JP2939780B2 - Solar cells - Google Patents

Solar cells

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JP2939780B2
JP2939780B2 JP18853892A JP18853892A JP2939780B2 JP 2939780 B2 JP2939780 B2 JP 2939780B2 JP 18853892 A JP18853892 A JP 18853892A JP 18853892 A JP18853892 A JP 18853892A JP 2939780 B2 JP2939780 B2 JP 2939780B2
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refractive index
layer
solar cell
transparent electrode
electrode layer
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JPH05343717A (en )
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美則 山口
克彦 林
圭三 浅岡
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鐘淵化学工業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【産業上の利用分野】本発明は、太陽電池に関し、例えばアモルファスシリコンを半導体層の主成分とする太陽電池に利用される。 The present invention relates to relates to a solar cell, is used, for example an amorphous silicon solar cell mainly of semiconductor layers.

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術】従来のアモルファスシリコン太陽電池は、光照射側からみて透明電極層、半導体層、金属電極層の構成からなり、光照射によって励起され生成したキャリアーが、pin又はnip等で接合された半導体層内の電場の作用により、光エネルギーを電気エネルギーに変換するものである。 Conventional amorphous silicon solar cells, a transparent electrode layer when viewed from the light irradiation side, the semiconductor layer made of a configuration of a metal electrode layer, carriers generated is excited by light irradiation, are joined by pin or nip or the like by the action of an electric field in the semiconductor layer, and it converts light energy into electrical energy.

【0003】 [0003]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】しかるに、この種の太陽電池では、半導体層と透明電極層の間で屈折率が異なるため、半導体層と透明電極層との界面で光が反射されてしまい(例えば、9%程度反射される。)、半導体層内に導入される光量が減少し、その結果、短絡電流が減少して曲線因子の特性が悪くなり、変換効率が低く抑えられるという問題があった。 [0007] However, in the solar cell of this type, the refractive index between the semiconductor layer and the transparent electrode layer is different, will light is reflected at the interface between the semiconductor layer and the transparent electrode layer ( for example,. is reflected approximately 9%), the amount of light introduced is reduced in the semiconductor layer, as a result, deteriorates the characteristics of the fill factor short-circuit current decreases, a problem that the conversion efficiency is kept low It was.

【0004】 [0004]

【課題を解決するための手段】本発明は、前記従来の課題を解決し得る太陽電池を提供するものであって、以下に述べるような複数の態様が採用される。 The present invention SUMMARY OF], the be those that provide a solar cell capable of solving the conventional problems, a plurality of embodiments as described below are employed. 本発明が提供する太陽電池の一つの態様は、請求項1に記載するとおり、透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層を設け、当該屈折率調整層を、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあるものとすると共に、酸素欠陥を含む酸化チタン One embodiment of a solar cell provided by the present invention, as set forth in claim 1, the refractive index adjustment layer having a light transmitting property provided between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer, the refractive index adjusting layer, with the value of the refractive index is assumed to be within the scope of the respective upper and lower limits of the refractive index of the two layers, the titanium oxide containing oxygen defect
TiO (2-X) (但しXは0.4以下)から成るものとすることを特徴とする。 TiO (2-X) (where X is 0.4 or less), characterized in that as consisting of.

【0005】本発明が提供する異なる態様の太陽電池の特徴とするところは、請求項2又は3に記載するとおり、透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層を設け、当該屈折率調整層を、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあるチタン酸化物から成るものとすると共に、タンタルTa又はバリウムBaを20%以下含むものとすることにある。 [0005] The inventors of the present invention is characterized in solar cells with different embodiments providing, as described in claim 2 or 3, a refractive index adjustment layer having a light transmitting property between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer provided, the refractive index adjusting layer, along with the value of the refractive index is assumed to consist of titanium oxide with a refractive index in the range of the upper and lower limits respectively of said two layers, tantalum Ta or barium Ba 20% It is to intended to include the following.

【0006】また、本発明が提供する太陽電池のさらに異なる態様の特徴とするところは、請求項4に記載するとおり、透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層を設け、当該屈折率調整層を、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあるものとすると共に、多孔質としたことにある。 [0006] It is a feature of still another embodiment of a solar cell provided by the present invention, as set forth in claim 4, the refractive index adjustment layer having a light transmitting property between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer the provided the refractive index adjusting layer, along with the value of the refractive index is assumed to be within the scope of the respective upper and lower limits of the refractive index of the two layers lies in the fact that the porous.

