JP3433123B2 - Fermentation promoter - Google Patents

Fermentation promoter

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Publication number
JP3433123B2
JP3433123B2 JP32761198A JP32761198A JP3433123B2 JP 3433123 B2 JP3433123 B2 JP 3433123B2 JP 32761198 A JP32761198 A JP 32761198A JP 32761198 A JP32761198 A JP 32761198A JP 3433123 B2 JP3433123 B2 JP 3433123B2
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
fermentation
organic fertilizer
organic
weight
fermented
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
JP32761198A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JP2000154083A (en
Inventor
究 椎葉
健 神前
憲三 岡田
Original Assignee
日清製粉株式会社
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 日清製粉株式会社 filed Critical 日清製粉株式会社
Priority to JP32761198A priority Critical patent/JP3433123B2/en
Publication of JP2000154083A publication Critical patent/JP2000154083A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP3433123B2 publication Critical patent/JP3433123B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】Detailed Description of the Invention
【0001】[0001]
【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、発酵促進材、該発
酵促進材を用いて被発酵原料を発酵させて有機質肥料を
製造する方法、前記発酵方法により得られる有機質肥
料、および該発酵促進材を畜舎に散布する方法に関す
る。より詳細には、本発明は、畜産排泄物、食品残渣、
活性汚泥などの有機系被発酵原料を、アンモニアの発生
量を低減し且つ発生期間を短縮しながら発酵させて、肥
効性に優れる良質の有機質肥料を短期間で製造すること
のできる発酵促進材、該発酵促進材を用いる有機質肥料
の製造方法、および該発酵促進材を畜舎に散布してアン
モニアなどの異臭を低減させる方法に関する。
TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a fermentation accelerator, a method for producing an organic fertilizer by fermenting a material to be fermented using the fermentation accelerator, an organic fertilizer obtained by the fermentation method, and the fermentation accelerator. About the method of spraying slaughterhouses. More specifically, the present invention relates to livestock excrement, food residues,
Fermentation accelerator that can produce high-quality organic fertilizer with excellent fertility in a short period by fermenting organic fermentable materials such as activated sludge while reducing the generation amount of ammonia and shortening the generation period. The present invention relates to a method for producing an organic fertilizer using the fermentation accelerating material, and a method for applying the fermentation accelerating material to a livestock house to reduce offensive odors such as ammonia.
【0002】[0002]
【従来の技術】これまで多用されてきた化成肥料は、即
効性はあるものの濃度障害による植物の成育不良や枯
れ、連用による土やせ、環境汚染等の問題を生じてい
る。そこで、鶏糞、豚糞、牛糞等の動物由来の排泄物、
一般家庭や食品工場などから排出される食品残渣、活性
汚泥などの有機系被発酵原料を発酵させて堆肥化し、そ
れを土壌に散布することにより、化成肥料の前記した欠
点を解消し、地力を増強しながら植物を育てることが近
年広く行われるようになっている。前記有機系被発酵原
料は、発酵促進材や発酵補助材などを加えずにそれ単独
でも発酵させることができるが、水分含量が多く、通気
性が悪くて嫌気性になり、発酵が円滑に進行しないこと
から、オガクズ、麦かん、稲藁、落葉などの植物系有機
物を混合して水分含量を調整して発酵させる方法が一般
に採用されている。しかしながら、オガクズなどの植物
系有機物は、難分解性成分を多く含み分解に時間がかか
るため、該植物系有機物を配合して発酵を行うと、堆肥
化に長期間を要し(一般に3〜6カ月)、場合によって
は長い発酵期間中に嫌気性になり、多量の悪臭を長期間
にわたって発生するという欠点がある。しかも、植物系
有機物中に含まれるリグニン成分の分解により生ずるフ
ェノール性の酸性物質が植物の生育阻害をもたらすこと
がある。
2. Description of the Related Art Chemical fertilizers which have been frequently used until now have problems such as poor growth and death of plants due to concentration disturbance, soil loss due to continuous use, and environmental pollution, although they have immediate effects. Therefore, excrement derived from animals such as chicken dung, pig dung, cow dung,
By fermenting organic residues to be fermented such as food residues and activated sludge discharged from general households and food factories, and composting them, and spreading them on the soil, the above-mentioned drawbacks of chemical fertilizers are eliminated and soil fertility is improved. In recent years, growing plants while augmenting them has become widespread. The organic material to be fermented can be fermented by itself without adding a fermentation accelerating material, a fermentation auxiliary material, etc., but has a high water content, becomes anaerobic due to poor air permeability, and the fermentation proceeds smoothly. Therefore, a method of mixing plant organic materials such as sawdust, barley, rice straw, and deciduous leaves to adjust the water content and fermenting is generally adopted. However, since plant-based organic matter such as sawdust contains many persistent components and takes a long time to decompose, if the plant-based organic matter is mixed and fermented, it takes a long time for composting (generally 3 to 6). Months), sometimes becoming anaerobic during a long fermentation period and producing a large amount of malodor over a long period of time. Moreover, the phenolic acidic substance produced by the decomposition of the lignin component contained in the plant-based organic matter may cause plant growth inhibition.
【0003】また、いったん発酵させて得られた堆肥、
いわゆる“戻し堆肥”や、バーミキュライトやケイソウ
土などの鉱物を用いて、C/N比調整、水分量調整、p
H調整などを行って畜産排泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥な
どの有機系被発酵原料の発酵を行う方法も知られてい
る。この方法は、植物系有機物を加える上記した方法に
比べて、堆肥化に要する時間が短く、且つフェノール性
の酸性物質の生成も少ないっことから、良質の堆肥が得
られることが多いが、それでも発酵に1〜2カ月を要
し、しかもアンモニアを長期にわたって発生するという
欠点がある。
In addition, compost obtained by once fermenting,
Using so-called "recycled compost" or minerals such as vermiculite or diatomaceous earth, C / N ratio adjustment, water content adjustment, p
There is also known a method of performing H adjustment or the like to ferment an organic fermentable material such as livestock excrement, food residue, and activated sludge. This method, compared to the above-mentioned method of adding plant-based organic matter, requires less time for composting and produces less phenolic acidic substance, so that good quality compost is often obtained, but still Fermentation takes 1 to 2 months, and furthermore, ammonia is generated over a long period of time.
【0004】畜産排泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥などの有
機系被発酵原料は、水分含量が多く、しかも種々の成分
が混ざっていてそのpHも不安定であることから、そこ
に含まれる微生物フローラ(微生物叢)のバランスが偏
りがちであり、発酵に有効に働く有用微生物群が増殖し
にくい。特に、雰囲気温度が低い冬場には発酵がなかな
か進行せず、堆肥化に一層長い発酵期間が必要である。
かかる点から、本発明者らは、そのような有機系被発酵
原料を短期間で発酵させて堆肥化することを目的とし
て、小麦フスマなどのようなアラビノキシラン含量が2
0重量%以上である有機物100重量部に対して、消石
灰1〜3重量部、フミン酸3〜10重量部および微生物
資材5〜20重量部の割合で配合した発酵促進材、該発
酵促進材を用いる有機質肥料の製造方法を開発して先に
提案した(特開平8−198694号公報)。さらに、
本発明者らは、畜産排泄物および/または活性汚泥から
なる被発酵原料の水分含量を55〜65重量%、pHを
7.0〜8.5およびC/N比を20以下に調整し、該
調整された被発酵原料100重量部に対して、小麦フス
マを主体としこれに消石灰など配合した発酵助剤を25
〜50重量部の割合で加えて発酵させて有機質肥料を製
造する方法を開発して先に出願した(特開平9−486
85号公報)。
[0004] Organic fermentable materials such as livestock excrement, food residues, and activated sludge have a high water content and various components are mixed, and their pH is unstable. The balance of (microbiota) tends to be biased, and useful microorganisms that work effectively for fermentation do not proliferate. In particular, in winter when the ambient temperature is low, fermentation does not progress easily, and a longer fermentation period is required for composting.
From such a point, the present inventors have aimed to ferment such an organic fermentable material in a short period of time to compost it, and the content of arabinoxylan such as wheat bran is 2%.
Fermentation accelerators blended in a proportion of 1 to 3 parts by weight of slaked lime, 3 to 10 parts by weight of humic acid and 5 to 20 parts by weight of microbial materials, and 100% by weight of organic matter which is 0% by weight or more. A method for producing an organic fertilizer to be used has been developed and previously proposed (JP-A-8-198694). further,
The present inventors have adjusted the water content of the fermented material consisting of livestock excrement and / or activated sludge to 55 to 65% by weight, pH to 7.0 to 8.5, and C / N ratio to 20 or less, With respect to 100 parts by weight of the adjusted raw material to be fermented, 25 parts of a fermentation aid mainly composed of wheat bran was mixed with slaked lime.
A method for producing an organic fertilizer by adding and fermenting it in an amount of 50 parts by weight was developed and filed previously (Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 9-4869).
