JP3368704B2 - Unmanned vehicle steering control method - Google Patents

Unmanned vehicle steering control method

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Publication number
JP3368704B2
JP3368704B2 JP02723795A JP2723795A JP3368704B2 JP 3368704 B2 JP3368704 B2 JP 3368704B2 JP 02723795 A JP02723795 A JP 02723795A JP 2723795 A JP2723795 A JP 2723795A JP 3368704 B2 JP3368704 B2 JP 3368704B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
wheel
front
traveling
wheels
guide
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JP02723795A
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Japanese (ja)
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JPH08202448A (en
Inventor
政秀 山本
陽一 杉田
Original Assignee
神鋼電機株式会社
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Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0001] BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to
Unmanned traveling by detecting guidance functions such as guidance lines laid in
How to steer unmanned vehicles such as transport vehicles and unmanned robots
Law, in particular, the optimal running mode corresponding to the conditions of the running path.
Economical configuration that can automatically select the mode and drive
A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle. [0002] 2. Description of the Related Art In warehouses and factories, goods are carried unattended.
As a means of sending, a guide line laid along the travel path
, Etc., and detect the guidance function, and drive along this guidance line, etc.
Unmanned vehicles (hereinafter abbreviated as unmanned vehicles) are often used
It is. Below, we explain the currently known unmanned vehicles roughly
I do. (First Conventional Example) FIGS. 11 to 16 show the first conventional example.
This is a human-powered car, which allows four-wheeled unmanned driving.
It is an unmanned car. FIG. 11 is a bottom view of the unmanned vehicle.
For the sake of explanation, the guide line L laid on the floor of the traveling path is also shown.
ing. Reflective tape and AC current
Conductors, magnet tapes, etc.
And the type determined according to the type of these leads
Sensor (hereinafter referred to as the guide sensor) in the traveling direction of the vehicle
Guide line, and the guide wire comes to the center of the guide sensor.
Automatically operate the steering mechanism of unmanned vehicles
I have to. In FIG. 11, reference numeral 40 denotes the first conventional example.
A human car with four wheels 41A, 41B, 41 on its body
C and 41D are mounted. Generally, out of four wheels
A drive mechanism (not shown) is mounted on a predetermined wheel of the drive wheel.
And the other wheels are driven wheels. Note that 42
A and 42B are guide sensors for detecting the guide line L.
A pair of wheels 41A and 41B of the unmanned vehicle 40 is a link machine.
The other pair of wheels 4 are rotatably connected by a frame 43.
1C and 41D are rotatably connected by a link mechanism 44
Have been. In the figure, the unmanned vehicle 40 moves rightward in the figure.
When the vehicle travels, the detection signal of the guide sensor 42A is used.
The center of the guide sensor 42A is located on the guide line L.
Steering wheel 41A, 41B on the front side
When driving to the left by automatically operating a mechanism (not shown)
Is based on the detection signal of the guide sensor 42B,
A steering mechanism (not shown) for the wheels 41C and 41D
Operate automatically. FIGS. 12A and 12B show a wheel 41A and a wheel 41A.
Shows a schematic configuration of 41B and guide sensor 42A
(A) shows the relationship between the wheel 41A, the wheel 41B, and the sensor.
FIG. 4B is a plan view showing the configuration, and FIG.
Rear views showing the configuration status.
Detailed illustrations of mechanical parts and electric circuit parts to be attached are omitted.
I have. 12 (A) and 12 (B), the wheel 41A is
It functions as a driving wheel and is driven by a traveling motor 45,
The rotation follows the rotation of the wheel 41B functioning as a drive wheel.
Turn over. Detection of the guide sensor 42A for detecting the guide line L
The control device (not shown) determines the signal, and the
In order to maintain the guide line L at the center of A
The driving signal is output to the data 46A. Therefore, stearin
The rotation of the motor 46A is performed by a gear mechanism (not shown) or the like.
The wheel 41B and the link mechanism 43 are rotated. Link mechanism
With the rotation of 43, wheel 41A becomes similar to wheel 41B.
Rotate. Therefore, the unmanned vehicle 40 travels along the guide line L.
I do. The same structure as described above is applied to the wheels 41C and 41D.
Because it is formed, unmanned vehicles in the direction of wheels 41C and 41D
When the vehicle 40 travels, the guide line by the guide sensor 42B is used.
The vehicle travels along the guide line L in accordance with the L detection signal. What
Attach the guide sensor 42A to the link 43, and
Sensor 42A is rotated in the same direction as the wheels 41A and 41B.
Some unmanned vehicles are configured to do so. [0004] Next, referring to FIG.
Explanation of the above-mentioned steering function provided for the control function
I do. In FIG. 13, the guide sensor 42 of the unmanned vehicle 40
When A detects the guide line L, the signal is converted into an input signal.
While being amplified by the function 71A, the output signal is
It is converted into a signal form corresponding to the control function 72A of the subsequent stage.
You. In this case, the guide line L is provided at the center of the guide sensor 42A.
The guide line detection signal of the guide sensor 42A when there is
Is also small, and the guide line L extends from the center of the guide sensor 42A.
If it deviates, it becomes larger corresponding to the distance. Also,
From the id sensor 42A, the center of the guide sensor 42A is
A polarity signal indicating the direction deviating from the guiding line L is output.
It is. In the input signal conversion function 71A,
If the control function 72A that performs the analog processing
This is an analog signal, which is set in advance for digital processing.
The input signal is converted to a digital signal according to the
Power. In the control function 72A, an input signal is set in advance.
Compared with the set reference signal, the deviation value is
Is output to the output amplification function 73A. Output amplification function 7
In 3A, the input steering signal is
To the steering motor 46A (wheel 41B).
To the steering motor mounted on the vehicle. Immediately
That is, the relative shift amount of the guide sensor 42A with respect to the guide line L
And steering signal by the signal component indicating the deviation direction
46A is driven by the steering motor 46A.
And the traveling direction of the wheels 41A and 41B is controlled.
It is. Therefore, the unmanned vehicle 40 is controlled to follow the guide line L.
And run. If the unmanned vehicle runs in the opposite direction,
Similarly, the detection signal of the guide line L of the guide sensor 42B is input.
Amplified and converted by the force signal conversion function 71B, the control function
Output amplification of steering signal output by 72B
Amplified by the function 73B and the steering motor 46B (wheel
To the steering motor mounted on the 41C)
I have to. Therefore, the unmanned vehicle 40 should follow the guidance line L.
It is controlled to run. FIG. 14 shows an unmanned vehicle traveling on its own road.
Know the position of yourself, and the position of the branch point to branch off from the main line
And work stations to detect
An example of the method will be described. In the example of the traveling route shown in FIG.
In addition, the traveling path R on which the guidance function is
It branches into a line R1 and a branch path R2. Shown on runway R
Unmanned vehicles at each position of A, B, C and D shown on the road R1
Compatible with the mark sensor attached to the camera and its signal processing function
The address signal mark is fixed in place along the road
I have. A, b, c, d, e, f,
g and h and i shown on the traveling path R1, p shown on the traveling path R2,
At the position of q, the mark sensor attached to the unmanned
The position mark corresponding to the signal reading function is fixed. [0007] The control functions (not shown) of the unmanned vehicle include unmanned vehicles.
Know where the car is traveling on the track
Address storage function is provided. That is, unmanned vehicles
Passes the address signal mark fixed position such as A position or B position
The address signal mark at that position
Revise the contents of the ground memory function. Further, for example, unmanned vehicles
Reads the contents of the address storage function at position A, and
After amending according to the contents, when passing the a position, the address memory
Increase the contents of Noh by one. Position mark in this way
Increases the content value of the address storage function by one each time a location passes
Add. Next, the content value of the passing address signal mark is
Since it is set to match the content value of the ground memory function,
Each time the address storage function passes the position mark, it changes correctly.
Address, the address is written even after passing the address signal mark position.
The contents of the memory function do not change, but the
If the content value of the location memory function changes, this address signal
The content value of the address storage function is revised with the content value of the work address. [0008] The position information grasped by the unmanned vehicle itself is
Depending on the content preconfigured by the stem, for example,
Transmission to the central control unit installed on the ground by the communication function
I do. In addition, work previously input to the storage function of the unmanned vehicle
Execute the command at the specified address according to the contents of the command etc.
You. For example, at the position C of the traveling path R,
It is determined whether the vehicle is traveling or traveling in the direction of the fork R2 and is executed.
Is done. Also stops at the command address that determines the cargo handling position
Then, a predetermined operation determined by the command is performed. Nothing
In the position signal mark where the human car needs an accurate stop
Therefore, only the address determined by
If low, predetermined wheel of unmanned vehicle or measurement not shown
Output from a pulse encoder, etc. attached to the wheel
Count the pulses output for each fixed traveling distance and
The distance between the positioning signal marks is interpolated. (Second conventional example) The first conventional example described above
Unmanned vehicles have guide wheels with wheels in the direction of travel mounted on the same side.