【0007】なお請求項1乃至3に記載する態様の太陽電池において、透明電極層を酸化スズSnO 2から成るものとし、当該透明電極層と前記屈折率調整層との界面を実質的に平坦なものとする態様を採用することができる。 [0007] In the solar cell of the embodiment according to claim 1 to 3, and those comprising a transparent electrode layer from tin oxide SnO 2, substantially planar interface between the the transparent electrode layer and the refractive index adjusting layer it can be adopted a mode in which a thing.

【0008】 [0008]

【作用】本発明に係る太陽電池は、透明電極層と半導体層の間に、透光性を有し且つその屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にある屈折率調整層を設けたので、透明電極層と半導体層との屈折率の差に起因する光の反射を少なくすることができ、 Solar cell according to the present invention, between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer, in the range and the value of the refractive index has translucency to a respective upper and lower limits of the refractive index of the two layers since there is provided a certain refractive index adjusting layer, it is possible to reduce the reflection of light due to the difference in refractive index between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer,
半導体層への光の導入が円滑に行われる。 The introduction of light into the semiconductor layer can be smoothly performed. なお、ここで「透光性」とは、太陽電池が電気に変換し得る波長の光を透過可能な性質を意味するものであり、例えば、バンドギャップが350nmより短波長の光にある材料が適している。 Here, "translucent" is intended to mean capable of transmitting property of light of a wavelength which the solar cell can be converted to electricity, for example, a material bandgap is in the short wavelength light than 350nm is Are suitable.

【0009】前記屈折率調整層を酸素欠陥を含む酸化チタンTiO (2-X) (但しXは0.4以下)から成るものとすることにより、屈折率調整層に導電性を付与することができる。 [0009] The titanium oxide TiO (2-X) containing oxygen defects refractive index adjusting layer (where X is 0.4 or less) by be made of, to impart conductivity to the refractive index adjusting layer it can. なお、前記Xの値を0.4以下、つまり酸素欠陥の割合を20%以内としたのは、屈折率調整層での光の吸収が増大するのを抑制し、半導体層への光の入射量を確保するためである屈折率調整層を形成する酸化チタンTiO 2に酸素欠陥を持たせる代わりに、チタンと価数の異なる金属、例えばタンタルTa又はバリウムBa Incidentally, the X value of 0.4 or less, i.e. the proportion of the oxygen defects and is within 20%, to prevent the absorption of light in the refractive index adjusting layer is increased, the light incident to the semiconductor layer instead of providing the oxygen defects in the titanium oxide TiO 2 to form a refractive index adjustment layer is to secure the amount of titanium and a different valence metals, such as tantalum Ta or barium Ba
を20%以下混合することによっても、酸素欠陥を持たせるのと同等の効果を発揮する。 Also by mixing 20% ​​or less, which serve equivalent effect as to have oxygen defects.

【0010】屈折率調整層を多孔質のもので形成した場合には、仮にこれが絶縁体であっても、電流の取り出しを支障なく行うことができる。 [0010] When forming the refractive index adjusting layer in those porous, even if this is an insulator, can be taken out of the current without any trouble.

【0011】 [0011]

【実施例】本発明に係る太陽電池の実施例を、図面を参照して説明する。 Examples of a solar cell according to the embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. 図1は、本発明に係る太陽電池1の概略構成を示す断面図である。 Figure 1 is a cross-sectional view showing a schematic configuration of a solar cell 1 according to the present invention. 当該太陽電池1は、透明なガラス基板2上にSnO 2膜より成る透明電極層3が形成され、透明電極層3の上に、TiO 2等のチタン酸化物より成る屈折率調整層4が形成され、さらに屈折率調整層4の上に、シリコンを主成分とする半導体層5が形成される。 The solar cell 1, a transparent electrode layer 3 made of SnO 2 film is formed on a transparent glass substrate 2, on the transparent electrode layer 3, a refractive index adjustment layer 4 made of titanium oxide such as TiO 2 is formed is, on further the refractive index adjusting layer 4, the semiconductor layer 5 composed mainly of silicon is formed. この半導体層5は、例えばアモルファスシリコンpin各層をpin或いはnipの順番で接合して形成される。 The semiconductor layer 5 is formed, for example, an amorphous silicon pin layers are joined in the order of pin or an nip. 半導体層5の上には金属電極層6が設けられる。 Metal electrode layer 6 is provided on the semiconductor layer 5. なお図面に明示されるとおり、各層間の界面は実質的に平坦に形成されている。 Incidentally, as is specified in the drawing, the interface between the layers is substantially flat.

