JP3302443B2 - Flat-plate flow-through type electric double layer capacitor and liquid processing method using the same - Google Patents

Flat-plate flow-through type electric double layer capacitor and liquid processing method using the same

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Publication number
JP3302443B2
JP3302443B2 JP13935493A JP13935493A JP3302443B2 JP 3302443 B2 JP3302443 B2 JP 3302443B2 JP 13935493 A JP13935493 A JP 13935493A JP 13935493 A JP13935493 A JP 13935493A JP 3302443 B2 JP3302443 B2 JP 3302443B2
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Prior art keywords
liquid
layer capacitor
activated carbon
flow
electric double
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JP13935493A
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JPH06325983A (en
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利郎 音羽
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関西熱化学株式会社
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Priority to JP13935493A priority Critical patent/JP3302443B2/en
Priority claimed from US08/379,493 external-priority patent/US5538611A/en
Publication of JPH06325983A publication Critical patent/JPH06325983A/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G9/00Electrolytic capacitors, rectifiers, detectors, switching devices, light-sensitive or temperature-sensitive devices; Processes of their manufacture
    • H01G9/155Double-layer capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/08Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor
    • B01J19/087Processes employing the direct application of electric or wave energy, or particle radiation; Apparatus therefor employing electric or magnetic energy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J19/248Reactors comprising multiple separated flow channels
    • B01J19/249Plate-type reactors
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/46104Devices therefor; Their operating or servicing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/469Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrochemical separation, e.g. by electro-osmosis, electrodialysis, electrophoresis
    • C02F1/4691Capacitive deionisation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J2219/2401Reactors comprising multiple separate flow channels
    • B01J2219/245Plate-type reactors
    • B01J2219/2451Geometry of the reactor
    • B01J2219/2453Plates arranged in parallel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J2219/2401Reactors comprising multiple separate flow channels
    • B01J2219/245Plate-type reactors
    • B01J2219/2469Feeding means
    • B01J2219/247Feeding means for the reactants
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J2219/2401Reactors comprising multiple separate flow channels
    • B01J2219/245Plate-type reactors
    • B01J2219/2475Separation means, e.g. membranes inside the reactor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J2219/2401Reactors comprising multiple separate flow channels
    • B01J2219/245Plate-type reactors
    • B01J2219/2491Other constructional details
    • B01J2219/2492Assembling means
    • B01J2219/2493Means for assembling plates together, e.g. sealing means, screws, bolts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J2219/2401Reactors comprising multiple separate flow channels
    • B01J2219/245Plate-type reactors
    • B01J2219/2491Other constructional details
    • B01J2219/2497Size aspects, i.e. concrete sizes are being mentioned in the classified document
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
    • C02F1/283Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption using coal, charred products, or inorganic mixtures containing them
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/46104Devices therefor; Their operating or servicing
    • C02F1/46109Electrodes
    • C02F2001/46133Electrodes characterised by the material
    • C02F2001/46138Electrodes comprising a substrate and a coating
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/46Apparatus for electrochemical processes
    • C02F2201/461Electrolysis apparatus
    • C02F2201/46105Details relating to the electrolytic devices
    • C02F2201/46115Electrolytic cell with membranes or diaphragms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/46Apparatus for electrochemical processes
    • C02F2201/461Electrolysis apparatus
    • C02F2201/46105Details relating to the electrolytic devices
    • C02F2201/4612Controlling or monitoring
    • C02F2201/4615Time
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/05Conductivity or salinity
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/13Ultracapacitors, supercapacitors, double-layer capacitors

Abstract

The object of the invention is to provide a flow-through, electric, double-layer capacitor providing for a high, steady rate of removal of ionic substances and amenable to commercial scale application and a method of treating fluids using the flow-through electric double-layer capacitor. The invention is a planar, flow-through, electric, double-layer capacitor comprising a separator (1) consisting in an electrically-insulating, porous, flow-through sheet, activated carbon layers (2, 2), each comprising a high specific surface area activated carbon as a main component, collectors (3, 3) disposed externally of the active carbon layers (2, 2), and retaining plates (4, 4) disposed externally of the collectors (3, 3). A fluid containing ionic substances is treated by passing the fluid through the planar, flow-through, electric, double-layer capacitor and repeating, in alternate cycles, application of a direct current constant voltage to collectors (3, 3) and short-circuiting or reversal of connection between collectors (3, 3).