The structure was controlled by a sensor, but the second
The conventional unmanned vehicle has a different configuration. FIG.
5, reference numeral 50 denotes a second conventional unmanned vehicle.
Has a link mechanism 51A, 51B provided on one side.
53 and a guide sensor 52Aa in both directions.
And 52Ab are mounted, and a wheel 51 provided on the opposite side is provided.
C and 51D are connected by a link mechanism 54 to
Are mounted with guide sensors 52Ba and 52Bb.
Therefore, the unmanned vehicle 50 travels rightward in FIG.
Detection of the guide line L by the guide sensor 52Aa
Steering mechanism of wheels 51A, 51B by signal
(Not shown), and by the guide sensor 52Ba.
Of the wheels 51C and 51D by the detection signal of the guiding line L
Operate the tearing mechanism (not shown) along the guide line L
To run. The unmanned vehicle 50 is located on the left in FIG.
When traveling in the opposite direction, guidance by the guide sensor 52Bb
Steering of wheels 51C and 51D by detection signal of line L
Operating a guiding mechanism (not shown),
The wheels 51A, 5A, 5B
Operate the 1B steering mechanism (not shown) to guide the
Drive along L. (Third Conventional Example) FIG. 16 shows a third conventional example.
It shows an unmanned vehicle 60, and the body of the unmanned vehicle 60 has
Wheels 61A and 61B provided at one end are connected to a link mechanism 63.
Therefore, the guides are connected similarly to the unmanned vehicle shown in FIG.
The sensor 62A is mounted. On the other side of the unmanned car 60
The provided wheels 61C and 61D are connected by a link mechanism 64.
And the guide sensor 62B is the same as the guide sensor 62A.
Mounted in one direction. That is, the unmanned vehicle 60
When the vehicle travels rightward in the figure, the guide sensor 62
The wheels 61A, 61A are detected by the detection signal of the guide line L by A.
Operate the steering mechanism (not shown) of B
The detection signal of the guide line L by the sensor 62B
Operate the steering mechanism (not shown) of C, 61D
The vehicle travels along the guide line L. However, this unmanned car 60
Does not travel in the left direction in FIG.
This applies to systems that only run in the direction. Further, for applications
Therefore, like a forklift on the body of an unmanned vehicle,
A guide sensor is provided on the front side, and the steering function is provided on the rear wheels.
Some are provided. (Prior Art) Also, as disclosed in a patent gazette,
For example, Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 1-92812
(Hereinafter referred to as prior art). Ahead
Unmanned vehicles with row technology have multiple axle mechanisms including wheels
It has a structure, and a drive motor is
That the wheels are driven directly by dynamic motors.
Feature, and the drive motor is provided inside the wheel
Characterized by a direct drive motor
I have. [0012] SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION By the way,
However, the conventional unmanned vehicle has the following problems. (1) In the case of the first conventional example Steering by front wheels as in the first conventional example shown in FIG.
In the case of the coding method, as shown in FIGS.
There is a problem. FIG. 17A shows a curved portion 80 of the traveling road.
In the figure, La is a guide laid on the running path.
Unmanned vehicles (not shown) along the guide line La
Travel in the direction. In that case, the trajectory of the front wheel is
Along the line like 81La, 81Ra, but the trajectory of the rear wheel
Is a well-known interior that turns like 82Ra
Get in. Therefore, the structures inside the curved part may
Road width and radius of curvature of curved road so as not to interfere with
Must be formed. Built according to the conditions of the running path
The outer surface of the object does not interfere with the trail of the unmanned vehicle described above
In the case where it is difficult to make the configuration as shown in FIG.
It is necessary to swell appropriately outward as shown by the conductor Lb.
You. In this case, the locus on the right side of the rear wheel is like 82Rb.
However, the front wheel moves along the guide line Lb as shown at 81Lb.
It will swell. Therefore, it is necessary to bury the guide wire on the road surface.
If necessary, set up a driving path taking into account these points
Then, it takes time and costs increase. Also,
Attach a guide sensor to the front wheel like a lift,
In the case of steering as well, the running trajectory may
And Therefore, it becomes difficult to run at high speed in a curved portion. (2) Cases of the second and third conventional examples As in the second and third conventional examples shown in FIGS.
The front and rear wheels are equipped with guide sensors, and
When the steering function of the wheel is operated, the first
Although the problem unlike the conventional example does not occur, each stearin
A control circuit consisting of electronic components as many as
As a result, the volume of the control function increases. That is, the link mechanism and
Because two sets of circuits are required, unmanned vehicles with limited capacity
The layout design is difficult and affects the cost. Also figure
11, 12, 15, and 16, as shown in FIG.
In the second and third conventional four-wheeled unmanned vehicles, the left and right
Are linked by a link mechanism.
The structure was complicated and required a large volume. In addition,
Of each wheel over the entire rotation angle due to the structure of the link mechanism.
Unbalanced wheels due to the same rotation angle
There is a problem that excessive wear occurs. That is, the conditions of the traveling path
Depending on the case, the wear of one wheel may be severe.
This affects stable driving. Therefore,
A car in the case of an unmanned vehicle that has a loading machine such as an oak
Cargo handling may become difficult due to leaning. In addition, each of the above
In the mechanical structure shown in the figure, spin
Running mode such as turn, skew, traverse etc.
Switching of optimal steering function according to road conditions
Therefore, the formation of the traveling path is limited. Also,
Fast and precise steering operation for machine structure
It is difficult to perform
Is not good either. (3) Even in the case of the prior art, the above-described problem of the present invention is solved.
It does not do. The present invention solves the above-mentioned problems (problems) of the conventional one, and
Surface occupied by the vehicle trajectory when turning and stable running at high speed
Product and minimize running characteristics and driving modes
The steering function that can be selected can be configured to be small
The purpose is to. [0014] Means for Solving the Problems To solve the above problems,Contract
In the invention of claim 1,To control the steering of unmanned vehicles
And at leastAt the front, back, left and right at the bottom of the body
In unmanned vehicles with wheels,The four placesEach wheel
Each has an independent structure and has a predetermined control function,The respective 4
Each wheel of the placePut on each one,Guidance function inspection laid on the ground
Intelligent guide sensorSelect one or more ofuse
And the guide sensor attached to the front wheelonlyInduction by
Each of the guide sensors mounted on the running, front and rear wheels
One of the guided driving modes that can be selected and executed.
, Direct, traverse, skew, and spin turn modes
You can select and execute one of them.Claim 2
In the invention of claim 1, the stearin of the unmanned vehicle according to claim 1
In the power control method,Guidance function detection provided on the specified front wheel
Perform guided driving by the intelligent guide sensor and
Set the steering angle of the wheels to the same angle opposite to the front wheels
To perform a changing mirror steering runI
Was.Also, in the invention of claim 3, the unmanned person according to claim 1
A steering control method for a traveling vehicle, wherein an unmanned traveling vehicle
When traveling forward with a curved guidance function,
One pair of front wheels or one pair of front and rear wheels
The corresponding one of the first wheels is driven by the corresponding guide sensor.
Steering control according to the guidance function, each pair
The guide sensor corresponding to the other second wheel to be formed is
In the case where it is not affected by the guiding function, Second wheel turn
The moving angle is determined by the following formula using trigonometric functions
I did it. θa = tan -1 [D / [(D / tan θb) + d]] Here, θa: both sides of the second wheel from the center of the second wheel
And a line connecting the center of the pair of rear wheels (the front wheel
When the guide sensor corresponding to the first wheel operates) and
Angle or both sides of the second wheel from the center of the second wheel
The vertical line to the plane and the center point of the front and rear wheels aligned in the traveling direction
Line connecting the midpoints of the connecting lines (for each first wheel of the front and rear wheels
Angle with the corresponding guide sensor) θb: from the center of the first wheel to both sides of the wheel
Vertical line and after a pair Line connecting the centers of the wheels (first
(When the guide sensor corresponding to the wheel operates)
Angle or opposite sides of the first wheel from the center of the wheel
Connecting the vertical line to the center point of the front and rear wheels in the direction of travel
Line connecting the midpoints of the front and rear wheels (corresponding to each first wheel of the front and rear wheels)
Angle when the guide sensor works) D: Distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels arranged in the traveling direction (the front wheel
When the guide sensor corresponding to the first wheel operates)
Is の of the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels aligned in the direction of travel
(Guide sensors corresponding to each first wheel of the front and rear wheels operate
If you do) d: distance between a pair of front wheels or distance between a pair of rear wheels
Separation Also, in the invention of claim 4, according to claim 1 or 2, Nothing
Steering control method for human traveling vehicleAnd unmanned vehicles
When the vehicle turns, the center of each drive wheel
Lines perpendicular to both sides of the drive wheels are aligned with the traveling direction of the vehicle body.
