JP2019123970A - Woven fabric - Google Patents

Woven fabric Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2019123970A
JP2019123970A JP2018006457A JP2018006457A JP2019123970A JP 2019123970 A JP2019123970 A JP 2019123970A JP 2018006457 A JP2018006457 A JP 2018006457A JP 2018006457 A JP2018006457 A JP 2018006457A JP 2019123970 A JP2019123970 A JP 2019123970A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
yarn
fiber
polyester
fibers
woven fabric
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JP2018006457A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
克哉 中野
Katsuya Nakano
克哉 中野
篠崎 篤史
Atsushi Shinozaki
篤史 篠崎
美穂 大越
Yoshio Ogoshi
美穂 大越
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東レ株式会社
Toray Ind Inc
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Priority to JP2018006457A priority Critical patent/JP2019123970A/en
Publication of JP2019123970A publication Critical patent/JP2019123970A/en
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Abstract

To provide a woven fabric in which polyester-based conjugate fibers are used to provide stretchability while the texture and the wearing feeling of cellulose-based fibers are maintained, so that the problems of chemical resistance and hydrolysis resistance are solved, and in which a false-twisted yarn of polyester-based fibers is used in combination, so that problems such as wrinkles and excessive shrinkage in a dyeing process are also inhibited.SOLUTION: In a woven fabric according to the present invention, a yarn comprising cellulose-based fibers is arranged as either a warp yarn or a weft yarn. In a direction different from that of the yarn comprising the cellulose-based fibers, two types of different yarns which are a yarn comprising polyester-based fibers A and a yarn comprising polyester-based fibers B are each independently arranged. The woven fabric has an average elongation ratio in its warp direction or/and its weft direction of 5% or more.SELECTED DRAWING: None

Description

  The present invention provides a stretch fabric excellent in chemical resistance and hydrolysis resistance without using polyurethane-based fibers, and achieves high designability and wear by using polyester-based fibers and cellulose-based fibers in combination. It relates to a textile having a feeling.
  Heretofore, woven fabrics made of cellulosic fibers such as cotton have been widely used in jeans and work clothes applications, characterized by hygroscopicity and the natural feeling of the surface. However, when such a cellulose-based fiber is used alone, there is no stretchability and the texture is also hard, so there is a problem that the wearing feeling is bad. In addition, as the washing is carried out, the shrinkage becomes large, the dimensional stability is lacking, the color is dropped by washing, the other white matter is contaminated, and the color fastness is also a problem.
  From these things, in order to give stretchability, it is common to blend elastic fibers such as polyurethane fiber with cellulose fiber to give stretchability, but polyurethane fiber is deteriorated by chlorine of tap water In addition, it is difficult to commercialize workwear applications that are frequently worn due to severe degradation due to hydrolysis.
  On the other hand, when cellulose fibers and polyester fibers are used together, there are few problems with chemical resistance, but the stretchability is insufficient. When false twisting is performed to impart stretchability to polyester fibers, bulkiness and some stretchability can be obtained, but it is still insufficient for obtaining a good wearing feeling.
  Conventionally, polytrimethylene terephthalate (hereinafter sometimes abbreviated as PTT) and polyethylene terephthalate (hereinafter abbreviated as PET) may be used as a method of imparting stretchability to cellulosic fibers without using polyurethane-based elastic fibers. The method of using 20 to 90% of the side by side type | mold composite yarn of 2.) is proposed (refer patent document 1.). However, when such a side-by-side type composite yarn is used in an amount of 60% by mass or more based on the mass of the fabric, crimps of the side-by-side type composite yarn are expressed in the dyeing process, thereby tending to overcontract. In addition, when the side-by-side type composite yarn is less than 60% by mass and normal PET yarn is used together, the contraction difference between the composite yarn and the PET yarn is large, so the PET yarn can not follow the contraction and wrinkles to ensure quality. Was difficult.
  In addition, a method of weaving a fabric using PTT fibers or composite fibers containing PTT for all polyester fibers used is proposed. (See Patent Document 2). However, as described above, when the mixing ratio of PTT fiber is 60% by mass or more, it tends to be over-contracted, making it difficult to control the amount of property in the dyeing process, or avoiding the generation of wrinkles and wrinkles. Was difficult.
