JP2607804Y2 - Confocal laser scanning microscope - Google Patents

Confocal laser scanning microscope

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Publication number
JP2607804Y2
JP2607804Y2 JP1999000819U JP81999U JP2607804Y2 JP 2607804 Y2 JP2607804 Y2 JP 2607804Y2 JP 1999000819 U JP1999000819 U JP 1999000819U JP 81999 U JP81999 U JP 81999U JP 2607804 Y2 JP2607804 Y2 JP 2607804Y2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
light
laser
object
detector
beam
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Application number
JP1999000819U
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Japanese (ja)
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JPH11135U (en
Inventor
アリー・ドラーヤー
ピーター・マルクス・ホウプト
Original Assignee
ネーデルランドセ・オルガニザテイエ・フール・テゲパスト−ナトウールベテンシヤツペリーク・オンデルツエク・テイエヌオー
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Priority to NL8700612A priority Critical patent/NL8700612A/en
Priority to NL8700612 priority
Application filed by ネーデルランドセ・オルガニザテイエ・フール・テゲパスト−ナトウールベテンシヤツペリーク・オンデルツエク・テイエヌオー filed Critical ネーデルランドセ・オルガニザテイエ・フール・テゲパスト−ナトウールベテンシヤツペリーク・オンデルツエク・テイエヌオー
Publication of JPH11135U publication Critical patent/JPH11135U/en
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Publication of JP2607804Y2 publication Critical patent/JP2607804Y2/en
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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/0052Optical details of the image generation
    • G02B21/0068Optical details of the image generation arrangements using polarisation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/0032Optical details of illumination, e.g. light-sources, pinholes, beam splitters, slits, fibers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/0036Scanning details, e.g. scanning stages
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/0036Scanning details, e.g. scanning stages
    • G02B21/0048Scanning details, e.g. scanning stages scanning mirrors, e.g. rotating or galvanomirrors, MEMS mirrors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/0052Optical details of the image generation
    • G02B21/0072Optical details of the image generation details concerning resolution or correction, including general design of CSOM objectives
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/0052Optical details of the image generation
    • G02B21/0076Optical details of the image generation arrangements using fluorescence or luminescence
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B21/00Microscopes
    • G02B21/0004Microscopes specially adapted for specific applications
    • G02B21/002Scanning microscopes
    • G02B21/0024Confocal scanning microscopes (CSOMs) or confocal "macroscopes"; Accessories which are not restricted to use with CSOMs, e.g. sample holders
    • G02B21/008Details of detection or image processing, including general computer control
    • G02B21/0084Details of detection or image processing, including general computer control time-scale detection, e.g. strobed, ultra-fast, heterodyne detection

