JP2019075987A - Battery charger - Google Patents

Battery charger Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2019075987A
JP2019075987A JP2019017587A JP2019017587A JP2019075987A JP 2019075987 A JP2019075987 A JP 2019075987A JP 2019017587 A JP2019017587 A JP 2019017587A JP 2019017587 A JP2019017587 A JP 2019017587A JP 2019075987 A JP2019075987 A JP 2019075987A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
battery
charging
step
controller
module
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2019017587A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
ディー.メイヤー ゲーリー
Gary D Meyer
ディー.メイヤー ゲーリー
ジェイ.ローゼンベッカー ジェイ
J Rosenbacker J
ジェイ.ローゼンベッカー ジェイ
エル.グラスゴー ケヴィン
L Glasgow Kevin
エル.グラスゴー ケヴィン
ダブリュ.ジョンソン トッド
Todd W Johnson
ダブリュ.ジョンソン トッド
エフ.シューシャー カール
F Chuchar Carl
エフ.シューシャー カール
Original Assignee
ミルウォーキー・エレクトリック・トゥール・コーポレーションMilwaukee Electric Tool Corporation
Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp
ミルウォーキー・エレクトリック・トゥール・コーポレーションMilwaukee Electric Tool Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to US52371603P priority Critical
Priority to US52371203P priority
Priority to US60/523,712 priority
Priority to US60/523,716 priority
Priority to US10/720,027 priority patent/US7157882B2/en
Priority to US10/719,680 priority patent/US7176654B2/en
Priority to US10/720,027 priority
Priority to US10/719,680 priority
Priority to US10/721,800 priority
Priority to US10/721,800 priority patent/US7253585B2/en
Priority to US60/574,278 priority
Priority to US57427804P priority
Priority to US60/574,616 priority
Priority to US57461604P priority
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=34624153&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=JP2019075987(A) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application filed by ミルウォーキー・エレクトリック・トゥール・コーポレーションMilwaukee Electric Tool Corporation, Milwaukee Electric Tool Corp, ミルウォーキー・エレクトリック・トゥール・コーポレーションMilwaukee Electric Tool Corporation filed Critical ミルウォーキー・エレクトリック・トゥール・コーポレーションMilwaukee Electric Tool Corporation
Publication of JP2019075987A publication Critical patent/JP2019075987A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23DPLANING; SLOTTING; SHEARING; BROACHING; SAWING; FILING; SCRAPING; LIKE OPERATIONS FOR WORKING METAL BY REMOVING MATERIAL, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23D45/00Sawing machines or sawing devices with circular saw blades or with friction saw discs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23DPLANING; SLOTTING; SHEARING; BROACHING; SAWING; FILING; SCRAPING; LIKE OPERATIONS FOR WORKING METAL BY REMOVING MATERIAL, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23D47/00Sawing machines or sawing devices working with circular saw blades, characterised only by constructional features of particular parts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25FCOMBINATION OR MULTI-PURPOSE TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DETAILS OR COMPONENTS OF PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS NOT PARTICULARLY RELATED TO THE OPERATIONS PERFORMED AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B25F5/00Details or components of portable power-driven tools not particularly related to the operations performed and not otherwise provided for
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/48Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2/00Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts
    • H01M2/10Mountings; Suspension devices; Shock absorbers; Transport or carrying devices; Holders
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/58Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic compounds other than oxides or hydroxides, e.g. sulfides, selenides, tellurides, halogenides or LiCoFy; of polyanionic structures, e.g. phosphates, silicates or borates
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M6/00Primary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M6/50Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance, e.g. maintaining operating temperature
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J5/00Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/02Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/36Accumulators not provided for in groups H01M10/05-H01M10/34
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/122Lithium-ion batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/54Manufacturing of lithium-ion, lead-acid or alkaline secondary batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • Y02T10/7011Lithium ion battery

Abstract

A method and system for charging a battery is provided. A first battery having a lithium-based chemistry, a second battery having a lithium-based chemistry having a nominal voltage different from the first nominal voltage, and the first battery and the second battery. A battery charger operable to charge. A first battery having a lithium-based chemistry; a second battery having a second nominal voltage different from the first nominal voltage range; having a lithium-based chemistry; and the first battery and the second battery. In an electrical combination comprising a battery charger operable to charge the battery, a method of charging the battery includes electrically connecting the battery charger and the first battery, charging the first battery, Electrically connecting the battery charger and the second battery, and charging the second battery. [Selection] Figure 4

Description

  The present invention relates generally to a battery charger for charging batteries, and more particularly to a battery charger for charging batteries of power tools.

  Cordless power tools are typically powered by portable battery packs. These battery packs vary in battery chemistry and nominal voltage, and can be used to power many tools and electrical devices. Typically, the battery chemistry of the power tool battery is nickel cadmium ("NiCd") or nickel hydrogen ("NiMH"). The nominal voltage of the battery pack usually ranges from about 2.4V to about 24V.

  Some battery chemistries (eg, lithium ("Li"), lithium ion ("Li-ion"), and other lithium-based chemistries) have strict discharge regimes and discharge control. A charging operation is required. Insufficient charging and uncontrolled discharging may lead to excessive heat build up, excessive overcharging, and / or excessive overdischarging. These conditions and accumulation can cause irreversible damage to the battery and can have a significant impact on battery capacity.

  The present invention provides systems and methods for charging a battery. In some configurations and in some aspects, the present invention provides a battery charger that can fully charge various battery packs having different battery chemistries. In some configurations and in some aspects, the present invention provides a battery charger that can fully charge lithium based batteries, such as lithium cobalt batteries, lithium manganese batteries, and spinel type batteries. In some configurations and in some aspects, the present invention provides a battery charger that can charge a battery pack of lithium based chemistry with different nominal voltages or within different nominal voltage ranges. In some configurations and in some aspects, the present invention provides a battery charger with various charging modules implemented based on different battery conditions. In some configurations and in some aspects, the present invention provides methods and systems for charging lithium-based batteries by applying pulses of constant current. Depending on some cell characteristics, the battery charger can increase or decrease the time between pulses and the length of the pulse.

  The unique features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims, and drawings.

It is a perspective view showing a battery. FIG. 2 is another perspective view of a battery, such as the battery shown in FIG. 1; FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a battery, such as the battery shown in FIG. 1, electrically and physically connected to a battery charger. FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram showing a battery electrically connected to the battery charger, such as the battery and battery charger shown in FIG. 3; 5 is a flow chart illustrating the operation of a battery charger embodying aspects of the present invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 5 is a flow chart illustrating the operation of a battery charger embodying aspects of the present invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 5 is a flow chart illustrating a first module that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 3; 5 is a flow chart illustrating a second module that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 3; 5 is a flow chart illustrating a third module that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the present invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 3; 5 is a flow chart illustrating a fourth module that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the present invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 3; 5 is a flow chart illustrating a fifth module that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 3; FIG. 5 is a flow chart illustrating a sixth module that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the present invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. 3. 5 is a flow chart illustrating a charging algorithm that may be implemented on a battery charger embodying aspects of the present invention, such as the battery charger shown in FIG. FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram showing a battery electrically connected to a battery charger. It is a figure which shows the other structure of a battery. It is a figure which shows the other structure of a battery. FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing a battery electrically and physically connected to a power tool, such as one of the batteries shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 14A-B. FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing a battery electrically and physically connected to a power tool, such as one of the batteries shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 14A-B. It is a schematic diagram which shows the charging current regarding a battery. It is another circuit diagram showing a battery. FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a reverse conversion device connected to a battery charger. FIG. 19 is a plan view of an inverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the inverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is a side view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is a top view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is another side view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is a rear view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is another perspective view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is yet another perspective view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is yet another perspective view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; FIG. 19 is yet another perspective view of a reverse converter connected to a battery charger, such as the reverse converter of FIG. 18; 5 is a flow chart showing a charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. Fig. 6 is a flow chart showing yet another charging operation module for a battery. It is a schematic diagram which shows the charging current regarding a battery.

  Before describing the embodiments of the present invention in detail, the present invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangement of components set forth in the following description and illustrated in the following drawings. I want you to understand. The invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or of being carried out in various ways. Similarly, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The use of "comprises", "comprising" or "having" and variations of these is intended to cover not only the elements listed below and their equivalents, but also additional elements. .

  A battery pack or battery 20 is shown in FIGS. The battery 20 transfers power to and from one or more electrical devices such as, for example, the power tool 25 (shown in FIGS. 15A-B) and / or the battery charger 30 (shown in FIGS. 3 and 4) Is configured to receive In some configurations and in some embodiments, battery 20 can be, for example, lead acid, nickel cadmium ("NiCd"), nickel hydrogen ("NiMH"), lithium ("Li"), lithium ion ("L-ion" '), Can have any chemistry, such as another chemistry based on lithium, or another battery chemistry that can be rechargeable. In some configurations and in some aspects, the battery 20 can provide high discharge current to electrical devices having high current discharge rates, such as, for example, power tools. In the illustrated configuration, battery 20 has lithium, lithium ion, or another lithium-based chemistry and provides an average discharge current of about 20 A or greater. For example, in the illustrated configuration, the battery 20 can have lithium cobalt ("Li-Co"), lithium manganese ("Li-Mn") spinel, or Li-Mn nickel chemistry.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery 20 may have any nominal voltage, such as, for example, a nominal voltage ranging from about 9.6V to about 50V. In one configuration (see FIGS. 1-3), for example, battery 20 has a nominal voltage of about 21V. In another configuration (see FIG. 14), battery 20 has a nominal voltage of about 28V. It should be understood that in other configurations, the battery 20 may have another nominal voltage that is within another nominal voltage range.

