JP3416266B2 - Electron emitting device, method of manufacturing the same, and electron source and image forming apparatus using the electron emitting device - Google Patents

Electron emitting device, method of manufacturing the same, and electron source and image forming apparatus using the electron emitting device

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Publication number
JP3416266B2
JP3416266B2 JP14167094A JP14167094A JP3416266B2 JP 3416266 B2 JP3416266 B2 JP 3416266B2 JP 14167094 A JP14167094 A JP 14167094A JP 14167094 A JP14167094 A JP 14167094A JP 3416266 B2 JP3416266 B2 JP 3416266B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
electron
emitting device
emitting
image forming
forming apparatus
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
JP14167094A
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Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JPH07235255A (en
Inventor
嘉和 坂野
正人 山野辺
一郎 野村
英俊 鱸
Original Assignee
キヤノン株式会社
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Priority to JP33592593 priority Critical
Priority to JP5-335925 priority
Application filed by キヤノン株式会社 filed Critical キヤノン株式会社
Priority to JP14167094A priority patent/JP3416266B2/en
Publication of JPH07235255A publication Critical patent/JPH07235255A/en
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Publication of JP3416266B2 publication Critical patent/JP3416266B2/en
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J31/00Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes
    • H01J31/08Cathode ray tubes; Electron beam tubes having a screen on or from which an image or pattern is formed, picked up, converted, or stored
    • H01J31/10Image or pattern display tubes, i.e. having electrical input and optical output; Flying-spot tubes for scanning purposes
    • H01J31/12Image or pattern display tubes, i.e. having electrical input and optical output; Flying-spot tubes for scanning purposes with luminescent screen
    • H01J31/123Flat display tubes
    • H01J31/125Flat display tubes provided with control means permitting the electron beam to reach selected parts of the screen, e.g. digital selection
    • H01J31/127Flat display tubes provided with control means permitting the electron beam to reach selected parts of the screen, e.g. digital selection using large area or array sources, i.e. essentially a source for each pixel group
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2201/00Electrodes common to discharge tubes
    • H01J2201/30Cold cathodes
    • H01J2201/316Cold cathodes having an electric field parallel to the surface thereof, e.g. thin film cathodes
    • H01J2201/3165Surface conduction emission type cathodes

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0001] BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an electron source and its application.
Related to image forming devices such as display devices,
Surface-conduction type electron-emitting device having a specific structure, and electrons using the same
Source and its applications, such as display devices,
Related. [0002] 2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, a thermionic electron source and a cold electron
Two types of cathode electron sources are known. Cold cathode electrons
Electron emission type (hereinafter abbreviated as FE type), metal / insulating layer / metal type
(Hereinafter abbreviated as MIM type), surface conduction electron-emitting devices, etc.
is there. As an example of the FE type, W. P. Dyke &
W. W. Dolan, "Fielddemissio
n ", Advance in Electron Ph
ysics, 8, 89 (1956) or C.I. A. S
pindt, “PHYSICAL PROPERTYS
  of thin-filmfield emissi
on cathodes with mollybden
ium cones ", J. Appl. Phys., 4
7, 5248 (1976). As an example of the MIM type, C.I. A. Mead,
“The tunnel-emission ampl
ifier, J.M. Appl. Phys. , 32,646
(1961) are known. As an example of the surface conduction electron-emitting device,
M. I. Elinson, RadioEng. Elec
tron Pys. , 10, (1965). A surface conduction electron-emitting device is formed on a substrate.
By passing a current through the thin film of small area
That is, a phenomenon in which electron emission occurs is used. this
As the surface conduction type electron-emitting device,
SnO byTwo Using thin film, using Au thin film
[G. Dittmer: “Thin Solid Fi
lms ", 9, 317 (1972)], InTwo 0Three / S
nOTwo By a thin film [M. Hartwe11 and
  C. G. FIG. Fonstad: "IEEE Trans.
ED Conf. ", 519 (1975)], carbon
By thin film [Hisashi Araki et al .: Vacuum, Vol. 26, No. 1,
22 (1983)]. Typical of these surface conduction electron-emitting devices
The above-described M.P. Hartwell device configuration
As shown in FIG. In FIG. 1, reference numeral 1 denotes an insulating substrate. 2
Is a thin film for forming an electron emitting portion, which is formed into an H-shaped pattern,
It consists of a metal oxide thin film etc.
The electron emission portion 3 is formed by an energization process called forming.
It is formed. 4 is called a thin film including an electron emitting portion.
You. In the figure, L1 is 0.5 to 1 mm, and W is 0.1
mm. Conventionally, these surface conduction electron-emitting devices have
Before the electron emission, the thin film 2 for forming the electron emission portion is formed.
Is discharged in advance by an energization process called forming.
It was common to form the protrusion 3. That is, Fomy
Means that a DC voltage is applied to both ends of the thin film 2 for forming an electron emission portion.
Alternatively, a very slowly increasing voltage, for example, about 1 V / minute
Degree, and locally destroy the electron emission forming thin film,
Deformed or deteriorated, made into an electrically high-resistance state
That is, the electron-emitting portion 3 is formed. Note that the electron emission unit 3
Cracks occur in a part of the thin film 2 for forming an electron emission portion,
Electrons are emitted near the crack. Below by forming
Of the electron emitting portion forming thin film 2 including the formed electron emitting portion.
This is referred to as a thin film 4 including an electron emitting portion. The forming process
The surface conduction type electron-emitting device having the above structure includes the above-described electron-emitting portion.
By applying a voltage to the thin film 4 and passing a current through the element.
That is, electrons are emitted from the above-mentioned electron emitting section 3.
You. However, these conventional surface conduction type electric
There are various questions in the practical application of the electron-emitting device.
However, the applicants have made various improvements as described below.
To solve various problems in practical use.
Was. The above-described surface conduction electron-emitting device has a structure.
Simple and easy to manufacture, many over a large area
There is an advantage that elements can be formed in an array. So, this feature
Various applications that can be exploited are being studied. example
Examples include a charged beam source and a display device. A large number of surface conduction electron-emitting devices are arrayed.
As an example, arrayed surface conduction electron-emitting devices in parallel
And the lines connecting both ends of each element with wiring
An electron source arranged in a large number of rows can be cited. (For example,
JP-A-64-31332, JP-A-1-283747
And Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 1-257552).
In recent years, in image forming apparatuses such as
Plate-type display devices have become popular in place of CRTs,
Since it is not self-luminous, it must have a backlight etc.
Development of a self-luminous display device
Has been desired. Many surface conduction electron-emitting devices are arranged
Visible by the electron source and the electrons emitted from the electron source
A display device combining a phosphor that emits light.
Image forming devices are relatively easy to manufacture, even with large screen devices.
It is a self-luminous display device that can be made and has excellent display quality
(For example, US Pat. No. 5,066,883). Conventionally, many surface conduction electron-emitting devices have been used.
The electron source emits electrons and emits phosphor.
The choice of the element that emits light depends on the number of surface conduction electrons described above.
Wiring in which emission elements are arranged in parallel and connected (called row-direction wiring)
In the direction perpendicular to the row wiring (called the column direction).
A control electrode (grid) installed in the space between the
) And appropriate drive signals to the column wiring
(For example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 1-2384749). [0013] [Problems to be solved by the invention]
Surface conduction type electrons used in electron sources, image forming devices, etc.
Little is known about the behavior of the emission element in a vacuum,
Controlled electron emission characteristics and improved efficiency are desired.
I have been. Here, the efficiency refers to a surface conduction electron-emitting device.
When voltage is applied to a pair of opposing device electrodes,
Current in a vacuum (hereinafter, referred to as element current If).
Current with emitted current (hereinafter referred to as emission current Ie)
Refers to the ratio. That is, the element current is as small as possible,
It is desirable that the output current be as large as possible. [0016] Stable and controlled electron emission characteristics and efficiency
If it is done, for example, an image using phosphor as an image forming member
In image forming equipment, low-current, bright, high-quality image
An apparatus, for example, a flat television is realized. Also,
Driving circuits that make up image forming devices as current decreases
Can be expected to be cheaper. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In view of the above, stable and controlled, the device current is as small as possible
High-efficiency electrons with low emission current
Novel structure of emission device, method of manufacturing the same and using the same
An electron source and an image forming apparatus are provided. [0017] The present invention solves the above-mentioned problems.
The electron-emitting device according to the invention may be configured such that opposing electrodesAnd the electrodeBetweenDistribution
Placed, including cracksConductive filmAnd within and before the crack
The conductive film is disposed on the conductive film and is connected to the conductive film.carbon
Sediment mainly composed ofWhenHavingAn electron-emitting device
Thus, the carbon-based deposit is formed in the crack,
With a gapAn electron-emitting device characterized in that: [0018] [0019] Further, the present invention has the above-described electron-emitting device.
It is an electron source that emits electrons in response to an input signal.
More preferably, a plurality of the above-mentioned electron-emitting devices are arranged on a substrate.
An electron source characterized in that the substrate is provided with a plurality of
A plurality of electron-emitting devices are arranged in parallel, and both
It has multiple rows of electron-emitting devices whose ends are connected to wiring,
Or an arrangement having a modulating means, or a substrate
And m electrically insulated X-direction wirings
A pair of element electrodes of the electron-emitting device are connected to n Y-directional wirings.
Arrangement of multiple electron-emitting devices connected to poles
An electron source having Further, the present invention relates to an image forming apparatus,
An image forming apparatus that forms an image based on a force signal
And at least an image forming member and the electron source of the present invention.
An image forming apparatus comprising: Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described.
State. First, surface conduction type electron emission according to the present invention
The basic configuration of the element will be described. FIGS. 1A and 1B respectively show the present invention.
Basic Planar Type Surface Conduction Electron Emission Device
It is the top view and sectional drawing which show the structure of FIG. Using FIG.
The basic configuration of the device according to the present invention will be described. In FIG. 1, 1 is a substrate, and 5 and 6 are device electrodes.
Poles, 4 is a thin film (electroconductive film) including an electron emission part, 3 is an electron
This is the discharge section. The substrate 1 is made of quartz glass, Na or the like.
Glass, blue sheet glass, blue sheet glass with reduced pure content
Formed by sputtering or the likeTwo Gala laminated
Substrate and ceramics such as alumina.
