JP2019043422A - Air conditioner for vehicle - Google Patents

Air conditioner for vehicle Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP2019043422A
JP2019043422A JP2017170226A JP2017170226A JP2019043422A JP 2019043422 A JP2019043422 A JP 2019043422A JP 2017170226 A JP2017170226 A JP 2017170226A JP 2017170226 A JP2017170226 A JP 2017170226A JP 2019043422 A JP2019043422 A JP 2019043422A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
heat exchanger
outdoor heat
refrigerant
air
vehicle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2017170226A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
耕平 山下
Kohei Yamashita
耕平 山下
竜 宮腰
Tatsu Miyakoshi
竜 宮腰
Original Assignee
サンデン・オートモーティブクライメイトシステム株式会社
Sanden Automotive Climate Systems Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by サンデン・オートモーティブクライメイトシステム株式会社, Sanden Automotive Climate Systems Corporation filed Critical サンデン・オートモーティブクライメイトシステム株式会社
Priority to JP2017170226A priority Critical patent/JP2019043422A/en
Publication of JP2019043422A publication Critical patent/JP2019043422A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60HARRANGEMENTS OR ADAPTATIONS OF HEATING, COOLING, VENTILATING, OR OTHER AIR-TREATING DEVICES SPECIALLY FOR PASSENGER OR GOODS SPACES OF VEHICLES
    • B60H1/00Heating, cooling or ventilating [HVAC] devices
    • B60H1/22Heating, cooling or ventilating [HVAC] devices the heat being derived otherwise than from the propulsion plant
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • F24F11/41Defrosting; Preventing freezing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B47/00Arrangements for preventing or removing deposits or corrosion, not provided for in another subclass
    • F25B47/02Defrosting cycles

Abstract

An air conditioner for a vehicle that can prevent unnecessary defrosting of an outdoor heat exchanger from occurring. A refrigerant discharged from a compressor is radiated by a radiator, and the radiated refrigerant is depressurized. Then, an outdoor heat exchanger is made to absorb the heat to heat the vehicle interior. . When the controller determines the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger and determines that defrosting is necessary, the control device defrosts the outdoor heat exchanger when a predetermined defrost permission condition is satisfied. In addition, if it is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is necessary and before the defrosting is performed, if the predetermined natural defrosting condition is satisfied, the outdoor heat exchanger is not defrosted. [Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a heat pump type air conditioner that air-conditions a vehicle interior of a vehicle.

  Hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles have come into widespread use due to the emergence of environmental problems in recent years. As an air conditioner that can be applied to such a vehicle, a compressor that compresses and discharges the refrigerant, a radiator that is provided on the vehicle interior side and dissipates the refrigerant, and is provided on the vehicle exterior side. An outdoor heat exchanger that absorbs heat from the refrigerant is provided, the refrigerant discharged from the compressor dissipates heat in the radiator, and the refrigerant that has dissipated heat in the radiator is absorbed in the outdoor heat exchanger, thereby heating the vehicle interior. What is executed has been developed (see, for example, Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2).

JP2015-39998A JP2015-229370A

  Here, in the heating mode, since the refrigerant evaporates in the outdoor heat exchanger and absorbs heat from the outside air, frost formation occurs in the outdoor heat exchanger. If the operation of the compressor is continued in a state in which frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger has progressed, the heat absorption capability from the outside air is reduced, so that the operation efficiency is significantly reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to stop the heating mode and defrost the outdoor heat exchanger. In that case, however, the interior of the vehicle cannot be heated and the comfort of the driver and passengers is impaired. For example, there is no air conditioning requirement, and the outdoor heat exchanger is defrosted under conditions that permit defrosting such as during charging of the battery.

  On the other hand, the frost that has grown on the outdoor heat exchanger naturally melts with time as the outside air temperature increases. Further, in an operation mode other than the heating mode (for example, the cooling mode or the dehumidifying mode), the outdoor heat exchanger serves as a radiator that dissipates the refrigerant, so that frost formation is melted and removed. In such a case, it is not necessary to defrost the outdoor heat exchanger, but in the past, once it was determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger was necessary, be sure to do so when defrosting is permitted. Defrosting was performed.

  The present invention has been made to solve the conventional technical problem, and is a vehicle air conditioner that can avoid unnecessary defrosting of an outdoor heat exchanger. The purpose is to provide.