  Battery 20 includes a housing 35 in which terminal support 40 is provided. The battery 20 further includes one or more battery terminals supported by the terminal support 40 and connectable to an electrical device such as the power tool 25 and / or the battery charger 30. In some configurations, such as the configuration illustrated in FIG. 4, the battery 20 includes a positive battery terminal 45, a negative battery terminal 50, and a detection battery terminal 55. In some configurations, battery 20 includes more or fewer terminals than the illustrated configuration.

  Battery 20 has one or more battery cells 60, each having chemical properties and a nominal voltage. In some configurations, battery 20 has a battery chemistry of lithium ions, a nominal voltage of about 18 V or 21 V, and includes 5 battery cells. In some configurations, each battery cell 60 has lithium ion chemistry, and each battery cell 60 has the same nominal voltage, such as, for example, about 3.6V or about 4.2V.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery 20 includes an identification circuit or element electrically connected to one or more terminals. In some configurations, an electrical device such as, for example, a battery charger 30 (shown in FIGS. 3 and 4) "reads" or identifies this identification circuit or element to verify one or more battery characteristics. It will receive input based on the identification circuit or element. In some configurations, such battery characteristics may include, for example, the nominal voltage of battery 20, the temperature of battery 20, and / or the chemistry of battery 20.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery 20 includes a controller, a microcontroller, a microprocessor, or a controller electrically connected to one or more battery terminals. These controllers are connected to an electrical device, such as a battery charger 30, to which, for example, the nominal voltage of the battery 20, the individual cell voltage, the temperature of the battery 20, and / or the chemistry of the battery 20 etc. Provide information on one or more battery characteristics or conditions. In some configurations, for example, the configuration illustrated in FIG. 4, battery 20 includes an identification circuit 62 having a microprocessor or controller 64.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery 20 includes a temperature sensing element or a thermistor. The thermistor is configured and positioned inside battery 20 to detect the temperature of one or more battery cells or the temperature of the entire battery 20. In some configurations, for example, the configuration illustrated in FIG. 4, battery 20 includes a thermistor 66. In the illustrated configuration, the thermistor 66 is included in the identification circuit 62.

  As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, battery 20 is also configured to connect to an electrical device, such as battery charger 30. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 includes a housing 70. The housing 70 is provided with a connection portion 75 for connecting the battery 20. The connection 75 includes one or more electrical device terminals for electrically connecting the battery 20 to the battery charger 30. The terminals included in the battery charger 30 are configured to mate with the terminals included in the battery 20 to exchange power and information with the battery 20.

  In some configurations, for example, the configuration illustrated in FIG. 4, the battery charger 30 includes a positive terminal 80, a negative terminal 85, and a detection terminal 90. In some configurations, the positive terminal 80 of the battery charger 30 is configured to mate with the positive battery terminal 45. In some configurations, negative terminal 85 and detection terminal 90 of battery charger 30 are configured to mate with negative battery terminal 50 and detection battery terminal 55, respectively.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, the battery charger 30 also includes a charging circuit 95. In some configurations, this charging circuit 95 includes a controller, microcontroller, microprocessor, or controller 100. Controller 100 controls the transfer of power between battery 20 and battery charger 30. In some configurations, controller 100 controls the transmission of information between battery 20 and battery charger 30. In some configurations, controller 100 may identify and / or confirm one or more characteristics or conditions of battery 20 based on signals received from battery 20. The controller 100 can also control the operation of the charger 30 based on the identification characteristics of the battery 20.

In some configurations and in some aspects, controller 100 may include timers, backup timers, counters, and / or perform various timing and counting functions. Timers, backup timers, and counters are used during the various charging stages and / or modules and are controlled by controller 100. Timers, backup timers, and counters are discussed below.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery charger 30 includes a display or indicator 110. This indicator 110 informs the user of the condition of the battery charger 30. In some configurations, the indicator 110 can inform the user of various charging stages, charging modes, or charging modules that are initiated and / or completed during operation. In some configurations, indicator 110 includes a first light emitting diode (“LED”) 115 and a second LED 120. In the illustrated configuration, the first LED 115 and the second LED 120 are LEDs of different colors. For example, the first LED 115 is a red LED, and the second LED 120 is a green LED. In some configurations, controller 100 actuates and controls indicator 110. In some configurations, the indicator 110 is positioned on the housing 70 or is contained within the housing 70 such that the indicator 110 is visible to the user. The display may also include an indicator that displays the charging rate, remaining time, and so on. In some configurations, the indicator or indicator 110 can include a fuelgauge on the battery 20.

  The battery charger 30 is adapted to receive an input of power from the power supply 130. In some configurations, the power supply 130 is a signal of approximately 120 V AC at 60 Hz. In another configuration, power supply 130 is an alternating current signal of approximately 240 volts. In other configurations, the power supply 130 is, for example, a constant current power supply. In these configurations, power supply 130 may include a 12 VDC signal, such as a DC signal received from a jack of the vehicle (e.g., the battery of the vehicle).

  In the illustrated configuration, the battery charger 30 receives an input of power from an AC power supply. For use with DC power, the user can connect the battery charger 30 to the power inverter 2140 shown in FIGS. In these configurations, the inverter 2140 converts a first signal, such as a DC signal (i.e., a DC 12 V signal from the DC outlet of the vehicle), to a second signal, such as an AC signal (i.e., an AC 120 V signal). Convert.

  As shown in FIGS. 18-26, the inverter 2140 includes a housing 2145. In the illustrated configuration, the housing 2145 includes a first end 2146, a second end 2147, a first side 2148, and a second side 2149. Housing 2145 also includes a bottom surface 2152 and a top surface 2154. In other configurations, the housing 2145 can include more or fewer surfaces, sides, and ends than shown and described.

  In one configuration, the top surface 2154 can be an area for placing the battery charger 30. In the illustrated configuration, the top surface 2154 is substantially the same width and length as the battery charger 30. In other configurations, the top surface 2154 may be larger or smaller than the width and length of the battery charger 30. In other configurations, the top surface 2154 can include a securing mechanism (not shown) for securing the battery charger 30 to the inverter 2140. In still other configurations, another portion of the housing 2145 can include a locking mechanism to lock the battery charger 30 to the inverter 2140.

  The inverse transform device 2140 also includes an input terminal 2159 that receives the first power signal (ie, the DC power signal). In some configurations, input terminal 2159 includes cord 2160 and input connector 2165. In the illustrated configuration, the input connector 2165 includes a DC 12V input plug for receiving a DC signal from a DC outlet of the vehicle.

The inverse transform device 2140 also includes a transform output terminal 2170 for delivering a second power signal (ie, an AC power signal). In the example, the conversion output terminal 2170 includes an AC outlet, such as a 3-wire straight blade outlet 2170. As shown in FIG. 18, outlet 2
170 is positioned on the cord winding 2155.

  In some configurations, the inverse transform device 2140 can include a cord winding 2155. The cord winding 2155 can store and fix the cord 2156 of the battery charger 30. In the illustrated configuration, the groove 2158 in the second end 2147 of the housing 2145 forms a cord turn 2155.

  In some configurations, inverse transform device 2140 can include a second output terminal 2180. In the illustrated configuration, the second output terminal 2180 is positioned on the first end 2146 of the housing 2145 and is operable to deliver a second (conversion) power signal. In another configuration, output terminal 2180 can deliver a first power signal (ie, a direct current signal). In other configurations, the inverse transform device 2140 can include an additional output terminal 2180 for delivering the first power signal or the second power signal. In yet another configuration, the inverter 2140 includes a combination of the second outlet 2180, ie, at least one outlet for delivering the first power signal, and at least one other outlet for delivering the second power signal. Can.

  In some configurations, the inverse transform device 2140 can include a switch 2185 that controls the output of power via the convert output terminal 2170. The switch 2185 is operable to cause the inverter 2140 to split power via the conversion output terminal 2170 (when the inverter 2140 is receiving the first power signal), and the inverter 2140 may include an off position that is not operable to share power through conversion output terminal 2170. The position of the switch 2185 can be signaled to the user by one or more LEDs, such as, for example, the first LED 2188 and the second LED 2189 shown in FIGS. In the illustrated configuration, the first LED 2188 and the second LED 2189 are located on the first end 2146 of the housing 2145. In one configuration, the first LED 2188 is a red LED, indicating that the inverter 2140 is not operable to supply power through the conversion output terminal 2170, and the second LED 2189 is a green LED , Indicates that the inverse transform device 2140 is operable to supply power via the transform output terminal 2170. In other configurations, the switch 2185 can control the output of the second output terminal 2180. In yet another configuration, the inverse transform device 2140 includes switches 2185 for the respective output terminals or outlets 2170, 2180.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, the battery charger 30 can charge various rechargeable batteries having different battery chemistries and different nominal voltages, as described below. For example, in one typical implementation, battery charger 30 is a first battery having battery chemistry of nickel cadmium and a nominal voltage of about 14.4 V, battery chemistry of lithium ion and a nominal voltage of about 18 V And a third cell having a cell chemistry of lithium ions and a nominal voltage of about 28V. In another exemplary implementation, the battery charger 30 can charge a first lithium ion battery having a nominal voltage of about 21 V and a second lithium ion battery having a nominal voltage of about 28 V. In such a typical implementation, the battery charger 30 identifies the nominal voltage of each battery 20, and accordingly scales several thresholds, or the nominal voltage of the batteries, as discussed below. The voltage readings or measurements (measured during charging) can be changed accordingly.