You. The material of the opposing element electrodes 5 and 6 is conductive.
Any material having electrical conductivity may be used.
For example, Ni, Cr, Au, Mo, W, Pt,
Metals or alloys such as Ti, Al, Cu, Pd and Pd, A
g, Au, RuOTwo Oxidation of metals or metals such as Pd-Ag
Printed conductor composed of material and glass, InTwo OThree -S
nOTwo Transparent conductors such as and semiconductor materials such as polysilicon
And the like. The element electrode interval L1, the element electrode length W1, the conduction
The shape and the like of the conductive film 4 are suitable for the application form of the device.
For example, a display device to be described later
Pixel size is designed to correspond to the screen size.
In particular, in a high-definition TV, the pixel size is small,
High definition is required. Therefore, the size of the electron-emitting device
In order to obtain sufficient brightness in a limited space,
It is designed to obtain a sufficient emission current. The element electrode interval L1 is several hundred angstroms.
Hundreds of micrometers from the device
The book's photolithography technology, that is, the nature of the exposure machine
Function, etching method, etc., and voltage applied between device electrodes.
It is set depending on the pressure and the electric field strength capable of emitting electrons.
Preferably, tens of micrometers rather than a few micrometers
It is. The element electrode length W1 and the element electrode 5,
6, the film thickness d is different from the resistance value of the electrode and the X and Y wirings described above.
Depending on the wiring and the arrangement of the many
Usually, the length W1 of the device electrode is several micrometers.
A few hundred micrometers from the device electrode 5,
6 has a thickness of several micrometers from several hundred angstroms.
Is the Opposing element electrodes 5 provided on the substrate 1
Between the device electrodes 6 and on the device electrodes 5 and 6
The thin film 4 including the projecting portion includes the electron emitting portion 3,
Not only in the case shown in (b), but also on the device electrodes 5 and 6
May not be installed. That is, on the insulating substrate 1
The electron-emitting-portion-forming thin film 2 and the opposing device electrodes 5 and 6
In this case. In addition, opposing element
Depending on the manufacturing method, the entire area between the pole 5 and the element electrode 6 emits electrons.
It may function as a unit. The thin film containing this electron emission part
The thickness of the film 4 is preferably several Angstroms.
Especially at 1000 angstroms, preferably at 10 angstroms
500 angstroms from ROHM, device electrode 5,
Step coverage to 6, electron emission part 3 and device electrode
The resistance value between 5 and 6, and the particle size of the conductive fine particles of the electron-emitting portion 3.
It is set as appropriate depending on the diameter, energization processing conditions described below, and the like.
You. Its resistance value is 10 7 ohms / 10 3 to 10 7 ohms /
Indicates the sheet resistance value of □. A thin film (conductive film) 4 including an electron emission portion is formed.
Pd, Ru, Ag, if specific examples of the material to be formed,
Au, Ti, In, Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Sn, T
metals such as a, W, Pb, PdO, SnOTwo , InTwo O
Three , PbO, SbTwo OThree Oxides such as HfBTwo , ZrB
Two , LaB6 , CeB6 , YBFour , GdBFour Boride, etc.
Material, TiC, ZrC, HfC, TaC, SiC, WC, etc.
Carbide, nitride such as TiN, ZrN, HfN, Si,
Semiconductor such as Ge, carbon, AgMg, NiCu, P
b, Sn, etc., and are made of fine particles. It should be noted that the fine particle film described here is a plurality of fine particles.
A film in which particles are aggregated.
Are not only individually dispersed but also fine particles
Adjacent or overlapping films (including islands)
As expected. The particle size of the fine particles is from several angstroms.
Thousands of angstroms, preferably 10 angstroms
It is 200 angstroms from ROHM. The electron emission section 3 is formed on a part of the conductive film 4.
For example, a high-resistance portion such as a crack.
Preferably, several hundred angstroms rather than several angstroms
And particularly preferably 500 to less than 10 angstroms.
Has many conductive fine particles of angstrom particle size
In some cases, a thin film (conductive film) 4 including an electron emitting portion
It depends on the production method such as thickness and energization processing conditions described later,
It is set appropriately. Further, the conductive fine particles include an electron emitting portion.
Some of the elements of the material constituting the thin film (conductive film) 4
Or everything is the same. Further, a part of the electron emission section 3 and furthermore, the electron emission section
Carbon or carbon compound is formed on the conductive film 4 near the protrusion 3.
Things have been deposited. Next, a surface conduction type electrode having another configuration according to the present invention will be described.
Vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device
Will be explained. FIG. 12 shows a basic vertical surface conduction electron emission device.
It is a schematic diagram which shows the structure of an output element. In FIG. 12, those having the same reference numerals as those in FIG.
Are the same. 21 is a step forming part. Substrate 1, element
Child electrodes 5 and 6, thin film 4 including electron-emitting portion, electron-emitting portion 3
Is the same material as the above-mentioned flat surface conduction electron-emitting device.
The step forming unit 21 is a vacuum steaming device.
SiO formed by deposition, printing, sputtering, etc.TwoEtc.
It is made of an insulating material, and the film thickness of the step forming portion 21 is
The element electrode spacing L of the planar surface conduction electron-emitting device described above
And dozens of nanometers to tens of micrometers
The method of manufacturing the step forming portion and the application between the device electrodes
Voltage and electric field strength that can emit electrons.
Preferably, several tens of nanometers to several micrometers
It is. The thin film 4 including the electron-emitting portion has the device electrodes 5 and 6
After forming the step forming portion 21, the device electrode 5,
6 are laminated. Note that the electron emitting section 3 is shown in FIG.
Here, although shown linearly in the step forming portion 21,
Shape, position, etc.
It is not limited to this. Manufacturing of electron-emitting device having electron-emitting portion 3
There are various methods that can be considered.
It is shown in FIG. In FIG. 2, reference numeral 2 denotes a thin film for forming an electron-emitting portion (conductive
Examples of the conductive film include a fine particle film. Hereinafter, the manufacturing method will be described with reference to FIGS.
And FIG. 1) Wash substrate 1 thoroughly with detergent, pure water and organic solvent
After cleaning, the device electrode material is removed by vacuum evaporation, sputtering, etc.
After the deposition, the insulating substrate is formed by photolithography technology.
The device electrodes 5 and 6 are formed on the surface 1 (see FIG. 2).
(A)). 2) Device electrode 5 and device electrode provided on insulating substrate 1
6 on an insulating substrate on which device electrodes 5 and 6 are formed.
By applying an organic metal solution and leaving it to stand,
Form a thin film. In addition, the organic metal solution refers to the Pd,
Ru, Ag, Au, Ti, In, Cu, Cr, Fe, Z
Organic with metal as main element such as n, Sn, Ta, W, Pb
It is a solution of the compound. After this, the organic metal thin film is heated and fired.
Processing, patterning by lift-off, etching, etc.
Then, an electron emitting portion forming thin film 2 is formed (see FIG. 2).
(B)). Here, by the method of applying the organic metal solution,
As described above, the present invention is not limited to this.
Method, chemical vapor deposition, dispersion coating, dipping
It may be formed by a method, a spinner method, or the like. 3) Next, an energization process called forming is performed on the element.
A voltage is applied between the electrodes 5 and 6 by a power supply (not shown).
Or, if the energization process is performed by increasing the voltage,
The structure of the portion of the thin film (conductive film) 2 for forming the protrusion is changed
The electron emission portion 3 is formed (FIG. 2C). This energization
Localization of thin film (conductive film) 2 for electron emission part formation by processing
Part of the structure that has been destroyed, deformed or altered
The position (high-resistance portion) is called an electron emitting portion 3. The electrical processing after the forming processing is shown in FIG.
The measurement is performed in the measurement and evaluation apparatus shown in FIG. Below are the measurement and evaluation devices
explain. FIG. 3 shows an element having the structure shown in FIG.
Schematic configuration of measurement and evaluation device for measuring electron emission characteristics
FIG. In FIG. 3, 1 is a substrate, and 5 and 6 are element electrodes.
Poles, 4 is a thin film including an electron emitting portion, 3 is an electron emitting portion
You. Reference numeral 31 denotes an element for applying an element voltage Vf to the element.
Power supply, 30 is a thin film including an electron-emitting portion between device electrodes 5, 6
An ammeter for measuring the device current If flowing through the device 4;
Captures emission current Ie emitted from the electron emission portion of the device
The anode electrode 33 is connected to the anode electrode 34 for
A high-voltage power supply for applying pressure, 32 is an electron-emitting portion of the device
Ammeter for measuring the emission current Ie emitted from 3
It is. The device current If and the emission current of the electron-emitting device
In measuring the current Ie, the power source 31 is connected to the device electrodes 5 and 6.
And an ammeter 30, and a power supply is provided above the electron-emitting device.
Arrange anode electrode 34 connecting 33 and ammeter 32
are doing. Further, the electron-emitting device and the anode electrode 34
It is installed in a vacuum device, and the vacuum device
Equipment necessary for vacuum equipment such as pumps and vacuum gauges is provided.
So that the device can be measured and evaluated under the desired vacuum.
Has become. The exhaust pump is a turbo pump, rotor
Ordinary high vacuum system consisting of
Magnetic levitation turbo pump, dry pump
And other high vacuum equipment and an ion pump
It consists of an empty device system. In addition, the whole vacuum device and the electron source
The substrate can be heated up to 200 ° C by a heater (not shown).
You. The voltage of the anode electrode ranges from 1 kV to 10 kV.
kV, the distance H between the anode electrode and the electron-emitting device is 2 mm
It was measured in a range of 88 mm. In the forming process, the pulse peak value is constant.
Do not increase the pulse crest value when applying a pressure pulse.
However, a voltage pulse may be applied. First, pal
The figure shows the voltage waveform when a pulse with a constant peak voltage is applied.
4 (a). In FIG. 4A, T1 and T2 are voltage waveforms.
Where T1 is 1 microsecond to
10 milliseconds, T2 from 10 microseconds to 100 milliseconds
And the peak value of the triangular wave (peak voltage during forming) is
It is appropriately selected and applied under a vacuum atmosphere. Next, while increasing the pulse peak value,
FIG. 4B shows a voltage waveform when a pressure pulse is applied.