No. 85).
【0005】本発明者らによる上記した発明は、畜産排
泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥などのような水分含量の多い
有機系被発酵原料を従来よりも短い期間で発酵させて堆
肥化できるという長所を有する。そして、本発明者らは
それらの発明を踏まえて更に検討を重ねてきたが、その
結果、前記した発明による場合は、発酵促進材中に消石
灰を比較的多量に配合しているために発酵促進材のpH
が9以上、一般に10前後の高い値となり、それに伴っ
て悪臭の原因ともなっているアンモニアの発生が多く、
かかる点で改良の余地があることが判明した。さらに、
後者の発明では、有機系被発酵原料の水分含量、pH、
C/N比の調整を要することから、作業上および経済性
の点でも改良の余地があることが判明した。
The above-mentioned invention by the present inventors has the advantage that organic fermentable materials having a high water content such as livestock excrement, food residues, and activated sludge can be fermented and composted in a shorter period than before. Have. Then, the present inventors have conducted further studies based on those inventions, and as a result, in the case of the invention described above, fermentation is accelerated because a relatively large amount of slaked lime is mixed in the fermentation accelerator. PH of material
Is 9 or higher, generally a high value of around 10, and along with that, there are many generations of ammonia, which is also a cause of bad odor,
In this respect, it turned out that there is room for improvement. further,
In the latter invention, the water content, pH, and
Since it is necessary to adjust the C / N ratio, it was found that there is room for improvement in terms of workability and economy.
【0006】また、牛、豚、馬などの家畜を飼育してい
る畜舎では、家畜の排泄物による悪臭が強く、家畜の飼
育環境を著しく劣悪なものにしていた。かかる点から、
悪臭の発生を低減させる目的で、畜舎に微生物資材を散
布することが従来からも行われていた。しかしながら、
悪臭の発生の抑制、および家畜や作業する人間に対する
安全性の点で、十分に満足のゆく解決策が得られていな
いのが現状である。
Further, in a barn for raising livestock such as cattle, pigs and horses, the offensive odor caused by the excrement of the livestock is strong and the breeding environment for the livestock is extremely poor. From this point,
For the purpose of reducing the generation of foul odors, it has been a practice to spray microbial materials in livestock sheds. However,
In terms of the control of the generation of offensive odors and the safety of livestock and workers, there is no satisfactory solution at present.
【0007】[0007]
【発明が解決しようとする課題】本発明の目的は、畜舎
などから発生する動物性の畜産排泄物、食品産業や一般
家庭などから排出される食品残渣、産業廃棄物処理用の
酸化槽による曝気処理後や下水処理後に発生する活性汚
泥などの有機系廃棄物を、従来の発酵促進材や、従来の
発酵方法に比べて、アンモニアの発生量および発生期間
を低減させながら発酵させて、従来よりも短い期間で肥
効性に優れる良質な有機質肥料に変えることのできる発
酵促進材を提供することである。そして、本発明の目的
は、畜産排泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥などの被発酵原料
を、アンモニアの発生量および発生期間を低減させなが
ら発酵させて、肥効性の高い有機質肥料を短期間で製造
する方法を提供することである。さらに、本発明の目的
は、畜舎における家畜の排泄物から発生する悪臭を、家
畜や人間に対する安全性を確保しながら、効果的に低減
して家畜の生育環境の改善法を提供することである。
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION The object of the present invention is to aeration by an animal-based livestock excrement generated from a barn or the like, food residues discharged from the food industry or a general household, and an oxidation tank for treating industrial waste. Organic waste such as activated sludge generated after treatment or sewage treatment is fermented while reducing the amount and period of generation of ammonia compared to conventional fermentation accelerators and conventional fermentation methods. Another object of the present invention is to provide a fermentation accelerating material that can be transformed into a high-quality organic fertilizer having excellent fertilizing effect in a short period of time. The purpose of the present invention is to ferment fermentable raw materials such as livestock excrement, food residues, activated sludge, etc. while reducing the amount of ammonia generated and the period of generation, and to produce highly fertilized organic fertilizer in a short period of time. It is to provide a method of manufacturing. Further, an object of the present invention is to provide a method for improving the living environment of livestock by effectively reducing the bad odor generated from excrement of livestock in a livestock house while ensuring the safety to livestock and humans. .
【0008】[0008]
【課題を解決するための手段】上記の目的を達成すべく
本発明者らが検討を重ねてきた。その結果、小麦フスマ
および/または末粉に、有機質材料を資化する耐熱性菌
を加え且つそのpHを6.0〜8.5に調整して得られ
る発酵促進材が、畜産排泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥など
の水分含量の多い有機系被発酵原料の発酵促進に極めて
有効であり、該被発酵原料の水分量調整、pH調整、C
/N比調整などを行わなくても、該被発酵原料に対して
所定の割合で単に加えて発酵させるだけで、アンモニア
の発生量および発生期間を低減させながら、極めて簡単
に且つ短期間で肥効性に優れる良質の有機質肥料を製造
できることを見出した。さらに、本発明者ら、前記した
発酵促進材を畜舎に散布すると、悪臭の原因であるアン
モニアの発生が抑制されて、家畜の飼育環境の改善に極
めて有効であること、しかも有害成分を何ら含んでいな
いことから家畜および人間に対する安全性が高いことを
見出し、それらの知見に基づいて本発明を完成した。
Means for Solving the Problems The present inventors have conducted extensive studies in order to achieve the above object. As a result, a fermentation promoter obtained by adding heat-resistant bacteria that assimilate an organic material to wheat bran and / or dust powder and adjusting the pH to 6.0 to 8.5 is a livestock excrement or a food product. It is extremely effective in promoting the fermentation of organic fermentable raw materials having a high water content such as residues and activated sludge, and it adjusts the water content of the fermentable raw materials, pH adjustment, C
Even if the / N ratio is not adjusted, by simply adding and fermenting the fermented material at a predetermined ratio, it is possible to reduce the amount and period of generation of ammonia and to fertilize it very easily and in a short period of time. It has been found that a high-quality organic fertilizer having excellent efficacy can be produced. Furthermore, when the present inventors spread the above fermentation promoting material in a livestock shed, the generation of ammonia, which is the cause of malodor, is suppressed, and it is extremely effective in improving the breeding environment of livestock, and further contains no harmful ingredients. Therefore, the present invention was found to be highly safe for livestock and humans, and the present invention was completed based on these findings.
【0009】すなわち、本発明は、 (1) 小麦フスマおよび/または末粉、並びに有機質
材料を資化する耐熱性菌を含有し、且つpHを6.0〜
8.5に調整した発酵促進材である。
That is, the present invention comprises (1) wheat bran and / or powder, and a heat-resistant bacterium that assimilates an organic material, and has a pH of 6.0.
It is a fermentation promoting material adjusted to 8.5.
【0010】そして、本発明は、 (2) 小麦フスマおよび/または末粉を発酵促進材の
全重量に基づいて60重量%以上の割合で含有する前記
(1)の発酵促進材; (3) 耐熱性菌が、80℃の温度で10分間処理後
に、55℃の温度で生存可能な菌である前記(1)また
は(2)の発酵促進材; (4) 耐熱性菌の含有割合が、発酵促進材1g中、1
5CFU以上である前記(1)〜(3)のいずれかの
発酵促進材; (5) 発酵促進材の全重量に基づいて、腐植酸を2.
5重量%以下の割合で含有する前記(1)〜(4)のい
ずれかの発酵促進材;を好ましい態様として包含する。
The present invention also provides (2) the fermentation promoting material according to (1) above, which contains wheat bran and / or powdered flour in a proportion of 60% by weight or more based on the total weight of the fermentation promoting material; The thermostable bacterium is a fermentation accelerating material according to (1) or (2) above, which is a bacterium that can survive at a temperature of 55 ° C. after being treated at a temperature of 80 ° C. for 10 minutes; 1 in 1g of fermentation promoter
2. Fermentation accelerators according to any one of (1) to (3) above 0 5 CFU; (5) Based on the total weight of the fermentation accelerators, humic acid is added to 2.
The fermentation promoter according to any one of (1) to (4) above, which is contained in a proportion of 5% by weight or less, is included as a preferred embodiment.
【0011】(6) さらに、本発明は、被発酵原料1
00重量部(乾物換算)に対して、前記(1)〜(5)
のいずれかの発酵促進材を、発酵促進材中の小麦フスマ
および/または末粉の量が0.2〜25重量部(乾物換
算)となる量で添加し、発酵させて有機質肥料を製造す
る方法である。 (7) そして、前記(6)の方法により得られる有機
質肥料である。
(6) Further, the present invention provides a raw material 1 to be fermented.
The above (1) to (5) with respect to 00 parts by weight (dry matter conversion)
Any one of the fermentation accelerators described above is added in an amount such that the amount of wheat bran and / or powder in the fermentation accelerator is 0.2 to 25 parts by weight (dry matter equivalent), and fermented to produce an organic fertilizer. Is the way. (7) And it is an organic fertilizer obtained by the method of said (6).