In some configurations, battery charger 30 may nominally battery 20 by "reading" an identification element contained in battery 20, or by receiving a signal from, for example, a microprocessor or controller of the battery. The voltage can be identified. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 can include a range of allowable nominal voltages for the various batteries 20 that the charger 30 can identify. In some configurations, the range of allowable nominal voltages may have a width of about 8V to about 50V. In other configurations, the range of allowable nominal voltages may include a width of about 12V to about 28V. In other configurations, the battery charger 30 can identify a nominal voltage of about 12 V or more. Similarly, in other configurations, battery charger 30 may identify a nominal voltage of about 30 V or less.

  In other configurations, the battery charger 30 can identify a range that includes the nominal voltage of the battery 20. The battery charger 30, for example, does not identify that the first battery 20 has a nominal voltage of about 18 V, but the nominal voltage of the first battery 20 is, for example, about 18 V to about 22 V, or about 16 V to about It can be identified that it is in the range up to 24V. In other configurations, battery charger 30 may also identify other battery characteristics, such as, for example, the number of battery cells, battery chemistry, and so on.

  In other configurations, the charger 30 can identify any nominal voltage of the battery 20. In these configurations, the charger 30 can charge the battery 20 of any nominal voltage by adjusting or scaling several thresholds according to the nominal voltage of the battery 20. Also in these configurations, each battery 20 can receive charging current of approximately the same amplitude during approximately the same amount of time regardless of the nominal voltage (eg, each battery 20 is almost completely discharged). Case). The battery charger 30 is capable of threshold adjustment or scaling (discussed below) or measurement or scaling according to the nominal voltage of the battery 20 being charged.

  For example, the battery charger 30 can identify a first battery having a nominal voltage of about 21 V and five battery cells. Throughout the charge, the battery charger 30 changes all measurements (e.g., battery voltage) that the charger 30 samples to obtain measurements per cell. That is, the charger 30 divides all battery voltage measurements by 5 (eg, for 5 cells) to obtain an approximate average voltage of the cells. Therefore, all the thresholds included in the battery charger 30 can be correlated to the measured value per cell. Also, the battery charger 30 can identify a second battery having a nominal voltage of about 28 V and seven battery cells. Similar to operation with the first battery, the battery charger 30 changes all voltage measurements to obtain measurements per cell. Again, all the thresholds contained in the battery charger 30 may be correlated to the measured value per cell. In this example, the battery charger 30 can monitor and terminate charging for the first and second batteries using the same threshold, and the battery charger 30 can span the entire range of nominal voltages. It will be able to charge many batteries.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, the battery charger 30 is based on the temperature of the battery 20 in the charging scheme or method of charging the battery 20. In one configuration, battery charger 30 provides charging current to battery 20 while periodically detecting or monitoring the temperature of battery 20. If the battery 20 does not have a microprocessor or controller, the battery charger 30 periodically measures the resistance of the thermistor 66 after a predetermined period of time. If the battery 20 comprises a microprocessor or controller such as the controller 64, the battery charger 30 1) to periodically measure the battery temperature and / or one or more of the battery temperatures In order to periodically determine whether it is out of the proper operating range, query the controller 64 or 2) from the controller 64, the battery temperature is within the proper operating range as discussed below. Wait to receive a signal indicating that it is.

In some configurations and in some aspects, the battery charger 30 has a charging scheme or method for charging the battery 20 based on the current voltage of the battery 20. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 periodically detects or detects battery voltage after a predetermined period of time in which current is being supplied to the battery 20 and / or no current is being supplied, as discussed below. Charge current is supplied to the battery 20 while monitoring. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 is based on both the temperature and voltage of the battery 20 in the charging scheme or method of charging the battery 20. Also, the charging scheme may be based on individual cell voltages.

  Once the battery temperature and / or battery voltage is above a predetermined threshold or outside the proper operating range, the battery charger 30 interrupts the charging current. Battery charger 30 either continues to detect or monitor battery temperature / voltage periodically, or waits to receive a signal from controller 64 indicating that the battery temperature / voltage is within the proper operating range. When the battery temperature / voltage is within the proper operating range, the battery charger 30 can resume the supply of charging current to the battery 20. The battery charger 30 continues to monitor battery temperature / voltage and continues interrupting and resuming charging current based on the detected battery temperature / voltage. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 terminates charging after a predetermined period of time or when the battery capacity reaches a predetermined threshold. In other configurations, charging is terminated when battery 20 is removed from battery charger 30.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery charger 30 includes operational methods for charging various batteries, such as battery 20, having different chemistries and / or nominal voltages. An example of such a charging operation 200 is illustrated in FIGS. 5a and 5b. In some configurations and in some embodiments, the battery charger 30 is a lithium-based battery such as Li-Co chemistry, Li-Mn spinel chemistry, Li-Mn nickel chemistry, etc. Including an operational method for charging the In some configurations and in some aspects, charging operation 200 includes various modules for performing different functions in response to different battery conditions and / or battery characteristics.

In some configurations and in some aspects, the method of charging operation 200 includes a module for interrupting charging based on abnormal and / or normal battery conditions. In some configurations, charging operation 200 may be a defective pack module such as a defective pack module illustrated in flow chart 205 of FIG. 6 and / or a temperature out-of-range module illustrated in flow chart 210 of FIG. including out-of-temperature modules such as of-range modules). In some configurations, the battery charger 30 enters a bad pack module 205 to terminate charging based on abnormal battery voltage, abnormal cell voltage, and / or abnormal battery capacity. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 enters the over temperature module 210 to terminate charging based on the abnormal battery temperature and / or one or more abnormal battery cell temperatures. In some configurations, charging operation 200 includes more or less modules than those discussed above and below that terminate charging based on more or less battery conditions than the conditions discussed above and below. Other configurations of the charging operation and the charging module are shown in FIGS.

In some configurations and in some aspects, charging operation 200 includes various modes or modules for charging battery 20 based on various battery conditions. In some configurations, the charging operation 200 may be a trickle charge module, such as a trickle charge module illustrated in flow chart 215 of FIG. 8, a step charge module illustrated in flow chart 220 of FIG. 10, a fast charge module such as a fast charge module illustrated in flow chart 225 of FIG. 10, and / or a flow chart 230 of FIG.
A maintenance charge module such as the maintenance module illustrated in FIG.

In some configurations and in some aspects, each charging module 215-230
Are selected by the controller 100 during the charging operation 200 based on a constant battery temperature range, a constant battery voltage range, and / or a constant battery capacity range. In some configurations, each module 215-230 is selected by controller 100 based on the cell characteristics shown in Table 1. In some configurations, the condition "battery temperature" or "battery temperature" is measured as the temperature of the battery (ie, battery cell, battery components, etc.) measured as a whole, and / or individually or collectively The temperature of the battery cell can be included. In some configurations, as discussed below, each charging module 215-230 may be based on the same basic charging scheme or charging algorithm such as, for example, full charge current.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, the charging current applied to the battery 20 during the trickle charging module 215 causes the battery 20 to fully charge current (e.g., 10 seconds) for a first period of time, for example. Applying "I") and then pausing the full charge current for a second period of time, for example 50 seconds. In some configurations, the full charge current is a pulse of charge current that is approximately at a predetermined amplitude. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 only enters the trickle charge module 215 if the battery voltage is below the first predetermined voltage threshold V1.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, the charging current applied to the battery 20 during the rapid charging module 225 applies a full charging current to the battery 20 for a first period of time, eg, 1 second, and then Including pausing the full charge current for two periods of time, eg, 50 milliseconds. In some configurations, the controller 100 sets the backup timer to a first predetermined time limit, such as about two hours. In these configurations, the battery charger 30 does not execute the quick charge module 225 for a predetermined time limit to avoid battery damage. In other configurations, the battery charger 30 ends (e.g., stops charging) when the predetermined time limit expires.

  In some configurations, battery charger 30 includes a battery voltage in a range from a first voltage threshold V1 to a second predetermined voltage threshold V2 and a battery temperature from a second battery temperature threshold T2 to a second battery temperature threshold T2. If it is within the range of the battery temperature threshold T3 of 3, it enters only the quick charge module 225. In some configurations, the second voltage threshold V2 is higher than the first voltage threshold V1 and the third temperature threshold T3 is higher than the second temperature threshold T2.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, during the stage charge module 220, the charge current applied to the battery 20 includes applying the charge current of the rapid charge module 225 to the battery 20, but for 1 minute It has a charge ("on"), one minute charge pause ("off") operating cycle. In some configurations, controller 100 sets the backup timer to a second predetermined time limit, such as, for example, about four hours. In these configurations, the battery charger 30 does not execute the stage charge module 220 for a predetermined time limit to avoid battery damage.