【0012】屈折率調整層4を形成するTiO 2膜は、透明電極層3から半導体層5へ光が入射する際の反射を抑制するため、屈折率の値が、透明電極層3と半導体層5 [0012] TiO 2 film forming the refractive index adjustment layer 4, the light from the transparent electrode layer 3 into the semiconductor layer 5 can be inhibited reflections as they enter, the value of the refractive index of the transparent electrode layer 3 and the semiconductor layer 5
の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内に設定される。 Set the refractive index of the each range with an upper limit and a lower limit. 例えば半導体層5がシリコンを主成分とする場合、屈折率調整層4の屈折率は、2.2乃至3.5の範囲とされる。 For example, when the semiconductor layer 5 is composed mainly of silicon, the refractive index of the refractive index adjusting layer 4 is in the range of 2.2 to 3.5. またTiO 2に酸素欠陥を持たせることにより、導電性を付与して、光電流を取り出し易くしてある。 Also by providing the oxygen defects in TiO 2, the conductivity imparted, are then easily removed photocurrent. そして、酸素欠陥の割合を20%以下とし、屈折率調整層4の厚みを50Å〜2000Å、望ましくは20 Then, the rate of oxygen defects is 20% or less, 50A~2000A the thickness of the refractive index adjusting layer 4, desirably 20
0Å〜500Åの厚みとすることにより、特に、350 By the thickness of 0A~500A, in particular, 350
nmよりも短波長側にバンドギャップを有する材質とすることにより、所要の透光性を備える。 With material having a band gap on the shorter wavelength side than nm, it comprises the required translucent.

【0013】図2は、前記構成からなる太陽電池1において、屈折率調整層4を一定の厚み(本例では350 [0013] Figure 2 is the solar cell 1 consisting of the structure, the refractive index adjusting layer 4 with a constant thickness (in this example 350
Å)に固定し、波長領域300nm〜800nmの光に対して透明な媒質を用いたときの、屈折率(n)の大きさをパラメータとする太陽電池1の短絡電流(I SC )の特性を示すグラフである。 Fixed to Å), when using a medium transparent to light in the wavelength region 300 nm to 800 nm, the characteristics of the short-circuit current of the solar cell 1, the size parameter of the refractive index (n) (I SC) it is a graph showing. このグラフから、屈折率が約2.9で短絡電流(I SC )が最大となる双物特性をしているのが分かる。 From this graph, it can be seen the short-circuit current in refractive index of about 2.9 (I SC) is a bi-product properties becomes maximum.

【0014】図3は、前記構成からなる太陽電池1において、屈折率調整層4として屈折率(n)を一定の値に固定し(本例では2.71)、波長領域300nm〜8 [0014] Figure 3, in the solar cell 1 comprising the structure, the refractive index (n) is fixed to a constant value as a refractive index adjusting layer 4 (2.71 in this example), the wavelength region 300nm~8
00nmの光に対して透明な媒質を用いたときの、屈折率調整層4の厚み(d)をパラメータとする太陽電池1 When using the transparent medium to light of nm, the solar cell 1 to the thickness of the refractive index adjusting layer 4 (d) is a parameter
の短絡電流(I SC )の特性を示すグラフである。 It is a graph showing the characteristics of the short-circuit current (I SC). このグラフから、層厚みが約350Åのとき短絡電流(I SC From this graph, the short-circuit when the layer thickness is about 350Å current (I SC)
が最大となる双物特性をしているのが分かる。 There can be seen that has a bi-product properties becomes maximum.