Description

Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a laser as a point light source, a deflection and lens system for line and frame scanning, and at least one near the object. A confocal laser scanning microscope provided with an objective lens, an object stage, a spatial frequency filter and detector, and an electronic control and image processing system, wherein the object is point-by-point by means of a light beam Measurements are made at the detector where only the scanned and point light source is focused, so that no out-of-focus light is detected, so that the resolution and contrast are axial in three dimensions, especially relative to the image plane. And a confocal laser scanning microscope in which three-dimensional information is derived from the object. Such a confocal laser scanning microscope is described in T.W. Wilson and C.I. The title of the book by Shepard, “Theory and Practice of Scanning Light Microscopy”, is known from Academic Publishing. [0002] In such a microscope,
A focused laser spot is scanned against a stationary object or subject. A mirror galvanometer (m ir rorga) is used for the scanning movement of the focused laser spot for both line scanning and frame scanning.
A galvanometer deflection using an lvanometer is commonly used. The object is also often scanned by moving object stage means with a stationary focus laser spot. The disadvantage of such scanning methods is that they have mechanical properties and are therefore inherently slow. This also results in long frame times. The purpose of the present invention is to eliminate these problems, and in a confocal laser scanning microscope,
To achieve deflection with high speed and flexibility, i.e. it can be operated with variable scanning amplitude and various types of microscopy and has a relatively optically simple embodiment. As a result of rapid line and frame scanning, it is possible to electronically combine a number of thin image portions to form an image with increased depth of focus in a very short time. In a confocal laser scanning microscope of the type described in the introduction, for faster line scanning, the deflection system comprises an acousto-optical deflector, and For slow field scans, the deflection system comprises another deflector configured such that the frame scan movement of the return light beam is completely eliminated;
As a result, the return light is achieved by the present invention in that it is focused on the spatial frequency filter. The use of acousto-optical deflectors is known per se in the case of non-confocal laser scanning microscopy. However, if it is used in a confocal microscope, the disadvantages of known dispersion characteristics and the need to use some lenses arise, so that observation light of wavelengths other than the wavelength of light incident on the object Confocal microscopy using (fluorescence etc.) is not easily possible and also the interference effect due to reflections on the surface of the lens used is considerable. In addition, the laser avoids aberrations
Must be of good quality. In a convenient embodiment, another deflector in the deflection system includes a mirror galvanometer. A more convenient embodiment in which a beam splitter is incorporated into the optical path to split the return light beam after the acousto-optical deflector and direct it through the subsequent objective lens to the detector is: Acoustic
The deflection system with an optical deflector is also a pinhole filter configured so that the line scanning movement of the return light beam is completely eliminated and forms a point detector with a detector followed by a spatial frequency filter And Conveniently, in the confocal laser scanning microscope according to the present invention, the related need to use several lenses allows light reflection interference effects in the external path created by the use of an acousto-optic deflector. In order to suppress this, a quarter-wave plate is incorporated in the optical path to the outside in front of the objective lens. Then, a polarization filter whose polarization direction is perpendicular to the polarization direction of the light to the outside is incorporated in the path of the reflected light beam. The linearly polarized light to the outside is converted into circularly polarized light by the quarter wave plate. After reflection by the object, the circularly polarized light again passes through the quarter reflector, so that the light is linearly polarized in a polarization direction perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam. A polarization filter incorporated in the reflected light path only transmits light having a polarization direction perpendicular to the direction of the external beam, which is then detected by a point detector. The invention will now be described in more detail on the basis of exemplary embodiments with reference to the drawings. The first embodiment will be described with reference to FIG. The laser light beam 1 first passes through lenses 2 and 3 which together form a beam expanding optical system, and then a flat cylindrical lens 5.1 and a plano-convex lens 5 on the beam splitter 4, both on the entrance and exit sides. .2 with sound-
It passes through the optical deflector 5, the lens 6, the deflector 7 that is a mirror galvanometer, the lens 8, the quarter-wave plate 16, and the objective lens 9. In the object plane 10, the object is
Although not shown, it is further placed on a stationary object stage. The reflected light traverses the same return path as the external path to the beam splitter 4, after which it is split and polarized, followed by the objective lens 13, the spatial frequency filter 14, the lens 17, the band or cut-off filter 12, and Finally, the detector 15 is reached. The aforementioned magnifying optical system has a magnifying factor of 3, but in combination with other optical elements, ensures that the light completely fills the entrance pupil of the objective lens 9. The beam splitter 4 ensures that the light reflected by the object is separated from the outgoing laser light. The acousto-optical deflector 5 ensures a more rapid line scan for the object, and the mirror galvanometer 7 guarantees a relatively slow frame scan for the object. In this respect, the acousto-optic deflector can achieve the deflection of the laser beam at a high frequency, such as at video speeds or higher. The lens 6 increases the angle at which the laser beam is deflected by the acousto-optic deflector. The focus of the laser beam is focused at a position where the objective lens is used in the correct way. Mirror galvanometer 7