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a flat, liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor using an activated carbon layer. Also, the present invention relates to a method for treating a liquid containing an ionic substance using the flat-plate type liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art There is known a method of removing an ionic substance from water containing an ionic substance by using an electrostatic force by using an electric double layer capacitor.

[0003] For example, US Pat. No. 5,192,432 discloses a liquid-flow type capacitor used for a column for constant charge chromatography for purifying a liquid, which comprises a first conductive support layer and a first high-pressure layer. A plurality of layers including a surface area conductive layer, a first non-conductive porous spacer layer, a second conductive support layer, a second high surface area conductive layer, a second non-conductive porous spacer layer, and the like. A liquid-flowing capacitor in which adjacent layers are spirally wound is shown. The specification also discloses that the condenser can be used for purifying water containing an ionic substance such as sodium chloride.

[0004]

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION U.S. Pat.
The through-flow condenser disclosed in the specification of US Pat. No. 32 is of interest, and the present applicant is currently conducting research in their respective positions in cooperation with the assignee of the US patent.

However, since the liquid-flow condenser has a structure in which adjacent layers are spirally wound, a drift is likely to occur when the liquid is passed, and the liquid-flow condenser is applied to the purification of a liquid containing an ionic substance. In this case, it has been found that the removal rate of the ionic substance fluctuates during the purification operation and is not stable, and that the removal rate becomes considerably low on average. For this reason, it has been difficult to use this liquid-flow condenser for liquid purification on an industrial scale.

[0006] Under such circumstances, the present invention provides a flow-through type electric double layer capacitor which has a high and stable removal rate of ionic substances and can be implemented on an industrial scale. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for treating a liquid using the liquid-pass type electric double layer capacitor.

[0007]

According to the present invention, there is provided a flat-plate type liquid-permeation type electric double-layer capacitor according to the present invention comprising a high specific surface area activated carbon sandwiched between separators (1) made of an electrically insulating porous liquid-permeable sheet. Activated carbon layers (2) and (2) are arranged, and collecting electrodes (3) and (3) are arranged outside the activated carbon layers (2) and (2). It has a configuration in which the holding plates (4), (4) are arranged outside of (3).

Further, the method for treating a liquid according to the present invention is characterized in that the liquid containing an ionic substance is passed through the above-mentioned flat plate type liquid-permeation type electric double layer capacitor while the direct current to the collecting electrodes (3) and (3) is supplied. The method is characterized in that the application of a constant voltage and the short-circuit or reverse connection between both collector electrodes (3), (3) are alternately repeated.

Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail.

As the separator (1), a filter made of an organic or inorganic sheet, such as a filter paper, a porous polymer membrane, a woven fabric, or a nonwoven fabric, which allows easy passage of liquid and has electrical insulation properties is used. The thickness of the separator (1) is 0.01 to 0.
About 5 mm, especially about 0.02 to 0.3 mm is suitable.

As the activated carbon layers (2), (2), a layer mainly composed of activated carbon having a high specific surface area is used. The high specific surface area activated carbon is a BET specific surface area of 1,000 m 2 / g or more, preferably 15 m 2 / g or more.
00 m 2 / g or more, more preferably 2000 to 2500 m 2
/ g activated carbon. When the BET specific surface area is too small, the removal rate of the ionic substance when passing through the liquid containing the ionic substance decreases. If the BET specific surface area is too large, the removal rate of the ionic substance tends to be rather lowered, so that it is not sufficient to increase the BET specific surface area more than necessary.

The shape of the activated carbon to be used is arbitrary such as powdery and granular, fibrous and the like. In the case of a powdery or granular form, it is used after being formed into a flat plate or a sheet. The use of powdered or granular activated carbon formed into a flat plate or a sheet is significantly more advantageous in terms of cost than the case where fibrous activated carbon is processed into a cloth.

For forming into a flat plate or a sheet, for example, powdered granular activated carbon is mixed with a binder component (polytetrafluoroethylene, phenol resin, carbon black, etc.) and / or a dispersion medium (solvent, etc.) to form a plate. It is obtained by appropriately heat-treating after molding. Activated carbon layer
When a flat plate or a sheet is used as (2), (2), a perforation process can be performed on the plate if necessary. In addition, with respect to the technique of using activated carbon in the form of a plate or a sheet, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open Nos. 63-107011, 3-122008, and 3-228814 are disclosed.
JP-A-63-110622, JP-A-63-226
No. 019 and Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication (Kokai) No. 64-1219, etc., the disclosures of these publications can also be referred to.