Show. In FIG. 4B, T1 and T2 are voltage waveforms.
Where T1 is 1 microsecond to
10 milliseconds, T2 from 10 microseconds to 100 milliseconds
And the peak value of the triangular wave (peak voltage during forming)
Is increased in steps of about 0.1 V, for example,
Apply under atmosphere. It should be noted that the forming process is terminated between pulses.
During the interval T2, the thin film 2 for forming an electron emission portion is locally destroyed,
A voltage that does not deform, for example, a voltage of about 0.1 V,
Measure the probe current and obtain the resistance value, for example, 1 M ohm or less.
When the above resistance was shown, the forming was terminated. this
The voltage at the time is called a forming voltage Vform.
I do. When forming the above-described electron-emitting portion,
Forming process by applying a triangular wave pulse between the electrodes of the device
The waveform applied between the electrodes of the device is triangular.
It is not limited to a wave, but uses a desired waveform such as a square wave.
The peak value, pulse width, pulse interval, etc.
The electron emission part is not limited to the above value
To match the resistance of the electron-emitting device, etc.
Select the desired value. The forming voltage depends on the material of the element.
Because it is uniquely determined by the fee, configuration, etc.,
While increasing the pulse peak value as shown in FIG.
When applying pressure pulses, the appropriate
Energy is easily obtained and good electron emission
This is preferable because the output characteristics can be obtained. 4) Next, an activation process is performed on the element whose forming has been completed.
Call processing is performed. Activation processing is 10 minus 4th power
With a degree of vacuum of about -10 to the fifth power torr,
As in the case of the
An organic substance that exists in a vacuum
Depositing carbon or carbon compounds from
This is a process in which the current If and the emission current Ie change significantly.
You. While measuring the device current If and the emission current Ie, for example,
If the emission current Ie is saturated, the activation process ends.
I do. Activation time of device current If and emission current Ie
An example is shown in FIG. In the activation process, the degree of vacuum and the power applied to the element are determined.
The device current If, the emission current I
e changes with time, and
The state of formation of a film (deposit) on a deformed or altered thin film
Changes. When the activation processing voltage is the forming voltage V
formApply a pulse that is sufficiently high compared to
Is referred to as a high resistance activation process. On the other hand,
Forming voltage VformCompared to ten
When a low pulse is applied every minute to activate,
This is referred to as sexual processing. In addition, the voltage control type negative
The starting voltage VP indicating the resistance is substantially equal to the boundary voltage.
Then, the activation process is classified. For high resistance activation processing and low resistance activation processing
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the observation of the morphological change of the device in the case where
(A) and (b). In addition, the above observation was performed by FESEM,
This was performed by TEM or the like. FIGS. 6A and 6B each show a high resistance.
In the cross section of the device after activation and low resistance activation
is there. 5 is a high-potential electrode and 6 is a low-potential electrode.
Thus, a voltage was applied. In case of high resistance activation
In FIG. 6A, the conductive material is formed by forming.
The part of the film 4 that has undergone deformation or alteration such as cracks (high resistance
Part) conductive film mainly on the high potential electrode 5 side from part of 3)
4 is deposited with carbon or a carbon compound 61. Change
When observed at high magnification, fine particles accumulate around and around the particles.
ing. Also, depending on the distance between the opposing device electrodes,
When carbon or carbon compound 61 is deposited on the secondary electrode
There is also. The film thickness is preferably 500 Å
Or less, more preferably 300 Å or less.
Below. Here, the carbon or carbon compound is
As a result of TEM, Raman, etc., graphite (single, polycrystalline
), Amorphous carbon (amorphous carbon and
And mixtures with crystalline graphite). On the other hand, FIG. 6 shows the case of the low resistance activation process.
In (b), it is deformed and transformed by forming.
Carbon or carbon compound 61 is deposited on a part of
ing. When observed at higher magnification, the periphery and periphery of the fine particles
Is also deposited. Here, carbon or a carbon compound is
Is the result of TEM, Raman, etc.
(Both single and polycrystalline), amorphous carbon (amorphous
Carbon and polycrystalline graphite).
You. 5) The electron-emitting device thus produced is preferably
Vacuum higher than vacuum formed and activated
Drive in a vacuum atmosphere. Also, forming process
And a vacuum atmosphere with a higher vacuum than the activated vacuum
Is preferably about 10 minus 6 torr or more
The degree of vacuum having a degree of vacuum of, more preferably, ultra-high
New and almost deposition of carbon and carbon compounds in a vacuum system
Not vacuum. Thus, this will result in more carbon and
And carbon compound deposition can be suppressed.
The current If and the emission current Ie stabilize constantly. The high resistance activation processing and the low resistance activation processing
In the case of the element, the stability in the initial stage of driving differs,
More preferably, the high resistance activation process is used as the activation process.
Selected. According to the above-described element configuration and manufacturing method,
Basic characteristics of the electron-emitting device according to the present invention
This will be described with reference to FIGS. Measured by the measurement and evaluation device shown in FIG.
Between the emission current Ie, the device current If, and the device voltage Vf
7 is shown in FIG. FIG. 7 shows the emission current Ie
Since it is significantly smaller than the device current If, it is shown in arbitrary units.
Have been. As is clear from FIG.
The element has three characteristics with respect to the emission current Ie. First, the present device operates at a certain voltage (threshold value).
A device voltage, which is called a voltage and is equal to or higher than Vth) in FIG.
Then, the emission current Ie sharply increases, while the threshold voltage V
Below th, the emission current Ie is hardly detected. You
That is, a clear threshold voltage Vt with respect to the emission current Ie
h is a non-linear element. Second, the emission current Ie depends on the element voltage Vf.
The emission current Ie can be controlled by the element voltage Vf.
You. Third, emission captured by the anode electrode 34
The charge depends on the time during which the device voltage Vf is applied. sand
That is, the amount of electric charge captured by the anode electrode 34 depends on the device voltage.
It can be controlled by the time for applying the pressure Vf. On the other hand, the device current If is different from the device voltage Vf.
Characteristic (referred to as MI characteristic) that increases monotonically (solid line in FIG. 7)
And voltage controlled negative resistance (referred to as VCNR characteristics)
(Dashed line in FIG. 7) in some cases,
The properties depend on the process. Also shows VCNR characteristics
The boundary voltage is called Vp. That is, the VCNR characteristic of the element current If is
Occurs when forming is performed in a normal vacuum system,
Its characteristics are electrical conditions at the time of forming, vacuum equipment
Vacuum atmosphere conditions or forming has already been performed.
Vacuum conditions of the vacuum equipment system when measuring an electron-emitting device
Conditions, electrical measurement conditions at the time of measurement (for example,
To obtain current-voltage characteristics, lower the voltage applied to the device.
Sweep speed when sweeping from voltage to high voltage)
Depends on the time of leaving the electron-emitting device in the vacuum
It turned out to be a big change. At this time,
The stream Ie shows MI characteristics. The characteristics of the surface conduction electron-emitting device described above are as follows.
, Ie, the device applied voltage of the device current If and the emission current Ie
According to the present invention because of having a monotonically increasing characteristic with respect to
The electron-emitting device can be expected to be applied to various fields. The conductive fine particles may be dispersed in advance.
In the surface conduction electron-emitting device formed, the present invention
Some of the basic manufacturing methods of the basic device configuration
May be changed. The basic structure of the surface conduction electron-emitting device has been described above.
Although the composition and the production method have been described, according to the concept of the present invention, the table
It has the above three characteristics in the characteristics of the surface conduction electron-emitting device
If it is, it is not limited to the above configuration, etc.
The present invention is also applicable to an image forming apparatus such as an apparatus. Next, the electron source and the image forming apparatus of the present invention will be described.
I will talk about it. A plurality of electron-emitting devices of the present invention are provided on a substrate.
They can be arranged to form an electron source or an image forming device.
You. The arrangement method on the substrate includes, for example, a conventional example
Many surface conduction electron-emitting devices are arranged in parallel as described in
The electron emission element is connected by wiring at both ends of each element.
A large number of child rows are arranged (called the row direction) and are orthogonal to this wiring.
In the direction above (called the column direction)
Electrons are controlled by the installed control electrodes (called grids)
An array configuration to be driven (hereinafter referred to as a ladder type), and
N wirings in the Y direction on the m wirings in the X direction described in
Installed via an interlayer insulating layer, the surface conduction electron-emitting device
X-direction wiring and Y-direction wiring are respectively connected to a pair of device electrodes.
A connected arrangement form is exemplified. This is a simple matrix
Hereafter called the arrangement. Next, this simple matrix will be described in detail.
You. A surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention
According to the characteristics of the three basic properties described above, surface conduction
The electron emitted from the electron-emitting device is above the threshold voltage.
Is the pulse height of the pulsed voltage applied between the opposing device electrodes.
Controlled by value and width. On the other hand, below the threshold voltage,
No release. According to this characteristic, many electron emitting elements
Even if a device is placed, the above elements
If a voltage is applied as appropriate, the surface transfer can be performed according to the input signal.
Select the conduction type electron-emitting device and control the amount of electron emission
It will be. Hereinafter, an electron source group constructed based on this principle will be described.
The configuration of the plate will be described with reference to FIG. The m X-direction wirings 82 are DX1, DX
2. Vacuum evaporation on the insulating substrate 1 consisting of DXm
Method, printing method, sputtering method, etc.
Made of conductive metal, etc.
Material and film so that a nearly equal voltage is supplied to the output element.
The thickness and wiring width are set. The Y-direction wiring 83 is DY1,
DY2, ‥ DYn are composed of n wirings,
Formed by vacuum deposition, printing, sputtering, etc.
Made of a conductive metal or the like having a desired pattern,
Voltage is supplied to a number of surface conduction electron-emitting devices.
Material, film thickness, wiring width, etc. these
Between the m X-directional wirings 82 and the n Y-directional wirings 83,
An interlayer insulating layer (not shown) is installed and electrically separated,
Construct a matrix wiring (where m and n are both positive
integer). The interlayer insulating layer (not shown) is formed by vacuum evaporation, printing, or the like.