JP 2002-155449 A JP, 2006-219796, A
  Therefore, the object of the present invention is to solve the problems of chemical resistance and hydrolysis resistance by using a polyester composite fiber while maintaining the feel and wearing feeling of the cellulose fiber, and giving the stretchability. An object of the present invention is to provide a woven fabric in which problems such as wrinkles and over-shrinkage in the dyeing process are both reconciled by using false twisted yarn of polyester fiber in combination.
  The present invention is intended to solve the above-mentioned problems, and the woven fabric of the present invention has yarns composed of cellulosic fibers arranged in either warp or weft, and yarns composed of the above-mentioned cellulosic fibers A fabric in which yarns having two types of different elasticity, which are yarns composed of polyester fibers A and yarns composed of polyester fibers B, are arranged independently in different directions from each other, respectively, It is a woven fabric characterized in that the average elongation rate in the latitudinal direction is 5% or more.
  According to a preferred embodiment of the woven fabric according to the present invention, the yarn comprising the polyester fiber A is a crimped yarn comprising a composite fiber comprising a single yarn group bonded to a side-by-side type or an eccentric core-sheath type The at least one component constituting the single yarn is a polyester component mainly composed of polytrimethylene terephthalate.
  According to a preferred embodiment of the woven fabric of the present invention, the yarn composed of the polyester fiber B is a false twist crimped yarn.
  According to a preferred embodiment of the woven fabric of the present invention, 60% or more of the polyester fiber is exposed on one side of the woven fabric.
  The fabric of the present invention is suitable as a uniform fabric.
  The present invention can impart stretchability to a woven fabric by mixing cellulosic fibers and polyester fibers of two different elasticity types, while it is not necessary to use polyurethane elastic fibers, It is possible to obtain a stretch fabric excellent in chemical resistance and hydrolysis resistance. In addition, by using cellulosic fibers in combination, it is possible to obtain a fabric having a texture, wearing feel and design unique to cellulosic fibers. In addition, by using the polyester composite fiber and the polyester high crimped false twisted yarn in combination, it is possible to suppress troubles due to wrinkles and wrinkles in the processing process and excessive shrinkage.
  In the woven fabric of the present invention, yarns comprising cellulose fibers are disposed on either the warp or weft, and yarns and polyester fibers comprising polyester fibers A in a direction different from the yarns comprising cellulose fibers described above. It is a woven fabric in which two types of polyester-based yarns (yarns made of polyester-based fibers) different in yarns made of B are arranged independently, and the average elongation rate in the warp or weft direction is 5% It is the above textiles.
  In the woven fabric of the present invention, it is a preferred embodiment to use a yarn composed of a polyester composite fiber (polyester fiber A) at least in part. A composite fiber is a fiber that combines polymers different in intrinsic viscosity, copolymerization component, copolymerization rate, etc., and develops crimps due to the difference in their elastic recovery characteristics and shrinkage characteristics.
  When the polymer is a composite fiber having an inherent viscosity difference, the stress is concentrated on the high intrinsic viscosity side during the spinning process or the drawing process, so the internal strain differs between the two components. Therefore, the high viscosity side is largely shrunk due to the elastic recovery rate difference after drawing and the heat shrinkage rate difference in the heat treatment process of the fabric, and a distortion occurs in the single fiber to take a form of three-dimensional coil crimp. The diameter of the three-dimensional coil and the number of coils per unit fiber length are determined by the contraction difference between the high contraction component and the low contraction component (including the elastic recovery rate difference), so the larger the contraction difference, the smaller the coil diameter, The number of coils per unit fiber length increases.
  The coil crimp required as a stretch material has a small coil diameter and a large number of coils per unit fiber length (excellent elongation properties and good appearance), and good resistance to coiling. (Shrinkage of the coil according to the number of expansions and contractions is small, and stretch retention is excellent.) Furthermore, hysteresis loss at the time of expansion recovery of the coil is small (excellent elasticity, excellent feeling of fit) Etc.) and the like. While satisfying all these requirements, it is possible to make a stretch material excellent in the total balance by having the properties as a polyester fiber, for example, appropriate tension, drape and high dyeing fastness.