The thickness of the activated carbon layers (2), (2) is often about 0.1 to 3 mm, especially about 0.5 to 2 mm, but is not necessarily limited to this range.

The collectors (3) and (3) are made of an electric conductor such as a copper plate, an aluminum plate, a carbon plate, or foil-like graphite, and can be in close contact with the activated carbon layers (2) and (2). Is used. The thickness of the collecting electrodes (3), (3) is not limited, but is often about 0.1 to 0.5 mm. Usually, terminals (leads) (3a) are provided on the collecting electrodes (3) and (3) to facilitate application.

As the holding plates (4), (4), a flat plate made of an electrically insulating material such as a plastics plate, which is difficult to deform, is used. The holding plates (4), (4) can be appropriately provided with a liquid inlet, a liquid outlet, fixing bolt holes, and the like.

It is desirable to interpose frame-like gaskets (5), (5) between the collectors (3), (3) and the holding plates (4), (4). Instead of providing such gaskets (5) and (5) independently, a member having a sealing function may be provided on the side of the holding plates (4) and (4).

Using the above members, a holding plate (4) / (gasket (5) /) collector electrode (3) / activated carbon layer (2) / separator
(1) / activated carbon layer (2) / collecting electrode (3) / (gasket (5)
/) A flat-plate, liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor having the structure of the holding plate (4) is assembled.

A liquid containing an ionic substance is treated using the flat-plate, liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor having the above structure. Liquid treatment includes not only purification treatment such as water purification, seawater desalination, and denitrification of waste liquid, but also recovery of precious metals,
It also includes processes for capturing and recovering ionic substances such as purification of inorganic salts and quantification of dissolved ionic substances. Examples of the liquid include those using water, another inorganic solvent, an organic solvent, or a mixed solvent thereof as a medium, such as blood. Examples of the ionic substance include an electrolyte and a chargeable substance that can be dissociated in a liquid such as a metal salt, an amine salt, an ammonium salt, an inorganic acid, and an organic acid.

In the treatment of a liquid containing an ionic substance according to the present invention, the following procedure is employed.・ Assemble a flat-plate, liquid-flow type electric double-layer capacitor, and pass the liquid containing ionic substances from the liquid inlet using a liquid feed pump or the like.・ 0.5 to 5 volts from the DC constant voltage supply source (in the case of aqueous solution, keep it to about 2 volts so as not to electrolyze water) or the voltage before and after that is applied from the terminals of the collecting electrodes (3) and (3) I do. In the case of an aqueous solution:-Monitor the liquid at the liquid outlet using a conductivity meter or the like, and short-circuit (or reverse connect) and repeat application at appropriate timing. Temporal control by a timer is also possible. When short (or reverse connection), activated carbon layer (2),
The ionic substance electrically adsorbed on (2) is desorbed,
It is discharged from the liquid outlet as a concentrated liquid.

[0021]

The principle of processing a liquid containing an ionic substance by using the flat-plate type liquid-permeation type electric double-layer capacitor of the present invention will be described by taking a case where the liquid containing an ionic substance is a saline solution as an example. 6 is shown.

As shown in FIG. 6 (a), when a voltage is applied, the sodium ions in the passed water are collected by the anode-side collector electrode.
(3) is electrically adsorbed to the activated carbon layer (2) in contact with the collector electrode (3) on the cathode side, and chloride ions are electrically adsorbed to the activated carbon layer (2) in contact with the collector electrode (3) on the cathode side. Decrease significantly. If water is continued, the adsorption of both ions to the activated carbon layers (2) and (2) reaches saturation, so that the salt concentration at the outlet is close to that of the stock solution. If you short-circuit or reverse connect the cathode and anode sides at an appropriate timing,
As shown in Fig. 6 (b), the sodium ion and chloride ion adsorbed on the activated carbon layers (2) and (2) are desorbed, and the salt solution having a concentration much higher than the salt concentration in the stock solution is discharged from the outlet. You. At this time, the salt concentration in the outlet water can be further increased by taking measures such as reducing the flow velocity during the passage of the liquid.

In the present invention, since the flat activated carbon layers (2) and (2) are used and each member is arranged and pressed into a flat plate-shaped structure, the activated carbon layers (2) and (2) Can be uniformly compressed, and the drift of the liquid at the time of passing the liquid can be effectively prevented. Therefore, the removal rate of the ionic substance is stabilized, and the removal rate can be increased to the limit.

