation of a diffraction grating plate. FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional view showing a configuration of a photovoltaic element. FIG. 4 is a front view showing a schematic configuration of a piezoelectric actuator. FIG. 5 is a series of side views showing a self-propelled operation of the micromachine unit. FIG. 6 is a block diagram showing a circuit configuration of a power system in the micro machine according to the present invention. [Description of Signs] (1) Micromachine unit (2) Drive leg (3) Photovoltaic element (30) Diffraction grating plate (5) Microwave antenna (6) Sound electromotive element (61) Sound wave transmitter (7) Secondary coil (71) Primary coil
──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continued on the front page (51) Int.Cl. 7 Identification symbol FI B81B 7/02 B81B 7/02 (72) Inventor Yoichi Domoto 2-18 Keihanhondori, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (72) Inventor Hiroshi Hosokawa 2--18 Keihanhondori, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (72) Inventor Hiroaki Izu 2--18 Keihanhondori, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (72 Inventor Takashi Kuwahara 2--18 Keihanhondori, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (72) Inventor Keisho Yamamoto 2-18 Keihanhondori, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (72) Person Seiichi Kiyama 2-18 Keihanhondori, Moriguchi-shi, Osaka Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (56) References JP-A-4-112305 (JP, A) JP-A-3-107341 (JP, A) Hei 5-58359 ( JP-A-4-164581 (JP, A) JP-A-1-298901 (JP, A) JP-A-63-114888 (JP, A) JP-A-62-137546 (JP, A) International publication 92/001415 (WO, A1) (58) Fields investigated (Int. Cl. 7 , DB name) H02J 17/00 B25J 7 / 00,19 / 00 B61B 13/10 B81B 7/02