  Here, in order to satisfy the coil characteristics described above, the characteristics of the high shrinkage component (high viscosity component) are important. The stretchability of the coil is dominated by the stretchability of the high-shrinkage component with the low-shrinkage component as a fulcrum, so the polymer used for the high-shrinkage component is required to have high extensibility and recoverability.
  Therefore, as a result of intensive studies to satisfy the above properties without impairing the properties of the polyester fiber, the present inventors mainly use polytrimethylene terephthalate (hereinafter abbreviated as PTT) as a high shrinkage component. It was found that polyester was used.
  PTT fibers have mechanical properties equivalent to typical polyester fibers such as polyethylene terephthalate (hereinafter sometimes abbreviated as PET) fibers and polybutylene terephthalate (hereinafter sometimes abbreviated as PBT) fibers. While having chemical properties, elastic recovery and stretch recovery are extremely excellent. This is that the methylene chain of the alkylene glycol moiety in the crystal structure of PTT is a Gauss-Gausch structure (molecular chain is bent at 90 degrees), and furthermore, the binding point density due to the interaction between benzene rings (stacking, parallel) And the flexibility is high, so it is thought that the rotation of the methylene group causes the molecular chain to be easily extended and recovered.
  Here, PTT in the present invention is a polyester obtained using terephthalic acid as a main acid component and 1,3-propanediol as a main glycol component. However, a copolymer component capable of forming another ester bond can be contained at a ratio of 20 mol% or less, more preferably 10 mol% or less.
  As copolymerizable compounds (copolymer components), for example, dicarboxylic acids such as isophthalic acid, succinic acid, cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, adipic acid, dimeric acid, sebacic acid and 5-sodium sulfoisophthalic acid, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, Mention may be made, without limitation, of diols such as butanediol, neopentyl glycol, cyclohexanedimethanol, polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol.
  In addition, it is also acceptable to add titanium dioxide as a matting agent, fine particles of silica or alumina as a lubricant, hindered phenol derivatives as an antioxidant, color pigments, and the like as required.
  In addition, as the low shrinkage component (low viscosity component), a fiber forming polyester having good interfacial adhesion with PTT, which is a high shrinkage component, and stable spinning properties is used. Fiber-forming PET is preferably used in consideration of properties and raw material costs.
  In addition, the composite ratio of both the high shrinkage component and the low shrinkage component is high shrinkage component: low shrinkage component = 75: 25 to 35: 65 (from the viewpoint of spinning property and dimensional uniformity of the coil in the fiber length direction). It is preferable that it is the range of mass%, More preferably, it is the range of 65:35-45:55.
  As the composite fiber used in the present invention, a composite fiber such as a side-by-side type or an eccentric core-sheath type is preferable. The composite fiber can be obtained by a conventional method for producing a composite fiber.
  The composite fiber used in the present invention is a filament yarn, and the single fiber fineness is preferably 1.1 to 10 dtex, more preferably 1.1 to 6 dtex. By setting the single fiber fineness to 1.1 dtex or more, it is possible to obtain the effect of stretchability by crimping.
The degree of crimp can be determined by the crimp elongation rate of the following equation.
· Crimp elongation (%) = [(L0−L1) / L0] × 100%
That is, L0: Boiling water treatment is performed for 15 minutes in a state where a 0.9 × 10 −3 cN / dtex load is suspended from a fiber cassette, air-dried, and further subjected to 160 ° C. dry heat treatment for 15 minutes; Is removed and the load length of 180 × 10 -3 cN / dtex is suspended. After measuring the cassette length L1: L0, the L0 measurement load is removed and the load of 0.9 × 10 -3 cN / dtex is suspended again. The ability to develop crimp under fabric restraint by suspending the same load as the cassette length, that is, 0.9 × 10 -3 cN / dtex equivalent to the restraining force in the fabric, to the fiber cassette and heat treating it It can be expressed by the crimp elongation rate of the fiber cassette.
  It indicates that the higher the crimp elongation rate, the higher the crimp expression ability, and if it is preferably 15% or more, it is possible to give the appropriate stretch characteristics aimed by the present invention. The higher the crimp elongation rate, the better the stretch performance when made into a woven fabric, so it is more preferably 20% or more, and still more preferably 25% or more.