【0015】前記図2及び図3に示すグラフから、短絡電流(I SC )の特性に影響を与えるのは、屈折率調整層4の屈折率(n)とその厚み(d)であることが分かる。 [0015] From the graph shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3, it affect the characteristics of the short-circuit current (I SC) is the refractive index of the refractive index adjusting layer 4 (n) and the thickness (d) It can be seen. 本発明は、屈折率調整層4の屈折率の値を、透明電極層と半導体層の各屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内に設定するという要件を採用したことにより、 The present invention, by the value of the refractive index of the refractive index adjusting layer 4 was adopted requirement to set the refractive index of the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer in a range of the upper and lower limits, respectively,
従来よりも優れた特性を太陽電池に付与することが可能できる。 It is possible to impart excellent properties than conventional solar cells. しかも本発明では、屈折率調整層4を、酸素欠陥を含む酸化チタンTiO (2-X) (但しXは0.4以下) Moreover in the present invention, the refractive index adjusting layer 4, titanium oxide TiO containing oxygen defects (2-X) (where X is 0.4 or less)
から成るものとしたので、太陽電池の特性の一層の向上が得られる。 Since consisted of, further improvement in characteristics of the solar cell is obtained.

【0016】具体的には、前記図1の太陽電池1において、金属電極層6をAlとし、屈折率調整層4を挟まない従来構造のものは、AM1光に対する短絡電流が1 [0016] Specifically, in the solar cell 1 of FIG. 1, the metal electrode layer 6 and Al, the conventional structure that does not pinch the refractive index adjusting layer 4, a short circuit current to AM1 light 1
4.8mA/cm 2 、変換効率が8.8%であったのに対して、厚み350Åの屈折率調整層4を挟んだ構造の本発明に係る太陽電池1では、短絡電流が約10%大きくなって16.2mA/cm 2となり、変換効率も同じく約10%上昇して9.5%に増加したのが確認された。 4.8 mA / cm 2, while the conversion efficiency was 8.8%, the solar cell 1 according to the present invention of the structure across the refractive index adjusting layer 4 having a thickness of 350 Å, a short-circuit current is about 10% larger is to 16.2mA / cm 2, and the conversion efficiency that was increased again to about 10 percent increase to 9.5% was confirmed. また、短絡電流、変換効率の向上だけでなく、開放電圧、曲線因子の改善の効果も確認された。 Moreover, short-circuit current, as well as improvement of the conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, the effect of improving the fill factor was also confirmed.

【0017】ところで、屈折率調整層4に、20%以内の酸素欠陥を持たせたり、タンタルやバリウム等の不純物を20%以下含ませるのは、導電性をこの層に持たせて光電流を取り出し易くするためであり、電流の取り出しに支障がないのであれば、屈折率調整層4は絶縁体であってもよく、例えばチタンを陽極酸化してできる多孔質のTiO 2等の使用も可能である。 [0017] Incidentally, the refractive index adjusting layer 4, or to have a 20% within oxygen defects, the inclusion of impurities such as tantalum or barium than 20%, the photocurrent has conductivity to the layer It is for the sake of taking out, as long as there is no trouble in taking out the current, the refractive index adjusting layer 4 may be an insulating material, for example titanium anodized porous TiO 2 or the like can also be used that can be it is.

【0018】また屈折率調整層4を多孔質とする場合は、TiO 2等のチタン酸化物の他に、Sb 23 ,Fe [0018] If the refractive index adjusting layer 4 and the porous, in addition to titanium oxide such as TiO 2, Sb 2 S 3, Fe
23 ,CdS,CeO 2 ,ZnS,PbCl 2 ,Cd 2 O 3, CdS, CeO 2 , ZnS, PbCl 2, Cd
O等を用いることもできる。 O, or the like can also be used.

【0019】 [0019]

【発明の効果】以上述べたように、本発明によれば、従来の太陽電池に比べて短絡電流を大きくすることができ、同時に変換効率の向上も図れる。 As described above, according to the present invention, according to the present invention, as compared to conventional solar cells can be increased short-circuit current, thereby also improving the conversion efficiency at the same time. さらに、開放電圧、曲線因子の改善の効果もあり、これらも太陽電池の変換効率の向上に寄与することになる。 Furthermore, the open-circuit voltage, also has the effect of improving the fill factor, it also will contribute to the improvement of the conversion efficiency of the solar cell.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】本発明に係る太陽電池の概略構成を示す断面図である。 Is a sectional view showing a schematic configuration of a solar cell according to the present invention; FIG.