【0012】(8) さらに、本発明は、前記(1)〜
(5)のいずれかの発酵促進材を畜舎に散布する方法で
ある。 (9) また、本発明は、前記(7)の有機質肥料を畜
舎に散布する方法である。
(8) Furthermore, the present invention provides the above (1) to (1).
This is a method in which any of the fermentation promoting materials of (5) is applied to a livestock shed. (9) Further, the present invention is a method of spraying the organic fertilizer according to (7) above to a livestock shed.
【0013】[0013]
【発明の実施の形態】以下に本発明について詳細に説明
する。本発明の発酵促進材は小麦フスマおよび/または
末粉から主としてなる。小麦フスマは、周知のように小
麦粒の外皮であり、また末粉(すえこ)は小麦粒外皮に
付着する胚乳部(小麦粉)と小麦フスマを含む粉状物で
あり、いずれも小麦製粉時の副産物として得られる。小
麦フスマおよび末粉は、ヘミセルロース成分を高含量
(35重量%程度)で含んでおり、該ヘミセルロースは
アラビノース側鎖を多く有するアラビノキシランを含ん
でいる点を特徴とする。そのため、小麦フスマおよび末
粉は、アラビノキシランを分解できる微生物を選択的に
増殖させることができ、かかる点から発酵促進材として
有効に働く。同様の成分を有するものとして、米糠、グ
ルテンフィードなどがあるが、これらに比べて、小麦フ
スマおよび末粉はアラビノキシラン分解性微生物の増殖
作用が大きい。その理由としては、小麦粉および末粉
は、C/N比が15付近であり且つ含水率が低く(15
重量%以下)、且つ堆積物中で空隙をつくりやすい形状
をしていることが考えられる。
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION The present invention will be described in detail below. The fermentation promoting material of the present invention mainly comprises wheat bran and / or powdered flour. As is well known, wheat bran is the outer coat of wheat grain, and the powder (sueko) is a powdery substance containing the endosperm part (flour) attached to the outer coat of wheat grain and wheat bran. It is obtained as a by-product of. Wheat bran and powdered flour contain a high content of hemicellulose component (about 35% by weight), and the hemicellulose contains arabinoxylan having many arabinose side chains. Therefore, wheat bran and dust powder can selectively grow a microorganism capable of decomposing arabinoxylan, and from this point, they effectively work as a fermentation accelerator. Rice bran, gluten feed, and the like have similar components, but wheat bran and powdered flour have a greater proliferative effect on arabinoxylan-degrading microorganisms, as compared with these. The reason is that wheat flour and dust powder have a C / N ratio of around 15 and a low water content (15
It is considered that the shape is such that voids are easily formed in the deposit.
【0014】本発明の発酵促進材は、小麦フスマおよび
末粉の一方のみを含有していても、または両方を含有し
ていてもよい。また、本発明の発酵促進材は、発酵促進
材の全重量に基づいて、小麦フスマおよび/または末粉
を60重量%以上(小麦フスマと末粉の両方を含有する
場合は両者の合計)の割合で含有していることが好まし
く、80重量%以上の割合で含有していることがより好
ましい。小麦フスマおよび/または末粉の含有量が60
重量%未満であると、発酵促進効果、アンモニアの発生
抑制効果に優れる発酵促進材が得られにくくなる。
The fermentation accelerator of the present invention may contain only one of wheat bran and powdered flour, or may contain both. Further, the fermentation promoting material of the present invention, based on the total weight of the fermentation promoting material, wheat bran and / or powdered flour is 60% by weight or more (when both wheat bran and powdered flour are contained, the total of both). It is preferably contained in a proportion, and more preferably in a proportion of 80% by weight or more. The content of wheat bran and / or powder is 60
If it is less than wt%, it becomes difficult to obtain a fermentation accelerator having excellent fermentation promoting effect and ammonia generation suppressing effect.
【0015】さらに、本発明の発酵促進材は、有機質材
料を資化する耐熱性菌を含有する。耐熱性菌としては、
小麦フスマおよび/または末粉から主としてなる前記し
た有機質材料および有機系の被発酵原料を資化すること
ができ、且つ80℃の温度で10分間処理した後でも5
5℃の温度で生存可能な菌が好ましく用いられる。その
ような耐熱性菌の例としては、バチルス・サブチルス
(Bacillus subtilis)、バチルス・セレウス(Bacillu
s cereus)、バチルス・コアギュランス(Bacillus coa
gulans)、バチルス・ステアロサーモフィラス(Bacill
us stearothermophilus)などのバチルス属微生物、サ
ーモアクチノミセス・ブルガリス(Thermoactinomyces
vulgaris)、サーモモノスポーラ・カーバラ(Thermomo
nosporacurvara)などの好温・好熱性の放線菌、フミコ
ーラ・インソレンス(Humicolainsokens)、タラロマイ
セス・デユポンティ(Talaromyces dupontii)などの好
熱性の糸状菌などを挙げることができる。本発明の発酵
促進材は、これらの耐熱性菌の1種または2種以上を含
有することができる。本発明の発酵促進材で用いる前記
した耐熱性菌は、微生物製剤等として市販されており、
市販のものをそのまま用いてもよい。また、場合によっ
ては、前記した耐熱性菌を培養増殖して用いてもよい。
これらの耐熱性菌の多くは、小麦フスマまたは末粉を分
解する能力が高く、且つ有機系廃棄物を高温で分解する
能力に優れている。
Further, the fermentation promoting material of the present invention contains a thermostable bacterium that assimilates an organic material. As thermostable bacteria,
The above-mentioned organic material mainly composed of wheat bran and / or powdered flour and the above-mentioned organic material to be fermented can be assimilated, and even after treatment for 10 minutes at a temperature of 80 ° C., 5
Bacteria that can survive at a temperature of 5 ° C. are preferably used. Examples of such thermostable bacteria are Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.
s cereus), Bacillus coagurans (Bacillus coa)
gulans), Bacillus stearothermophilus (Bacill
us stearothermophilus) and other Bacillus microorganisms, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (Thermoactinomyces)
vulgaris), Thermomonospora carbara (Thermomo
thermophilic and thermophilic actinomycetes such as nosporacurvara), and thermophilic filamentous fungi such as Humicolainsokens and Talaromyces dupontii. The fermentation promoting material of the present invention may contain one or more of these thermostable bacteria. The above-mentioned thermostable bacteria used in the fermentation promoting material of the present invention are commercially available as microbial preparations,
A commercially available product may be used as it is. Moreover, you may culture-proliferate and use the above-mentioned thermostable bacterium depending on the case.
Many of these thermostable bacteria have a high ability to decompose wheat bran or powdered flour, and an excellent ability to decompose organic waste at high temperatures.
【0016】本発明の発酵促進材は、畜産排泄物、食品
残渣、活性汚泥などの被発酵原料を、アンモニアの発生
を低減させながら効率よく発酵させて肥効性に優れる良
質の有機質肥料に短期間に変え得る点、および畜舎に散
布したときにアンモニアの発生を効果的に抑制できる点
から、発酵促進材1g中に前記した耐熱性菌を105
FU(Coloni Forming Unit)以上
の割合で含有していることが好ましく、106CFU以
上の割合で含有していることがより好ましい。ここで、
本発明でいう耐熱性菌の前記したCFUの値は、発酵促
進材を55℃の高温槽内で標準寒天培地を用いて48時
間培養したときの、コロニー数をいい、その具体的な内
容については以下の実施例の項に記載するとおりであ
る。
The fermentation promoting material of the present invention is a high-quality organic fertilizer which excels in fermenting raw materials such as livestock excrement, food residue, and activated sludge efficiently while reducing the generation of ammonia, and is a good quality fertilizer. From the point that it can be changed in time and that the generation of ammonia can be effectively suppressed when it is sprayed in a livestock shed, the heat-resistant bacterium described above is added in an amount of 10 5 C in 1 g of the fermentation accelerator.
It is preferably contained at a ratio of FU (Coloni Forming Unit) or more, more preferably at a ratio of 10 6 CFU or more. here,
The above-mentioned CFU value of the thermostable bacterium referred to in the present invention means the number of colonies when the fermentation promoting material is cultured for 48 hours in a high temperature tank of 55 ° C. using a standard agar medium. Are as described in the Examples section below.