  The vehicle air conditioner of the present invention heats the compressor that compresses the refrigerant, the air flow passage through which the air supplied to the vehicle interior flows, and the air that dissipates the refrigerant and is supplied from the air flow passage to the vehicle interior. A heat radiator, an outdoor heat exchanger that is provided outside the passenger compartment to absorb the refrigerant, and a control device, and at least the refrigerant discharged from the compressor is radiated by the heat radiator by the control device. Then, after depressurizing the radiated refrigerant, the outdoor heat exchanger absorbs heat and executes a heating mode in which the vehicle interior is heated, and the control device determines the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger. When it is determined and defrosting is necessary, it is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is necessary and defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is performed when predetermined defrosting permission conditions are satisfied After that, if the predetermined natural defrost conditions are met before defrosting The, characterized in that it does not perform the defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger.

The vehicle air conditioner of the invention of claim 2 is the above-described invention, wherein the natural defrosting condition is
The outside air temperature Tam is not less than the predetermined value Tam1, and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is not less than the outside air temperature Tam−the predetermined value β,
The accumulated value of the time during which the outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped is equal to or higher than the predetermined time t3.
The outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped, and the integrated value obtained from the difference and the elapsed time is equal to or higher than the predetermined value X1,
That a predetermined period t4 or more has elapsed since the vehicle stopped,
The operation mode in which the refrigerant does not absorb heat in the outdoor heat exchanger has been selected,
Or any combination thereof or all of them.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided the vehicle air conditioner according to any one of the above aspects, wherein the control device is configured such that the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when no frost is formed. Based on the difference ΔTXO = TXObase−TXO between the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when there is no frost formation, or the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is not attached Difference ΔPXO = PXObase−PXO between the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger when it is lower than the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger during frost and the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when there is no frost Based on the above, it is characterized by determining the progress state of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger.

  According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided the vehicle air conditioner according to the first aspect, wherein the control device is configured to control the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when there is no frost formation based on the environmental condition and / or the index indicating the operation status. Or the refrigerant | coolant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger at the time of no frost formation is estimated, It is characterized by the above-mentioned.

  According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a vehicular air conditioner in which the compressor is driven by a battery mounted on the vehicle, and the defrost permission condition is that there is no air conditioning requirement in the vehicle compartment and the battery is The battery is being charged or the remaining amount of the battery is greater than or equal to a predetermined value.

  According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an air conditioner for a vehicle according to the present invention, wherein the control device includes an air conditioning controller to which an air conditioning operation unit for performing an air conditioning setting operation in the passenger compartment is connected, and a heat pump that controls the operation of the compressor. The air conditioning controller and the heat pump controller transmit and receive information via the vehicle communication bus, and when the heat pump controller determines that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is necessary, a predetermined defrosting request flag is displayed. If the air-conditioning controller sets a predetermined defrost permission flag, the outdoor heat exchanger is defrosted, the defrost request flag is reset, and the natural defrost condition is set after this defrost request flag is set. Even if is established, the defrost request flag is reset, and the air conditioning controller uses the heat pump controller to reset the defrost request flag. If set, it determines whether defrost permission condition is satisfied, when filled, characterized in that setting the defrost permission flag.

  According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, there is provided an air conditioning apparatus for a vehicle, wherein the air conditioning controller or the heat pump controller in the above invention determines whether or not a natural defrost condition is satisfied, and when the air conditioning controller determines, the natural defrost is determined. The heat pump controller is notified that the condition is satisfied.

  According to the present invention, a compressor for compressing a refrigerant, an air flow passage through which air to be supplied to the vehicle interior flows, and a radiator for heating the air to be radiated from the refrigerant and supplied to the vehicle interior from the air flow passage. And an outdoor heat exchanger that is provided outside the passenger compartment to absorb the refrigerant, and a control device, and with this control device, at least the refrigerant discharged from the compressor is radiated by the radiator, and the heat is radiated. In the vehicle air conditioner that executes a heating mode in which the refrigerant is depressurized and then absorbed by the outdoor heat exchanger to heat the vehicle interior, the control device determines the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger. When it is determined that defrosting is necessary, when a predetermined defrosting permission condition is satisfied, defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is performed, and after determining that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is necessary, If the predetermined natural defrost conditions are met before defrosting Because the outdoor heat exchanger is not defrosted, even when it is determined that the outdoor heat exchanger needs to be defrosted, the predetermined natural defrosting condition is established and the outdoor heat exchanger When it is predicted that frost formation has naturally melted, unnecessary defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger can be avoided without performing defrosting.