  The total fineness is preferably 20 dtex to 300 dtex, and more preferably 80 dtex to 180 dtex. When the total fineness exceeds the above range, crimp of the composite fiber is strongly expressed, and when it becomes a product, it becomes a cause of wrinkles and wrinkles, so it is a preferable aspect to confirm the balance with the stretchability .
  In the present invention, it is a preferred embodiment from the viewpoint of stretchability and texture to use the conjugate fiber substantially without twisting or sweet twisting. Substantially non-twisting refers to sweet twisting of 500 times / m or less applied to a warp to improve weaveability, and particularly preferred is sweet twisting of 300 times / m or less. If the actual twisting is applied beyond this, the smooth touch feeling and the soft feeling are lost and the feeling becomes hard, and also, the arrangement of single yarns becomes uneven, and the gloss is also lost due to irregular reflection of light due to the unevenness. There is.
  In the present invention, a yarn made of polyester fiber having a false twist crimp is preferably used as a yarn made of polyester fiber (polyester fiber B).
  As polyester-based fibers (polyester-based fibers B) having a false twist crimp, fibers made of PET, PBT, PTT, etc. may be mentioned, and preferably fibers made of PET are used.
  The total fineness of the yarn made of such polyester fibers is preferably 100 to 500 dtex, and more preferably 150 to 370 dtex. The single fiber fineness is preferably 0.3 to 20 dtex, more preferably 0.5 to 10 dtex, and still more preferably 0.5 to 3 dtex.
  Moreover, as a shape of the single fiber cross section of the polyester fiber which has a false twist crimp, round shape, triangle, L type, T type, Y type, W type, eight leaf type, flat (flatness 1.3-4) Of approximately W, W-type, I-type, Bume-meran type, corrugated type, gyoza type, cocoon type, rectangular type, etc.), dog bone type polygonal type, multi-leaf type, hollow type or not Although a fixed thing is mentioned, the thing of the flat cross-sectional shape of about 1.3-4 is especially preferably used.
  As processing conditions for imparting the false twist crimp, known processing conditions can be adopted, and so-called 1 heater false twist processing or 2 heater false twist processing is used.
  The cellulose-based fiber referred to in the present invention is a regenerated fiber or semi-synthetic fiber having a cellulose skeleton as a structure of a substance as a main component, and specifically, vegetable fiber such as cotton and hemp, viscose rayon, cupra, It is a thing of the concept including the reproduction fiber such as tencel, lyocell and modal, and the semi-synthetic fiber such as acetate and triacetate. A yarn obtained from these fibers is defined as a yarn made of cellulosic fibers. The fiber length and the count can be used variously depending on the performance and design.
  In the present invention, a yarn comprising such a polyester-based composite fiber (polyester-based fiber A), a yarn comprising a polyester-based fiber having a false twist crimp (polyester-based fiber B), and a cellulose-based fiber Arrange yarns and weave textiles. Specifically, a yarn composed of a cellulose fiber is disposed on either one of a warp or a weft, and a yarn composed of polyester fiber A and a polyester fiber B in a direction different from the yarn composed of the cellulose fiber. A yarn comprising two different yarns (yarns made of polyester fibers) independently arranged.
  In this case, a yarn comprising the above-mentioned polyester fiber (a yarn comprising composite fiber (polyester fiber A) and a yarn comprising polyester fiber having false twist crimp (polyester fiber B)) and cellulose It is preferable to set the mixing ratio with the yarn comprising the base fiber to 20% to 90% as the mass ratio of the polyester base fiber in the mass of the woven fabric. From the viewpoint of stretchability and fastness, the mixing ratio is particularly preferably in the range of 30 to 80%. If the blending ratio is less than 20%, the stretchability and dimensional stability will be poor, and if the blending ratio exceeds 90%, the hygroscopicity and surface change of the cellulosic fiber will be poor.
  In the present invention, as a method of mixing two types of yarns made of polyester fibers and yarns made of cellulose fibers, the fibers are made into yarns alone without mixing and spinning, and a woven fabric is constructed. Used alone as warp and weft.
  Further, in the present invention, it is a preferable aspect that the finished fabric weight of the woven fabric is 200 g / square meter or more, because the jeans and the work clothes are excellent in strength, fit and functionality. In particular, the basis weight is preferably 250 to 500 g / square meter. Materials with a basis weight of less than 200 g / square meter may become thin on thin ground and may be unsuitable for the above applications. If the basis weight exceeds 500 g / square meter, it becomes heavy in heavy ground.