A line connecting the middle points of the lines connecting the center points of the front and rear wheels
Intersection of each drive wheelThe turning center point ofCenter point of the turn
From the drive to the center point of each drive wheel.
Drive control of each drive wheel as an exampleTo doWas.Also, billing
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the wireless communication system according to any one of the first to fourth aspects.
In a steering control method for a human traveling vehicle,For control means
A PLC is provided, and a triangle based on the Taylor expansion method is added to this PLC.
Function calculation function and calculation of the calculation function set experimentally
Record and use the coefficient values and step-by-step
Interpolation calculation function to interpolate the middle of the calculation coefficient value to be recorded
EquippedIt was to so. further,In the invention of claim 6, the contract
An unmanned vehicle steer according to any one of claims 1 to 5,
In the signaling control method,thisRunningControl functions mounted on cars
And thisRunningCar driving path map and this driving path map
Driving data to be specified at specified locations are recorded in advance
And according to this driving data,Of the traveling vehicle systemGuidance
Automatically select driving method and / or driving modeI
Was. [0015] According to the present invention, the method described above is used.
The most effective and appropriate for the road conditions and environmental conditions
The user can select and set the guidance traveling method and traveling mode to travel.
Therefore, unmanned vehicles that take advantage of this method will
Select and set any appropriate guidance driving method and driving mode.
Occupy the running locus and minimize the area
To form an unmanned vehicle system that can run stably. This
In the case of, if the control means is provided with a PLC, the PLC itself
Has various interface functions and various control functions
Each wheel has an independent structure.
Even if it has a control function, it can be configured as a small-capacity control device. Ma
Needs a steering function that was not initially provided after completion
Can be dealt with simply by adding additional software.
Wear. The control function also includes a road map and driving data.
Guided driving method for unmanned vehicles according to the driving data,
And / or if the driving mode is automatically selected,
Optimal for the purpose and environmental conditions of this unmanned vehicle system
Configured a traveling path and adapted unmanned vehicles to the conditions of the traveling path.
It is possible to run in a way. [0016] 1 to 10 show an embodiment according to the present invention.
This will be described in detail with reference to FIG. FIG. 1 shows an unmanned vehicle to which the present invention is applied.
In the bottom view, for convenience of explanation, the guide line L is also shown.
You. In the description of the present embodiment, all the guiding functions are described as guiding lines.
To guide unmanned vehicles by means other than guidance lines
In this case, the present invention is similarly applied. (First Embodiment) FIG. 1A shows a first embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure, 10 is an unmanned vehicle and 10S is the unmanned vehicle.
Body. The vehicle body 10S has four wheels 11A, 11B,
11C and 11D are mounted. Figure on each wheel
A steering motor (hereinafter referred to as an S-motor) for rotating wheels (not shown)
Data for turning) the wheels for traveling.
A live motor (hereinafter abbreviated as D motor) is attached,
Each motor has a control device (not shown) as described in detail later.
So that the vehicle body 10S travels along the guide line L
Controlled and driven. A guide line L is provided on the wheel 11A in the front-rear direction.
A pair of guide sensors 12Aa and 12Ab for detecting
It is installed offset to the inside of the wheel 11A.
You. Similarly, a pair of guide sensors 12B
a, 12Bb are a pair of guide sensors 1 on the wheel 11C.
2Ca and 12Cb have a pair of guide centers on the wheel 11D.
12Da and 12Db are offset inward with respect to the wheels, respectively.
It is attached and installed. In FIG.
When the vehicle 10 travels, the guide sensors 12Ba and 1
2Da operates, and each guide sensor 12Ba and 12D
a control device for maintaining the guide line L at the center of each
(Not shown) is activated, and the unmanned vehicle 10 travels leftward.
In this case, the guide sensors 12Db and 12Bb are activated,
Guide to the center of each of the guide sensors 12Db and 12Bb
The control device is operated to maintain the line L, and the unmanned vehicle 10
Motor of each wheel so that the vehicle travels along the guide line L
(Not shown) and drive of a D motor (not shown)
You. (Second Embodiment) FIG. 1B shows a second embodiment of the present invention.
It is an unmanned vehicle of an example. In the same figure, reference numeral 20 denotes this embodiment.
The unmanned vehicle, 20S, is its body. Unmanned vehicle 2 of the present embodiment
0, the guide sensor 22A is attached to the wheel 21A,
1B has a guide sensor 22B and wheels 21C have a guide.
The sensor 22C has a guide sensor 22D on the wheel 21D.
A guide section attached to each wheel
The difference from the first embodiment is that the number of sensors is one.
You. Therefore, when reversing the direction with the unmanned vehicle of this embodiment
Drives the S motor (not shown) to guide
The corresponding wheel is rotated so that the sensor comes. What
In the first and second embodiments, the guide sensor is
Explanation as if it was installed offset to the inside of the wheel
However, lay a guide line that corresponds to the width of the unmanned vehicle's travel path.
Turn off the guide sensor outside the vehicle body according to the conditions
It may be set and attached, buried the guide wire
If the configuration is such that there is no effect even if
Can be installed without offsetting the sensor to the vehicle body.
No. (Third Embodiment) FIG. 1C shows a third embodiment of the present invention.
1 illustrates a configuration of an example. In FIG.
The unmanned vehicle of this embodiment, 30S is the vehicle body, and is attached to the vehicle body 30S.
Wears four pairs of wheels, each paired with two wheels.
A pair of guide sensors facing the front and back
ing. That is, the wheel 31Aa and the wheel 31Ab are paired.
In the meantime, a pair of guide sensors 32Aa and 32Ab
The wheel 31Ba and the wheel 31Bb are paired, and a pair of
The id sensors 32Ba and 32Bb are connected to the wheel 31Ca and the wheel
31Cb as a pair and a pair of guide sensors 32C
a and 32Cb are paired with wheel 31Da and wheel 31Db.
Between the guide sensors 32Da and 32Db.
I'm wearing The D motor of this structure is a
Differential from one D-motor for different
One wheel drives each wheel by gear
Driven by a D-motor, one wheel is driven
The D-motor on one of the wheels and drive it appropriately.
Just do it. Also, as in the second embodiment of FIG.
The guide sensors mounted on the wheels may be provided one by one. In the following description, the first type shown in FIG.
Although the case of the unmanned vehicle of the embodiment will be described, an example is shown in FIG.
In the case of the unmanned vehicle of the third embodiment, each pair of wheels is
It may be applied as if it were regarded as individual wheels. Also, one pair of both
When the D motor is mounted on the wheel of
To configure the control function and calculate the rotational speed of each D motor.
An output control signal may be used. Also, the unmanned vehicle of the present invention
As shown in Fig. 14, the number fixed on the ground along the running path
Detects ground signal mark and position mark to confirm own position
Running system that has functions to execute commands.
Although it is explained as a system, the command execution location is confirmed by other means.
If the system is approved,
Control function to confirm own position and execute command
It may be formed. FIG. 2 shows the configuration of the control function of the unmanned vehicle according to the present invention.
An example will be described. 2A and 2B show a first embodiment of the present invention.
Control function for unmanned vehicles of the embodiment, 100 is the control function
PLC (Programmable Logic Cont)
roller). 101 is an analog output of the PLC 100
Interface for driving four D-motors 120
Drive circuit 121 and drive circuit 12 for four S motors 122
3 is connected. 102 is an input for high-speed measurement function input.
The unmanned vehicle runs at the speed specified by the
When turning, the rotation speed of each D motor is detected and
Servo control function provided for control function to compare with command value
Speed sensor 12 corresponding to each of the four wheels required for
4 (eg incremental pulse encoder)
Connected. 103 is an interface for RS422, etc.
The communication function allows the operator to display information necessary for the operator.
Equipped with spray function, switches for operation, setting, etc.
Connected to the operation panel 129. 104 is an analog signal
Interface for signal input by S motor 122
For steering angles corresponding to each of the four driven wheels
A sensor 125, for example, a potentiometer and four
Guide sensor 1 for detecting guide lines mounted on each of two wheels
26. 105 is for digital signal input
Interface, which is located on the ground and is shown in FIG.
Mark sensor 1 for detecting address signal marks and position marks
27. 106 is a communication interface,
Connected to communication function 128 that communicates with the central control function on the ground
It is. PLC100 is used for various control functions and detection for working machines
Function and the type of input / output signal (analog signal)
Signals, digital signals, etc.)
Also connected to the face. 107 is an interface,
This summarizes the various functions that the PLC 100 executes and controls.
Interface other than the above connected to the functions 130 shown in FIG.
Are summarized. Reference numeral 131 denotes a power supply circuit.
The source circuit 131 is a secondary battery mounted on the unmanned vehicle of the present invention.
(Not shown) to each of the sensors 124, 125, 1
26, each drive circuit 121, 123, PLC100, illustration
Do not brake or turn on / off the work equipment and drive the work equipment.