  This achieves comfortable heating and air conditioning in the vehicle interior while contributing to energy saving without defrosting in a situation where the vehicle interior can be heated without defrosting the outdoor heat exchanger. Will be able to.

In this case, natural defrosting conditions as in the invention of claim 2
The outside air temperature Tam is not less than the predetermined value Tam1, and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is not less than the outside air temperature Tam−the predetermined value β,
The accumulated value of the time during which the outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped is equal to or higher than the predetermined time t3.
The outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped, and the integrated value obtained from the difference and the elapsed time is equal to or higher than the predetermined value X1,
That a predetermined period t4 or more has elapsed since the vehicle stopped,
The operation mode in which the refrigerant does not absorb heat in the outdoor heat exchanger has been selected,
Any one of them, a combination thereof, or all of them can accurately predict that the frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger has naturally melted.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided a control device in which the refrigerant evaporation of the outdoor heat exchanger is reduced when the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when no frost is formed. Based on the difference ΔTXO = TXObase−TXO between the temperature TXO and the refrigerant evaporating temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when there is no frosting, or the outdoor heat exchanger when the refrigerant evaporating pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is not frosting This outdoor heat exchanger is based on the difference ΔPXO = PXObase−PXO between the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger when it is lower than the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase and the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when there is no frost formation. By determining the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger, it is possible to accurately grasp the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger and correct the need for defrosting. Judgment can be made accurately.

  In this case, the control device as in the invention of claim 4 is configured so that the refrigerant evaporating temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger at the time of no frosting or no frosting based on the environmental condition and / or the index indicating the operation status. By estimating the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger at, the progress of frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger can be accurately detected.

  The defrost permission condition is, for example, that there is no request for air conditioning in the passenger compartment as in the invention of claim 5 and the battery for driving the compressor is being charged or the remaining amount of the battery is a predetermined value or more. It only has to be.

  According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, the control device includes an air conditioning controller to which an air conditioning operation unit for performing an air conditioning setting operation in the passenger compartment is connected, and a heat pump controller that controls the operation of the compressor. When the heat pump controller transmits / receives information via the vehicle communication bus and the heat pump controller determines that the outdoor heat exchanger needs to be defrosted, it sets a predetermined defrost request flag, and the air conditioning controller When the predetermined defrost permission flag is set, the outdoor heat exchanger is defrosted, the defrost request flag is reset, and the natural defrost condition is satisfied after the defrost request flag is set. If the defrost request flag is reset and the air conditioning controller has the defrost request flag set by the heat pump controller It is determined whether or not the defrost permission condition is satisfied. If the defrost permission condition is satisfied, the vehicle is comfortably heated and air-conditioned by setting the defrost permission flag, and the outdoor heat exchanger is installed. Unnecessary defrosting can be avoided while appropriately suppressing a decrease in operating efficiency due to frost.

  In the above case, the air conditioning controller or the heat pump controller may determine whether or not the natural defrosting condition is satisfied as in the invention of claim 7. By notifying the heat pump controller that the frost condition is established, unnecessary defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger can be avoided without any trouble.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS It is a block diagram of the air conditioning apparatus for vehicles of one Embodiment to which this invention is applied (Example 1). It is a block diagram of the control apparatus of the air conditioning apparatus for vehicles of FIG. It is a schematic diagram of the airflow path of the vehicle air conditioner of FIG. It is a control block diagram regarding the compressor control in the heating mode of the heat pump controller of FIG. It is a control block diagram regarding the compressor control in the dehumidification heating mode of the heat pump controller of FIG. It is a control block diagram regarding auxiliary heater (auxiliary heating apparatus) control in the dehumidification heating mode of the heat pump controller of FIG. It is a flowchart explaining the operation | movement of the part of the frost formation determination control of the outdoor heat exchanger by the heat pump controller of FIG. It is a flowchart explaining the operation | movement of the part of the natural defrost determination control of the outdoor heat exchanger by the heat pump controller of FIG. It is a timing chart explaining the frost formation determination of the outdoor heat exchanger by the heat pump controller of FIG. 2 based on TXObase and TXO. It is a timing chart explaining the frost formation determination of the outdoor heat exchanger by the heat pump controller of FIG. 2 based on PXObase and PXO. It is a figure explaining an example of the 3rd natural defrost conditions in the natural defrost determination control of FIG. It is a figure explaining an example of the 4th natural defrost conditions in the natural defrost determination control of FIG. It is a block diagram of the air conditioning apparatus for vehicles of the other Example of this invention (Example 2).