  As described above, the use of the fabric according to the present invention can be most effective for pants and work clothes such as jeans, slacks and skirts, and outerwears such as uniforms from the above viewpoint.
  For example, an air jet room or a rapier room can be used as a loom used to obtain the fabric of the present invention.
  In the woven fabric of the present invention, the elongation rate is 5% or more, and in order to suppress the generation of wrinkles and wrinkles, the arrangement of yarns at the time of weaving is important. Generally, it is possible to obtain an elongation rate of 5% or more by arranging PET / PET composite fiber yarns in warps or wefts, but the occurrence of wrinkles and wrinkles becomes a problem. In order to solve this problem, by arranging the false twist yarn in the same direction as the PET / PET composite fiber yarn, it is possible to obtain an elongation of 5% or more while suppressing wrinkling and wrinkles in the processing step. It is.
  In the present invention, as a weave structure, a surge (twill weave) is preferable in terms of stretchability and softness. In addition, by selecting a structure in which 60% or more of the cellulose fibers are exposed in one complete structure, it is possible to obtain the natural feel of the cellulose fibers and the design on the surface when worn. In the present invention, one side refers to the front side or the back side of the fabric, and refers to the fact that at least 60% of the cellulose-based fibers are exposed to either of them. For example, when a cellulose-based yarn is arranged in the warp in a plain weave structure and a PET yarn is arranged in the weft, 50% of the front and back sides are exposed in terms of the structure. On the other hand, in the 2/1 twill structure, when cellulose fibers are arranged in the warp and PET yarns are arranged in the weft, 66% of the surface is exposed in view of the structure.
  After weaving, relaxation heat treatment, intermediate setting treatment, dyeing treatment and finishing treatment are applied. In the relaxation heat treatment, it is possible to set the temperature in the liquid to about 60 ° C. using an open soaper and to make the material shrink gradually, thereby suppressing the formation of wrinkles and wrinkles in the fabric.
  For dyeing, a disperse dye can be used on the polyester fiber side and a direct dye can be used on the cotton side, but it is preferable to use a reactive dye or a slen dye from the viewpoint of further improving the color fastness.
  The fabric thus obtained has an average elongation of 5% or more, preferably 10% in the warp direction or / and the weft direction, as defined in the “measurement method” in the examples. , More preferably, it has a stretch of 15% or more, has a soft texture, has excellent functionality for wearing comfort, and has polyester fiber / plant fiber having dimensional stability and high color fastness Mixed fabrics can be provided.
  Next, the fabric of the present invention will be described in detail by way of examples.
(Evaluation method)
(1) Average elongation of fabric:
It measured by the elongation rate A method (constant speed extension method) of JISL-1096. The higher the value, the higher the stretchability and the better. In the present invention, the elongation rates in the warp direction and the weft direction are measured at three or more points, and the numerical value obtained by calculating the average value is used as a parameter.
(2) Occurrence of wrinkles and wrinkles:
After passing through the dyeing process, the woven fabric was visually checked for how to enter emboss and wrinkles.
Example 1
(Yarn production)
The homo PTT with an intrinsic viscosity (IV) of 1.40 and the homo PET with an intrinsic viscosity (IV) of 0.60 are separately melted, respectively, and the composite ratio (mass%) 50 from a composite spinneret at a spinning temperature of 275 ° C. Ejected at 50, pulled up at a spinning speed of 1400 m / min to obtain a side-by-side type composite structure undrawn yarn. Furthermore, using a hot roll-hot plate drawing machine, the film is drawn at a hot roll temperature of 75 ° C., a hot plate temperature of 170 ° C., a draw ratio of 3.3 times, and then 0.9 times continuously without withdrawal. The film was relaxed and wound up, and a 72 denier side-by-side type composite structure drawn yarn having a total fineness of 167 dtex was obtained. Both spinning and drawing had good spinning properties and no thread breakage occurred.
  On the other hand, the false twisted yarn was prepared by melting 100% homoPET having an intrinsic viscosity (IV) of 0.60 at 275 ° C., discharging it from a spinneret and taking it away at 2500 m / min to obtain POY. Furthermore, drawing and false twisting were performed at a yarn speed of 135 m / min and a twist number of 2700 T / m heater temperature of 220 ° C. using a pin type false twist processing machine, and a drawn false twisted yarn of 72 filaments was obtained at 167 dtex.