Is at the focal point of the lens and is placed at the center point of the lens 8. As a result of this, the laser beam is stationary both on the mirror galvanometer and on the back side of the objective lens,
As a result, at these positions, only the incident angle, not the incident position of the laser beam, changes. Compare Figure 2 in this regard. The objective lens 9 focuses the laser beam 18 to the outside on the object. The object is, for example, a biological subject or other object. The laser beam 19 reflected or scattered by the object is converted into a beam splitter 4.
Follow the same reverse light path. After this, the reflected light is element 1
1, 13, 14, 17 and 12 to detector 15,
Follow the already specified route. Acoustics-Scanning of laser beams introduced by photodetectors and mirror galvanometers X-
The Y movement is again lost in the return path so that the reflected light is focused on the stationary spatial frequency filter 14, which is a pinhole filter (2 micron hole). This filter forms a point detector with the detector immediately after it. As a result of this, the microscope has confocal properties. In a first embodiment according to the invention, the disturbing reflection introduced into the path by the acousto-optical deflector is a quarter wave plate 16 incorporated in front of the objective lens 9; It is removed by the polarization filter 11 incorporated after the beam splitter. The outgoing linearly polarized light is converted into circularly polarized light by the quarter wave plate 16, after which the light, after reflection, passes again through the quarter reflector and is perpendicular to the incident beam. It is converted again into linearly polarized light in the polarization direction. The polarization filter 11 incorporated after the beam splitter is also adjusted to this polarization direction, so that only reflections from the object and the objective lens 9 are detected. Further disadvantageous effects are probably caused by the dispersion characteristics of the acoustic-light deflector. As a result, return light (for example, fluorescence) having a wavelength other than the laser light no longer passes through the spatial frequency filter 14. Such a case is handled by replacing the spatial frequency filter 14. Such a spatial frequency filter is conveniently replaced by three piezoelectric crystals, each facing one of the three axes of the XYZ coordinate system, as shown in FIG. . Conveniently, such a microscope is
It can be used to examine fluorescent analytes that have intrinsic fluorescence properties or have been selected for this purpose. When light is incident on the object, the resulting emitted light has a wavelength other than the wavelength of the outgoing laser light. By using a band-pass filter or a cut-off filter 12 that matches the expected wavelength of the return light in the return path, the return light is selectively transmitted so that no disturbing effect is experienced from the reflected laser light. Different wavelengths of light are also subject to different deflections in the acousto-optical deflector 5 so that the spatial frequency filter 12
Must be placed at another location corresponding to the angular dispersion of the acoustic-light deflector. FIG. 4 shows a second embodiment. The dichroic mirror 20 includes a flat cylindrical lens 5.1 and a lens 6
Built in the light path between. The mirror transmits laser light (short wavelength) and deflects long wavelength return light e.g. emitted from fluorescence. This light passes through the correction lens 21 and is split filter (3
The special spatial frequency filter 23 which is 30 mx 1 m) is focused by the objective lens 22 so that the system has confocal properties. In this way, a line detector is formed by the following lens 24 and detector 26. Between the lens 24 and the detector 26, a further band or cut-off filter 25 having the same function as the band or cut-off filter 12 is incorporated. According to this embodiment, return light having a wavelength other than the wavelength of the outgoing light is advantageous if the acoustic-light deflector has a very low effectiveness for the light, i.e. causes a very large attenuation. It can be measured well. With this microscope it is possible, for example, to collect 20 images per second at a line frequency of 20 kHz. That is, each image includes 100 lines. So many 20,000 lines per second and one per line
If there are 000 image points or pixels, at least 50 detectors and subsequent electronics that measure the halftone of the pixels
It must have a response time not exceeding nsec.
Conveniently, such high speed image assembly allows an image with increased depth of focus to be assembled by combining multiple thin image portions. According to the above embodiment, 20 sections positioned below each other are combined in 1 second, so that 20 section-thick objects are reproduced with full shear. Besides being used in the field of biology,
Microscopes according to the invention having a line scanning frequency of eg 20-30 kHz and a frame scanning frequency of eg 90 Hz are also used in the forensic examination and microelectronics industry. In all cases, the fact that this microscope does not require handling objects under vacuum is a great advantage. In contrast to scanning electron microscopy, where the subject must be covered with a thin conductive metal layer, this method is also non-destructive. The fact that in the microscope according to the invention no mechanical force is exerted on the subject is also an advantage in the system in which the subject is scanned. In the microelectronics industry, this microscope is responsible for the production control of LSI and VLSI chips, the production of “custom design” chips, and also so-called
It can be used for functional control of the chip by the “light beam induced current” method. The microscope is also conveniently used for inspecting optical memory.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a first embodiment of a confocal laser scanning microscope according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a method in which a light beam is incident on an objective lens. 3 is a detailed view of a spatial frequency filter in the microscope of FIG. FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a second embodiment of a confocal laser scanning microscope according to the present invention. [Explanation of Symbols] 1 Laser beam 2, 3, 8, 17, 24 Lens 4 Beam splitter 5 Acousto-optical deflector 5.1 Planar cylindrical lens 5.2 Plano-convex lens 7 Mirror galvanometer 9, 13, 22 Objective lens DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Object plane 11 Deflection filter 12, 25 Band or cut-off filter 14 Spatial frequency filter 15, 26 Detector 16 Quarter wave plate 20 Dichroic mirror 21 Correction lens 23 Split filter