【0017】さらに、本発明の発酵促進材は、pHを
6.0〜8.5の範囲に調整してあることが必要であ
り、pHを7.0〜8.0に調整してあることが好まし
い。発酵促進材のpHが6.0未満であると、pHが低
すぎて、発酵促進材を被発酵原料に配合して有機質肥料
を製造する際に、耐熱性菌が十分な活性を示さず、短期
間に良質な有機質肥料を製造することができず、しかも
前記した有機質肥料の製造時および畜舎への散布したと
きに、アンモニアの発生抑制作用が低く、十分な悪臭防
止効果を発揮しない。一方、発酵促進材のpHが8.5
よりも高いと、発酵促進材を被発酵原料に配合して有機
質肥料を製造する際に、アンモニアの発生量の増加およ
び発生期間の長期化を招き、悪臭による有機質肥料の製
造環境の悪化を招き、しかも品質の良い有機質肥料を短
期間で製造することができない。またpHが8.5を超
える発酵促進材を畜舎に散布したときにも、アンモニア
の発生量の増加および発生期間の長期化により、畜舎の
環境悪化を招く。
Further, the fermentation accelerator of the present invention is required to have a pH adjusted to a range of 6.0 to 8.5, and a pH adjusted to 7.0 to 8.0. Is preferred. When the pH of the fermentation promoting material is less than 6.0, the pH is too low, and when the organic fertilizer is produced by adding the fermentation promoting material to the fermented material, the thermostable bacteria do not show sufficient activity, A high-quality organic fertilizer cannot be produced in a short period of time, and furthermore, when the above-mentioned organic fertilizer is produced and when it is applied to a livestock shed, the effect of suppressing the generation of ammonia is low, and a sufficient malodor preventing effect is not exhibited. On the other hand, the pH of the fermentation accelerator is 8.5.
If it is higher than the above, when a fermentation accelerator is mixed with the material to be fermented to produce an organic fertilizer, the amount of ammonia generated increases and the generation period is prolonged, and the production environment for organic fertilizer deteriorates due to a bad odor. Moreover, high quality organic fertilizer cannot be produced in a short period of time. Also, when a fermentation promoter having a pH of more than 8.5 is sprayed on a livestock building, the environment of the livestock building is deteriorated due to an increase in the amount of ammonia produced and a longer production period.
【0018】一般に、小麦フスマおよび末粉はそのpH
が6.5前後であり、そのため小麦フスマおよび/また
は末粉に上記した耐熱性菌を配合することによってpH
が6.5前後の本発明の発酵促進材を簡単に製造するこ
とができる。また、本発明の発酵促進材のpHを6.5
よりも高く且つ8.5以下にする場合(特に好ましいp
H範囲である7.0〜8.0にする場合)は、アルカリ
性物質を所定のpH値が得られる量で添加すればよい。
その際のアルカリ性物質としては、毒性のないアルカリ
性物質であればいずれも使用でき、例えば比較的強アル
カリ性の石灰、消石灰、弱アルカリ性の炭酸カルシウ
ム、酸化アルミニウム粉末(ALCパウダー)などが、
発酵促進材のpHを前記した範囲に容易に調整すること
ができ且つコストも安い点から好ましく用いられる。こ
の際に、アルカリ性物質の配合量が多すぎると、発酵促
進材のpHが8.5を超え、目的とする発酵促進材が得
られなくなるので注意を要する。このとき、石灰のよう
な比較的強アルカリ性の物質は、少量の添加量となるた
めpHの調整が難しいことや、他の物質と反応する場合
があることから、弱アルカリ性の物質の添加がより好ま
しい。
In general, wheat bran and dust powder have a pH of
Is around 6.5, and therefore the pH can be adjusted by adding the above-mentioned heat-resistant bacterium to wheat bran and / or powder.
The fermentation promoting material of the present invention having a ratio of about 6.5 can be easily produced. The pH of the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is 6.5.
Higher than 8.5 and less than or equal to 8.5 (particularly preferred p
In the H range of 7.0 to 8.0), the alkaline substance may be added in such an amount that a predetermined pH value can be obtained.
As the alkaline substance at that time, any non-toxic alkaline substance can be used. For example, relatively strong alkaline lime, slaked lime, weak alkaline calcium carbonate, aluminum oxide powder (ALC powder), etc.
It is preferably used because the pH of the fermentation accelerator can be easily adjusted to the above range and the cost is low. At this time, if the amount of the alkaline substance blended is too large, the pH of the fermentation accelerator exceeds 8.5, and the intended fermentation accelerator cannot be obtained, so caution is required. At this time, since a relatively strong alkaline substance such as lime has a small amount to be added, it is difficult to adjust the pH, and it may react with other substances, so it is more preferable to add a weakly alkaline substance. preferable.
【0019】本発明の発酵促進材は、発酵促進材の全重
量に基づいて、腐植酸を2.5重量%以下の割合で含有
していることが好ましく、1.0〜2.0重量%の割合
で含有していることがより好ましい。発酵促進材が腐植
酸を前記した量で含有する場合は、畜産排泄物、食品残
渣、活性汚泥などの被発酵原料や、畜舎における家畜の
排泄物の発酵に有用な微生物の増殖が促進されて、短期
間に肥効性の高い有機質肥料を製造できるようになり、
しかも有機質肥料の製造時および畜舎に本発明の発酵促
進材を散布したときにアンモニアの発生量および発生期
間をより低減することができる。発酵促進材における腐
植酸の含有量が2.5重量%を超えると、被発酵原料に
発酵促進材を添加し発酵させて得られる有機質肥料の肥
効性が低くなり易い。
The fermentation accelerator of the present invention preferably contains humic acid in a proportion of 2.5% by weight or less based on the total weight of the fermentation accelerator, and 1.0 to 2.0% by weight. Is more preferable. When the fermentation accelerator contains humic acid in the above-mentioned amount, livestock excrement, food residues, fermentable materials such as activated sludge, and the growth of microorganisms useful for fermentation of livestock excrement in livestock sheds are promoted. , Will be able to produce highly fertile organic fertilizer in a short time,
Moreover, it is possible to further reduce the generation amount and generation period of ammonia during the production of the organic fertilizer and when the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is sprayed on the barn. When the content of humic acid in the fermentation promoting material exceeds 2.5% by weight, the fertilizing effect of the organic fertilizer obtained by adding the fermentation promoting material to the material to be fermented and fermenting is likely to be low.
【0020】腐植酸としては、石炭化度の低い泥炭、亜
炭などの若年炭類に含まれるアルカリ可溶の不定形高分
子有機酸、および該不定形高分子有機酸を硝酸で酸化分
解して得られるニトロフミン酸およびその塩類などが挙
げられる。また、本発明の発酵促進材では、フミン酸の
代わりに、泥炭、亜炭等の若年炭などのフミン酸を含有
する物質を腐植酸として使用してもよい。そのうちで
も、泥炭、亜炭などの若年炭類をそのまま使用せずに、
それらから分離されたフミン酸や、ニトロフミン酸、ま
たはその塩類を用いるのが、少量の使用量で堆肥化に有
用な微生物の増殖を行うことができるので望ましい。
As the humic acid, an alkali-soluble amorphous polymeric organic acid contained in young coals such as peat and lignite having a low degree of coalification, and the amorphous polymeric organic acid are oxidatively decomposed with nitric acid. The obtained nitrohumic acid and its salts are mentioned. Further, in the fermentation accelerator of the present invention, a substance containing humic acid such as young coal such as peat and lignite may be used as humic acid instead of humic acid. Among them, without using young coals such as peat and lignite as they are,
It is desirable to use humic acid, nitrohumic acid, or salts thereof separated from them, because microorganisms useful for composting can be grown with a small amount of use.
【0021】本発明の発酵促進材は、pHが6.0〜
8.5の範囲に保たれる限りは、必要に応じて、他の成
分、例えばバーミキュライト、パーライト、ゼオライ
ト、ケイソウ土などの鉱物、例えば米糠、トウモロコシ
外皮、オガクズ、バークなどの小麦フスマおよび末粉以
外の他の有機質材料などを40重量%以下、好ましくは
20重量%以下の割合で含有していてもよい。
The fermentation promoting material of the present invention has a pH of 6.0 to 6.0.
If necessary, other components, for example, minerals such as vermiculite, perlite, zeolite, and diatomaceous earth, such as rice bran, corn hulls, sawdust, bark, and other wheat bran and dust powder, as long as they are kept in the range of 8.5. Other organic materials other than the above may be contained in a proportion of 40% by weight or less, preferably 20% by weight or less.
【0022】本発明の発酵促進材の製造方法は特に制限
されず、小麦フスマおよび/または末粉、有機質材料を
資化する耐熱性菌、必要に応じて用いられる腐植酸およ
び/または他の成分を、均一に混合し得る方法であれば
いずれの方法により製造してもよい。一般的には、前記
した成分を室温下で単に混合するだけで簡単に製造する
ことができるし、またその混合物をペレット状に成形す
ることも可能である。
The method for producing the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is not particularly limited, and wheat bran and / or powder, heat-resistant bacteria that assimilate organic materials, humic acid and / or other components used as necessary. May be produced by any method as long as they can be uniformly mixed. Generally, the above-mentioned components can be simply produced by simply mixing them at room temperature, or the mixture can be formed into pellets.