Formed by sputtering, sputtering, etc.Two Etc., X direction
All or part of the insulating substrate 1 on which the wiring 82 is formed
The X-directional wiring 82 and the Y-directional
The film thickness and material are set so as to withstand the potential difference at the intersection of the direction wiring 83.
Materials and manufacturing methods are set as appropriate. X direction wiring 82 and Y direction arrangement
The wires 83 are respectively drawn as external terminals. Further, in the same manner as described above, the surface conduction type electron
The opposing electrodes (not shown) of the emission element 84 have m X directions.
Direction wiring 82 (DX1, DX2, @DXm) and n Y directions
Direction wiring 83 (DY1, DY2, @DYn) and vacuum deposition
Metal, such as conductive metal formed by sputtering, printing, sputtering, etc.
Are electrically connected by a connection 85 comprising
is there. Here, m X-directional wires 82 and n Y wires
Conductive gold of the device electrode facing the direction wiring 83 and the connection 85
A genus has some or all of its constituent elements
May also be different, such as Ni, Cr, Au,
Metals such as Mo, W, Pt, Ti, Al, Cu, Pd
Or alloy and Pd, Ag, Au, RuO2, Pd-Ag
Composed of metal or metal oxide and glass etc.
Printed conductors, transparent conductors such as In2O3-SnO2 and poly
It is appropriately selected from semiconductor materials such as silicon. Table
The surface-conduction type electron-emitting device has an insulating substrate 1 or a non-conductive substrate.
It may be formed on any of the illustrated interlayer insulating layers. As will be described in detail later, the X-direction arrangement
The line 82 has a surface conduction electron-emitting device arranged in the X direction.
A scanning signal for scanning the row 84 according to the input signal.
Scanning signal applying means (not shown)
On the other hand, the Y-direction wiring 83 is arranged in the Y-direction.
Each row of the row of surface conduction electron-emitting devices 84
To apply a modulation signal for modulation in accordance with
It is electrically connected to the illustrated modulation signal generating means. Further, for each element of the surface conduction type electron-emitting device,
The applied driving voltage is a scanning signal applied to the element.
And a modulation signal. Next, the electron source group created as described above
Source using plate and image forming apparatus used for display etc.
Will be described with reference to FIGS. 9 and 10. FIG. Figure 9 is an image form
FIG. 10 is a basic configuration diagram of the forming apparatus, and FIG. 10 shows a fluorescent film. In FIG. 9, reference numeral 1 denotes a substrate, and 91 denotes a substrate.
The fixed rear plate 96 is an inner surface of the glass substrate 93.
On which a fluorescent film 94 and a metal back 95 are formed.
A plate 92 is a support frame, and the rear plate 9
1. The support frame 92 and the face plate 96 are
Apply a glass or the like, and in the air or in nitrogen,
By baking at 500 ° C for 10 minutes or more, sealing and surrounding
The container 98 is constituted. In FIG. 9, reference numeral 84 designates FIG.
2 corresponds to the surface conduction electron-emitting device shown in FIG. 8
Reference numerals 2 and 83 denote a pair of device electrodes of a surface conduction electron-emitting device.
And the X-direction wiring and the Y-direction wiring. Also,
Wiring to these device electrodes is the same as that of the device electrodes.
Is sometimes referred to as an element electrode. The envelope 98 is, as described above, a face plate.
Frame 96, support frame 92, and rear plate 91 to surround 98
However, the rear plate 91 mainly reduces the strength of the substrate 1.
The substrate 1 itself is sufficient for reinforcement
If it is strong, a separate rear plate 91 is unnecessary.
And the support frame 92 is directly sealed to the substrate 1,
, A support frame 92, and the substrate 1 to form an envelope 98.
Is also good. FIG. 10 shows a fluorescent film. The fluorescent film 94
In the case of monochrome, it consists only of phosphor,
In the case of a fluorescent film, black strike depends on the phosphor arrangement.
Black conductor called a black matrix or black matrix
It is composed of a material 101 and a phosphor 102. Black strike
The purpose of the leap and black matrix is
-Each phosphor 10 of the three primary color phosphors required for display
Color mixing etc. is not noticeable by making the painted part between two black
And control by the external light reflection on the fluorescent film 94.
It is to suppress the decrease of the last. Black strike
The main material of the graphite is graphite, which is commonly used.
Not only the material to be separated, but also conductive, light transmission and
The material is not limited to this as long as the material has low reflection. The method of applying the phosphor on the glass substrate 93 is as follows.
Precipitation method and printing method are used regardless of monochrome or color
Can be The inner surface of the fluorescent film 94 is usually made of metal.
A back 95 is provided. The purpose of the metal back is fluorescent
Light to the inner surface side during body generation is directed to the face plate 96 side
To improve the brightness by specular reflection
Act as an electrode for applying the
And the damage caused by the collision of negative ions generated in the envelope
Protection of the phosphor from the light. Metal back, fluorescent film
After fabrication, smooth the inner surface of the phosphor screen (normally
A1 is performed by vacuum evaporation or the like.
It can be produced by depositing. The face plate 96 is further provided with a fluorescent film 9.
In order to enhance the conductivity of the fluorescent film 94, a transparent electrode
A pole (not shown) may be provided. When performing the above-mentioned sealing, in the case of color, each color
Phosphors and electron-emitting devices must be matched
Therefore, it is necessary to perform sufficient alignment. The envelope 98 passes through an exhaust pipe (not shown),
The degree of vacuum is reduced to about 0 to the sixth power of Torr, and the envelope 9
8 is performed. Incidentally, the electron source substrate is provided with an electron emission substrate as described above.
The element of FIG. 1 or FIG.
It may be arranged and wired as described above, but is preferably
Is a device before the formation of the electron-emitting portion, for example, FIG.
The element in the separated state is arranged and wired on the substrate as described above,
After this is arranged in the envelope 98 shown in FIG.
Through the exhaust pipe, for example, rotary pump, turbo pump
In a normal vacuum system such as a pump as a pump system,
To a degree of vacuum of about 10 −6 Torr,
External terminals Dox1 to Doxm and Doy1 to Doy
A voltage is applied between the device electrodes 5 and 6 (FIG. 2B) through n.
Then, the above-described forming is performed, and then the activation process is performed.
The inside of the envelope is a true value of about 10 −6 Torr.
The electron emission portion 3 is formed by performing the vacancy,
A child substrate is manufactured. After the fabrication as described above, in particular,
Baking at 0 to 150 degrees for 3 to 15 hours
For example, ultra-high vacuum with a pump system such as an ion pump
Switch back to equipment. Switching of ultra-high vacuum system and base
King calculates the device current I of the surface conduction electron-emitting device described above.
f, satisfying monotonically increasing characteristics (MI characteristics) of emission current Ie
The method and conditions are not limited to this.
No. Also, in order to maintain the degree of vacuum after sealing the envelope 98.
Then, getter processing may be performed. This is the envelope 9
Immediately before or after the sealing of No. 8 by resistance heating or
Is determined by a heating method such as high-frequency heating.
A getter placed at a position (not shown) is heated to form a deposited film.
Is a process of forming Getter is usually composed mainly of Ba
And, for example, 1 × 10
-5 or 1 × 10 -7 [Torr
r] is maintained. The image display device of the present invention completed as described above
In each of the electron-emitting devices, an external terminal Dox1 is provided.
Through Doxm, Doy1 through Doyn
By applying the voltage, electrons are emitted and passed through the high voltage terminal Hv.
, Metal back 95 or transparent electrode (not shown)
Apply a high voltage of kV or more to accelerate the electron beam,
Display image by exciting and emitting light by colliding with 94
Things. The configuration described above is suitable for use in display and the like.
It is a schematic configuration necessary for producing a suitable image forming apparatus.
The detailed parts, such as the material of each member, are limited to the contents described above.
Not suitable for use in imaging devices.
select. [0099] The present invention will be described in more detail with reference to the following examples.
Will be described. (Example 1) Basic table according to the present invention
The structure of the surface conduction electron-emitting device is shown in FIGS.
Are similar to the plan view and the cross-sectional view of FIG. Note that elements of the same shape are provided on the substrate 1 in FIG.
Four are formed as shown in FIG. In addition, in FIG.
Those having the same numbers as those in FIG. 1 indicate the same ones. The surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention
The manufacturing method is basically the same as in FIG. Hereinafter, FIG.
The basic configuration of the element according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.
The manufacturing method will be described. In FIG. 1, 1 is a substrate, and 5 and 6 are device electrodes.
Poles, 4 is a thin film including an electron emitting portion, and 3 is an electron emitting portion.
You. Hereinafter, the manufacturing method will be described in order with reference to FIGS.
And FIG. Step-a: Thickness on cleaned blue plate glass
A 0.5 micron silicon oxide film is formed by sputtering.
The device electrode 5 and the gap G between the device electrodes are
The pattern to be used is defined as a photoresist (RD-2000N-4
1 manufactured by Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.) and has a thickness of 5
0 ° Ti and 1000 ° Ni were sequentially deposited. Photo
Dissolve resist pattern with organic solvent and deposit Ni / Ti
The film is lifted off, the element electrode interval G is set to 3 microns,
Device electrode having a device electrode width W1 of 300 microns
5 and 6 were formed (FIG. 2A). Step-b: Electrode gap G between devices and
With a mask having an opening in the vicinity of
The r film 121 is deposited and patterned by vacuum evaporation.
Organic Pd (ccp4230 Okuno Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.)
Co., Ltd.) is spin-coated with a spinner at 300 ° C. for 10 minutes.
Was heated and baked. Also, the principal element thus formed
For forming an electron emitting portion composed of fine particles of Pb as element
The thickness of the thin film 2 is 100 Å, sheet resistance
Was 2 × 10 4 Ω / □. Note that
As described above, the particle film is a collection of a plurality of fine particles.
It is a film, and as its fine structure, fine particles are individually dispersed and distributed.
Not only in the placed state, but also when
Refers to membranes in an overlapped state (including islands)
Particle size refers to fine particles whose particle shape is recognizable in the above state.
Diameter. Step-c: Cr film and electron emission after firing
Etching the thin film 2 for forming a part with an acid etchant
A desired pattern was formed. Through the above steps, on the substrate 1
Then, the device electrodes 5 and 6 and the thin film 2 for forming the electron-emitting portion are formed.