(Weaving)
Side by side type using 50% mass ratio of polyester twin yarn with 167 dtex 48 filament false twist crimped weft and 167 dtex 72 filament polyethylene terephthalate and pochitrimethylene terephthalate in a weft using a 100% cotton 30/1 spun yarn for the warp. The composite structure drawn yarn arranged in With regard to the arrangement of weft yarns, polyester yarns having false twist crimp and side-by-side type composite structure drawn yarns were alternately arranged one by one. By the said thread use, it weaved to 1/4 twill. The basis weight of the obtained woven fabric was 200 g / m 2 . The mixing ratio of the yarn is 55% by mass / 23% by mass / 22% by mass in a cotton yarn / side-by-side type composite structure drawn yarn / polyester yarn having a false twist crimp.
(Staining finish)
The obtained green fabric was subjected to relaxation heat treatment at a temperature of 60 ° C. using an open soaper, and was subjected to desizing, scouring, bleaching, and mercerizing steps, and then dyed in two baths using a disperse dye and a slen dye. Then, it heat-set by the pin tenter system by the dry heat of the temperature of 180 degreeC. The finished basis weight was 270 g / m 2 . The woven fabric obtained through the above steps had an elongation of 16% and no occurrence of wrinkles and wrinkles.
(Example 2)
Using a 100% cotton 30/1 spun yarn as a warp, a side-by-side type composite structure drawn yarn used in Example 1 and a polyester single yarn having a 167 dtex 72 filament false twist crimp used as a weft, By the same process as in Example 1, the fabric was finished to have the same physical properties as in the example.
  The fabric obtained by the above design had an elongation of 14% and no occurrence of wrinkles or wrinkles.
(Comparative example 1)
The same process as in the example is carried out using the embroidering machine using the 100% cotton spun yarn of 30/1 as the warp and the side-by-side type composite structure drawn yarn used in the example 1 as the weft. The fabric was finished to be physical properties.
  The woven fabric obtained by the above design had an elongation of 22%, but wrinkles and wrinkles occurred in the process.
(Comparative example 2)
Same as Example using a loom using a 100% cotton spun yarn of 30/1 for the warp yarn, a total denier of 167 dtex for 100% of RegPET for the weft yarn, and a 72 filament drawn yarn. The fabric was finished so as to have the same physical properties as in the example according to the process. The woven fabric obtained by the above design did not have wrinkles or wrinkles but had an elongation of 3%.
(Evaluation results)
The woven fabric obtained in the example had an elongation in the latitudinal direction of 18%, and no wrinkles or wrinkles occurred.
  The elongation in the weft direction of the woven fabric obtained in Comparative Example 1 was 22%, but since the weft was 100% composite fiber, there was rapid contraction and wrinkles occurred. Although Comparative Example 2 did not generate wrinkles, the elongation rate in the latitudinal direction was 3%, so it was an unsatisfactory woven fabric.

Claims (5)

  1.   A yarn made of cellulosic fibers is disposed on either one of a warp yarn or a weft, and a yarn made of polyester fiber A and a yarn made of polyester fiber B are different from each other in a direction different from the yarn made of cellulose fiber. What is claimed is: 1. A woven fabric comprising two kinds of yarns arranged independently, wherein the average elongation in the warp direction or / and the weft direction is 5% or more.
  2.   A crimped yarn comprising a composite fiber comprising a single yarn group in which a yarn comprising polyester fiber A is bonded to a side-by-side type or an eccentric core-sheath type, wherein at least one component constituting the single yarn is polytrile The woven fabric according to claim 1, which is a polyester component mainly composed of methylene terephthalate.
  3.   3. The woven fabric according to claim 1, wherein the yarn made of polyester fiber B is a false twist crimped yarn.
  4.   The polyester fiber is exposed 60% or more on one side of the fabric, The fabric according to any one of claims 1 to 3.
  5.   A woven fabric for uniforms comprising the woven fabric according to any one of claims 1 to 4.
JP2018006457A 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 Woven fabric Pending JP2019123970A (en)

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