【0023】本発明の発酵促進材を用いて有機質肥料を
製造するに当たっては、被発酵原料100重量部(乾物
換算)に対して、本発明の発酵促進材を、発酵促進材中
の小麦フスマおよび/または末粉の量が0.2〜25重
量部(乾物換算)(小麦フスマと末粉の両方を含有する
場合は両者の合計)になる量で添加して発酵させること
が必要であり、1.0〜20重量部(乾物換算)になる
量で添加して発酵させることが好ましい。被発酵原料1
00重量部に対して、発酵促進材の添加量が、発酵促進
材中の小麦フスマおよび/または末粉の量で0.2重量
部未満の場合、および25重量部を超える場合は、被発
酵原料の発酵が促進されず、堆肥化に長期間を有し、し
かもアンモニアの発生量および発生期間の増大を招く。
In producing an organic fertilizer using the fermentation promoting material of the present invention, the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is added to the wheat bran and It is necessary to add and ferment it in an amount such that the amount of powder / or powder is 0.2 to 25 parts by weight (converted to dry matter) (the sum of both when wheat flour and powder are contained). It is preferable to add and ferment it in an amount of 1.0 to 20 parts by weight (as dry matter). Fermented raw material 1
When the amount of addition of the fermentation accelerator is less than 0.2 parts by weight and the amount of wheat bran and / or powder in the fermentation accelerator is less than 0.2 parts by weight, and when it exceeds 25 parts by weight, the fermentation target is Fermentation of the raw material is not promoted, the composting has a long period of time, and the amount and period of generation of ammonia are increased.
【0024】本発明の発酵促進材を用いて有機質肥料を
製造する際の被発酵原料の種類は特に制限されず、堆肥
化が可能な有機質肥料原料であればいずれも使用可能で
あり、例えば畜産排泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥、木質残
渣などを挙げることができる。そのうちでも、本発明の
発酵促進材は、従来その取り扱いが苦慮されてきた畜産
排泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥などの水分含量が多く且つ
悪臭発生の多い有機質廃棄物の堆肥化に有効である。
The type of raw material to be fermented when producing an organic fertilizer using the fermentation accelerator of the present invention is not particularly limited, and any organic fertilizer raw material that can be composted can be used. Excrements, food residues, activated sludge, wood residues, etc. can be mentioned. Among them, the fermentation accelerator of the present invention is effective for composting organic wastes having a large water content such as livestock excrements, food residues, activated sludge, etc., which generate a foul odor, which have been difficult to handle.
【0025】有機質肥料を製造する際の発酵条件は特に
制限されず、被発酵原料に発酵促進材を上記した量で配
合して均一に混合し、混合物をときどき撹拌(切り返
し)してできるだけ好気性条件下に発酵させることによ
って、アンモニアの発生量を低減し且つ発生期間を短縮
しながら、肥効性の高い、品質に優れる有機質肥料を短
期間(通常15〜20日程度)で円滑に製造することが
できる。有機質肥料製造時の前記した撹拌は通常1週間
に1回程度の割合で行えば十分である。一般に、発酵物
中に含まれるアンモニア量が50ppm以下になると、
揮散するアンモニアの発生量が著しく低くなることか
ら、発酵物中に含まれるアンモニア量が50ppm以下
になった時点で発酵を終了するとよい。そして、アンモ
ニア含有量が50ppm以下になった発酵物(有機質肥
料)は、植物に対する肥効性が極めて高く、例えば以下
の実施例の項に記載するコマツナ生育度が4以上とな
る。これにより得られる有機質肥料は、悪臭や異臭が少
なく、被発酵原料の分解が進んでいて、一般に、細粒状
を呈しているため、取り扱い性に優れており、野菜類、
稲や麦を代表とする穀類用植物、草花、果樹、樹木など
の植物用の肥料として有用である。また、場合によって
は、この有機質肥料を畜舎に戻し敷料として散布して再
利用することも可能である。これにより、敷料コストの
低減にもなる。
Fermentation conditions for producing the organic fertilizer are not particularly limited, and the fermentation accelerator is blended in the above-described amount in the above-mentioned amount and uniformly mixed, and the mixture is sometimes agitated (returned) to be as aerobic as possible. By fermenting under the conditions, an organic fertilizer with high fertilizing efficiency and excellent quality is smoothly produced in a short period (usually about 15 to 20 days) while reducing the amount of ammonia generation and shortening the generation period. be able to. It is usually sufficient to carry out the above-mentioned stirring at the time of manufacturing the organic fertilizer at a rate of about once a week. Generally, when the amount of ammonia contained in the fermented product becomes 50 ppm or less,
Since the amount of volatilized ammonia is remarkably reduced, it is advisable to end the fermentation when the amount of ammonia contained in the fermented product becomes 50 ppm or less. Then, the fermented product (organic fertilizer) having an ammonia content of 50 ppm or less has extremely high fertilizing effect on plants, and for example, the komatsuna growth degree described in the section of Examples below is 4 or more. The organic fertilizer obtained by this has less offensive odors and off-flavors, the decomposition of the raw material to be fermented is progressing, and in general, since it is in the form of fine particles, it is easy to handle, vegetables,
It is useful as a fertilizer for cereal plants represented by rice and wheat, plants such as flowers, fruit trees and trees. In some cases, this organic fertilizer can be returned to the livestock shed and sprayed as a litter for reuse. This also reduces the litter cost.
【0026】また、本発明の発酵促進材を畜舎に散布す
る場合は、特別の散布装置や散布方法を使用することも
なく、常法にしたがって散布すればよい。本発明の発酵
促進材は有害物質を何ら含有しておらず、安全性に優れ
ているので、畜舎に家畜がいるときに散布しても、また
はいないときに散布してもよい。畜舎への散布量は、畜
舎内の畜糞量、およびワラやオガ屑などの敷料の量など
により異なり得るが、一般的には、畜舎内にある畜糞お
よび敷料などの有機物の合計100重量部に対して、本
発明の発酵促進材を、発酵促進材中の小麦フスマおよび
/または末粉の量が0.2〜25重量部(乾物換算)
(小麦フスマと末粉の両方を含有する場合は両者の合
計)になるようにして散布することが好ましい。発酵促
進材の散布によって、畜舎でのアンモニアの発生が低減
され、悪臭が減り、畜舎環境を良好なものに改善するこ
とができる。
When the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is applied to a livestock house, it may be applied according to a conventional method without using a special application device or application method. Since the fermentation promoting material of the present invention does not contain any harmful substances and is excellent in safety, it may be sprayed with or without livestock in the barn. The amount sprayed to the livestock shed may vary depending on the amount of livestock manure in the livestock shed and the amount of litter such as straw and sawdust, but in general, 100 parts by weight of the total amount of organic matter such as livestock dung and litter in the livestock shed On the other hand, the amount of wheat bran and / or powder in the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is 0.2 to 25 parts by weight (dry matter conversion).
(When both wheat bran and powder are contained, the total of both is preferably applied). By spraying the fermentation accelerator, the generation of ammonia in the barn is reduced, the bad odor is reduced, and the barn environment can be improved.
【0027】[0027]
【実施例】以下に本発明を実施例などにより具体的に説
明するが、本発明はそれにより何ら限定されない。以下
の例において、発酵促進材中の耐熱性菌数の測定、発酵
物中のアンモニアの含有量の測定、発酵時(有機質肥料
の製造時)の最高温度の測定、およびコマツナ生育度の
評価は、下記のようにして行った。また、発酵促進材の
pHは、発酵促進材を製造するための成分の混合直後の
pHを測定した。
EXAMPLES The present invention will be specifically described below with reference to examples, but the present invention is not limited thereto. In the following examples, the measurement of the number of heat-resistant bacteria in the fermentation accelerator, the measurement of the content of ammonia in the fermented product, the measurement of the maximum temperature during fermentation (during the production of organic fertilizer), and the evaluation of the komatsuna growth rate were performed. , As described below. The pH of the fermentation accelerator was measured immediately after mixing the components for producing the fermentation accelerator.
【0028】[発酵促進材中の耐熱性菌数の測定]発酵
促進材試料1gを滅菌水9mlで混釈し、その後、微生
物菌数に応じて希釈する(平板希釈法)。次いで80℃
で10分間保温した後、標準寒天培地(栄研化学製「パ
ールコア」)に塗沫し、55℃の恒温槽内で2日間培養
した後、培地上のコロニー数を数えて、発酵促進材1g
当たりの耐熱性菌数を求めた。
[Measurement of the number of heat-resistant bacteria in the fermentation accelerating material] 1 g of a sample of the fermentation accelerating material is mixed with 9 ml of sterilized water, and then diluted according to the number of microbial cells (plate dilution method). 80 ° C
After incubating for 10 minutes at 10 ° C., it is spread on a standard agar medium (“Pearl Core” manufactured by Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd.) and cultured for 2 days in a constant temperature bath at 55 ° C. Then, the number of colonies on the medium is counted and a fermentation accelerating material 1 g
The number of heat-resistant bacteria per hit was determined.