(FIG. 2B). Step-d: Next, the measurement-evaluation apparatus shown in FIG.
And evacuated by vacuum pump, 2 × 10 -5
After the pressure reaches torr, the device voltage Vf is applied to the device.
From the power supply 31 for applying power, the device electrodes 5 of each of the four devices,
A voltage is applied between each of the 6 and the energization process (Forming
Processing). The voltage waveform of the forming process is shown in FIG.
(B). In FIG. 4B, T1 and T2 are voltage waveforms.
In this embodiment, T1 is 1
Millisecond, T2 is 10 milliseconds, and the peak value of the square wave
The peak voltage at the time of
Then, a forming process was performed. Also forming
During the process, at the same time, the resistance is measured between T2 and 0.1V.
A constant pulse was inserted and the resistance was measured. In addition, forming
The process ends when the measured value with the resistance measurement pulse is about 1 M
The voltage applied to the device
finished. Forming voltage V of each element
formIs 5.1V, 5.0V, 5.0V, 5.15V
there were. Step-e: Subsequently, a forming process was performed.
For each of the four elements, a rectangular wave having the waveform shown in FIG.
The peak values are 4V and 14V, respectively.
Made sense. Low resistance activation processing, that is, activation processing at 4 V
The device sample obtained was subjected to device A, a high resistance activation process, that is,
An element sample that has been activated at 14 V is referred to as an element B.
I will. The activation process is, as described above, the measurement shown in FIG.
In the evaluation device, a pulse voltage is applied between the device electrodes and the device current I
It was applied while measuring f and emission current Ie. In addition, this
At this time, the degree of vacuum in the measurement and evaluation apparatus of FIG.
-5 torr. Activation in about 30 minutes
Finished. In this way, the electron emitting portion 3 is formed,
An element was manufactured. The surface conduction type electron emission produced in the above steps
In order to grasp the characteristics and form of the devices, the devices A, B
Are measured one by one, and the measurement of the electron emission characteristics
This was performed using a measurement evaluation device. Also, power the remaining ones at a time.
Observed with a microscope. Note that the distance between the anode electrode and the electron-emitting device is
4 mm, anode electrode potential 1 kV, electron emission characteristics
The degree of vacuum in the vacuum device at the time of measuring the property is 1 × 10 minus 6
The power was torr. Both elements A and B are between electrodes 5 and 6
Is applied with an element voltage of 14 V, and an element current I flowing at that time is applied.
f and emission current Ie were measured. For element A, start measurement
Immediately after, a device current If of about 10 mA flows and gradually decreases.
Accordingly, an emission current Ie was observed. one
On the other hand, in the element B, a stable element current I
f, emission current Ie was observed.
The current If becomes 2.0 mA and the emission current Ie becomes 1.0 μA.
Thus, the electron emission efficiency η = Ie / If × 100 (%) is 0.1.
05%. As described above, the element A has the element current If
Is extremely large and unstable at the beginning of measurement
On the other hand, the element B is stable and has an efficiency η from the beginning of the measurement.
It can be seen that the electron emission device has good performance. Further, for the element B, the vacuum for the activation
Return to 1.5x10 minus 5th power, 0.00
While sweeping the voltage with a triangular wave of about 5 Hz, the element current I
f, the emission current Ie is measured.
The characteristics were shown. As shown in FIG. 7, up to about 5 V,
After the element current If monotonically increases, the voltage is controlled at 5 V or more.
Indicates negative resistance. At this time, the element current If indicates the maximum.
The voltage (referred to as VP) is 5V. 10V or more
In this case, the element current If is a fraction of the maximum element current.
It was about mA. Of the devices A and B observed with an electron microscope
The form is the same as that shown in FIGS.
You. As shown in FIG. 6B, in the element A, a thin film between the element electrodes
Many conductive films (deposits)
It can be seen that the object 61 is formed. On the other hand, in element B
FIG. 6A shows that the voltage applied to the element during the activation process is
Depending on the direction of application, in particular, higher electric power than a part of the transformed part 3
A film (deposit) mainly on the conductive film 4 on the potential electrode 5 side
61 had been formed. Furthermore, a high magnification FESEM (2
When observed with a secondary electron microscope), this coating
It seems that particles are also formed around the particles and between the particles.
Was. Incidentally, TEM (transmission electron microscope) Raman
Observation shows that from graphite and amorphous carbon
A carbon coating was observed. From these observations, it was found that in the element A,
Active below the voltage Vp indicating the voltage-controlled negative resistance described in
Thin film generated by the forming process
More carbon is formed in part of the altered part than in element B,
An extremely large element current flows, and the measured voltage
The carbon coating formed between the high potential side and the low potential side
And an element current several times that of element B flows,
It is considered that the element current fluctuated. On the other hand, the element subjected to the high resistance activation process
B, the voltage Vp indicating the above-described voltage-controlled negative resistance
Since the element was activated as described above, a part of the deteriorated part was
Although a carbon coating is formed on the element A, the carbon coating is
It is thought that there are many parts that are partially electrically disconnected
You. Therefore, it is considered that the current became stable from the beginning of driving.
available. As described above, the device resistance is increased by the high resistance activating process.
Efficient electrons with stable current If and emission current Ie
An emission has been created. (Embodiment 2) In this embodiment, a large number of surface conduction
Forming Apparatus with Simple Matrix-Type Electron-Emitting Elements
This is an example. FIG. 13 is a plan view of a part of the electron source. Ma
FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken along the line AA ′ in the figure. However, FIG.
3, the same symbols are shown in FIGS. 14, 15, and 16.
Indicates the same thing. Here, 1 is a substrate, and 82 is D in FIG.
X wiring corresponding to xm (also referred to as lower wiring), 83
The Y-direction wiring corresponding to Dyn in FIG.
4) a thin film including an electron emitting portion, 5 and 6 device electrodes,
141 is an interlayer insulating layer, 142 is the element electrode 5 and the lower wiring 82
And a contact hole for electrical connection. Next, the manufacturing method will be described with reference to FIGS.
This will be described in detail according to the order. Step-a: Thickness on cleaned blue plate glass
A 0.5 micron silicon oxide film is formed by sputtering.
50 angstrom thick by vacuum evaporation on the substrate 1
Cr and Au with a thickness of 6000 angstroms
After lamination, a photoresist (AZ1370 Hoechst)
Spin-coated with a spinner and baked.
The mask image is exposed and developed, and the resist pattern of the lower wiring 82 is exposed.
And wet etching of Au / Cr deposited film
Thus, a lower wiring 82 having a desired shape is formed (see FIG. 15).
(A)). Step-b: Next, a 1.0 μm thick silicon
RF sputtering of the interlayer insulating layer 141 made of a silicon oxide film
It is deposited by a method (FIG. 15B). Step-c: Silicon deposited in Step b
Photo for forming contact hole 142 in oxide film
Create a resist pattern and use it as a mask for interlayer insulation
Etch layer 141 to form contact hole 142
To achieve. Etching is RIE using CF4 and H2 gas
(Reactive Ion Etching) method
((C) of FIG. 15). Step-d: Thereafter, the device electrode 5 and the device electrode
The pattern to be the gap G is defined by photoresist (RD
-2000N-41 manufactured by Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.) and vacuum evaporation
By the method, 50 angstrom thick Ti, 10 thick
00 angstroms of Ni were sequentially deposited. Hotle
Dissolve the strike pattern with an organic solvent and remove the Ni / Ti deposited film.
Lift off, device electrode spacing G is 3 microns, device electrode
Width W1 is 300 microns, and device electrodes 5 and 6 are formed.
((D) of FIG. 15). Step-e: Upper wiring 8 on device electrodes 5 and 6
After forming the photoresist pattern of No.3, a thickness of 50 on
Gustrom Ti, 5000 Angstrom thickness
Au is sequentially deposited by vacuum evaporation, and lift-off is performed.
Unnecessary parts are removed to form upper wiring 84 of desired shape
((E) of FIG. 16). Step-f: Thickness 1000 Å
And patterning of Cr film 151 by vacuum evaporation
And organic Pd (ccp4230 Okuno Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.)
Co., Ltd.) with a spinner and spin coating at 300 ° C. for 10 minutes
The intermediate heating and firing treatment was performed. Also, the Lord formed in this way
Formation of electron emission portion composed of fine particles made of Pd as element
Film 2 is 85 Å, sheet resistance
Was 3.9 × 10 4 Ω / □. Note that here
As described above, a fine particle film is formed by collecting a plurality of fine particles.
The film has a fine structure, in which fine particles are individually separated.
Fine particles are adjacent to each other, not only in the dispersed state
Or, it refers to a film in an overlapping state (including an island shape)
The particle size of the particles refers to fine particles whose particle shape can be recognized in the above state.
(F) in FIG. 16. Step-g: Cr film 151 and fired electrons
Etching of thin film 2 for forming emission part by acid etchant
Thus, a desired pattern was formed (FIG. 16 (g)). Step-h: From contact hole 142
Form a pattern to apply resist outside and vacuum
50 angstrom thick Ti by evaporation, thickness 50
00 Å of Au was sequentially deposited. Lifto
Contact by removing unnecessary parts
The hole 142 was buried (FIG. 16 (h)). By the above steps, the lower wiring is formed on the insulating substrate 1.
82, interlayer insulating layer 141, upper wiring 83, element wiring 5,
6. The thin film 2 and the like for forming an electron emission portion were formed. Next, the electron source group created as described above
FIG. 9 shows an example in which an electron source and a display device are configured using a plate.
This will be described with reference to FIG. The substrate 1 on which the element was manufactured as described above
Is fixed on the rear plate 91, and 5 mm
The face plate 96 (the inner surface of the glass substrate 93)
And a fluorescent film 94 and a metal back 95 are formed thereon.
Is disposed via the support frame 92, and the face plate 9
6. Frit on the joint between the support frame 92 and the rear plate 91
Apply glass and apply 400
Seal by baking at ℃ ~ 500 ℃ for more than 10 minutes
Was. The fixing of the substrate 1 to the rear plate 91 is also fritted.
Made with glass. In this embodiment, reference numeral 84 in FIG.
Electron-emitting device before formation of part (e.g., equivalent to FIG.
82 and 83 are the X direction and the Y direction, respectively.