  In some configurations, the battery charger 30 includes a battery voltage in a range from a first voltage threshold V1 to a second voltage threshold V2 and a battery temperature from a first temperature threshold T1 to a second temperature If it is within the range up to the threshold T2, only the step charge module 220 is entered. In some configurations, the second voltage threshold V2 is higher than the first voltage threshold V1 and the second temperature threshold T2 is higher than the first temperature threshold T1.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, during the maintenance module 230, the charging current applied to the battery 20 applies a full charging current to the battery 20 only when the battery voltage drops to a constant predetermined threshold. Including. In some configurations, this threshold is approximately 4.05 V / cell (+/- 1% per cell). In some configurations, the battery charger 30 includes a battery voltage within a range from a second voltage threshold V2 to a third voltage threshold V3 and a battery temperature from a first temperature threshold T1 to a third temperature threshold T1. If it is within the range up to the temperature threshold T3, only the maintenance module 230 is entered.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, controller 100 implements various charging modules 220-230 based on various battery conditions. In some configurations, each charging module 220-230 includes the same charging algorithm (eg, an algorithm for applying a full charging current). However, each charging module 220-230 performs, repeats or incorporates the charging algorithm in a different manner. One example of a charging algorithm is the charging current algorithm illustrated in flowchart 250 of FIG. 12, as discussed below.

  As illustrated in FIGS. 5a and 5b, the charging operation 200 begins when a battery, such as the battery 20, is inserted or electrically connected to the battery charger 30 at step 305. At step 310, the controller 100 determines if a stable input of power, eg, the power supply 130, is being applied or connected to the battery charger 30. As shown in FIG. 5a, the same operation still applies if power is applied after the battery 20 is electrically connected to the battery charger 30 (ie, step 305 proceeds to step 310).

  If the controller 100 confirms that the stable input of power is not applied, the controller 100 does not activate the indicator 110 and does not charge the battery 20 at step 315. In some configurations, battery charger 30 consumes a small amount of discharge current at step 315. In some configurations, such discharge current is less than about 0.1 mA.

If the controller 100 determines in step 310 that a stable input of power to the battery charger 30 is applied, the operation 200 proceeds to step 320. At step 320, the controller 100 checks if the connections between the battery terminals 45, 50 and 55 and the battery charger terminals 80, 85 and 90 are all stable. At step 320, if the connection is not stable, the controller 100 returns to step 315.

  At step 320, if the connection is stable, then at step 325, controller 100 identifies the chemistry of battery 20 via detection terminal 55 of battery 20. In some configurations, the resistive sensing lead from battery 20 indicates that battery 20 has nickel cadmium or nickel hydrogen chemistry when detected by controller 100. In some configurations, the controller 100 measures the resistance of the resistive sensing lead to verify the chemistry of the battery 20. For example, in some configurations, if the resistance of the detection lead is in the first range, the chemistry of battery 20 is nickel cadmium. If the resistance of the detection lead is in the second range, the chemistry of battery 20 is nickel hydrogen.

  In some configurations, nickel cadmium batteries and nickel hydrogen batteries are charged by the battery charger 30 using a single charging algorithm that is different from the charging algorithm performed for batteries having lithium-based chemistry . In some configurations, the single charging algorithm for such nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries is, for example, the existing charging algorithm for nickel cadmium / nickel hydrogen batteries. In some configurations, battery charger 30 uses a single charge algorithm to charge nickel cadmium batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries, but is different from the termination scheme used to terminate charging for nickel metal hydride batteries Depending on the method, end the charging process for nickel cadmium batteries. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 terminates charging for the nickel cadmium battery when a negative change in battery voltage (e.g.,-? V) is detected by the controller 100. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 terminates charging of the nickel metal hydride battery when the change in battery temperature over time (eg, ΔT / dt) reaches or exceeds a predetermined termination threshold.

  In some configurations, nickel cadmium and / or nickel hydrogen batteries are charged using a constant current algorithm. For example, the battery charger 30 can include the same charging circuit to charge different batteries having different chemistries such as nickel cadmium, nickel hydrogen, lithium ion, and so on. In one exemplary configuration, the charger 30 uses this charging circuit to apply the same full charge current to a nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen battery as a lithium ion battery using a constant current algorithm rather than pulse charging. Can. In another exemplary configuration, the battery charger 30 can scale the full charge current with the charging circuit according to the chemistry of the battery.

  In other configurations, the controller 100 does not confirm the exact chemistry of the battery 20. Instead, the controller 100 implements a charging module that can effectively charge both nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries.

  In other configurations, the resistance of the detection lead may indicate that the battery 20 has lithium-based chemistry. For example, if the resistance of the detection lead is within the third range, the chemistry of the battery 20 is lithium based.

In some configurations, the serial communication link between the battery charger 30 and the battery 20 established by the detection terminals 55 and 90 indicates that the battery 20 has lithium based chemistry. Once the serial communication link is established at step 320, a microprocessor or controller, such as controller 64 in battery 20, sends information regarding battery 20 to controller 100 in battery charger 30. Thus, the information transmitted between the battery 20 and the battery charger 30 includes battery chemistry, nominal battery voltage, battery capacity, battery temperature, individual cell voltages, number of charge cycles, number of discharge cycles , Status of protection circuitry or circuitry (eg, operational, inoperable, operational, etc.) may be included.

  At step 330, the controller 100 determines if the chemistry of the battery 20 is lithium based. At step 330, if the controller 100 verifies that the battery 20 has nickel cadmium or nickel hydrogen chemistry, the operation 200 proceeds to the nickel cadmium / nickel hydrogen charging algorithm of step 335.

  If the controller 100 determines at step 330 that the battery 20 has lithium-based chemistry, the operation 200 proceeds to step 340. At step 340, the controller 100 reconfigures any battery protection circuitry contained within the battery 20, such as, for example, a switch, and verifies the nominal voltage of the battery 20 via the communication link. At step 345, the controller 100 sets the charger analog to digital converter ("A / D") to an appropriate level based on the nominal voltage.

  At step 350, controller 100 measures the current voltage of battery 20. Once the measurements have been taken, the controller 100 determines in step 355 whether the voltage of the battery 20 is greater than 4.3 V / cell. At step 355, if the battery voltage is greater than 4.3 V / cell, the operation 200 proceeds to the bad pack module 205 at step 360. This bad pack module 205 is discussed below.

  In step 355, if the battery voltage is 4.3 V / cell or less, the controller 100 measures the battery temperature in step 365, and in step 370, the battery temperature is lower than -10 ° C. or 65 ° C. Check if it is higher than. At step 370, if the battery temperature is below −10 ° C. or above 65 ° C., operation 200 proceeds to the out of range module 210 at step 375. This out-of-temperature module 210 is discussed below.

  If, at step 370, the battery temperature is greater than or equal to -10 ° C and less than or equal to 65 ° C, then controller 100 determines whether the battery temperature is between -10 ° C and 0 ° C at step 380 (shown in FIG. 5b). Confirm. At step 380, if the battery temperature is between -10 ° C and 0 ° C, operation 200 proceeds to step 385. At step 385, the controller 100 determines if the battery voltage is less than 3.5V / cell. If the battery voltage is less than 3.5 V / cell, operation 200 proceeds to trickle charge module 215 of step 390. This trickle charge module 215 is discussed below.

  If the battery voltage is 3.5 V / cell or more in step 385, the controller 100 determines whether the battery voltage is included in the voltage range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell in step 395 Confirm. If at step 395 the battery voltage is not included in the voltage range from 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell, operation 200 proceeds to maintenance module 230 at step 400. This maintenance module 230 is discussed below.

  At step 395, if the battery voltage is within the voltage range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell, the controller 100 erases a counter such as a charge counter at step 405. . Once the charge counter is cleared at step 405, the controller 200 proceeds to the stage charge module 220 at step 410. This stage charge module 220 and charge counter are discussed below.

Referring back to step 380, if the battery temperature is not included in the range of -10 ° C and 0 ° C, the controller 100 checks in step 415 whether the battery voltage is less than 3.5 V / cell. Do. In step 415, if the battery voltage is less than 3.5 V / cell, operation 20
0 proceeds to trickle charge module 215 of step 420.

  If the battery voltage is 3.5 V / cell or more in step 415, the controller 100 determines whether the battery voltage is included in the voltage range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell in step 425. Confirm. If at step 425 the battery voltage is not included within the voltage range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell, operation 200 proceeds to maintenance module 230 at step 430.

  At step 425, if the battery voltage is within the voltage range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell, the controller 100 erases a counter such as a charge counter at step 435. At step 435, once the charge counter is cleared, operation 200 proceeds to quick charge module 225 at step 440. The quick charge module 225 is discussed below.

  FIG. 6 is a flow diagram illustrating the operation of the bad pack module 205. The operation of module 205 begins when the main charge operation 200 enters the bad pack module 205 at step 460. The controller 100 interrupts the charging current at step 465 and activates the indicator 110, such as a first light emitting diode (LED), at step 470. In the illustrated configuration, controller 100 controls the first LED to blink at a rate of about 4 Hz. Once indicator 110 is activated at step 470, module 205 ends at step 475 and operation 200 also ends.

  FIG. 7 is a flow diagram illustrating the operation of out of temperature module 210. The operation of module 210 begins when the main charge operation 200 enters the over temperature module 210 in step 490. The controller 100 interrupts the charging current at step 495 and activates the indicator 110, such as the first LED, at step 500. In the illustrated configuration, the controller 100 controls the first LED to flash at a rate of about 1 Hz to notify the user that the battery charger 30 is currently in the over temperature module 210. At step 500, once the indicator 110 is activated, the operation 200 exits the module 210 and proceeds to interrupt the operation 200.

  FIG. 8 is a flow diagram illustrating the trickle charge module 215. The operation of trickle charge module 215 begins when main charge operation 200 enters trickle charge module 215 in step 520. The controller 100 activates an indicator 110, such as the first LED 115 at step 525, to inform the user that the battery charger 30 is currently charging the battery 20. In the illustrated configuration, the controller 100 operates such that the first LED 115 is always displayed in the on state.