[0024]

The present invention will be further described with reference to the following examples.

<Production of Liquid-Pass Type Electric Double-Layer Capacitor> Example of Apparatus FIG. 1 is an exploded view of a liquid-pass type electric double-layer capacitor of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an assembly diagram. In FIG. 2, the collectors (3) and (3) are shown in cross section.

The following members were prepared, and the liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor shown in FIG. 2 was produced.

(1) is a flat separator having a thickness of about
0.2mm filter paper is used.

(2) and (2) are activated carbon layers having a specific gravity of 0.4 and a size of 120 mm × 120 mm, and a BET specific surface area of 2 produced by activating petroleum coke with potassium hydroxide.
It is made by mixing 200 m 2 / g of powdery high specific surface area activated carbon with polytetrafluoroethylene, carbon black and an appropriate dispersion medium and compression-molding into a 1.0 mm-thick plate. The mixing ratio of activated carbon at the time of molding was 80% by weight.
The total amount of activated carbon in the activated carbon layers (2) and (2) is 10
g.

(3) and (3) are collector electrodes having a thickness of 125 μm.
Of foil-like graphite. One collector electrode
A liquid passage hole (3b) with a diameter of about 1 mm is formed in the lower half of (3), and a similar liquid passage hole (3b) is formed in the upper half of the other collector (3). is there. Each of the collecting electrodes (3) and (3) is provided with a terminal (3a).

(4), (4) are holding plates, which are made of a polymethyl methacrylate plate having a thickness of 10 mm. Bolt holes (8) are provided on the periphery of the holding plates (4) and (4). A liquid inlet (6) is provided at a lower corner on one side of one holding plate (4), and a liquid outlet (7) is provided at an upper diagonal corner of the other holding plate (4). .

Each of (5) and (5) is a frame-shaped gasket having a thickness of 1 mm, which is obtained by punching a silicone rubber sheet into a frame.

Each of the above-described members was arranged in the arrangement shown in FIG. 1 and pressed together using bolts and nuts (9) to assemble the liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor shown in FIG.

<Treatment of Liquid Containing Ionic Substance> Treatment Example 1 Using the flow-through type electric double layer capacitor obtained above, as shown in FIG. 2, the terminals (3a) and (3a) of the collectors (3) and (3) were used. (3a) is connected to a 1 volt DC power supply, and the concentration 0.01 from the liquid inlet (6) of the holding plate (4).
The solution was passed through a mol / liter saline solution, and allowed to flow out from the liquid outlet (7) in a drained state.

The flow rate when passing saline solution is 0.9 ml / mi, respectively.
FIG. 3 shows the relationship between the integrated flow rate and the outlet liquid salt concentration when n and 9.1 ml / min.

From FIG. 3, it can be seen from FIG. 3 that when the constant voltage of 1 volt is applied, the outlet salt concentration sharply drops, and when the flow rate is 0.9 ml / min, a maximum of 93% of salt is removed, and when the flow rate is 9.1 ml / min. Shows that up to 70% of the salt is removed.

Processing Example 2 FIG. 4 shows the accumulated amount of liquid and the outlet salt concentration when the saline solution is passed through the electric double layer condenser of FIG. 2 and the application of the constant voltage and the short circuit are alternately repeated. 5 is a graph showing the relationship of FIG.

The terminals (3a) and (3a) of the collectors (3) and (3) were connected to a 1 volt DC power source as shown in FIG. Board (4) liquid inlet (6)
, A saline solution having a concentration of 0.01 mol / liter was passed through the solution at a flow rate of 0.9 ml / min, and was allowed to flow out from the liquid outlet (7) in a drained state.

The application of a constant voltage of 1 volt and the short circuit were repeated at the timing shown in FIG. 4, and the salt concentration in the liquid flowing out from the liquid outlet (7) was measured. FIG. 4 shows the results.

FIG. 4 shows that the application of a constant voltage of 1 volt sharply lowers the outlet salt concentration and removes up to 93% of salt, and short-circuiting increases the salt concentration up to about 4 times. When the application is started again when the outlet salt concentration becomes close to that of the undiluted solution, the outlet salt concentration sharply drops and the salt is also removed up to 93% in the same manner. The solution with a higher salt concentration is derived by a factor of two.
It can be seen that the same result can be obtained even if the repetition is repeated more than once, and that the stability of the deionization rate is excellent.