Element wiring. The fluorescent film 94 is a fluorescent film in the case of monochrome.
In this embodiment, the phosphor is striped.
(Fig. 10 (a)), first with black strike
Phosphors, apply phosphors of each color to the gaps,
94 were produced. Usually as black stripe material
A commonly used material mainly composed of graphite was used.
The method of applying the phosphor on the glass substrate 93 is a slurry method.
Using. The inner surface of the fluorescent film 94 is usually made of metal.
A back 95 is provided. Metal back is made of fluorescent film
After that, the inner surface of the fluorescent film is smoothed (usually
After that, A1 is vacuum-deposited.
And was produced. The face plate 96 is further provided with a fluorescent film 9.
In order to enhance the conductivity of the fluorescent film 94, a transparent electrode
Although a pole (not shown) may be provided, in this embodiment,
Omit it because the metal back alone provided sufficient conductivity.
Was. When performing the above-mentioned sealing, in the case of color, each color
Phosphors and electron-emitting devices must be matched
Therefore, sufficient alignment was performed. In the glass container completed as described above,
The atmosphere is exhausted by a vacuum pump through an exhaust pipe (not shown)
Then, after reaching a sufficient degree of vacuum, there is no terminal Dxo1 outside the container.
Electron emission element through Doxm and Doy1 to Doyn
A voltage is applied between the electrodes 5 and 6 of the element 74 to form an electron emission portion.
The forming thin film 2 was subjected to forming processing. Forming process
The voltage waveform is the same as that shown in FIG. In this embodiment, T1 is 1 millisecond, and T2 is 10
Milliseconds and vacuum of about 1 × 10 -5 torr
Performed under atmosphere. The electron emitting section 3 thus created is
Fine particles mainly composed of radium element dispersed
And the average particle size of the fine particles is 30 angstroms.
Was Next, with the same rectangular wave as the forming,
14V, vacuum of 2 × 10 minus 5th power torr true
While measuring the device current If and the emission current Ie at the air temperature,
A high resistance activation process was performed. [0143] Forming and activating processes are performed, and electron emission is performed.
The protrusion 3 was formed, and the electron-emitting device 84 was manufactured. Next, a vacuum of about 10 −6 Torr is applied.
And exhaust gas (not shown) with a gas burner.
Thus, the envelope was sealed. Finally, in order to maintain the degree of vacuum after sealing,
Getter treatment was performed by a high-frequency heating method. The image display device of the present invention completed as described above
In each case, each electron-emitting device has a terminal Dx1 outside the container.
Scanning signals and signals through the chairs Dxm, Dy1 to Dyn
The modulation signal is applied by signal generation means (not shown).
As a result, electrons are emitted, and the electrons are emitted through the high-voltage terminal Hv.
A high voltage of 5 kV or more is applied to the
The fluorescent film 99 to accelerate and emit light.
The image was displayed. Also, the device current If, the emission current I
e both show the solid line in FIG. 7 and are stable from the beginning of driving.
Was. Also, at this time, the luminance 10 required for the television.
The emission current was able to correspond to 0 fL to 150 fL. (Embodiment 3) FIG. 17 shows the surface transfer described above.
Display panel using conductive electron-emitting device as electron source
To various channels such as television broadcasting
To display image information provided by other image information sources
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an example of a display device configured as described above. FIG.
7, 17100 is a display panel, 17101 is
Display panel driving circuit, 17102 is a display
Ray controller, 17103 is a multiplexer, 171
04 is a decoder, 17105 is an input / output interface
Circuit, 17106 is a CPU, and 17107 is an image generation circuit.
Roads, 17108, 17109, and 17110
Molly interface circuit, 17111
Interface circuit, 17112 and 17113 are TV
The signal receiving circuit 17114 is an input unit (note that this table
The display device includes video information such as a television signal.
If a signal containing both audio information is received,
It reproduces sound simultaneously with the display of an image.
Reception, separation, playback,
Explanation of circuits and speakers related to memory etc.
Is omitted. ). The functions of each unit will be described below according to the flow of the image signal.
I will explain. First, the TV signal receiving circuit 17113 is an example.
For example, using a wireless transmission system such as radio waves or spatial optical communication
This is a circuit for receiving a transmitted TV image signal. Receiving
The type of the TV signal to be transmitted is not particularly limited.
For example, NTSC, PAL, SECAM, etc.
Various methods may be used. Also, more scanning lines than these
TV signal (for example, MUSE
So-called high-definition TV) is suitable for large area and large number of pixels.
Signals suitable for taking advantage of the display panel
Source. T received by the TV signal receiving circuit 17113
The V signal is output to the decoder 17104. The TV signal receiving circuit 17112 is an example.
Wired transmission system such as coaxial cable or optical fiber
A circuit for receiving TV image signals transmitted using
is there. Like the TV signal receiving circuit 17113,
The type of TV signal used is not particularly limited.
The TV signal received by this circuit is also output to the decoder 17104.
Is forced. The image input interface circuit 17
111 is, for example, a TV camera or an image reading scanner
For capturing image signals supplied from an image input device such as
The captured image signal is supplied to a decoder 1710
4 is output. Also, an image memory interface circuit
17110 is a video tape recorder (hereinafter referred to as VTR).
Circuit for capturing the image signal stored in the
Then, the captured image signal is output to the decoder 17104.
Is done. An image memory interface circuit
Reference numeral 17109 denotes an image signal stored in the video disc.
Circuit to capture the image signal.
Output to coder 17104. An image memory interface circuit
17108 is a still image disk,
Import image signal from device that stores image data
The captured still image data is decoded by a decoder
17104. In addition, I / O interface
The display circuit 17105 includes the display device and an external computer.
Data or computer network or printer
This is a circuit for connecting to an output device such as a printer. image
Input and output of data and character / graphic information
In some cases, the CPU 171 included in the display device
Input and output of control signals and numerical data between the 06 and the outside
It is also possible to do. Further, the image generation circuit 17107
Externally via output interface circuit 17105
Input image data, character / graphic information, or C
Image data and characters / graphics output from PU17106
A circuit for generating display image data based on information
is there. Inside this circuit, for example, image data, characters and figures
Rewritable memory for storing shape information and characters
Readout where the image pattern corresponding to the code is stored
Dedicated memory and processor for image processing
And other necessary circuits for image generation.
ing. Display image data generated by this circuit
Is output to the decoder 17104, but in some cases
Through the input / output interface circuit 17105
Output to an external computer network or printer
It is also possible. Also, the CPU 17106 is mainly
Control of display device operation, generation, selection and editing of display images.
Work. For example, the multiplexer 17103 controls
Image signal to output signal and display on display panel
Are appropriately selected or combined. Also, at that time
Is the display panel control according to the image signal to be displayed.
Generates a control signal to the roller 17102 and displays the screen
Frequency and scanning method (eg interlaced or non-interlaced)
Operation of the display device, such as the number of scanning lines on one screen
Is appropriately controlled. The image generation circuit 17107
Output image data and character / graphic information directly
Or via the input / output interface circuit 17105
To access an external computer or memory
Input data and text / graphic information. Note that the CPU 171
06 is, of course, related to work for other purposes.
Good. For example, personal computer or word
A device that generates and processes information, such as a processor
You may be directly involved in Noh. Alternatively, enter
An external core is connected via the output interface circuit 17105.
Computer network, for example, numerical calculations
May be performed in cooperation with an external device. The input unit 17114 is connected to the CPU 1
The user inputs an instruction, program, or data to 7106
Input, such as a keyboard or keyboard.
In addition to the mouse, joystick, barcode reader,
It is possible to use various input devices such as voice recognition devices.
You. Also, the decoder 17104 is
Various image signals input from 07 to 17113
Inverse conversion into three primary color signals, or luminance signal and I signal, Q signal
It is a circuit for performing. As shown by the dotted line in FIG.
In addition, the decoder 17104 has an image memory inside.
It is desirable. This is the case with the MUSE system, for example.
Then, image memory is required for inverse conversion.
This is to handle such TV signals. Further, by providing an image memory, static
The display of a still image becomes easy, or the image generation circuit 1
Image thinning in cooperation with 7107 and CPU 17106
Image processing such as interpolation, enlargement, reduction,
Do you have the advantage of easier editing?
It is. The multiplexer 17103 is
Display based on control signal input from CPU 17106
The image is appropriately selected. That is, multiple
The mixer 17103 is the inverse of the signal input from the decoder 17104.
Select a desired image signal from the converted image signals
And outputs it to the drive circuit 17101. In that case, one stroke
Switching and selecting image signals within the screen display time
One screen can be divided into multiple areas like a multi-screen TV.
Different images can be displayed in different areas
Noh. The display panel controller 1
Reference numeral 7102 denotes a control input from the CPU 17106.
To control the operation of the driving circuit 17101 based on the signal
Circuit. First, the basic operation of the display panel
Related to, for example, display panel
For controlling the operation sequence of the driving power supply (not shown)
A signal is output to the driving circuit 17101. Ma
It also relates to the driving method of the display panel.
Screen frequency and scanning method (for example,
To control tarlacing or non-interlacing)
A signal is output to the driver circuit 17101. Further, in some cases, the brightness or
For adjusting image quality such as contrast, color tone and sharpness
A related control signal is output to the driving circuit 17101.
In some cases. The driving circuit 17101 is a display
For generating a drive signal to be applied to panel 17100
And a circuit input from the multiplexer 17103.
Image signal and the display panel controller
It operates based on the control signal input from 17102.
Things. The function of each part has been described above.
With the illustrated configuration, various images can be displayed on the display device.
Image information input from an information source is displayed on a display panel 1
7100 can be displayed. That is, TV
Various image signals including John broadcasting are supplied to the decoder 1
After the inverse conversion at 7104, the multiplexer 17
103, and is input to the driving circuit 17101.
Is forced. On the other hand, the display controller 17102
Is the operation of the driving circuit 17101 in accordance with the image signal to be displayed.
A control signal for controlling the operation is generated. Drive circuit 17
101 is a display based on the image signal and the control signal.
A drive signal is applied to the play panel 17100. to this
Thus, an image is displayed on the display panel 17100.
Shown. These series of operations are performed by the CPU 17106.