  Once indicator 110 is activated at step 525, controller 100 initializes a counter, such as a trickle charge counter, at step 530. In the illustrated configuration, the trickle charge counter has a count limit of twenty.

  At step 540, the controller 100 applies ten 1 second ("1-s") full current pulses to the battery 20 and then suspends charging for 50 seconds ("50-s"). In some configurations, a 50 millisecond time interval exists between 1-s pulses.

  At step 545, the controller 100 determines when the charging current is applied to the battery 20 (eg, current on-times) to see if the battery voltage exceeds 4.6 V / cell. Measure the voltage. During the current on time of step 545, if the battery voltage exceeds 4.6 V / cell, module 215 will proceed to bad pack module 205 of step 550 and end at step 552. If the battery voltage does not exceed 4.6 V / cell during the current on time of step 545, the controller 100 determines if the charging current is not applied to the battery 20 at step 555 (eg, current off time Measure the battery temperature and battery voltage).

  At step 560, the controller 100 determines if the battery temperature is below -10 ° C or above 65 ° C. At step 560, if the battery temperature is below -10 ° C. or above 65 ° C., module 215 will proceed to the out of range module 210 of step 565 and end at step 570. In step 560, if the battery temperature is -10 ° C. or more and 65 ° C. or less, the controller 100 in step 575 includes the battery voltage within the range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell Check if it is.

  If the battery voltage is in the range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell in step 575, then in step 580, the controller 100 causes the battery temperature to fall within the range of -10 ° C to 0 ° C. Check if it is included. If, at step 580, the battery temperature is within the range of -10.degree. C. to 0.degree. C., then module 215 proceeds to step charge module 220, at step 585. FIG. In step 580, if the battery temperature is not included in the range of -10 ° C to 0 ° C, module 215 proceeds to quick charge module 225 in step 590.

  At step 575, if the battery voltage is not included within the range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.1 V / cell, the controller 100 increments the trickle charge counter at step 595. At step 600, the controller 100 checks if the trickle charge counting counter is equal to the limit value of the counter, for example 20. At step 600, if the counter is not equal to the count limit, module 215 proceeds to step 540. At step 600, if the counter equals the count limit, then module 215 will proceed to bad pack module 205 at step 605 and end at step 610.

  FIG. 9 is a flow chart illustrating the stage charge module 220. The operation of module 220 begins when the main charging operation 200 enters the stage charging module 220 of step 630. The controller 100 activates the indicator 110, such as the first LED 115 at step 635, to inform the user that the battery charger 30 is currently charging the battery 20. In the illustrated configuration, the controller 100 operates such that the first LED 115 is always displayed in the on state.

  At step 640, the controller 100 starts a first timer or charge-on timer. In the illustrated configuration, the charge on timer counts down from 1 minute. At step 645, module 220 proceeds to charging current algorithm 250. Once the charging current algorithm 250 is performed, the controller 100 determines, at step 650, whether the charge count is equal to a count limit, such as 7,200, for example. At step 650, if the charge count equals the count limit, module 220 proceeds to bad pack module 205 at step 655 and module 220 ends at step 660.

  If, at step 650, the charge count is not equal to the count limit, then the controller 100 determines, at step 665, that the wait time between current pulses (discussed below) is greater than or equal to a first wait time threshold, eg, 2 seconds. Check if there is. At step 665, if the standby time is greater than or equal to the first standby time threshold, the controller 100 activates the indicator 110 at step 670, for example, to turn off the first LED 115 and the second LED 120 to about 1 Hz. Operate to flash at speed. At step 665, if the wait time is less than the first wait time threshold, module 220 proceeds to step 690 (discussed below).

  Once the indicator 110 is activated at step 670, the controller 100 determines at step 675 whether the wait time between current pulses is greater than or equal to a second wait time threshold, eg, 15 seconds. Do. At step 675, if the standby time is greater than or equal to the second standby time threshold, the controller 100 changes the display 110 at step 680, for example, the second LED 120 is always displayed in the on state. Activate the LED 120 of Module 220 then proceeds to maintenance module 230 at step 685.

  If the standby time is less than the second standby time threshold at step 675, the controller 100 determines whether the battery temperature is higher than 0 ° C. at step 690. At step 690, if the battery temperature is above 0 ° C., module 220 proceeds to quick charge module 225 at step 695. If it is determined in step 690 that the battery temperature is less than or equal to 0 ° C., the controller 100 determines in step 700 whether the charge on timer has expired.

  In step 700, if the charge on timer has not expired, module 220 proceeds to charge current algorithm 250 in step 645. If it is determined in step 700 that the charge on timer has expired, the controller 100 activates a second timer or charge-off timer to suspend charging in step 705. At step 710, the controller 100 determines if the charge off timer has expired. At step 710, if the charge off timer has not expired, the controller 100 waits for a predetermined amount of time at step 715 and then proceeds to step 710. At step 710, if the charge off timer has expired, the module 220 returns to step 640 to restart the charge on timer.

  FIG. 10 is a flow chart illustrating the quick charge module 225. The operation of module 225 begins when the main charge operation 200 enters the quick charge module 225 of step 730. The controller 100 activates the indicator 110, such as the first LED 115 at step 735, to inform the user that the battery charger 30 is currently charging the battery 20. In the illustrated configuration, the controller 100 activates the first LED 115 so that it is always displayed in the on state.

  At step 740, module 225 proceeds to charging current algorithm 250. Once the charge current algorithm 250 is performed, the controller 100 determines in step 745 whether the charge count is equal to the count limit (e.g., 7,200). At step 745, if the charge count equals the count limit, module 225 proceeds to bad pack module 205 at step 750 and module 225 ends at step 755.

  In step 745, if the charge count is not equal to the count limit, the controller 100 determines in step 760 whether the wait time between current pulses is greater than or equal to a first wait time threshold (eg, 2 seconds). . At step 760, if the standby time is greater than or equal to the first standby time threshold, the controller 100 activates the indicator 110 at step 765, for example, to turn off the first LED 115 and to speed the second LED 120 at about 1 Hz. Operate to blink. At step 760, if the wait time is less than the first wait time threshold, module 225 proceeds to step 785 (discussed below).

  Once the indicator 110 is activated at step 765, the controller 100 determines at step 770 whether the wait time between current pulses is greater than or equal to a second wait time threshold (eg, 15 seconds). At step 770, if the waiting time is greater than or equal to the second waiting time threshold, the controller 100 changes the indicator 110 at step 775, for example, activating the second LED 120 and the second LED 120 is always on. Make it displayed in the status. Module 225 then proceeds to maintenance module 230 at step 780.

  At step 770, if the standby time is less than the second standby time threshold, the controller 100 checks at step 785 whether the battery temperature is within the range of -20 ° C to 0 ° C. At step 785, if the battery temperature is within this range, module 225 proceeds to step charge module 220 at step 790. At step 785, if the battery temperature is not included within this range, module 225 returns to charge current algorithm 250 at step 740.

  FIG. 11 is a flowchart illustrating the maintenance module 230. Operation of module 230 begins when main charging operation 200 enters maintenance module 230 of step 800. At step 805, the controller 100 determines whether the battery voltage is included in the range of 3.5 V / cell to 4.05 V / cell. At step 805, if the battery voltage is not included in this range, the controller 100 continues to stay at step 805 until the battery voltage is included in the range. Once the battery voltage is within this range at step 805, the controller 100 starts the maintenance timer at step 810. In some configurations, the maintenance timer counts down from 30 minutes.

  At step 815, the controller 100 determines if the battery temperature is below -20 ° C or above 65 ° C. At step 815, if the battery temperature is below -20 ° C. or above 65 ° C., module 230 proceeds to out of temperature range module 210 at step 820 and the module ends at step 825. At step 815, if the battery temperature is greater than or equal to -20 ° C. and less than or equal to 65 ° C., module 230 proceeds to the charge current algorithm 250 of step 830.

  Once charging current algorithm 250 is performed at step 830, at step 835, controller 100 determines whether the maintenance timer has expired. If the maintenance timer has expired, module 230 proceeds to bad pack module 205 at step 840 and module 230 ends at step 845. At step 835, if the maintenance timer has not expired, the controller 100 determines at step 850 whether the wait time between current pulses is greater than or equal to a first predetermined hold wait period, such as, for example, 15 seconds.

  At step 850, if the waiting time is longer than the first predetermined maintenance waiting period, module 230 proceeds to step 805. At step 850, if the wait time is less than the first predetermined maintenance wait period, module 230 proceeds to the charge current algorithm 250 at step 830. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 remains in the maintenance module 230 until the battery pack (battery) 20 is removed from the battery charger 30.

  FIG. 12 is a flow diagram illustrating a basic charging scheme or charging current algorithm 250. The operation of module 250 begins when the other modules 220-230 or main charging operation 200 enter charging current algorithm 250 at step 870. At step 875, the controller 100 applies a full current pulse for about one second. At step 880, the controller 100 determines if the battery voltage is greater than 4.6 V / cell when applying current to the battery 20.

  At step 880, if the battery voltage is greater than 4.6 V / cell, the algorithm 250 will proceed to the bad pack module 205 at step 885 and the algorithm 250 will end at step 890. At step 880, if the battery voltage is less than or equal to 4.6 V / cell, then at step 895, the controller 100 interrupts the charging current, increments a counter such as a charging current counter, and stores the count value. Do.