Supply to drive relays for hydraulic circuit related functions, etc.
It has a function of converting the voltage into a voltage having a predetermined ability. In addition,
Information transmission function and drive different from the unmanned vehicle of the present embodiment
In the case of unmanned vehicles equipped with
Connect each function unit to the interface corresponding to the function
Just do it. Further, as described above, the structure shown in FIG.
The unmanned vehicle 30 has a D motor mounted on each pair of wheels.
If you have an unmanned vehicle with functions other than those described above,
When applying the present invention, the necessary types and number of input / output devices
Use a PLC with functions or divide by function
One PLC may be used. In FIG. 2B, 110 is a PLC 10
0, the central information processing function of the internal bus line 11 of the PLC.
1 connected. Also, the bus line 111
In addition to the interfaces 101 to 107 described above, the following functions
Is connected. (1) Operate the central information processing function 110
Function 112a storing the software for the operating system (2) Write software to execute the function as PLC
Recorded storage function 112b (3) For example, the road of the automatic driving system including the unmanned vehicle
Memory storing line data (travel map and related data)
Function 112c (4) A predetermined S motor 120 or
Triangle for outputting an appropriate operation signal to a given D motor
Calculation programs and tables using functions, and tables
Servo control such as tearing control and rotation speed control of each wheel
Function gain and differentiation function and integrator provided as needed
Each data type for selecting and setting the time constant of the function
Recorded storage function 112d (5) In this automatic traveling system, a work command is input
When you reach the destination from the start, for example,
Recorded a series of operation programs that perform routine tasks
Storage function 112e (6) To perform predetermined work and traveling on the unmanned vehicle
Storage function 11 for recording commands when operation commands are given
2f (7) The program to be executed during the operation of the unmanned vehicle or during the calculation
Storage device 112g or the like for temporarily storing data of the same type. The above description focuses on the driving-related control functions and signal lines
, Bus lines, and the like are also simplified with one line. Ma
In addition, each storage device has been described separately for each function.
Convenient to explain the type of storage function provided in the car
As described above, the control function is provided for the PLC.
Read-only memory function (read only memory), rewritable
Read-only storage function, read / write dual-use storage for temporary storage
Appropriate address areas for functions (random access memory)
What is necessary is just to use it by specifying division. Description above
Now, one of the PLCs that mainly use the traveling function as the control function
The example has been described, but the same
Dedicated to run function and work function even when incorporated in PLC
Microcomputers can be installed in other PLCs
Computer, interface function, storage function, etc.
Even if it is installed in the control function, it is configured with a dedicated circuit for each dedicated function.
May be. Next, referring to FIG. 3, the first type shown in FIG.
Steps in the normal guided traveling by the unmanned vehicle 10 of the embodiment
The types of the alling method will be described. Note that FIG.
A and 11B are running in the direction of the front wheels
Guide that shows the usage of the guide sensor and does not operate
Illustration of the sensor is omitted. (1) Guidance steering method 1 In this steering method, as shown in FIG.
The rotation of the rear wheel in the row direction is free, and the steering mechanism is
Secure forward. That is, the rear wheel is a driven wheel,
The guide line L is maintained at the center of the id sensor 12Ba.
Activate the steering function of the front wheels 11B and 11A
Other guide sensors are not activated. Therefore, unmanned vehicles
Is in a state of front-wheel guided traveling in which the front wheels are driven. (2) Guidance steering method 2 In this steering method, as shown in FIG.
The guide line L is maintained at the center of the id sensor 12Ba.
Activate the steering function of the front wheels 11B and 11A,
The guide line L is maintained at the center of the guide sensor 12Da.
Activate the steering function of the rear wheels 11D and 11C
You. Therefore, unmanned vehicles are guided by each wheel before and after driving all wheels.
State. (3) Guidance steering method 3 In this steering method, as shown in FIG.
The guide line L is maintained at the center of the id sensor 12Ba.
Activate the steering function of the front wheels 11B and 11A
Other guide sensors are not operated. Follow
The steering function of the front wheels 11B and 11A.
Signal with the same control angle as the motion signal but in the opposite direction.
To activate the steering function of the rear wheels 11C and 11D,
Unmanned vehicles are in mirror steering driving all wheels
Becomes (4) Guidance steering method 4 In this steering method, as shown in FIG.
The rotation of the front wheels in the direction of travel is free, and the steering mechanism
Is fixed to the front. That is, the front wheels are driven wheels,
The guide line L is maintained at the center of the guide sensor 12Da.
Activate the steering function of the rear wheels 11C and 11D
Other guide sensors are not activated. Therefore, unmanned
The vehicle is in a rear-wheel guided traveling state in which the rear wheels are driven. (5) Guidance steering method 5 This steering method is expressed in the same diagram as FIG.
However, the rotation of the front wheel in the direction of travel is free, and
The ring mechanism is fixed facing forward. That is, the front wheels
A guide line L is provided at the center of the guide sensor 12Ba as a driving wheel.
Steering function of rear wheels 11C and 11D to maintain
Is activated and other guide sensors are not activated. Obedience
Therefore, unmanned vehicles are driven by front-guided rear-wheel drive
And used for unmanned vehicles with a structure like a forklift
That's how it works. (6) Other guidance steering methods Other guidance steering methods include:
Can be That is, in the embodiment described with reference to FIG.
Unmanned by the guide sensor mounted on 11B or 11D
Although it was explained that the car detected the position of the guide line and traveled,
By a guide sensor mounted on the wheel 11A or 11C
The traveling may be performed by detecting the position of the guide line. Ma
In addition, depending on the conditions of the traveling path, the wheels 11B or 11D
Guided driving by the mounted guide sensor and wheels 11A or
Traveling is appropriately switched by the guide sensor mounted on 11C
A guide line may be laid so as to travel. Also on
The various guidance steering methods described above are not fixed.
In addition, as appropriate, switch the vehicle as described below in detail.
Or may be combined with autonomous driving. FIG.
(B), wheel and guide sensor shown by FIG. 1 (C)
The same control as described above is executed on the vehicle body with
it can. Front and rear wheel guidance running with the body shown in FIG. 1 (B)
To execute the row, each rear wheel is turned 180 degrees by S motor
It may be executed after the rotation. Next, the driving modes according to the various guidance methods described above will be described.
The mode will be described in detail with reference to FIGS. below
In the explanation of each direct mode, convenience of explanation of steering function
Above, in the curved part that can show the control state in an enlarged manner
This shows a state in which the vehicle is traveling, that is, turning. In the straight section
Even if there is, a guide line comes at the center of the predetermined guide sensor
The same steering control as the method described below is performed
You. Direct mode with front wheel guided traveling FIG. 4 shows the front-wheel guided traveling described with reference to FIG.
FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining a control operation according to the first embodiment.
This shows a running state. As mentioned earlier, the guide
The positional relationship of the center of the sensor 12Ba with respect to the guide line L is shown.
The steering function of the front wheels 11B and 11A by the signal
And the rear wheels 11C and 11D are driven wheels.
In FIG. 4, the traveling unmanned vehicle is a guide sensor 12Ba.
Of the wheel 11B so that the center of the
Drive a motor (not shown). As a result, before turning
The angle of the wheel 11B with respect to the traveling direction of the vehicle is θb, and the rear wheel
A line passing through the center of 11C, 11D and orthogonal to the vehicle body,
Through the center of the wheel 11B and in the direction of travel of the front wheel 11B
Assuming that the intersection with the orthogonal line is O, the angle θb is
It is shown as in equation (1).   tan θb = D / r0... (1) Also, the center of the rear wheels 11C and 11D viewed from the point O described above.
And a line perpendicular to the vehicle body through
If the angle between the line passing through the center is θa, the angle θa is
It is shown as the following equation (2).   tanθa = D / (r0+ D) (2) However, in the equations (1) and (2), D is the unmanned vehicle.
Distance between the front and rear wheels determined by the structure of r0Is the above
The distance between the point O and the rear wheel 11D under the condition, d is
Distance between front wheels or rear wheels determined by the structure of the unmanned vehicle
It is. From the above equation (1), the distance r0Is the following (3)
It looks like an expression.   r0= D / tan θb (3) Therefore, the angle θa of the front wheel 11A is obtained by subtracting the expression (3) from the expression (2).
Substitution is performed as in the following equation (4).   θa = tan-1[D / [(D / tan θb) + d]] (4) The angle θb is the angle for steering angle mounted on the wheel 11B.
To obtain the angle θa
The operation of the trigonometric function described in the above equation (4) is described above.
With the digital operation function of the PLC 100, for example,
Simplified tailor expansion program and tailor expansion operation
Is necessary in this calculation process to increase the calculation speed.