More comprehensive control. In the present display device, the decoding
Image memory built in the
Display 7107 and the selected information
In addition to the image information to be displayed,
Reduction, rotation, movement, edge enhancement, thinning, interpolation, color change
Image processing, such as image aspect ratio conversion,
Including synthesis, erasing, connecting, swapping, fitting, etc.
It is also possible to perform image editing. Also, in this embodiment,
Although not specifically mentioned in the explanation, the above image processing and image editing
To process and edit audio information as well
May be provided. Therefore, this display device is a television
Display equipment, video conference terminal equipment, still images and
Image editing equipment that handles moving images, computer terminal equipment,
Office terminal equipment such as word processors, games
It is possible to combine functions such as
It has a very wide range of applications for industrial or consumer use. FIG. 17 shows a display conduction type emission device.
Display device using display panel as electron beam source
This is just an example of the configuration of the
Needless to say, it is not. For example, in FIG.
Circuits related to functions that are unnecessary for the intended use of the components
Can be omitted. Conversely, the purpose of use
Depending on the case, additional components may be added. for example
For example, if this display device is applied as a videophone,
Includes TV camera, voice microphone, illuminator, modem
It is preferable to add a transmission / reception circuit or the like to the components. In this display device, in particular, the surface conduction
Panel using an electron emitter as an electron beam source
The depth of the display device is reduced because the
Can be In addition, surface conduction electron-emitting devices
Display panel with electron beam as electron beam source has a large screen
Display with high brightness and high viewing angle characteristics
The device displays images that are full of presence and powerful, with good visibility.
It is possible to show. (Embodiment 4) In this embodiment, a number of surface conduction types are used.
Image type having an electron-emitting device and a control electrode (grid)
It is an example of a forming device. The method of manufacturing the image forming apparatus of this embodiment is
Since it was produced by a method substantially the same as that of Example 2, the description will be described in detail. First, a surface conduction electron-emitting device was placed on a substrate.
Implementation of a large number of electron sources and display devices using them
An example will be described. FIGS. 19 and 20 show surface transfer on a substrate.
Two electron sources formed by arranging a large number of conductive electron-emitting devices
It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the example of. First, in FIG. 19, S is glass, for example.
Insulating substrate made of material, ES surrounded by a dotted line is the substrate
Surface conduction electron-emitting devices provided on S, E1 to E
10 is a wiring for wiring the surface conduction electron-emitting device.
Represents a wire electrode. Surface conduction electron-emitting devices
It is formed in rows along the X direction on the plate (hereinafter referred to as
Below, this is called an element row.) The surface transfer that constitutes each element row
The conductive electron-emitting device is formed by the wiring electrodes on both sides sandwiching it.
Are electrically connected in parallel in parallel (for example, the first
The columns are wired by wiring electrodes E1 and E2 on both sides.
). The electron source of this embodiment is provided with an appropriate
Drives each element row independently by applying drive voltage
It is possible to That is, the electron beam is emitted
An appropriate voltage exceeding the electron emission threshold is applied to the element row
An electron emission threshold is set for an element row that does not emit an electron beam.
If an appropriate voltage that does not exceed (for example, 0 [V]) is applied,
Good (note that in the following description,
The appropriate drive voltage is referred to as VE [V]. ). FIG. 20 shows another example of the electron source.
S is, for example, an insulating substrate made of glass,
ES surrounded by a dotted line indicates a surface transfer provided on the substrate S.
The conduction type electron-emitting devices E'1 to E'6 are the surface conduction type
Wiring electrodes for common wiring of electron-emitting devices
I have. As in the example of FIG.
The conduction electron-emitting devices are formed in rows along the X direction.
The surface conduction electron-emitting devices in each device row are connected by wiring electrodes.
Therefore, they are electrically wired in parallel in parallel. In addition,
For example, the common wiring on one side of the first row and the second row of the element row is
In this embodiment, the pole E′2 is adjacent to the pole E′2.
The common wiring on the adjacent side of the element row to be
Is going. The electron source of this embodiment is different from the column of FIG.
The surface conduction electron-emitting device and the wiring electrode
When used, the arrangement interval in the Y direction can be reduced.
The advantage is that The electron source of this embodiment is provided with an appropriate
Drives each element row independently by applying drive voltage
It is possible to That is, the electron to be emitted
The electron emission element array is an element array that does not emit VE [V].
For example, a voltage of 0 [V] may be applied. for example
For example, to drive only the third column, E'1 to E'3
Is applied with a potential of 0 [V], and E'4 to E '
A potential of VE [V] is applied to each of the wiring electrodes 6. That
As a result, the voltage of VE-0 = VE [V] is applied to the third element row.
Pressure is applied, but for other element rows, 0-0 = 0
0 [V] or VE-VE = 0 [V].
That is, the voltage of [V] is applied. Ma
For example, when driving the second and fifth columns at the same time,
Means that 0 [V] is applied to the wiring electrodes E'1, E'2, and E'6.
VE [V] is applied to the wiring electrodes E'3, E'4, and E'5.
May be applied. Thus, in this embodiment,
However, it is possible to selectively drive any element row.
You. Note that the electron source shown in FIGS.
For convenience of illustration, the surface conduction electron-emitting device is represented by X
In the direction, 12 elements are arranged in one row, but the number of elements is
The present invention is not limited to this, and a larger number may be arranged. Ma
In addition, although five element rows are arranged in the Y direction, the number of element rows is
The present invention is not limited to this, and a larger number may be arranged. Next, a flat plate type CRT using the above-mentioned electron source
Will be described with an example. FIG. 21 shows a flat plate provided with the electron source shown in FIG.
FIG. 5 is a view showing a panel structure of a type CRT, and is a view showing VC
Is a vacuum container made of glass, and FP, which is a part of it, is a display surface.
2 shows a side face plate. Face plate
On the inner surface of the FP, for example, a transparent electrode made of ITO is used.
Are formed, and red, green, and blue fluorescent lights are formed on the transparent electrode.
Body painted mosaic or striped
You. In order to avoid complication of the drawing, transparent electrodes and fluorescent
The light bodies are collectively shown as PH. In addition, fireflies of each color
Between the light bodies, a black matrix known in the field of CRTs is used.
Or black stripes.
Forming a well-known metal back layer on the light body
Is also possible. The transparent electrode has an acceleration voltage of an electron beam.
Can be applied to the outside of the vacuum container through terminal EV
Connected. S is fixed to the bottom of the vacuum vessel VC.
Surface of the electron source substrate as described with reference to FIG.
Conductive electron-emitting devices are arranged. This implementation
In the example, 200 elements were wired in parallel per column
200 element rows are provided. Two arrangements for each element row
The line electrodes are the electrode terminals Dp provided on the side surfaces of the panels on both sides.
Alternately connected to 1 to Dp200 and Dm1 to Dm200
Drive electric signal can be applied from outside the vacuum vessel.
Swelling. In the substrate S and the face plate FP,
A grid electrode GR in the form of a stripe is provided between them.
I have. The grid electrode GR is orthogonal to the element row (the
That is, along the Y direction)
Each grid electrode passes an electron beam.
Opening Gh is provided. Openings Gh are surface conduction types
A circular one is provided for each electron-emitting device.
However, in some cases, a large number of
I can make money. Each grid electrode is connected to an electronic terminal G1.
~ G200 electrically connected to outside of vacuum chamber
You. The grid electrode is from a surface conduction electron-emitting device.
It can modulate the emitted electron beam.
If it is, its shape and installation position are not necessarily as shown in FIG.
For example, the periphery of a surface conduction electron-emitting device
It may be provided in the vicinity or in the vicinity. In this display panel, a surface conduction electron-emitting device is used.
200 × 200 XY mat with element rows and grid electrodes
Make up the Rix. Therefore, element rows are arranged one by one.
Grid electrode row in synchronization with sequential driving (scanning)
By simultaneously applying a modulation signal for one line to the image.
Control the irradiation of each electron beam to the phosphor, and
It is displayed line by line. Next, FIG. 22 shows the display panel of FIG.
The electric circuit for driving the motor is shown as a block diagram.
Therefore, in FIG. 22, reference numeral 1000 denotes the display panel of FIG.
001 decodes a composite image signal input from the outside
1002 is a serial / parallel conversion circuit,
1003 is a line memory, 1004 is a modulation signal generation time
1005, timing control circuit, 1006, scanning signal
Signal generation circuit. The electrode terminals of the display panel 1000 are
And each terminal is connected to an electric circuit, and the terminal EV is set to 10 [kV].
Voltage source HV for generating the acceleration voltage of
0 indicates a modulation signal generation circuit 1004 and terminals Dp1 to Dp2
00 denotes a scanning signal generation circuit 1006 and terminals Dm1 to Dm
200 is connected to the ground. Hereinafter, the function of each section will be described. First, deco
The load circuit 1001 is externally input, for example, NTSC
For decoding composite image signals such as TV signals
The luminance signal component and the synchronization signal component from the composite image signal
Separate and use the former as a Data signal for serial / para conversion
On the road 1002, use the latter as a Tsync signal
Output to the control circuit 1005. That is, the decoding circuit
A display panel 1001 displays the luminance of each of the RGB color components.
It is arranged according to 1000 color pixel arrangements.
The signals are sequentially output to the conversion circuit 1002. Also, the vertical sync signal
And a horizontal synchronization signal to extract the timing control circuit 1005
Output to The timing control circuit 1005
The operation timing of each unit is adjusted based on the signal Tsync.
Various timing control signals for synchronizing are generated. One
In other words, for the serial / para conversion circuit 1002, Tsp
And Tmry for the line memory 1003
Tmod scan signal generation for signal generation circuit 1004
Tscan is output to the circuit 1006. The serial / para conversion circuit 1002 decodes
The luminance signal Data input from the circuit 1001 is
Signal Ts input from the control circuit 1005
sampling based on p and 200 parallel signals
No. I1 to I200 appear on the line memory 1003
Power. The timing control circuit 1005 controls one line of the image.
Line memory at the point when the minute data is converted to serial / para
1003 for the write timing control signal Tmry
Is output. Line memory 1003 receives Tmry
And the contents of I1 to I200 and store them in I'1
~ I'200 to the modulation signal generation circuit 1004
However, this is the next write timing control in the line memory.