In step 900, controller 100 causes the battery temperature to be lower than -20.degree. C. or 65.degree.
Check if it exceeds. At step 900, if the battery temperature is below -20 ° C. or above 65 ° C., the algorithm 250 proceeds to the out of temperature module 210 at step 905 and the algorithm 250 ends at step 910. In step 900, if the battery temperature is -20 ° C. or higher or 65 ° C. or lower, in step 915, the controller 100 measures the battery voltage when the charging current is not applied to the battery 20.

  At step 920, the controller 100 determines if the battery voltage is less than 4.2 V / cell. At step 920, if the battery voltage is less than 4.2 V / cell, the algorithm 250 proceeds to step 875. If the battery voltage is greater than or equal to 4.2 V / cell at step 920, then the controller 100 waits until the battery voltage equals approximately 4.2 V / cell at step 925. At step 925, the controller 100 also stores the waiting time. The algorithm 250 ends at step 930.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, battery charger 30 can include other operational methods to charge various batteries having different chemistries and / or nominal voltages, such as battery 20. . An example of such a charging operation is illustrated in FIGS. In some configurations and in some embodiments, the battery charger 30 is lithium based, such as a battery having Li-Co chemistry, Li-Mn spinel chemistry, Li-Mn nickel chemistry, etc. Includes an operational method for charging a battery. In some configurations and aspects, charging operation 200 includes various modules for performing different functions in response to different battery conditions and / or battery characteristics.

  In some configurations and aspects, the method of charging operation includes a module for interrupting charging based on abnormal and / or normal battery conditions. In some configurations, the charging operation includes a bad pack module and / or an over temperature module, such as a temperature over module illustrated in flow chart 2235 of FIG. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 enters a bad pack module to terminate charging based on abnormal battery voltage, abnormal cell voltage, and / or abnormal battery capacity. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 enters the over temperature module 2235 to terminate charging based on the abnormal battery temperature and / or one or more abnormal battery cell temperatures. In some configurations, the charging operation includes more or less modules than the modules discussed above and below that terminate charging based on conditions more or less than the conditions discussed above and below.

In some configurations and aspects, the charging operation includes various modes or modules for charging the battery 20 based on various conditions or stages of operation. In some configurations, the charging operation may include a trickle charge module such as a trickle (limited) charge module illustrated in flow chart 2225 of FIG. 34, a trickle illustrated in flow chart 2220 of FIG. Stage) module (trickle)
31 as well as a quick charge module such as the quick charge module illustrated in flow chart 2215 of FIG. 32 and / or a maintenance charge module such as the maintenance module illustrated in flow chart 2230 of FIG. A flatpack wake-up module illustrated in flowchart 2210, a charging module and a packinsert module 2200 illustrated in flowcharts 2205 of FIG. 29, 30, and flowchart 2200 of FIG. 28, respectively (start charging Other modules such as) are also included. The charging operation also includes a charging current algorithm, such as the algorithm illustrated in the flowchart 2240 of FIGS. 37 and 38, which the other modules execute in various ways.

An example of a portion of the charging operation is listed with respect to FIGS. For example, the charging operation starts with the pack insertion module 2200 as shown in FIG. This operation starts with power being supplied to the battery charger (step 2305). Whether the input voltage V input of the battery charger 30 is within the proper operating parameter range (for example, 80V <V input <140V) Whether or not is confirmed (step 2310). If the input voltage V input is not within this operating parameter range, the battery charger 30 blocks charging (step 2315). The battery charger 30 also informs the user whether or not the proper input voltage V input is supplied (step 2315).

  If the battery charger 30 receives the correct input voltage V input, the battery pack 20 is connected to the charger (step 2325), and the charger 30 is properly connected (eg, connection between terminals) Whether or not it is confirmed (step 2330). If an appropriate connection has not been made, the charger 30 does not turn on any of the LEDs (step 2335), and the charging operation ends (step 2340). If the connection is made, the charger 30 detects the presence of the battery 20 by the voltage to the controller 100 (step 2345), and the controller 100 measures the voltage V pack of the battery 20 (step 2350).

  The charger 30 checks if the battery voltage V pack is lower than 5 V (step 2355). If the battery voltage V pack is less than 5V, the charging operation proceeds to the flat pack activation module 2210 (step 2360). If the battery voltage V pack is 5 V or more, the charger 30 attempts to establish a connection with the battery 20 (step 2365), and checks if the connection is established (step 2370). If the connection is not established, the charger 30 does not turn on any of the indicators (step 2375), and ends the charging operation (step 2380). Once the connection is established, the charging operation proceeds to the charging module 2205 (step 2385).

  The charging module 2205 is illustrated in FIGS. The charging module 2205 starts with the charger 30 identifying the pack nominal voltage and setting the appropriate measurement parameters (step 2405), then interrogating the cell voltage of the battery 20 (step 2410), whichever It is checked whether or not the cell voltage of one is larger than the upper threshold (for example, 4.35 V) (2415). If any cell is greater than the upper threshold, then the charger 30 does not activate any of the LEDs (step 2420) and terminates the charging operation (step 2425). If none of the cells exceeds the upper threshold, the charger 30 measures the battery voltage across the terminals of the charger 30 (step 2430), and then queries the battery voltage V pack measured by the battery 20. (Step 2435) It is checked whether the measured values match (Step 2440). If the measured values do not match, the charger 30 does not activate any of the LEDs (step 2445), and the charging operation ends (step 2450).

  If the measured values match, the charger 30 queries the battery 20 for the battery temperature (step 2455) and checks if the battery temperature is within the operating range (step 2460). If the battery voltage is not within the desired operating range, operation proceeds to the out-of-temperature module 2235 (step 2465) and the charger 30 once again returns the battery temperature to the battery 20 once the charging operation exits the out-of-temperature module 2235. Information can be inquired (2455).

  If the battery temperature is within the desired operating range, the charger 30 determines whether the battery voltage V pack is greater than the maintenance threshold (eg, 4.1 V per cell) (step 470) and the battery voltage V pack Is greater than the maintenance threshold, the charging operation proceeds to maintenance module 2230 (step 2475). Otherwise, the charger 30 checks if the battery voltage V pack is less than the trickle threshold (eg 3.5 V per cell) (step 2480) and if the battery voltage V pack is less than the trickle threshold The charging operation proceeds to the trickle (limit) module 2225 (step 2485). If the battery voltage is above the trickle threshold, the charger 30 checks if the battery temperature is within the trickle range (step 2490). If this temperature is within the trickle range, operation proceeds to trickle (stage) module 2220 (step 2495) and if the temperature is not within the trickle range, it proceeds to quick charge module 2215 (step 2505). The charging operation can continue as shown for the other modules illustrated in FIGS.

During the charging operation illustrated in FIGS. 28-38, the battery charger 30 supplies power to the battery 20 using a pulse charging method. In one configuration, the battery charger 30 provides the battery 20 with pulses having the same pulse width each time, but with different times between pulses. This is called "full charge current" or "full charge pulse". In other configurations, such as the configurations shown in FIGS. 16 and 39, the full charge current or full charge pulse applied by the battery charger 30 can be scaled according to the individual cell voltages in the battery 20. Such an implementation is described with respect to FIGS. 4, 16 and 39.

  As shown in FIG. 4, controller 100 in battery charger 30 may receive information from and transmit information to microcontroller 64 in battery 20. In some configurations, the microcontroller 64 monitors various battery characteristics, either automatically or in response to commands from the battery charger 30, during charging, including the voltage or current state of charge of the respective battery cell 60. can do. The microcontroller 64 can monitor several battery characteristics and process or average measurements during the charge current period T on (ie, the "current on" time periods). In some configurations, the current on period may be about 1 second ("1-s"). During the period T off during which there is no charge current (i.e. the "current off" time periods), information on some cell characteristics (e.g. cell voltage or state of charge of the cell) from the battery 20 It can be transmitted to the charger 30. In some configurations, the current off period T off is about 50 milliseconds. The battery charger 30 can process the information sent from the battery 20 and change the current on period T on accordingly. For example, if one or more battery cells 60 have a higher current state of charge than the remaining battery cells 60, the battery charger 30 avoids overcharging these one or more higher battery cells. Therefore, it is possible to shorten the subsequent current on period T on.

  In some configurations, the battery charger 30 can compare each individual cell voltage to an average cell voltage, and the difference between the individual cell voltage and the average cell voltage is a predetermined threshold (eg, an imbalance) If it is above the imbalance threshold, the charger 30 can identify that the cell is a higher charged cell. The battery charger 30 can change the current on period T on. In another configuration, the battery charger 30 charges the state of charge for a particular battery cell (a battery cell identified as being a higher voltage cell) based on the information received from the battery 20 during the current on period. It can be evaluated. In these configurations, the battery charger 30 can change the duration of the current on period T on when the evaluation of the current state of charge for the cell exceeds a threshold.