【0029】[発酵物中のアンモニアの含有量の測定]
発酵物試料1gに蒸留水15mlを加え、振盪機にて3
0分間振盪した後、水に溶け出たアンモニア量を、簡易
水質検査器(共立製の簡易水質チェックキット)により
測定し、発酵物試料1g中のアンモニア量として求め
た。
[Measurement of Ammonia Content in Fermented Product]
Distilled water (15 ml) was added to fermented material sample (1 g) and shaken to 3
After shaking for 0 minutes, the amount of ammonia dissolved in water was measured by a simple water quality tester (a simple water quality check kit manufactured by Kyoritsu Co., Ltd.) to obtain the amount of ammonia in 1 g of the fermented material sample.
【0030】[発酵時(有機質肥料の製造時)の最高温
度の測定]発酵時の堆積層の上部から約20cmの場所
に温度センサーを差し込み、温度記録計(安立計器社製
「温度コレクターAM7002」)により温度を経時的
に記録してその最高温度を調査した。
[Measurement of Maximum Temperature during Fermentation (Production of Organic Fertilizer)] A temperature sensor (a temperature collector AM7002 manufactured by Anritsu Keiki Co., Ltd.) was inserted at a location about 20 cm from the top of the sedimentary layer during fermentation. ) Recorded the temperature over time and investigated its maximum temperature.
【0031】[コマツナ生育度の評価]以下の実施例の
各実験番号で得られた有機質肥料(発酵30日目の発酵
物)を使用して、コマツナに対する生育試験を次のよう
にして行ってその生育度を評価した。すなわち、有機質
肥料1gに対し水30mlを加え、撹拌後、60℃で3
時間放置する。次いで、濾紙(東洋濾紙No.5)を使
用して濾過を行って得られた濾液2mlを、濾紙(東洋
濾紙No.2)2枚を敷いたシャーレに入れ、コマツナ
の種子約30粒をまき、25℃の恒温室内で培養する。
培養は4日間行い、コナツナの生育度を下記の表1に示
した評価基準に従って5名のパネラーに点数評価しても
らい、その平均値を採った。
[Evaluation of growth degree of komatsuna] Using the organic fertilizer (fermented product on the 30th day of fermentation) obtained in each experiment number of the following examples, a growth test for komatsuna was conducted as follows. The degree of growth was evaluated. That is, 30 ml of water was added to 1 g of organic fertilizer, and after stirring, the mixture was mixed at 60 ° C for 3
Leave for hours. Then, 2 ml of the filtrate obtained by filtering using filter paper (Toyo Roshi No. 5) is put into a petri dish lined with two pieces of filter paper (Toyo Roshi No. 2), and about 30 Komatsuna seeds are sowed. Incubate in a constant temperature room at 25 ° C.
Cultivation was carried out for 4 days, and the growth rate of konatsuna was evaluated by 5 panelists according to the evaluation criteria shown in Table 1 below, and the average value was taken.
【0032】[0032]
【表1】 [Table 1]
【0033】《実施例1》[発酵促進材の製造] 小麦フスマ、微生物資材(武田科学飼料製「BST−
9」;有機質材料を資化するバチルス・サブチルス他の
耐熱性菌を微生物資材1g当たり1×108CFUの割
合で含有)、ニトロフミン酸(テルナイト社製「NH
A」)、消石灰およびオガクズを下記の表2に示す割合
で常温下に混合して、表2に示す発酵促進材(i)〜
(ix)をそれぞれ製造した。各発酵促進材における、5
5℃の高温槽内で標準寒天培地を用いて48時間培養し
たときのコロニー数、およびpHは表2に示すとおりで
あった。
Example 1 [Production of Fermentation Accelerator] Wheat bran, microbial material ("BST-" manufactured by Takeda Scientific Feed)
9 "; containing thermostable bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis that assimilate organic materials in a ratio of 1 × 10 8 CFU per 1 g of microbial material), nitrohumic acid (" NHN manufactured by Ternite Co., Ltd. "
A "), slaked lime, and sawdust are mixed at a ratio shown in Table 2 below at room temperature, and fermentation accelerators (i) to
(Ix) was produced respectively. 5 in each fermentation promoter
The number of colonies and the pH when cultured for 48 hours using a standard agar medium in a high temperature tank at 5 ° C. are as shown in Table 2.
【0034】《実施例2》[有機質肥料の製造およびコ
マツナ生育度の評価] (1) 実施例1で得られた発酵促進材(i)〜(ix)
のいずれか100gを鶏糞10kgに添加し、よく混合
して、混合物を発泡スチロール容器内に入れて(厚さ約
35cm)、1週間に1度の割合で撹拌し、発酵させて
有機質肥料を製造した。 (2) 上記(1)の有機質肥料の製造中(発酵中)
に、発酵物のアンモニア含有量、温度および重量を経時
的に測定するとともに、発酵7日目の発酵物中における
耐熱性菌(バチルス・サブチスル)の数を測定したとこ
ろ、下記の表3に示すとおりであった。 (3) 上記(1)で得られた有機質肥料を用いて、上
記した方法でコマツナ生育度の評価を行ったところ、下
記の表3に示すとおりであった。
<Example 2> [Production of organic fertilizer and evaluation of Komatsuna growth rate] (1) Fermentation accelerators (i) to (ix) obtained in Example 1
100 g of any of the above was added to 10 kg of chicken feces, mixed well, the mixture was placed in a styrofoam container (thickness: about 35 cm), stirred at a rate of once a week, and fermented to produce an organic fertilizer. . (2) During production of the organic fertilizer of (1) above (during fermentation)
In addition, the ammonia content, temperature and weight of the fermented product were measured over time, and the number of thermostable bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) in the fermented product on the 7th day of fermentation was measured. The results are shown in Table 3 below. It was as it was. (3) When the organic fertilizer obtained in (1) above was used to evaluate the growth rate of komatsuna by the method described above, the results are shown in Table 3 below.
【0035】[0035]
【表2】 [Table 2]
【0036】[0036]
【表3】 [Table 3]
【0037】上記の表2および3の結果から、小麦フス
マ、有機質材料を資化する耐熱性菌および場合によるニ
トロフミン酸を含有し且つpHを6.0〜8.5の範囲
に調整した発酵促進材(iv)〜(vi)を用いて有機質肥
料を製造した実験番号4〜6では、有機質肥料の製造時
にアンモニアの発生量が少なく且つアンモニアの発生期
間が短く、有機質肥料の製造を悪臭を防ぎながら短期間
に行えることがわかる。しかも、該実験番号4〜6で得
られた有機質肥料は、4.0以上の高いコマツナ生育度
を有しており、肥効性に優れていることがわかる。
From the results shown in Tables 2 and 3 above, fermentation promotion was carried out, which contained wheat bran, thermostable bacteria that assimilate organic materials, and optionally nitrohumic acid, and the pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 8.5. In Experiment Nos. 4 to 6 in which the organic fertilizer was produced using the materials (iv) to (vi), the production amount of ammonia was small and the production period of the ammonia was short during the production of the organic fertilizer, and the production of the organic fertilizer was prevented from a bad odor. However, it turns out that it can be done in a short period of time. Moreover, it can be seen that the organic fertilizers obtained in Experiment Nos. 4 to 6 have a high komatsuna growth rate of 4.0 or more and are excellent in fertilizing effect.
【0038】これに対して、小麦フスマおよび有機質材
料を資化する耐熱性菌を含有する発酵促進材であって
も、そのpHが6.0〜8.5の範囲から外れている発
酵促進材(ii)または(vii)を用いて有機質肥料を製
造した実験番号2および7では、有機質肥料の製造時に
アンモニアの発生量が多く且つアンモニアの発生期間が
長く、発酵環境が不良になること、さらに堆肥化に長い
期間を要することがわかる。しかも、該実験番号2およ
び7で得られた有機質肥料はコマツナ生育度が低く、肥
効性の点でも実験番号4〜6の有機質肥料に比べて劣っ
ていることがわかる。
On the other hand, even a fermentation promoting material containing wheat bran and a heat-resistant bacterium that assimilates an organic material has a pH outside the range of 6.0 to 8.5. In Experiment Nos. 2 and 7 in which the organic fertilizer was produced using (ii) or (vii), a large amount of ammonia was produced during the production of the organic fertilizer and the ammonia was produced for a long time, resulting in a poor fermentation environment. It can be seen that it takes a long time to compost. Moreover, it can be seen that the organic fertilizers obtained in Experiment Nos. 2 and 7 have a low komatsuna growth rate and are inferior to the organic fertilizers in Experiment Nos. 4 to 6 in terms of fertilizing effect.