A table or the like created by summarizing predetermined numeric conversion
Storage function of the PLC 100, for example, the storage function 1
Recorded in 12d and used for calculation, further calculation process
The numerical value between the numerical values recorded in the table calculated in
Between the numbers on the table
To The angle of the front wheel 11A with respect to the longitudinal direction of the vehicle body
Becomes the angle θa obtained by the calculation result of the above equation (4).
Thus, the S motor of the front wheel 11A is controlled. That is, the front wheel 11
A and 11B run on a concentric circle centered on point O
become. Therefore, the rotation speed of the wheel 11B, which is the turning inner wheel,
The distance rB between the point O and the center of the front wheel 11B related to
In equation (5), a point O related to the rotation speed of the wheel 11A
And the distance rA between the front wheel 11A and the center of the front wheel 11A is expressed by the following equation (6).
It is.   rB = D / sin θb (5)   rA = D / sin θa (6) Also, the center line in the front-rear direction of the vehicle body and the two front wheels 11A and 1A
The intersection S of the line connecting the point 1B with the line connecting the point O and the rear wheel 11
C, the angle between the line perpendicular to the vehicle body through the center of 11D
When the degree is θs and the distance between the point O and the point S is rS, the angle θ
s is the following equation (7) using the same operation equation as described above.
Further, the distance rS is represented by the following equation (8).   θs = tan-1[D / [(D / tan θb) + (d / 2)]] (7)   rS = D / sin θs (8) Therefore, the distance rS is calculated by PLC1 by the same calculation as described above.
00 is performed. Pre-commanded to this unmanned vehicle
Front wheel reference rotation speed VS corresponding to the set traveling speed
The rotation speed of the wheel 11B which is the turning inner wheel corresponding to
B, VA is the rotation speed of the wheel 11A, which is the turning outer wheel.
And point S is also on a concentric circle centered on point O
The rotation speed VB is given by the following equation (9), and the rotation speed VA is
This is shown by the expression (10).   VB = rB · VS / rS (9)   VA = rA.VS / rS (10) Therefore, the vehicle is driven at a rotational speed according to the calculation result of the above equation (9).
Drives D motor of wheel 11B so that wheel 11B rotates
Then, the wheel is rotated at a rotational speed according to the calculation result of the above equation (10).
Drive the D motor of the wheel 11A so that the 11A rotates.
You. The rotation speed of each of the wheels 11A and 11B is
Is measured by each rotation speed sensor
Work as a servo control function.
This unmanned vehicle is correctly guided
Turn along. [0027] Direct drive mode of all-wheel drive by front and rear wheel guided traveling
Mode Next, before and after driving all the wheels described with reference to FIG.
The control action of each wheel in the state of guided running is shown in FIG.
explain. In the driving mode shown in FIG.12B
aControl of the front wheels 11A and 11B by the detection signal of
A line passing through the center of 11C, 11D and orthogonal to the vehicle body,
Directly through the center of the wheel 11B and in the direction of travel of the front wheel 11B
The front wheel 11 is on a concentric circle centered on the intersection O with the intersecting line.
A and 11B have been described as traveling, but before traveling as shown in FIG.
The steering and drive control for the wheels and rear wheels
As will be understood, the front wheels 11A, 11B and the rear wheels 11C, 1
A line passing through the 1D intermediate position and orthogonal to the vehicle body;
Through the center of B and perpendicular to the direction of travel of the front wheel 11B
Intersection O with the lineABOn the concentric circle centered on the front wheel 11A,
11B may run. Therefore, it is necessary for control.
The important values are the following (11) to (1) as in the above-described equations.
It is expressed as in equation 7). However, (1) to (1)
Description of the same or equivalent part as the symbol used in each formula of 0)
The symbols use the same symbols. Line passing through the center of the front wheel 11A
Between the front wheels 11A and 11B and the rear wheels 11C and 11D
The line O passing through the device and perpendicular to the vehicleABPoint and
If the angle between the two lines when they intersect is θA, the angle
θA is represented by the following equation (11).   θA = tan-1[(D / 2) / [((D / 2) / tan θB) + d]]                                                   ..... (11) Therefore, the steering angle of the front wheel 11A is set to θA.
Then, the S motor of the front wheel 11A is driven. Also, the front wheel 11
The rotation speed of each of B and 11A is calculated by the above equation (9) and (10).
Similar to the expression, it is expressed by each expression of (12) and (13).   VB = rB · VS / rS (12)   VA = rA.VS / rS (13) Here, rB, rA, and rS are respectively described in (14) and (1) below.
5) and (16).   rB = (D / 2) / sin θB (14)   rA = (D / 2) / sin θA (15)   rS = (D / 2) / sin θS (16) The angle θS shown in the above equation (16) is given by the following equation (18).
Is represented by   θS = tan-1[(D / 2) /         [((D / 2) / tan θB) + (d / 2)]] (17) The wheel 11 is rotated at a rotational speed according to the calculation result of the above equation (12).
The D motor of the wheel 11B is driven so that B rotates.
The wheel 11A is rotated at a rotational speed according to the calculation result of Expression (13).
The D motor of the wheel 11A is driven so that the wheel rotates. car
The rotation speed of each wheel 11A, 11B corresponds to each wheel.
Feedback measured by the rotating speed sensor
Work as a servo control function, in front of this unmanned vehicle
The limb turns correctly along the guide line L at the commanded traveling speed.
Traveling times. In the rear wheel 11D, the guide sensor 12
Wheel 11D so that the center of Da matches guide line L.
Is driven (not shown). Rear wheel in FIG.
Steering and drive control for 11C and rear wheel 11D
Are the front wheels 11A, 11B and the rear as understood from FIG.
A line passing through the intermediate position between the wheels 11C and 11D and orthogonal to the vehicle body
Through the center of the rear wheel 11D in the traveling direction of the rear wheel 11D.
Intersection O with a line orthogonal toCDOn a concentric circle centered on
The rear wheel 11C and the rear wheel 11D may run.
Therefore, the control of the rear wheels 11C and 11D is performed in the running state shown in FIG.
In the state, the same as above except that the direction of the angle is different
It can be executed according to the operation result using each expression. Therefore,
The values required for the control are the same as in the above equations (18)
Equations (24) to (24) are used. However, (1)
Same or equivalent to the symbol used in each formula of (17) to (17)
The same symbol is used for the location. Also after shown in the figure
The rotation angle of the wheel is opposite to the front wheel, so the direction of rotation
Is represented by a negative number to indicate that
The sign indicating the upper angle is shown including a negative sign. Rear wheel 11C
Of the front wheels 11A, 11B and the rear wheels 11C, 1
A point O is defined as a line passing through the intermediate position of 1D and orthogonal to the vehicle body.CDso
If the angle between the two lines when they intersect is θC, the angle
θC is represented by the following equation (18).   θC = tan-1[(D / 2) / [((D / 2) / tan θD + d])]                                                       ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ (18) Therefore, the steering angle of the rear wheel 11C is set to θC.
Then, the S motor of the rear wheel 11C is driven. In addition, in front of the car body
Line connecting the center line in the rear direction and the two rear wheels 11C and 11D
And the point O described aboveCDAnd the front wheel 11A,
11B and the rear wheels 11C and 11D through the middle position
The angle between the line and the orthogonal line is θT, and the point OCDAnd the distance between point T
Is rT, the angle is calculated by the same calculation method as described above.
θT is given by the following equation (19).
It is shown by equation (20).   θT = tan-1[(D / 2) /         [((D / 2) / tan θC) + (d / 2)]] (19)   rT = (D / 2) / sin θT (20) Therefore, the vehicle speed corresponding to the traveling speed instructed in advance for this unmanned vehicle is
Wheel 1 which is a turning inner wheel corresponding to the rotation speed VT of the rear wheel
The rotation speed of 1C is VC, and the rotation of wheel 11D which is the turning outer wheel is
Assuming that the rotation speed is VD, the point T is also the point OCDCenter around
Since the rotation speed VC is on a concentric circle, the rotation speed VC is given by the following equation (21).
The rotation speed VD is expressed by the following equation (22).   VC = rC.VT / rT (21)   VD = rD.VT / rT (22) However, VT = VS. Also, rC and rD are before
Similarly to the above equations (14) and (15), the following (23),
It is expressed by equation (24).   rC = (D / 2) / sin θB (23)   rD = (D / 2) / sin θA (24) The wheel 11 is rotated at a rotational speed according to the calculation result of the above equation (21).
The D motor of the wheel 11C is driven so that C rotates.
The wheel 11D is rotated at a rotational speed according to the calculation result of the expression (22).
The D motor of the wheel 11D is driven so that the wheel rotates. car
The rotation speed of each of wheels 11C and 11D corresponds to each wheel.
Feedback measured by the rotating speed sensor
Work as a servo control function after this unmanned vehicle
The limb turns correctly along the guide line L at the commanded traveling speed.
Traveling times. As mentioned above, both front and rear wheels are commanded.