For example, as shown in FIGS. 16 and 39, the battery charger 30 can instruct the battery 20 to average the cell voltage measurements measured during the next current on time T on 1. Such an instruction can be sent during the first current off period Toff1. Thus, during the first current on time T on 1, the microcontroller 64 measures and averages the cell voltage and other battery parameters. During the next current off time T off 2, the battery 20 can send an averaged measurement to the battery charger 30. In some configurations, the battery 20 can deliver eight average measurements, such as an average measurement of the pack charge and an average charge of an individual cell for each of the seven battery cells 60. For example, the battery 20 can send the following information: That is, cell 114%, cell 2 14%, cell 3 15%, cell 4
14%, cell 5 16%, cell 614%, cell 7 14%, and pack (e.g., cells 1-7) voltage 29.96V. In such an example, battery charger 30 identifies cell 5 as being a higher battery cell. The charger 30 also records the battery voltage measured by both the battery microcontroller 64 and the battery charger 30. In such an example, the battery charger 30 measures the battery voltage to about 30.07V. The battery charger 30 calculates the difference (for example, 110 mV) of the battery voltage measurement value, and confirms the voltage drop across the terminal and the lead wire as about 110 mV.

During a subsequent current on period T on 2, the battery charger 30 “evaluates” the voltage of the cell 5. For example, the battery charger 30 samples the measurement of the voltage of the battery 20 and evaluates the state of charge for the cell 5 for each battery voltage measurement according to the following equation:
(V battery / charge-V terminal) * V on the cell, V battery / charge is the voltage of the battery 20 as a measurement value by the charger 30, V terminal is a voltage drop across the terminal (for example, 110mV) Furthermore, the V cell is the voltage of the cell being rated in percent of the battery voltage. If the evaluation value of the voltage of the cell 5 exceeds a threshold ("reduction threshold"), the battery charger 30 can change the subsequent current on period T on 3. In this example, the battery charger 30 stores the time when the estimated value (or calculated value) of the voltage of the cell 5 reaches the reduction threshold (which is about 800 milliseconds). As shown in FIG. 39, the charger 30 identifies and calculates the cell 5 as a high battery cell, and further continues the current on period T on 3 for a duration (for example, 800) stored by the charger 30. Change to almost equal to milliseconds). Therefore, the length T2 of the current on period T on 3 is shorter than the lengths T1 of the preceding current on periods T on 1 and T on 2.

  In some configurations, the charger 30 continues to set the subsequent current on period (e.g., T on 4 to 5) to a length T 2 (e.g., 800 milliseconds) of the preceding current on period T on 3 . If still cell 5 (or another cell) is identified as being a high cell, then charger 30 continues the length of a subsequent current on period (eg, T on 6) to a length T 2 (eg, approximately 800). From ms), for example, if the voltage of cell 5 continues to reach a reduced threshold (e.g., 600 ms), it can be changed to T3 (e.g., approximately 600 ms).

  In other configurations, if the charger 30 verifies that the battery cells do not receive sufficient current, then the charger 30 will set the subsequent current on period (e.g., T on 5) to approximately T1 length. It is also possible to revert (and thus increase the on-time after the on-time reduction). For example, if the battery charger 30 checks that the voltage of the cell 5 is extremely below the reduction threshold at the end of the on period, regardless of whether it is a high or unbalanced cell, The on period can be increased. In these configurations, the battery charger 30 continues to change the length of the current pulse (e.g., the on period) to take into account the battery cell voltage so as to optimize the amount of charge that the cell receives overcharged. Can. In some configurations, the battery charger 30 can not increase this current on time to be longer than the initial current on period, eg, period T on 1.

  Another circuit diagram of the battery 20 'is schematically illustrated in FIG. Battery 20 'is similar to battery 20, and common elements are identified by the same reference numeral with a' '.

  In some configurations, the circuit 62 'includes an electrical element, such as an identification resistor 950, which can have a collective resistance. In other configurations, the electrical element may be a capacitor, a coil, a transistor, a semiconductor element, an electrical circuit, or another element (such as a microprocessor, a digital logic element, etc., having resistance or transmitting electrical signals) Can be In the illustrated configuration, the resistance value of the identification resistor 950 is selectable based on the characteristics of the battery 20 ', such as the nominal voltage and the chemistry of the battery cell 60'. The detection terminal 55 ′ can be electrically connected to the identification resistor 950.

  The battery 20 ′ schematically shown in FIG. 13 can be electrically connected to an electric device such as a battery charger 960 (also schematically shown). The battery charger 960 can include a positive terminal 964, a negative terminal 968, and a detection terminal 972. The respective terminals 964, 968, 972 of the battery charger 960 are electrically connectable (respectively) to the corresponding terminals 45 ', 50', 55 'of the battery 20'. The battery charger 960 includes an electrical element, such as a first resistor 976, a second resistor 980, a solid state electronic device or semiconductor 984, a comparator 988, and a processor, microcontroller, or controller (not shown). The circuit which it has can also be included. In some configurations, semiconductor 984 can operate in a saturated or "on" state and can operate in a cut-off or "off" state. Some transistors can be included. In some configurations, comparator 988 may be a dedicated voltage monitor, microprocessor, or processing unit. In other configurations, comparator 988 may be included in the controller (not shown).

  In some configurations, the controller (not shown) is programmable to identify the resistance value of an electrical element (such as identification resistor 950) in battery 20 '. The controller is also programmable to ascertain one or more characteristics of battery 20 ', such as, for example, battery chemistry and nominal voltage of battery 20'. As mentioned above, the resistance value of the identification resistor 950 may correspond to a dedicated value associated with one or more constant cell characteristics. For example, the resistance value of identification resistor 950 may be included within the range of resistance values corresponding to the chemistry of battery 20 'and the nominal voltage.

  In some configurations, the controller is programmable to recognize multiple resistance ranges of the identification resistor 950. In these configurations, each range corresponds to one battery chemistry, such as nickel cadmium, nickel hydrogen, lithium ion, etc. In some configurations, the controller can recognize additional resistance value ranges, each corresponding to another battery chemistry or another battery characteristic.

  In some configurations, the controller is programmable to recognize multiple voltage ranges. The voltages contained within these voltage ranges can depend on or correspond to the resistance value of the identification resistor 950 so that the controller can verify the value of the resistor 950 based on the measured voltage.

  In some configurations, the resistance value of the identification resistor 950 can be further selected to be unique to each possible nominal voltage of the battery 20 '. For example, in one range of resistance values, the first dedicated resistance value can correspond to a nominal voltage of 21 V, the second dedicated resistance value can correspond to a nominal voltage of 16.8 V, and the third The dedicated resistance value can correspond to the nominal voltage of 12.6V. In some configurations, more or less dedicated resistance values may be present, each corresponding to another possible nominal voltage of the battery 20 'associated with that resistance value range.

In one exemplary implementation, battery 20 ′ is electrically connected to battery charger 960. Semiconductor 984 switches to the "on" state under control of additional circuitry (not shown) to identify the first cell characteristic. When the semiconductor 984 is in the "on" state, the identification resistor 950 and the resistors 976, 980 are a voltage divider network.
make. This network establishes a voltage VA at a first reference point 992. If the resistance of resistor 980 is much lower than the resistance of resistor 976, voltage VA depends on the resistances of identification resistor 950 and resistor 980. In such an implementation, the voltage VA is in the range identified by the resistance of the identification resistor 950. The controller (not shown) measures the voltage VA at the first reference point 992 and confirms the resistance value of the identification resistor 950 based on this VA. In some configurations, the controller compares the voltage VA to multiple voltage ranges to verify battery characteristics.

  In some configurations, the first cell characteristics to be identified include cell chemistry. For example, any resistance below 150 kOhm indicates that battery 20 'has nickel cadmium or nickel hydrogen chemistry, any resistance above about 150 kOhm, battery 20' has lithium or lithium ion. It can be shown to have the chemical properties of Once the controller has identified and identified the chemistry of the battery 20 ', an appropriate charging algorithm or method can be selected. In other configurations, more resistance ranges exist, each corresponding to a different cell chemistry, than in the previous example.

  Continuing to refer to this exemplary implementation, semiconductor 984 switches to the "off" state under control of additional circuitry to identify the second cell characteristic. The identification resistor 950 and the resistor 976 create a voltage divider network when the semiconductor 984 switches to the "off" state. The voltage VA at the first reference point 992 is now verified by the resistance values of the identification resistor 950 and the resistor 976. The resistance value of the identification resistor 950 is such that the voltage VA at the first reference point 992 is at the third reference point 996 when the voltage V cell at the second reference point 1012 is substantially equal to the nominal voltage of the cell 20 '. It is selected to be substantially equal to the voltage V reference. If the voltage VA at the first reference point 992 exceeds the fixed voltage V reference at the third reference point 996, the output V output of the comparator 988 changes state. In some configurations, it may serve as an indicator to terminate charging or to start additional functions such as maintenance routines, equalization routines, discharge functions, additional charging schemes, etc. Output V output can be used. In some configurations, the voltage V reference may be a fixed reference voltage.

  In some configurations, the second battery characteristic to be identified can include the nominal voltage of battery 20 '. For example, the general formula for calculating the resistance value for the identification resistor 950 may be:

  Where R100 is the resistance of the identification resistor 950, R135 is the resistance of the resistor 976, the V cell is the nominal voltage of the cell 20 ', and the V reference is, for example, about 2.5 V And fixed voltage. For example, within the range of resistances for lithium ion chemistry (described above), a resistance of about 150 kilohms for the identification resistor 950 corresponds to a nominal voltage of about 21 V, and a resistance of about 194 kilohms is about Corresponding to a nominal voltage of 16.8 V, a resistance value of about 274.7 kiloohms may correspond to a nominal voltage of about 12.6 V. In other configurations, more or less dedicated resistance values may correspond to nominal voltage values of additional or different battery packs.