【0039】さらに、pHを6.0〜8.5の範囲内に
調整してあっても、耐熱性菌を配合せず小麦フスマのみ
からなる発酵促進材(i)または発酵促進材(iii)、
或いは小麦フスマを使用せずにオガクズを用いて製造し
た発酵促進材(viii)または発酵促進材(ix)を用いて
有機質肥料を製造した実験番号1、3、8および9で
は、有機質肥料の製造時にアンモニアの発生量が多く且
つアンモニアの発生期間が長く、発酵環境が不良になる
こと、しかも有機質肥料の製造に長い期間を要すること
がわかる。その上、該実験番号1、3、8および9で得
られた有機質肥料は、コマツナ生育度が低く、肥効性の
点でも実験番号4〜6の有機質肥料に比べて大きく劣っ
ていることがわかる。
Further, even if the pH is adjusted within the range of 6.0 to 8.5, the fermentation accelerating material (i) or the fermentation accelerating material (iii) containing only wheat bran without adding heat-resistant bacteria. ,
Alternatively, in Experiment Nos. 1, 3, 8 and 9 in which an organic fertilizer was produced using a fermentation accelerator (viii) or a fermentation accelerator (ix) produced using sawdust without using wheat bran, in the production of organic fertilizer, It can be seen that sometimes the amount of ammonia generated is large and the period of ammonia generation is long, the fermentation environment becomes poor, and moreover it takes a long period of time to produce the organic fertilizer. In addition, the organic fertilizers obtained in Experiment Nos. 1, 3, 8 and 9 have a low komatsuna growth rate and are significantly inferior to the organic fertilizers in Experiment Nos. 4 to 6 in terms of fertilizing effect. Recognize.
【0040】《実施例3》[有機質肥料の製造およびコ
マツナ生育度の評価] (1) 豚生糞/オガクズ混合物(混合重量比6:4、
混合物の水分含量65重量%)に対して、実施例1で製
造した発酵促進材(iv)を、下記の表4に示す混合比率
で混合して、混合物を発泡スチロール容器内に入れて
(厚さ約35cm)、1週間の1度の割合で撹拌し、発
酵させて有機質肥料を製造した。 (2) 上記(1)の有機質肥料の製造中(発酵中)
に、発酵物のアンモニア含有量、温度および重量を経時
的に測定するとともに、発酵7日目の発酵物中における
耐熱性菌(バチルス・サブチルス)の数を測定したとこ
ろ、下記の表4に示すとおりであった。 (3) 上記(1)で得られた有機質肥料を用いて、上
記した方法でコマツナ生育度の評価を行ったところ、下
記の表4に示すとおりであった。
Example 3 [Production of Organic Fertilizer and Evaluation of Growth Rate of Komatsuna] (1) Raw Pig Manure / Sawdust Mixture (Mixing Weight Ratio 6: 4,
The water content of the mixture (65% by weight) was mixed with the fermentation accelerator (iv) produced in Example 1 at a mixing ratio shown in Table 4 below, and the mixture was placed in a Styrofoam container (thickness). About 35 cm), the mixture was stirred at a rate of once a week and fermented to produce an organic fertilizer. (2) During production of the organic fertilizer of (1) above (during fermentation)
In addition, the ammonia content, temperature and weight of the fermented product were measured over time, and the number of thermostable bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) in the fermented product on the 7th day of fermentation was measured, and the results are shown in Table 4 below. It was as it was. (3) When the organic fertilizer obtained in (1) above was used to evaluate the growth rate of komatsuna by the method described above, the results are shown in Table 4 below.
【0041】[0041]
【表4】 [Table 4]
【0042】上記の表4の結果から、被発酵原料(豚生
糞/オガクズ混合物)100重量部(乾物換算)に対し
て、本発明の発酵促進材[発酵促進材(iv)]を、発酵
促進材中の小麦フスマの量で、0.2〜25重量部(乾
物換算)となる量で添加して発酵させて有機質肥料を製
造した実験番号11〜13では、有機質肥料製造時にア
ンモニアの発生量が少なく且つアンモニアの発生期間が
短く、有機質肥料の製造を短期間に行えることがわか
る。しかも、該実験番号11〜13で得られた有機質肥
料は、4.0以上の高いコマツナ生育度を有していて、
肥効性に優れていることがわかる。
From the results in Table 4 above, the fermentation accelerator [fermentation accelerator (iv)] of the present invention was fermented with 100 parts by weight of raw material to be fermented (porcine raw dung / scraps mixture) (as dry matter). In Experiment Nos. 11 to 13 in which the amount of wheat bran in the accelerator was 0.2 to 25 parts by weight (dry matter equivalent) and fermented to produce an organic fertilizer, ammonia was generated during the production of the organic fertilizer. It can be seen that the production of organic fertilizer can be carried out in a short time because the amount is small and the generation period of ammonia is short. Moreover, the organic fertilizers obtained in Experiment Nos. 11 to 13 have a high komatsuna growth rate of 4.0 or more,
It can be seen that the fertilizer is excellent.
【0043】《実施例4》[発酵促進材の製造] (1) 有機質材料の資化能を有する耐熱性菌であるサ
ーモアクチノミセス・ブルガリスとバチルス属耐熱性菌
を小麦フスマに加え、発酵させて、耐熱性菌を有する微
生物資材を調製した。この微生物資材は1g当たり、サ
ーモアクチノミセス・ブルガリスを1×108CFUお
よびバチルス属耐熱性菌を1×109CFUの割合で含
有していた。 (2) 小麦フスマ、前記(1)で調製した微生物資
材、ニトロフミン酸(テルナイト社製「NHA」)およ
びpH調整剤として消石灰、炭酸カルシウム、酸化アル
ミニウム粉末(ALCパウダー、小野田エーエルシー工
業製「エスカリュウ」)を下記の表5に示す割合で室温
下に混合して、表5に示す発酵促進材(x)〜(xv)を
それぞれ製造した。各発酵促進材における、55℃の高
温槽内で標準寒天培地を用いて48時間培養したときの
コロニー数、およびpHは表5に示すとおりであった。
Example 4 [Production of Fermentation Accelerator] (1) Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Bacillus thermostable bacteria which are heat-resistant bacteria capable of assimilating organic materials are added to wheat bran and fermented. Then, a microbial material having a thermostable bacterium was prepared. This microbial material contained 1 × 10 8 CFU of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and 1 × 10 9 CFU of thermostable bacteria of the genus Bacillus per 1 g. (2) Wheat bran, the microbial material prepared in the above (1), nitrohumic acid (“NHA” manufactured by Ternite Co., Ltd.) and slaked lime, calcium carbonate, aluminum oxide powder (ALC powder, “ESCALU” manufactured by Onoda ALC Co., Ltd.) as a pH adjusting agent. ]) Was mixed at room temperature in the proportions shown in Table 5 below to produce fermentation accelerators (x) to (xv) shown in Table 5, respectively. Table 5 shows the number of colonies and the pH of each fermentation promoter when cultured in a high-temperature tank at 55 ° C using a standard agar medium for 48 hours.
【0044】《実施例5》[有機質肥料の製造およびコ
マツナ生育度の評価] (1) バーク/活性汚泥混合物(重量比1/2)(混
合物の水分含量55重量%)10トンに対して、実施例
4で製造した発酵促進材(x)〜(xv)のいずれかを2
00kg混合し、混合物をコンクリート製の平面上に高
さ約2mの円錐状に堆積し、山中に放置し、7日に1度
の割合で撹拌し、発酵させて有機質肥料を製造した。 (2) 上記(1)の有機質肥料の製造中(発酵中)
に、発酵物のアンモニア含有量、温度および重量を経時
的に測定するとともに、発酵7日目の発酵物中における
耐熱性菌(バチルス・サブチルス)の数を測定したとこ
ろ、下記の表6に示すとおりであった。 (3) 上記(1)で得られた有機質肥料を用いて、上
記した方法でコマツナ生育度の評価を行ったところ、下
記の表6に示すとおりであった。
Example 5 [Production of Organic Fertilizer and Evaluation of Growth Rate of Komatsuna] (1) For 10 tons of bark / activated sludge mixture (weight ratio 1/2) (water content of the mixture 55% by weight), 2 of any of the fermentation accelerators (x) to (xv) produced in Example 4
00 kg was mixed, and the mixture was deposited on a concrete plane in a cone shape having a height of about 2 m, left in the mountains, stirred at a rate of once every 7 days, and fermented to produce an organic fertilizer. (2) During production of the organic fertilizer of (1) above (during fermentation)
In addition, the ammonia content, temperature and weight of the fermented material were measured over time, and the number of thermostable bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) in the fermented material on the 7th day of fermentation was measured. The results are shown in Table 6 below. It was as it was. (3) When the organic fertilizer obtained in (1) above was used to evaluate the growth rate of komatsuna by the method described above, the results are shown in Table 6 below.