Turn correctly along the guide line L at the running speed
In this unmanned vehicle, the guidance line L
Turn along. All-wheel drive mirrors driven by front wheel guidance
Tearing mode Next, the front-wheel guided traveling described with reference to FIG.
Activation signal for steering function of wheels 11B and 11A
Signal at the same control angle and the opposite direction, the rear wheel
Activate the 11C and 11D steering functions to drive all wheels
Control action in the moving mirror steering
This will be described with reference to FIG. Mirror steering shown in FIG.
The control of the front wheel S motor and D motor in the drive mode
Front in front and rear wheel guidance traveling mode described with reference to FIG.
Same as wheel control. That is, the front wheel θA is given by equation (11),
The rotational speeds of the front wheels 11B and 11A are (12) and (1
An operation is performed according to the expression represented by each expression of 3), and the result is obtained.
Use to control.   θA = tan-1[(D / 2) / [((D / 2) / tan θB) + d]]                                                       ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ (11)   VB = rB · VS / rS (12)   VA = rA.VS / rS (13) Therefore, the steering angle θC of the rear wheels 11C and 11D is
θD is expressed by the following equations (25) and (26), respectively.
You.   θD = −θB (25)   θC = -θA (26) On the other hand, the rotational speeds VD and VC of the rear wheels 11C and 11D are respectively
Since it is equal to the rotation speed of the front wheel, the following equations (27) and (28)
Indicated by   VC = VA (27)   VD = VB (28) As described above, the front wheels are correctly guided at the commanded traveling speed.
Turn along the line L, and the rear wheel follows the front wheel
This unmanned vehicle is correctly
The vehicle travels around the guidance line L. Skew mode According to FIG. 7, the vehicle body does not change its direction,
Of S motor and D motor in skew mode
The operation will be described. The skew angle is the unmanned vehicle system
Commanded by the command means preset by the
And S of each wheel 11A, 11B, 11C and 11D
The motor is controlled according to the commanded angle signal. Follow
Each wheel 11A, 11B, 11C and 11D is commanded.
In the direction of travel, and the angle of rotation is
Measured by the steering angle sensor 125
Each wheel in the commanded direction of travel
Turn right towards. Further, as shown in FIG.
Is in the guide sensor 12Ba attached to the front wheel 11B.
The above-described front wheel guidance traveling so that the guidance line L comes to the intermediate position.
The vehicle is guided by the same control means as in the mode.
Therefore, the unmanned vehicle travels obliquely along the guide line L. Immediately
For example, for example, a steering machine for a front wheel 11A and a rear wheel 11C
Drive at a fixed speed
The front wheel 11B is thus detected by the detection signal of the guide sensor 12Ba.
Control the rear wheel 11D with the front wheel 11B
What is necessary is just to control in accordance with. Also, the rear wheel 11
Fixed or commanded steering function of C and 11D
The front wheel 11B so as to run at a predetermined rotational speed.
Induction drive is performed by the detection signal of the id sensor 11Ba,
To control the wheel 11A following the control of the front wheel 11B
Just do it. In addition, the above-mentioned mirror steering
May be performed. Also, adjacent guidance
When skewing a short distance such as moving to a line,
Do not lay the wires, rotate each wheel in the command direction,
Autonomous running, such as rotating at the same constant rotation speed
Is also good. Also, for the vehicle to run correctly in parallel, for example,
If the guide wire for guiding the rear wheel is laid in parallel,
If you control to guide the specified rear wheel along the line,
good. Row mode According to FIG. 8, the vehicle body does not change its direction,
And the S motor in the transverse mode
The control operation of the D motor will be described. Traverse mode
When commanded by a fixed command means, each wheel 11A, 11B,
Rotation signal commanded to S motor of each of 11C and 11D
Controlled by. Therefore, each wheel 11A, 11B, 1
1C and 11D are rotated 90 degrees in the commanded traveling direction.
The rotation angle is set for each steering angle mounted on each wheel.
Is measured and fed back by the sensor 125
And each wheel is oriented at right angles to the commanded body
Turn right. In this embodiment, as shown in FIG.
Guide sensor 12Da attached to wheel 11D and rear wheel 1
In the middle position of each of the guide sensors 12Ca mounted on 1C
The front and rear wheel guidance traveling mode described above so that the guidance line L comes
The vehicle is guided by the same control
The passenger car travels at right angles to the vehicle body along the guide line. Ma
In addition, the above-mentioned front wheel guidance traveling and mirror steering traveling
Control according to the present invention may be performed. Of the above embodiment
In the explanation, it was explained that the rear wheels were guided, but the front wheels were
Lay a guide line so that the vehicle runs in a guided manner.
Alternatively, the vehicle may run while controlling the front wheels. Also next to
When moving to the adjacent guidance line or at the station's cargo handling machine
When traversing a short distance such as approaching
Turn the wheels in the command direction without laying the guide wire for the line.
After that, it will run autonomously, such as rotating at the same predetermined rotation speed.
You can do it. Also, when the vehicle body runs correctly in parallel
For example, lay the guide wires that guide the front and rear wheels in parallel.
And control the vehicle to guide along this guide line.
Good. Spin turn When the spin turn is commanded by a predetermined command means, each D mode
For example, the wheels 11A and 11C are
Wheels 11B and 11D move the center of gravity of the vehicle body in the opposite direction to the above.
A predetermined rotation speed so that each runs on a concentric circle with the center as the center
Rotate in degrees. The mileage of each wheel is attached to each wheel.
The rotational speed sensor is an incremental pulse, for example.
In the case of an encoder, the output pulse interval is the rotation of each wheel.
The number of output pulses and the wheel diameter
Is determined from Therefore, the traveling distance of each wheel
The center of gravity of the vehicle body determined from the mounting position of each wheel
Each wheel required to rotate the car body to the commanded angle with the center
If the mileage matches the spin distance, it is determined that the spin turn has been completed.
Can be determined. Also, the guide sensor runs after the spin turn.
When a guide line specified to run is detected, the
May be stopped. In addition,
Set a sharp mark on the ground to mark the completion position of the spin turn
You may make it recognize. In the above description, the D motor
Although it was explained to drive, depending on the conditions, the S motor
May be combined. In addition, Speen
Turn is a curve with an appropriate radius of curvature at the bend of the running path
Conditions where a traveling path cannot be secured, for example,
Set a traveling path that does not need to be converted
It is used when necessary. In the skew mode and the traverse mode described above, a guided run is performed.
To go, go in the direct mode with the front wheel guidance driving described above,
All-wheel drive direct mode with front and rear wheel guidance, front wheel guidance
All-wheel drive mirror steering driving mode
For reference, as described in each section,
In response, lay a guide wire and distinguish between the guide wheel and the driven wheel.
What is necessary is just to set appropriately. Also, any other
When traveling in the direction of
It is also possible to combine autonomous driving without using lines and guidance lines
No. Next, the unmanned running combining the various functions described above
Automatic selection of the commanded driving mode, etc.
An example of a control flow for selectively traveling will be described with reference to FIG.
Note that this unmanned traveling system has an article transport function.
Automatic operation of the working machine in the case of
However, in such a case, the specified
After stopping at the station, insert these work commands.
No. When the unmanned traveling system starts work (ST
0), depending on the function set in this system,
The command is transmitted to the car. Therefore, control functions for unmanned vehicles,
For example, the PLC 100 shown in FIG.
Execution of the command is started (ST1). The following control systems for unmanned vehicles
The function of Noh is simply described as an unmanned vehicle. Unmanned vehicles
First, the current position (called an address) is read and grasped (S
T2). In general, if the vehicle is currently stopped, the current location
Data is recorded. As described later, from ST20
Continuing and running, as described above, for example,
The current position of the self is grasped by means as described in FIG.
Squeeze. If necessary, such as after adjustment, board this unmanned vehicle.
Input from the operation panel mounted on or inside the ground
Input from central processing unit or the like. Further, the command traveling mode to be executed from the current location
Check that the vehicle is running straight due to guided driving.
When the command traveling direction is confirmed (ST3), each traveling
Set the function to guide the vehicle in the specified direction (ST
4). Check the command driving mode to be executed from the current location
If it is determined that the vehicle is not traveling straight but is skewed (ST3),
(ST5), confirm the traveling direction with respect to the vehicle body, and
A predetermined angle wheel is driven by the S motor so that
Rotate to prepare for the operation of the preset guide sensor.
(ST6). Furthermore, instead of skew (ST5),
When it is determined that the vehicle is traveling in a direction perpendicular to
(ST7), drive S motor to rotate wheels 90 degrees
To prepare for the operation of the preset guide sensor.
(ST8). Furthermore, instead of traversing (ST7),
If it is determined that it is a pin turn (ST9), the D mode
The vehicle in the command direction by driving the
The guide sensor is prepared for operation (ST10). If it is determined that it is not a spin turn,
(ST9), a predetermined treatment is performed on the unmanned vehicle.