Processing Example 3 Except for using a felt-like cloth made of fibrous activated carbon having a BET specific surface area of 1450 m 2 / g as the activated carbon layers (2) and (2),
A flow-through type electric double layer capacitor was assembled in the same manner as in the above apparatus example.

The terminals (3a) and (3a) of the collectors (3) and (3) were connected to a 1 volt DC power source as shown in FIG. Board (4) liquid inlet (6)
A saline solution having a concentration of 0.01 mol / liter was passed through the flask, and was allowed to flow out from the liquid outlet (7) in a drained state.

The flow rate when passing saline solution was 1.0 ml / mi
FIG. 5 shows the relationship between the integrated flow rate and the outlet salt concentration when n and 10 ml / min. The flow rate is two activated carbon beds
(2) This is the flow rate per 10 g of the total amount of the fibrous activated carbon constituting (2).

From FIG. 5, it can be seen that the outlet salt concentration is sharply reduced by applying a constant voltage of 1 volt, and the flow rate is 1.0 ml / min.
It can be seen that not only the salt removal rate in case (1) is excellent but also the salt removal rate is large even when the flow rate is set to 10 ml / min.

[0044]

As described in the section of operation, in the flow-through type electric double layer capacitor of the present invention, the flat activated carbon layers (2) and (2) are used, and the members are arranged and pressed. Because of the flat plate-shaped structure, the activated carbon layers (2) and (2) can be compressed uniformly, and the drift of the liquid during passage can be effectively prevented. Therefore, the removal rate of the ionic substance is stabilized, and the removal rate can be increased to the limit. In addition, since the overall thickness is small even when the size is increased, it is easy to increase the capacity by arranging them in parallel in multiple stages. Thus, the present invention enables the treatment of liquids on an industrial scale.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is an exploded view of a flow-through type electric double layer capacitor of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is an assembly diagram of the liquid-permeation type electric double layer capacitor of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a graph showing the relationship between the integrated flow rate and the outlet salt concentration when the flow rates of the saline solution are 0.9 ml / min and 9.1 ml / min, respectively, in Processing Example 1.

FIG. 4 is a graph showing a flow rate of a saline solution in the electric double-layer capacitor of FIG. 2 and a cumulative flow rate and an outlet salt concentration when a constant voltage application and a short circuit are alternately repeated. 5 is a graph showing the relationship of FIG.

FIG. 5 is a graph showing the relationship between the integrated flow rate and the outlet salt concentration when the flow rates of the saline solution are set to 1.0 ml / min and 10 ml / min, respectively, in Processing Example 3.

FIG. 6 is a principle diagram when a liquid containing an ionic substance is processed using the flat-plate, liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor of the present invention.

[Explanation of symbols]

(1) ... separator, (2) ... activated carbon layer, (3) ... collector electrode, (3
a) Terminal, (3b) Liquid hole, (4) Holding plate, (5) Gasket, (6) Liquid inlet, (7) Liquid outlet, (8) Bolt hole,
(9)… bolts and nuts

Claims (3)

    (57) [Claims]
  1. An activated carbon layer (2) mainly composed of activated carbon having a high specific surface area is disposed with a separator (1) made of an electrically insulating porous liquid-permeable sheet interposed therebetween. Collector electrodes (3), (3) are arranged outside of (2), (2), and the collector electrodes (3), (3),
    A flat-plate, liquid-flow type electric double-layer capacitor having a configuration in which the holding plates (4) and (4) are arranged outside the (3).
  2. 2. The communication device according to claim 1, wherein frame-like gaskets (5) are interposed between the collecting electrodes (3) and (3) and the holding plates (4) and (4). Liquid type electric double layer capacitor.
  3. 3. Applying a constant DC voltage to the collecting electrodes (3), (3) while passing a liquid containing an ionic substance through the plate-shaped liquid-flow type electric double layer capacitor of claim 1; Double collector electrode (3),
    (3) A method for treating a liquid, comprising alternately repeating short-circuiting or reverse connection between the liquids.
JP13935493A 1993-05-17 1993-05-17 Flat-plate flow-through type electric double layer capacitor and liquid processing method using the same Expired - Fee Related JP3302443B2 (en)

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PCT/US1994/005364 WO1994026669A1 (en) 1993-05-17 1994-05-12 A planar, flow-through, electric, double-layer capacitor and method of treating fluids with the capacitor
US08/379,493 US5538611A (en) 1993-05-17 1994-05-12 Planar, flow-through, electric, double-layer capacitor and a method of treating liquids with the capacitor

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