It is held until the control signal Tmry is input. The modulation signal generation circuit 1004 is a line memory
The luminance data for one line of the image input from 1003
Apply to grid electrode of display panel 1000
Circuit for generating a modulated signal
Timing control signal Tm generated by the
simultaneously to the modulation signal terminals G1 to G200
Apply. The modulation signal is a voltage signal according to the luminance data of the image.
A voltage modulation method that changes the size is used, but the brightness data
Uses a pulse width modulation method that changes the voltage pulse length according to
It is also possible. The scanning signal generation circuit 1006 operates as a display
The element array of the surface conduction electron-emitting device of
A circuit for generating a voltage pulse for driving
You. Timing generated by the timing control circuit 1005
Internal switching appropriately according to control signal Tscan
The circuit is switched and the surface conduction type electricity generated by the constant voltage source DV is generated.
Drive voltage VE [V] exceeding the threshold value of the electron-emitting device
Or ground level (that is, 0 [V]).
And apply it to the terminals Dp1 to Dp200. With the above circuit, the display panel 1000
Is the drive signal at the timing shown in the time chart of FIG.
Is applied. 23A to 23D show scanning signals.
From the generation circuit 1006 to the display panel terminals Dp1 to Dp2
A part of the signal applied to 00 is shown, as can be seen in the figure.
When a voltage pulse of amplitude VE [V] is displayed on one line of the image
Dp1, Dp2, Dp3,...
Go on. On the other hand, the terminals Dm1 to Dm200 are always ground.
Level (0 [V]), the voltage
The element row is driven sequentially from the first row by the
Is output. Further, in synchronization with this, the modulation signal generating circuit 1
004 to the image at the timing indicated by the dotted line in FIG.
Modulation signals for one line are simultaneously marked on terminals G1 to G200.
Be added. Synchronous with the switching of the scanning signal
The modulation signal is also switched, and an image for one screen is displayed.
Go on. By repeating this process continuously,
It is possible to display a vision moving image. As described above, the flat type CR provided with the electron source shown in FIG.
T has been described. Next, the electron source shown in FIG.
A flat CRT will be described with reference to FIG. The flat-plate type CRT shown in FIG.
The flat panel type CRT shown in FIG.
Replaced with the electron-emitting device row and grid electrode
Form a 200 × 200 XY matrix. Was
However, the wiring of the surface conduction electron-emitting devices in 200 rows is E1
E201 to 201 wiring electrodes,
201 electrode terminals Ex1 to Ex201 in the vacuum vessel
Is provided. FIG. 25 shows how the present display panel 1008 is driven.
The driving circuit is shown, except for the scanning signal generating circuit 1007.
This is basically the same as the circuit shown in FIG. Scan signal
The generation circuit 1007 is provided with the surface conduction generated by the constant voltage source DV.
Drive voltage exceeding the electron emission threshold of the EB type electron emission device
VE [V] or ground level (0 [V])
Output to the terminal of the display panel.
The timing chart is shown in the time chart of FIG. Display panel
The display operation is performed at the timing shown in FIG.
The electrode terminals Ex1 to Ex4 have a scanning signal generation circuit 100.
7, drive signals as shown in (b) to (e) are applied.
You. Therefore, (f) to (f)
A voltage as shown in (h) is applied and driven sequentially one by one.
You. In synchronization with this, the modulation signal generation circuit 1004
Modulated signals are output at the timing shown in FIG.
An image is displayed. The image forming apparatus of this embodiment is the same as that of the second embodiment.
It had the same effect. [0197] As described above, according to the present invention,
Due to the activation process of the electron-emitting device,
Has graphite or amorphous carbon
Or a carbon-based coating consisting of a mixture of
Because of controlled coating, it was previously unknown in vacuum.
Control of the electron emission characteristics became possible. More preferably, the activating step is performed on the thin film.
A step of coating a film containing carbon as a main component;
Voltage-controlled negative resistance characteristic region on a pair of electrodes of the electron-emitting device
By applying the above voltage, the electron emission portion
Is coated on the higher potential side with a coating containing carbon as the main component.
Characteristics are more stable than in the initial stage of driving the electron-emitting device.
The production of highly efficient electron-emitting devices with low device current
It has become possible. Further, electrons are emitted according to an input signal.
Electron source is stable and yields well
Now you can. In addition, power consumption is
With less power, less burden on peripheral circuits etc.
Was offered. In an image forming apparatus, a stable and
Controlled electron emission characteristics and efficiency are improved.
In an image forming apparatus using a light body as an image forming member, a low
A high-quality image forming apparatus, such as a color
TV was realized.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a configuration of a basic surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a view for explaining a basic manufacturing method of the surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention. FIG. 3 is a diagram of a measurement and evaluation device used for evaluating characteristics of the surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing an example of a voltage waveform in a forming process according to the present invention. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing the dependence of the device current and the emission current of the surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention on the activation processing time. FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a morphological change due to an activation process of the surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention. FIG. 7 is a view showing a typical example of the relationship among the emission current, the device current, and the device voltage of the surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention. FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a configuration of an electron source substrate according to the present invention. FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a basic configuration of an image forming apparatus according to the present invention. FIG. 10 is a view showing a fluorescent film used in the image forming apparatus of FIG. 10; FIG. 11 is a diagram showing a surface conduction electron-emitting device according to a first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a configuration of another embodiment of the basic surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention. FIG. 13 is a diagram showing a part of the configuration of an electron source according to a second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken along the line AA ′ of FIG. 13; FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view for explaining a manufacturing process of the electron source according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional view for explaining a manufacturing process of the electron source according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a display device according to a third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 is a diagram showing a configuration of a conventional surface conduction electron-emitting device. FIG. 19 is a schematic configuration diagram of an electron source substrate of an image forming apparatus according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 20 is a schematic configuration diagram of an electron source substrate of an image forming apparatus according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 21 is a panel configuration diagram of an image forming apparatus according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 22 is a block diagram illustrating an electric circuit for driving the image forming apparatus according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 23 is a time chart for explaining driving of the image forming apparatus according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 24 is a diagram illustrating a panel configuration of an image forming apparatus according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 25 is a block diagram for explaining an electric circuit for driving the image forming apparatus according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 26 is a time chart for explaining driving of the image forming apparatus according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention. DESCRIPTION OF THE REFERENCE NUMERALS 1 Substrate 2 Thin film for forming electron-emitting portion 3 Electron-emitting portion 4 Thin film including electron-emitting portion 5, 6 Device electrode 84, 74 Electron-emitting device 82, 83 Wiring 85 Connection 91 Rear plate 92 Support frame 93 Transparent substrate 94 Fluorescent film 95 Metal back 96 Face plate 98 Enclosure 141 Interlayer insulating layer 142 Contact hole

──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continuation of front page (72) Yoshikazu Sakano Inventor Canon Inc. 3- 30-2 Shimomaruko, Ota-ku, Tokyo (56) References JP-A-1-309242 (JP, A) JP-A-1 -97354 (JP, A) JP-A-5-242793 (JP, A) (58) Fields investigated (Int. Cl. 7 , DB name) H01J1 / 316 H01J 9/02

Claims (1)

  1. (57) [Claims 1] An opposing electrode and an electrode disposed between the electrodes.
    A conductive film including a crack, and the conductive film in the crack and the conductive film.
    Disposed on sex film, an electron emission device having a deposit containing carbon as a main component to be connected to the conductive film, the deposit mainly containing carbon, in said fissure, a gap
    An electron-emitting device comprising: 2. The electron-emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the conductive film is made of conductive fine particles. 3. The electron-emitting device according to claim 2 , wherein the conductive fine particles are a metal or a metal oxide. 4. A conductive fine particle is arranged in the crack.
    The electron emission device of claim 1 Re that. 5. The conductive fine particles in said cracks claim at least a portion of which is covered by the deposit 4
    3. The electron-emitting device according to item 1. 6. The electron-emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the deposit containing carbon as a main component covers at least a part of the electrode. 7. The electron-emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the deposit containing carbon as a main component is graphite, amorphous carbon, or a mixture thereof. 8. The electron-emitting device according to claim 1, wherein an electron emission current has a monotonically increasing characteristic with respect to a voltage applied between the electrodes. 9. has an electron-emitting device, the electron source for emitting electrons in response to an input signal, said electron-emitting device
    An electron source, which is the electron-emitting device according to any one of claims 1 to 8 . 10. A plurality of electron-emitting devices having a plurality of said electron-emitting devices, and a plurality of electron-emitting devices in which both ends of each of said plurality of electron-emitting devices are connected by wiring, and electron beams emitted from said electron-emitting devices The electron source according to claim 9 , further comprising: a modulation unit configured to perform the modulation of (c) . Wherein said a plurality of electron-emitting devices, claim are juxtaposed and connected to the plurality of electron-emitting device is electrically insulated m X-directional wirings and n directions wired together 1
    The electron source according to 0 . 12. and a electron source and the image forming member, in an image forming apparatus for forming an image in accordance with an input signal, said electron source comprises an electron-emitting device, the electron-emitting device according to claim
    An image forming apparatus comprising the electron-emitting device according to any one of claims 1 to 11 . 13. An electron source comprising a plurality of said electron-emitting devices, a plurality of rows of electron-emitting devices in which both ends of each of said plurality of electron-emitting devices are connected by wiring, and The image forming apparatus according to claim 12 , wherein the image forming apparatus is an electron source having a modulation unit that modulates an emitted electron beam. 14. The electron source has a plurality of electron-emitting devices, and the plurality of electron-emitting devices are connected in parallel to m X-directional wirings and n-directional wirings which are electrically insulated from each other. The image forming apparatus according to claim 12 , wherein the image forming apparatus is an electron source. Emission current and the device current as claimed in claim 14, wherein the electron source, with respect to voltage applied to the element, wherein with monotonically increasing characteristic
    Item 13. The image forming apparatus according to Item 12 . 16. The image forming apparatus is an image forming apparatus according to claim 12 which is maintained at a vacuum degree of preventing new deposits of deposit mainly containing carbon.
JP14167094A 1993-12-28 1994-06-23 Electron emitting device, method of manufacturing the same, and electron source and image forming apparatus using the electron emitting device Expired - Fee Related JP3416266B2 (en)

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