(ST11). For example, returning to ST3,
Check again, and as a result of recheck, set this unmanned vehicle
If none of the selected driving modes is selected,
The specified alarm is transmitted. In the case of straight running,
Guide sensor (hereinafter abbreviated as sensor)
To check the driving method, and activate only the previous sensor.
When it is determined that the vehicle is in front-wheel guidance traveling (ST12),
The front wheels are guided by the front sensor signal, and the rear wheels are steered.
Each function is set so that the
(ST13). In guided driving only with the front sensor
Is determined not to exist (ST12), and utilizing the front and rear sensors
Check that the all-wheel drive is
When it is determined that the front and rear wheels are guided by all-wheel drive
(ST14), the front wheels are operated by the signal of the front sensor.
Function and operate each function like operating the rear wheel with the rear sensor.
It is set (ST15). All-wheel drive utilizing front and rear sensors
If it is determined that the motion is not a motion (ST14), the front sensor
Mirror steering that operates the rear wheels according to the
(Abbreviated as "Rastair"). mirror
If it is determined that the vehicle is in the steer running mode (ST16),
Activating the sensor and killing the function of the rear sensor,
-Set each function to execute steer running (ST
17). If it is determined that the vehicle is not running mirror steer,
(ST16), execute a preset treatment for this unmanned vehicle
(ST11). For example, returning to ST12,
Check the driving method again according to the usage and check again
As a result, any driving mode set for this unmanned vehicle
If not selected, a preset alarm is issued.
You. In each of ST6, ST8, and ST10 described above, the respective running modes are also set.
ST1 corresponding to the driving method set in advance corresponding to the mode
2 to ST17 are included. Mentioned above
Steps ST6, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 17 are executed.
And the specified sensor speed at the commanded traveling speed.
Start driving of the D motor of each predetermined wheel according to the number
(ST18). In the above description, each of ST3, 5,
7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 proceed sequentially in chronological order
However, they can be modified as appropriate to work in a different order.
ST may not proceed sequentially.
Set by a command signal that specifies the specified driving mode
It may be done. The D motor rotates and the unmanned vehicle starts running.
Then (ST18), a predetermined operating guide sensor
The detection signal of the lead wire is compared with the reference value, and the error
Is determined to be in the center of the guide sensor within
(ST19), as described above with reference to FIG.
The current address in progress is set as a command
It is checked whether the station is a stop station (ST20). Moth
The center of the guide sensor is derived from the detection signal of the id sensor
If it is determined that the distance from the line
Of the deviation amount (ST21) and the running command speed being executed.
At a preset rotation speed or servo control
The center of the guide sensor according to the characteristics set for the function
To the guide sensor so that
The corresponding S motor is operated (ST22). S motor
Drive, and the wheel to which this S motor is connected rotates,
The steering angle (rotation angle) changes and the angle
Is a steering angle sensor 125 attached to each wheel.
(FIG. 2) (ST23). Stearin
Described above by the measurement value of the
The rotation of each wheel corresponds to the driving mode of this unmanned vehicle.
Calculate the rotation speed. Therefore, each wheel of the unmanned vehicle and the D motor
The rotational speed of the D motor determined by the mechanism conditions
Is calculated (ST24). According to the result of this operation
To control the rotation speed of the corresponding D motor (ST2).
5). The rotation speed of the control target D motor matches the calculation result value
Until the control is performed (ST26). Above
ST21 to ST26 form a subroutine
And while the subroutine is functioning, the ST
The flow from 2 to ST20 works as the main routine
Have been. Also, the detection of the deviation amount shown in ST21 is always performed.
Functioning and the S motor operates to eliminate the deviation
(ST22). In ST26, each D motor to be controlled is
Rotation speed matches the command rotation speed that is the calculation result.
Returns to the main routine. In ST20, the stop switch
If it is determined that the
The operation is stopped according to the stopping program (ST27).
After determining the stop station in ST20, in ST26
Even if it stops, the cyclic flow returning to ST2
Be executed. That is, the main routine and the main routine
Subroutine described above by the determination in ST19 in
Is also executed. After stopping, unloading, loading, etc.
It meets the requirements of systems with unmanned vehicles and
When the execution command at the stop station is recorded,
Or, when a new command is issued, execute those commands
(Not shown). The skew mode, the traverse mode, and the speed
All of the terns use the system using this unmanned vehicle.
Although it is necessarily determined by the conditions,
Direct mode, all-wheel drive
All-wheel drive mirror steering with front and front wheel guidance
The selection from the modes is the length of each driving mode shown in FIG.
Determined according to road conditions by referring to each
Then, it is selected by a predetermined command means. In FIG.
In the column of the direct mode by wheel guided traveling,
A), all-wheel drive direct mode with front and rear wheel guidance
"Front and rear wheel steer", all-wheel drive Mira with front wheel guided driving
ー The steering mode is displayed as “Mirror steer”
ing. That is, as shown in FIG.
The swing is steer only on the front wheel, front and rear wheel steer, mirror steer
The bulge to the outside when entering the curve is
Wheel only does not exist in steer, front and rear wheel steer is small, Mira
-Great for steer. Conversely, when entering a curve
Internal interference areas include front wheel steer, front and rear wheel steer, and Mira
-Smaller in order of steer. Straight line return distance after running on a curve
Means that the front and rear wheel steer is the smallest and the front wheel is
Mirror steer has an intermediate value. Conversely, each
The calculation time of the steering angle (rotation angle) of the wheel
Tare is maximum, front wheel only steer is minimum, mirror steer is
It has an intermediate value. The number of guide sensors is
Two wheels are required, but only front wheel steer and mirror steer
Only one wheel, so a running system that does not require front and rear wheel steering
Stems are economically advantageous. The above description realizes the technical idea of the present invention.
It shows the basic method and configuration for
It can be modified. For example, this unmanned car
Each wheel and guide according to the conditions of the system using
If you set the sensor mounting condition, it will be compatible with this mounting condition
Setting of each driving mode and control in each driving mode
The contents of the functions can be easily realized with reference to the above-described embodiment.
You. Also, only the rear wheel by the guide sensor attached to the rear wheel
Although the description of the steering mode of the steering is omitted,
It is possible by applying the same function as. Therefore,
Other than rear wheel steering when moving forward like an oak lift
For unmanned vehicles that cannot be used (unmanned vehicles)
Can also be applied. In addition, each wheel at the time of turning etc.
(1) to (28) for the rotation speed control etc.
Although the explanation was made to use arithmetic, the structure of the traveling mechanism of the vehicle body
And to obtain the necessary driving characteristics corresponding to the conditions of the road,
Form an appropriate arithmetic expression other than the above corresponding to that condition
You may do it. Also, even if it is a complicated arithmetic expression
Use a computer application device with appropriate functions such as PLC
It can be realized. Also, the functions shown in FIG.
The configuration and the flow shown in FIG.
What is necessary is just to configure and set appropriately according to the case. [0041] According to the present invention, a method as described above is used.
It has the following excellent effects. (1) Mechanical components such as links must be used for the traveling mechanism.
It is not necessary to rotate each wheel and the guide sensor
Running, such as skew, traverse or spin turn at any angle
Line mode can be easily realized. (2) Conditions of traveling path of unmanned vehicle system to which the present invention is applied
Direct mode with front wheel guidance
, All-wheel drive direct mode with front and rear wheel guidance traveling, front wheels
All-wheel drive mirror steering driving mode with guided driving
Optimal mode in the direct mode by
Can be set automatically. (3) Therefore, when laying the guide wire, special music
It is not necessary to form a linear shape. (4) Since spin turns can be easily executed,
When the route needs to be bent at right angle or acute angle
It can be used on various types of running roads and also at branch points.
is there. (5) Run by freely selecting various running modes as described above
Cost reduction for on-site construction and on-site adjustment
It is. (6) The various running modes described above can be freely selected automatically.
Therefore, both high-precision steering function and high-speed driving function
Unmanned vehicle equipped with people. (7) Use a computer application function such as PLC for the control unit.
If it is used, it is necessary to add various driving modes.
In this case, additional modification of software only is required. (8) Use a computer application function such as PLC for the control unit.
If used, use software processing and storage functions
Servo control like S motor and D motor control.
Gain for running, or constant used for integration or differentiation
Etc. can be changed steplessly.
Steering characteristics with good response characteristics
You. (9) Use a computer application function such as PLC for the control unit.
If used, it can be switched to various driving modes by software processing.
Optimization of the rotation speed of each wheel in the vehicle can be easily realized. (10) If a PLC is used for the control device,
Analog signal input / output interface, digital signal
Various interface functions such as input / output interface
Built-in, various sensors (including amplifier) and various
A / D converter with actuator (including output amplification function)
Direct control without signal conversion function such as data and D / A converter
Can be connected to the device. Therefore, the control device can be made compact and completed.