  In the illustrated configuration, both the identification resistor 950 and the third reference point 996 can be located on the “high” side of the current sensing resistor 1000. Positioning the identification resistor 950 and the third reference point 996 in this manner may reduce any relative voltage variation between the VA and V references when a charging current is present. If the identification resistor 950 and the third reference point 996 are referenced to ground 1004 and a charging current is being applied to the battery 20 ', voltage fluctuations may appear at the voltage VA.

In some configurations, the battery charger 960 can also include a charger control function. As discussed above, when the voltage VA is substantially equal to the voltage V reference (which indicates that the voltage V battery is equal to the nominal voltage of the battery 20 '), the output V output of the comparator 988 changes state. In some configurations, when the output V output of comparator 988 changes state, charging current is no longer supplied to battery 20 '. Once the charging current is interrupted, the battery voltage V battery starts to decrease. When the voltage V battery reaches a low threshold, the output V output of the comparator 988 changes state again. In some configurations, the low threshold of the voltage V cell is determined by the resistance value of the hysteresis resistor 1008. Once the output V output of the comparator 988 changes state again, the charging current is reestablished. In some configurations, such cycles are repeated during a predetermined amount of time determined by the controller, or during a fixed amount of state changes performed by the comparator 988. Be done. In some configurations, such cycles are repeated until the battery 20 'is removed from the battery charger 960.

  In some configurations and in some aspects, a battery such as battery 20 shown in FIG. 17 is in a discharged state such that battery cell 60 may not have enough voltage to establish a connection with battery charger 30. It can be. As shown in FIG. 17, the battery 20 can include one or more battery cells 60, a positive terminal 1105, a negative terminal 1110, and one or more detection terminals 1120a, 1120b (FIG. 17). As shown, the second detection or drive terminal 120b may or may not be included in the battery 20). Battery 20 may also include circuitry 1130 that includes a microcontroller 1140.

  As shown in FIG. 17, the circuit 1130 checks the discharge current when the circuit 1130 (for example, the microprocessor 1140) confirms or detects a condition (ie, "abnormal battery condition") that exceeds or falls below a predetermined threshold. A semiconductor switch 1180 can be included to shut off. In some configurations, the switch 1180 includes an interruption condition in which the current flowing into and out of the battery 20 is interrupted and an allowance condition in which the current flowing into and out of the battery 20 is allowed. In some configurations, abnormal battery conditions include, for example, high or low battery cell temperature, high or low battery state of charge, high or low battery cell state of charge, high or low discharge current, high or low charge current, etc. It can be done. In the illustrated configuration, switch 1180 includes a power FET (field effect transistor) or a metal oxide semiconductor FET ("MOSFET"). In other configurations, circuit 1130 may include two switches 1180. In these configurations, switches 1180 are arranged in parallel. Parallel switch 1180 may be included in a battery pack that provides a large average discharge current (e.g., battery 20 that supplies power to a circular saw, a driver drill, etc.).

  In some configurations, once the switch 1180 is non-conductive, the switch 1180 can not be reset, even if an abnormal condition is no longer detected. In some configurations, circuitry 1130 (eg, microprocessor 1140) resets switch 1180 only if the electrical device, eg, battery charger 30, instructs microprocessor 1140 to reset. Can. As mentioned above, the battery 20 may be discharged to the extent that the battery cell 60 may not have enough voltage to power the microprocessor 1140 and to communicate with the battery charger 30.

  In some configurations, if the battery 20 can not establish a connection with the charger 30, the battery charger 30 supplies a small charging current through the body diode 1210 of the switch 1180 to progressively Can be charged. Once the cell 60 has received sufficient charge to power the microprocessor 1140, the microprocessor 1140 can change the state of the switch 1180. That is, even when the switch 1180 is in the non-conductive state, the battery 20 can be charged. As shown in FIG. 17, switch 1180 can include a body diode 1210 that is integral with the MOSFET and other transistors in some configurations. In other configurations, the diode 1210 can be electrically connected in parallel with the switch 1180.

  In some configurations, if the battery 20 can not establish a connection with the charger 30, the battery charger 30 supplies a small average current via the detection lead, for example, the detection lead 120a or the dedicated drive terminal 120b. can do. This current can charge capacitor 1150 and, in turn, can provide sufficient voltage to enable microprocessor 1140.

  The configurations described above and illustrated in the figures are presented by way of illustration only and are not intended as a limitation on the concepts and principles of the present invention. Thus, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that changes can be made to the elements and their configuration and arrangement without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 20 battery 30 battery charger 45 positive battery terminal 50 negative battery terminal 55 detection battery terminal 60 battery cell 62 identification circuit 64 controller 66 thermistor 80 positive terminal 85 negative terminal 90 detection terminal 95 charging circuit 100 controller 110 indication 115 first light emitting diode 120 second light emitting diode 130 power supply

Claims (14)

  1. A battery charger,
    With the housing,
    At least two terminals including a battery terminal and a detection terminal electrically connected to the power tool battery pack supported by the housing;
    A controller,
    Equipped with
    The power tool battery pack includes a plurality of lithium-based battery cells, each of the plurality of battery cells having an individual state of charge,
    The controller
    Supplying a charging current to the power tool battery pack through the battery terminal;
    Receiving individual charge states of at least one battery cell of the plurality of battery cells via the detection terminal;
    Controlling a charging current supplied to the power tool battery pack based at least in part on an individual charging state of at least one battery cell of the plurality of battery cells;
    A plurality of pulses each having a first period during which the charging current is supplied to the battery pack for power tools with a predetermined amplitude and a second period during which the supply of the charging current is interrupted Controlling the charging current supplied to the battery pack for the power tool by controlling the battery charger to supply the charging current in the form of
    The charging current supplied to the battery pack for an electric power tool is controlled by changing the first period and controlling the second period constant.
    As operable
    A battery charger characterized by
  2.   The battery charger according to claim 1, wherein the controller is operable to change the first period by shortening the first period.
  3.   The battery charger according to claim 1, wherein the controller is operable to receive an individual charge state of each of the plurality of battery cells via the detection terminal.
  4.   The controller includes a first charging module and a second charging module, the first charging module operable to supply a first charging current to the power tool battery pack, The battery charger according to claim 1, wherein the second charging module is operable to supply a second charging current to the power tool battery pack.
  5.   The battery charger according to claim 4, wherein the first charging current and the second charging current are different in one of an average current amplitude and a duty cycle.
  6.   The battery charger according to claim 5, wherein the first charging module comprises a quick charging module.
  7.   The battery charger according to claim 6, wherein the quick charge module is operable to supply a fast charge current to the power tool battery pack.
  8. A method for operating a battery charger,
    The battery charger includes a housing, a controller, and at least two terminals including a battery terminal and a detection terminal electrically connected to a battery pack for an electric tool supported by the housing, the electric power tool The battery pack includes a plurality of lithium based battery cells, each of the plurality of battery cells having an individual state of charge,
    The method is
    Supplying a charging current to the battery pack for the power tool via the battery terminal;
    Receiving, by the controller, individual charge states of at least one battery cell of the plurality of battery cells via the detection terminal;
    Controlling the charging current supplied to the battery pack based at least in part on an individual charging state of at least one battery cell of the plurality of battery cells by the controller;
    The controller controls a first period during which each of the plurality of pulses is supplied to the battery pack for the power tool with a predetermined amplitude, and a second period during which the supply of the charging current is interrupted. Controlling the charging current supplied to the power tool battery pack by controlling the battery charger to supply a plurality of pulsed charging currents;
    Controlling the charging current supplied to the battery pack for an electric power tool by changing the first period and controlling the second period constant by the controller;
    A method characterized by comprising.
  9.   9. The method of claim 8, further comprising: changing the first period of time by shortening the first period of time by the controller.
  10.   The method according to claim 8, further comprising the step of: receiving, by the controller, an individual charge state of each of the plurality of battery cells via the detection terminal.
  11. Executing a first charging module operable by the controller to supply a first charging current to the power tool battery pack;
    Executing a second charging module operable by the controller to supply a second charging current to the power tool battery pack;
    The method of claim 8, further comprising:
  12.   The method of claim 11, wherein the first charging current and the second charging current are different in one of an average current amplitude and a duty cycle.
  13.   The method of claim 12, wherein the first charging module comprises a quick charging module.
  14.   The method of claim 13, wherein the quick charge module is operable to supply a fast charge current to the power tool battery pack.
JP2019017587A 2002-11-22 2019-02-04 Battery charger Pending JP2019075987A (en)

Priority Applications (14)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US52371603P true 2003-11-19 2003-11-19
US52371203P true 2003-11-19 2003-11-19
US60/523,712 2003-11-19
US60/523,716 2003-11-19
US10/719,680 US7176654B2 (en) 2002-11-22 2003-11-20 Method and system of charging multi-cell lithium-based batteries
US10/720,027 US7157882B2 (en) 2002-11-22 2003-11-20 Method and system for battery protection employing a selectively-actuated switch
US10/720,027 2003-11-20
US10/719,680 2003-11-20
US10/721,800 2003-11-24
US10/721,800 US7253585B2 (en) 2002-11-22 2003-11-24 Battery pack
US57427804P true 2004-05-24 2004-05-24
US60/574,278 2004-05-24
US57461604P true 2004-05-25 2004-05-25
US60/574,616 2004-05-25

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Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2019075987A true JP2019075987A (en) 2019-05-16

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JP2004188877A Active JP4624012B2 (en) 2002-11-22 2004-06-25 Battery pack
JP2004188878A Pending JP2005151795A (en) 2002-11-22 2004-06-25 Method and system for charging battery
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