【0045】[0045]
【表5】 [Table 5]
【0046】[0046]
【表6】 [Table 6]
【0047】上記の表5および6の結果から、小麦フス
マ、有機質材料を資化する耐熱性菌およびニロトフミン
酸を含有し且つpHを6.0〜8.5の範囲に調整した
発酵促進材(x)〜(xii)を用いて有機質肥料を製造
した実験番号15〜17では、アンモニアの発生量およ
び発生期間を低減させながら、短い発酵期間で有機質肥
料の製造を円滑に製造できることがわかる。しかも、該
実験番号14〜16で得られた有機質肥料は、4.0以
上の高いコマツナ生育度を有していて肥効性に優れてい
ることがわかる。
From the results shown in Tables 5 and 6 above, a fermentation accelerator containing wheat bran, thermostable bacteria that assimilate organic materials, and nilothohumic acid and having a pH adjusted to a range of 6.0 to 8.5 ( In Experiment Nos. 15 to 17 in which the organic fertilizer was produced using x) to (xii), it can be seen that the production of the organic fertilizer can be smoothly performed in a short fermentation period while reducing the generation amount and the generation period of ammonia. Moreover, it can be seen that the organic fertilizers obtained in Experiment Nos. 14 to 16 have a high Komatsuna growth rate of 4.0 or more and are excellent in fertilizing effect.
【0048】これに対して、小麦フスマ、有機質材料を
資化する耐熱性菌および腐植酸を含有する発酵促進材で
あっても、そのpHが6.0〜8.5の範囲から外れて
いる発酵促進材(xiii)〜(xv)を用いて有機質肥料を
製造した実験番号18〜20では、有機質肥料製造時に
アンモニアの発生量が多く且つアンモニアの発生期間が
長く、発酵環境が不良になり、且つ有機質肥料の製造に
長い期間を要することがわかる。しかも、該実験番号1
8〜20で得られた有機質肥料はコマツナの生育度が低
く、肥効性の点でも実験番号15〜17の有機質肥料に
比べて劣っていることがわかる。
On the other hand, the pH of the fermentation promoter containing wheat bran, heat-resistant bacteria that assimilate organic materials, and humic acid is out of the range of 6.0 to 8.5. In Experiment Nos. 18 to 20, which produced organic fertilizers using the fermentation accelerators (xiii) to (xv), a large amount of ammonia was produced during the production of the organic fertilizer and the ammonia production period was long, resulting in a poor fermentation environment. Moreover, it can be seen that it takes a long time to produce the organic fertilizer. Moreover, the experiment number 1
It can be seen that the organic fertilizers obtained in Nos. 8 to 20 have a low growth rate of Komatsuna and are inferior to the organic fertilizers in Experiment Nos. 15 to 17 in terms of fertilizing effect.
【0049】[0049]
【発明の効果】本発明の発酵促進材は、有機質被発酵原
料、特に水分含量が多く且つ嫌気性になり易い、畜産排
泄物、食品残渣、活性汚泥などの有機質被発酵原料の発
酵に極めて有効である。本発明の発酵促進材をこれらの
被発酵原料に配合して発酵を行う場合は、被発酵原料の
水分含量の調整、C/N比、pH調整などを何ら行うこ
となく、被発酵原料に発酵促進材を添加して大気中で室
温下(自然温度下)で発酵を行うだけで、従来よりもア
ンモニアの発生量を低減し且つ発生期間を短縮しなが
ら、肥効性に優れる良質の有機質肥料を短い堆肥化時間
で簡単に且つ円滑に製造することができる。さらに、本
発明の発酵促進材は、小麦フスマおよび/または末粉に
対して前記した耐熱性菌および必要に応じて腐植酸、p
H調整剤、その他の成分を単に混合するだけで、極めて
簡単に製造することができる。また、本発明の発酵促進
材は、家畜の排泄物の発酵により発生するアンモニアの
発生抑制作用を有し、且つ有害な成分を含まないので、
本発明の発酵促進材を畜舎に散布すると、悪臭の原因で
あるアンモニアの発生を安全に且つ効果的に低減さて、
畜舎環境の改善を図ることができる。
EFFECTS OF THE INVENTION The fermentation accelerator of the present invention is extremely effective in the fermentation of organic fermentable raw materials, especially organic fermentable raw materials such as livestock excrements, food residues, activated sludge, which have a high water content and tend to be anaerobic. Is. When the fermentation accelerator of the present invention is blended with these fermented raw materials to perform fermentation, fermentation is performed on the fermented raw materials without any adjustment of the water content of the fermented raw materials, C / N ratio, pH adjustment and the like. A high-quality organic fertilizer with excellent fertilizing activity, which reduces the amount of ammonia generated and shortens the period of generation compared to conventional products by simply adding a promoter and performing fermentation at room temperature (natural temperature) in the air. Can be easily and smoothly manufactured with a short composting time. Furthermore, the fermentation promoting material of the present invention comprises the heat-resistant bacterium described above for wheat bran and / or powder and optionally humic acid, p.
It can be manufactured extremely simply by simply mixing the H modifier and other components. Further, the fermentation promoting material of the present invention has an action of suppressing the generation of ammonia generated by fermentation of excrement of livestock, and does not contain harmful components,
When the fermentation promoting material of the present invention is applied to a livestock shed, the generation of ammonia, which is the cause of the bad odor, can be safely and effectively reduced,
It is possible to improve the barn environment.
フロントページの続き (56)参考文献 特開 平7−232984(JP,A) 特開 平8−198694(JP,A) 特開 平9−48685(JP,A) (58)調査した分野(Int.Cl.7,DB名) C05F 3/00,7/00,9/00 C05F 11/00,17/00 Continuation of front page (56) Reference JP-A-7-232984 (JP, A) JP-A-8-198694 (JP, A) JP-A-9-48685 (JP, A) (58) Fields investigated (Int .Cl. 7 , DB name) C05F 3 / 00,7 / 00,9 / 00 C05F 11 / 00,17 / 00

Claims (9)

    (57)【特許請求の範囲】(57) [Claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 小麦フスマおよび/または末粉、並びに
    有機質材料を資化する耐熱性菌を含有し、且つpHを
    6.0〜8.5に調整した発酵促進材。
    1. A fermentation accelerating material containing wheat bran and / or powder and heat-resistant bacteria that assimilate organic materials and having a pH adjusted to 6.0 to 8.5.
  2. 【請求項2】 小麦フスマおよび/または末粉を発酵促
    進材の全重量に基づいて60重量%以上の割合で含有す
    る請求項1に記載の発酵促進材。
    2. The fermentation promoting material according to claim 1, which contains wheat bran and / or powdered flour in a proportion of 60% by weight or more based on the total weight of the fermentation promoting material.
  3. 【請求項3】 耐熱性菌が、80℃の温度で10分間処
    理後に、55℃の温度で生存可能な菌である請求項1ま
    たは2に記載の発酵促進材。
    3. The fermentation promoting material according to claim 1, wherein the thermostable bacterium is a bacterium that can survive at a temperature of 55 ° C. after being treated at a temperature of 80 ° C. for 10 minutes.
  4. 【請求項4】 耐熱性菌の含有割合が、発酵促進材1g
    中、105CFU以上である請求項1〜3のいずれか1
    項に記載の発酵促進材。
    4. A fermentation promoting material having a thermostable bacterium content of 1 g.
    Medium is 10 5 CFU or more, any one of claims 1 to 3.
    Fermentation promoting material according to the item.
  5. 【請求項5】 発酵促進材の全重量に基づいて、腐植酸
    を2.5重量%以下の割合で含有する請求項1〜4のい
    ずれか1項に記載の発酵促進材。
    5. The fermentation promoting material according to claim 1, which contains humic acid in a proportion of 2.5% by weight or less based on the total weight of the fermentation promoting material.
  6. 【請求項6】 被発酵原料100重量部(乾物換算)に
    対して、請求項1〜5のいずれか1項に記載の発酵促進
    材を、発酵促進材中の小麦フスマおよび/または末粉の
    量が0.2〜25重量部(乾物換算)となる量で添加
    し、発酵させて有機質肥料を製造する方法。
    6. The fermentation accelerating material according to any one of claims 1 to 5 is added to 100 parts by weight of the material to be fermented (calculated as dry matter) to obtain wheat bran and / or powdered flour in the fermentation accelerating material. A method of producing an organic fertilizer by adding and fermenting it in an amount of 0.2 to 25 parts by weight (as dry matter).
  7. 【請求項7】 請求項6の方法で得られる有機質肥料。7. An organic fertilizer obtained by the method of claim 6.
  8. 【請求項8】 請求項1〜5のいずれか1項に記載の発
    酵促進材を畜舎に散布する方法。
    8. A method of applying the fermentation promoting material according to claim 1 to a livestock shed.
  9. 【請求項9】 請求項7の有機質肥料を畜舎に散布する
    方法。
    9. A method of applying the organic fertilizer according to claim 7 to a livestock shed.
JP32761198A 1998-11-18 1998-11-18 Fermentation promoter Expired - Lifetime JP3433123B2 (en)

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