【図2】本発明に係る太陽電池において、屈折率調整層の厚みを一定厚みとし、屈折率の大きさ(n)をパラメータとしたときの短絡電流(I SC )特性を示すグラフである。 In the solar cell according to the present invention, FIG, the thickness of the refractive index adjusting layer is constant thickness is a graph showing the short-circuit current (I SC) characteristic when the magnitude of the refractive index (n) as a parameter.

【図3】本発明に係る太陽電池において、屈折率調整層の屈折率を一定の値にし、屈折率調整層の厚み(d)をパラメータとしたときの短絡電流(I SC )特性を示すグラフである。 In the solar cell according to the present invention; FIG, the refractive index of the refractive index adjusting layer to a constant value, indicating the short-circuit current (I SC) characteristic when the thickness of the refractive index adjusting layer (d) is as a parameter graph it is.

【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1…太陽電池 2…ガラス基板 3…透明電極層 4…屈折率調整層 5…半導体層 6…金属電極層 1 ... solar cell 2 ... glass substrate 3 ... transparent electrode layer 4 ... refractive index adjusting layer 5 ... semiconductor layer 6 ... metal electrode layer

Claims (5)

    (57)【特許請求の範囲】 (57) [the claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層が設けられた太陽電池であって、当該屈折率調整層は、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあり、酸素欠陥を含む酸化チタンTiO (2-X) (但しXは0.4以下)から成ることを特徴とする太陽電池。 1. A solar cell having a refractive index adjustment layer is provided with a light transmitting property between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer, the refractive index adjusting layer, the value is said both layers of the refractive index There the refractive index of the within of the upper and lower limits, respectively, of titanium oxide TiO containing oxygen defects (2-X) (where X is 0.4 or less) solar cell, comprising the.
  2. 【請求項2】 透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層が設けられた太陽電池であって、当該屈折率調整層は、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあるチタン酸化物から成り、タンタルTaを20%以下含むことを特徴とする太陽電池。 2. A solar cell having a refractive index adjustment layer is provided with a light transmitting property between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer, the refractive index adjusting layer, the value is said both layers of the refractive index made refractive index of the titanium oxide in each range with an upper limit and a lower limit, a solar cell which comprises a tantalum Ta than 20%.
  3. 【請求項3】 透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層が設けられた太陽電池であって、当該屈折率調整層は、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあるチタン酸化物から成り、バリウムBaを20%以下含むことを特徴とする太陽電池。 3. A solar cell having a refractive index adjustment layer is provided with a light transmitting property between the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer, the refractive index adjusting layer, the value is said both layers of the refractive index made refractive index of from respective titanium oxide is within the range of the upper and lower limits, a solar cell characterized by containing barium Ba than 20%.
  4. 【請求項4】 透明電極層と半導体層との間に透光性を有する屈折率調整層が設けられた太陽電池であって、当該屈折率調整層は、その屈折率の値が前記両層の屈折率をそれぞれ上限及び下限とする範囲内にあり、且つ多孔質であることを特徴とする太陽電池。 A solar cell having a refractive index adjustment layer is provided with a light transmitting property between the wherein the transparent electrode layer and the semiconductor layer, the refractive index adjusting layer, the value is said both layers of the refractive index solar cell characterized by the refractive index in the range of the upper and lower limits, respectively, a and porous.
  5. 【請求項5】 透明電極層が酸化スズSnO 2から成り、当該透明電極層と前記屈折率調整層との界面は実質的に平坦である請求項1乃至3のいずれかに記載の太陽電池。 5. The transparent electrode layer is made of tin oxide SnO 2, solar cell according to any one of the interface between the transparent electrode layer and the refractive index adjusting layer is substantially planar claims 1 to 3.
JP18853892A 1992-06-05 1992-06-05 Solar cells Expired - Lifetime JP2939780B2 (en)

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US6733889B2 (en) 2002-05-14 2004-05-11 Pilkington North America, Inc. Reflective, solar control coated glass article
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