Various functions can be easily added later.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a bottom view showing a mutual positional relationship between each guide sensor and each wheel of an unmanned vehicle according to a first embodiment to a third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3B shows the first embodiment, FIG. 3B shows the second embodiment, and FIG. 3C shows the third embodiment. FIG. 2A is a schematic block diagram illustrating an example in which a control function applied to a first embodiment of the present invention is configured using a PLC, and FIG. 2B is a block diagram illustrating a configuration of the PLC; FIG. FIGS. 3A and 3B show an example of a traveling mode applied to the unmanned vehicle of the first embodiment. FIG. 3A shows the state of a guide sensor used in a guided steering system by front-wheel guided traveling, and FIG. The state of the guide sensor used in the guide steering system by the front and rear wheel guided traveling by driving, the figure (C) shows the state of the guide sensor used in the mirror steering system by the front wheel guided travel, and the figure (D) shows the front wheel guided rear wheel drive traveling. FIG. 6 is a diagram showing states of use guide sensors of a steering method according to the present invention. FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram showing a relationship between a rotation angle and a rotation speed of each wheel in a direct mode of front wheel drive by front wheel guided traveling to which the present invention is applied, and is a diagram corresponding to FIG. 3 (A). FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram showing a relationship between a rotation angle and a rotation speed of each wheel in a direct mode in which all wheels are driven by front and rear wheel guided traveling to which the present invention is applied, and is a diagram corresponding to FIG. 3 (B). FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram showing a relationship between a rotation angle and a rotation speed of each wheel in a mirror steering traveling mode of all-wheel drive by front wheel guided traveling to which the present invention is applied, and is a diagram corresponding to FIG. 3 (C). . FIG. 7 is a plan view illustrating a skew mode to which the present invention is applied, and is a diagram with reference to FIG. FIG. 8 is a plan view illustrating a traversing mode to which the present invention is applied, and is a diagram referring to FIG. FIG. 9 is a schematic flowchart illustrating the operation of a control function of a computer or the like using a PLC or the like in an unmanned vehicle to which the present invention is applied. FIG. 10 is a table illustrating differences in characteristics between various steering systems according to the present invention. FIG. 11 is a bottom view of a first prior art unmanned vehicle showing a mutual positional relationship between each guide sensor and each wheel. 12A and 12B are diagrams illustrating a configuration of a wheel and a guide sensor in a first prior art unmanned vehicle, wherein FIG. 12A is a plan view and FIG. 12B is a rear view. FIG. 13 is a schematic block diagram of a control function for steering in an unmanned vehicle of the first conventional example. FIG. 14 is a traveling road diagram illustrating one method for confirming the position of each of the unmanned vehicles of the present invention and the conventional example on the traveling road. FIG. 15 is a schematic configuration explanatory view showing a mutual positional relationship between each guide sensor and each wheel in an unmanned vehicle of a second conventional example. FIG. 16 is a schematic configuration explanatory view showing a mutual positional relationship between each guide sensor and each wheel in an unmanned vehicle of a second conventional example. 17A and 17B are diagrams showing a locus of a wheel and a guide line for explaining a problem of the steering system of the first conventional example, and FIG. 17A is a plan view showing a case of the front wheel steering system;
FIG. 1B is a plan view in the case where a guide wire is laid so as to reduce the internal interference area in the front wheel steering system. [Description of Signs] 10, 20, 30: Unmanned vehicles 11A to 11D, 21A to 21D, 31Aa to 31D
b: Wheels 12Aa to 12Db, 22A to 22D, 32Aa to 32
Db: Guide sensor (guide line sensor) 100: PLC (control function) L: Guide line (guide function)

Continuation of front page (56) References JP-A-7-334236 (JP, A) JP-A-8-161048 (JP, A) JP-A-8-123551 (JP, A) JP-A-5-189042 (JP) , A) JP-A-60-146305 (JP, A) (58) Fields investigated (Int. Cl. 7 , DB name) G05D 1/02

Claims (1)

  1. (57) [Claims] [Claim 1] At least the front, rear, left and right at the bottom of the vehicle body
    For an unmanned vehicle with wheels at four locations,
    With a predetermined control function by the respective wheel each of the people independently structure,
    Attached to each of the four wheels and select one or more guide sensors installed on the ground for detecting the guidance function
    And the guide sensor mounted only on the front wheels can be selectively executed by either the guide sensor mounted on the front wheels or the guide sensor mounted on the front wheels and the rear wheels. A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle, wherein one of the traveling modes of traversing, skew, and spin turn can be selected and executed. 2. A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle according to claim 1, wherein guided traveling is performed by a guide sensor for detecting a guidance function provided on a predetermined front wheel portion, and a steering angle of a rear wheel is set in a direction opposite to that of the front wheel. A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle that executes mirror steering traveling in which the setting angle is changed to the same angle. 3. The steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the unmanned traveling vehicle forms a curve.
    When traveling forward, the pair of front wheels or each one
    A guide set corresponding to one of the pair of front and rear wheels
    The first wheel in accordance with the guidance function.
    The steering is controlled by the second
    The guide sensor corresponding to the wheel is affected by the guidance function.
    The angle of rotation of the second wheel is trigonometric
    A steering control method for an unmanned vehicle, which is determined by the following arithmetic expression using θa = tan −1 [D / [(D / tan θb ) + d]], where θa: both sides of the second wheel from the center of the second wheel
    And a line connecting the center of the pair of rear wheels (the front wheel
    When the guide sensor corresponding to the first wheel operates) and
    Angle or both sides of the second wheel from the center of the second wheel
    The vertical line to the plane and the center point of the front and rear wheels aligned in the traveling direction
    Line connecting the midpoints of the connecting lines (for each first wheel of the front and rear wheels
    Angle θb with respect to the case where the corresponding guide sensor operates) : from the center of the first wheel to both side surfaces of the wheel
    Line connecting the center of the pair of rear wheels (the first
    Formed between the case) the guide sensor corresponding to the wheel acts
    Angle or opposite sides of the first wheel from the center of the wheel
    Line connecting the vertical line to
    Line connecting the midpoints of the front and rear wheels (corresponding to each first wheel of the front and rear wheels)
    That the angle between the case) the guide sensor acts D: distance between the center cross of the front and rear wheels arranged in the traveling direction (the front wheel
    When the guide sensor corresponding to the first wheel operates)
    Is の of the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels aligned in the direction of travel
    (Guide sensors corresponding to each first wheel of the front and rear wheels operate
    D ) Distance between a pair of front wheels or distance between a pair of rear wheels
    Away 4. A steering control method for an unmanned vehicle according to claim 1 or 2, unmanned vehicle is cornering
    When performing the operation, the center of each drive wheel is
    Inside the line perpendicular to the side and the front and rear wheels lined up in the direction of travel of the vehicle
    The intersection of the line connecting the center points with the line connecting the intermediate points
    The pivot point of the wheel, the drive wheel from the center point of the turning
    The distance to the center point of each drive is calculated, and each drive is proportional to this distance.
    A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle in which wheels are driven and controlled . 5. The steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the control means includes a P control.
    An LC (Programmable Logic Controller) is provided, and the PLC has a trigonometric function calculation function using a Taylor expansion method,
    A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle, wherein an operation coefficient value of the operation function set experimentally is recorded and used, and an interpolation operation function of interpolating an intermediate of the operation coefficient values recorded stepwise is provided. 6. The steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the control function mounted on the traveling vehicle includes a traveling road map of the traveling vehicle and a predetermined map on the traveling road map. A steering control method for an unmanned traveling vehicle configured to record traveling data to be designated at a location in advance and automatically select a guided traveling method and / or a traveling mode of the traveling vehicle system according to the traveling data.
JP02723795A 1995-01-24 1995-01-24 Unmanned vehicle steering control method Expired - Fee Related JP3368704B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP02723795A JP3368704B2 (en) 1995-01-24 1995-01-24 Unmanned vehicle steering control method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP02723795A JP3368704B2 (en) 1995-01-24 1995-01-24 Unmanned vehicle steering control method

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JPH08202448A JPH08202448A (en) 1996-08-09
JP3368704B2 true JP3368704B2 (en) 2003-01-20

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Country Link
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP5019340B2 (en) * 2000-08-31 2012-09-05 村田機械株式会社 Track structure of overhead transport vehicle
JP2002166739A (en) * 2000-11-29 2002-06-11 Nippon Sharyo Seizo Kaisha Ltd Slip detecting and eliminating device for automated guided vehicle
JP4148194B2 (en) 2004-07-22 2008-09-10 村田機械株式会社 Conveyor cart system
US8972111B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2015-03-03 Volvo Construction Equipment Ab Articulated vehicle with a controllable wheel route
CN103502083B (en) * 2011-05-06 2016-11-02 沃尔沃建筑设备公司 Vehicle with controllable wheel route
FR3035620B1 (en) * 2015-04-30 2018-07-13 Renault S.A.S. Motorized conveyor trolley

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