──────────────────────────────────────────────────── ----- Continuation of front page (56) References Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 61-219919 (JP, A) Optics Letters, Vol. 10, no. 2 (February 1985), p. 53 (58) Fields surveyed (Int.Cl. 7 , DB name) G02B 19/00-21/00 G02B 21/06-21/36 G02B 27/00

Claims (1)

  1. (57) [Scope of request for registration of utility model] [Claim 1] To an object on a stationary stage (10)
    A laser beam (18) is emitted along the laser beam path.
    A laser as a point light source (1), and the laser beam path is an acoustic-light differential for line scanning.
    Rectifier (5) and second deflation for frame scanning
    A deflection system (5, 7) having a
    System (8) and object on stationary stage (10)
    Turn at least the first objective lens (9) near the object
    And return from the object including the detector (26 or 15)
    First (21-26) and second (11-) for the light beam
    15) Outward optical path and electronic control and image processing system
    The return light beam has a wavelength different from that of the laser light beam.
    Used in possible fluorescence or other microscopy
    The laser beam is applied to the first objective lens (9).
    The detector can only be used at a more focused location on the object.
    Confocal laser scanning microscope
    Thus deflecting the return light beam (19) having a different wavelength.
    Sound that directs it toward the outward optical path (21-26)
    Hibiki-light deflector (5) and second deflector (7)
    Dichroic mirror built in the optical path between
    (20), and the first outward optical path (21-26) is at least
    The second objective lens (22) and the spatial slit filter
    (23) in order, and the spatial slit filter includes the detector (26)
    Both line detectors were formed, and a spatial pinhole filter (14) was installed.
    Return light beam (19) through the second outward light path
    Laser and acousto-optic deflector (5)
    A beam splitter (4) is provided in the optical path between and a spatial pinhole filter (14) with three-dimensional coordinates.
    With piezoelectric crystal movement system for moving in the system
    However , this spatial pinhole filter (14) is in focus
    Point detector with detector (15) to obtain point properties
    Confocal laser scanning microscope characterized by forming
    mirror.
JP1999000819U 1987-03-13 1999-02-22 Confocal laser scanning microscope Active JP2607804Y2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
NL8700612A NL8700612A (en) 1987-03-13 1987-03-13 Confocal laser scanning microscope.
NL8700612 1987-03-13

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JPH11135U JPH11135U (en) 1999-11-09
JP2607804Y2 true JP2607804Y2 (en) 2003-03-31

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JP63059205A Pending JPS63298211A (en) 1987-03-13 1988-03-12 Confocal laser scan microscope
JP1999000819U Active JP2607804Y2 (en) 1987-03-13 1999-02-22 Confocal laser scanning microscope

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JP63059205A Pending JPS63298211A (en) 1987-03-13 1988-03-12 Confocal laser scan microscope

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (1) US4863226A (en)
EP (1) EP0284136B1 (en)
JP (2) JPS63298211A (en)
AT (1) AT79476T (en)
DE (2) DE3873570D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2034154T3 (en)
NL (1) NL8700612A (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH11135U (en) 1999-11-09
EP0284136A1 (en) 1988-09-28
DE3873570T2 (en) 1994-01-05
JPS63298211A (en) 1988-12-06
ES2034154T3 (en) 1993-04-01
AT79476T (en) 1992-08-15
EP0284136B1 (en) 1992-08-12
DE3873570D1 (en) 1992-09-17
NL8700612A (en) 1988-10-03
US4863226A (en) 1989-09-05

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