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 shows a configuration diagram of a vehicle air conditioner 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention. A vehicle according to an embodiment to which the present invention is applied is an electric vehicle (EV) in which an engine (internal combustion engine) is not mounted, and is used for traveling with electric power charged in a battery 75 (FIG. 2) mounted in the vehicle. The vehicle is driven by driving an electric motor (none of which is shown), and the vehicle air conditioner 1 of the present invention is also driven by the power of the battery 75.

  That is, the vehicle air conditioner 1 of the embodiment performs a heating mode by a heat pump operation using a refrigerant circuit in an electric vehicle that cannot be heated by engine waste heat, and further includes a dehumidifying heating mode, a dehumidifying cooling mode, a cooling mode, Each operation mode of the MAX cooling mode (maximum cooling mode) and the auxiliary heater single mode is selectively executed.

  The present invention is effective not only for electric vehicles but also for so-called hybrid vehicles that use an engine and an electric motor for traveling, and is also applicable to ordinary vehicles that run on an engine. Needless to say.

  The vehicle air conditioner 1 according to the embodiment performs air conditioning (heating, cooling, dehumidification, and ventilation) in a passenger compartment of an electric vehicle, and is driven by power supplied from a battery 75 to compress a refrigerant. The high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows in through the refrigerant pipe 13G, and is provided in the air flow passage 3 of the HVAC unit 10 through which the vehicle interior air is circulated and circulated. A radiator 4 for heating the air supplied to the vehicle interior by radiating heat, an outdoor expansion valve 6 (pressure reduction device) composed of an electric valve that decompresses and expands the refrigerant during heating, and a heat radiated during cooling that is provided outside the vehicle interior An outdoor heat exchanger 7 that functions as an evaporator and performs heat exchange between the refrigerant and the outside air to function as an evaporator during heating, and an indoor expansion valve 8 (decompression device) that includes an electric valve that decompresses and expands the refrigerant. , Installed in the air flow passage 3 A heat absorber 9 for cooling the air supplied to the vehicle interior by absorbing heat from the vehicle interior during cooling and dehumidification, an accumulator 12 and the like are sequentially connected by a refrigerant pipe 13, and a refrigerant circuit R is connected. It is configured.

  The refrigerant circuit R is filled with a predetermined amount of refrigerant and lubricating oil. The outdoor heat exchanger 7 is provided with an outdoor blower 15. The outdoor blower 15 exchanges heat between the outside air and the refrigerant by forcibly passing outside air through the outdoor heat exchanger 7, so that the outdoor air blower 15 can also be used outdoors even when the vehicle is stopped (that is, the vehicle speed is 0 km / h). It is comprised so that external air may be ventilated by the heat exchanger 7. FIG.

  The outdoor heat exchanger 7 has a receiver dryer section 14 and a supercooling section 16 sequentially on the downstream side of the refrigerant, and the refrigerant pipe 13A exiting from the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is received via an electromagnetic valve 17 opened during cooling. The refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> B connected to the dryer unit 14 and on the outlet side of the supercooling unit 16 is connected to the inlet side of the heat absorber 9 via the indoor expansion valve 8. In addition, the receiver dryer part 14 and the supercooling part 16 structurally constitute a part of the outdoor heat exchanger 7.

  The refrigerant pipe 13B between the subcooling section 16 and the indoor expansion valve 8 is provided in a heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant pipe 13C on the outlet side of the heat absorber 9, and constitutes an internal heat exchanger 19 together. Thus, the refrigerant flowing into the indoor expansion valve 8 through the refrigerant pipe 13B is cooled (supercooled) by the low-temperature refrigerant that has exited the heat absorber 9.

  Further, the refrigerant pipe 13A exiting from the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is branched into a refrigerant pipe 13D, and this branched refrigerant pipe 13D is downstream of the internal heat exchanger 19 via an electromagnetic valve 21 opened during heating. The refrigerant pipe 13C is connected in communication. The refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> C is connected to the accumulator 12, and the accumulator 12 is connected to the refrigerant suction side of the compressor 2. Further, the refrigerant pipe 13E on the outlet side of the radiator 4 is connected to the inlet side of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 via the outdoor expansion valve 6.

  A refrigerant pipe 13G between the discharge side of the compressor 2 and the inlet side of the radiator 4 is provided with a solenoid valve 30 (which constitutes a flow path switching device) that is closed during dehumidification heating and MAX cooling described later. Yes. In this case, the refrigerant pipe 13G is branched into a bypass pipe 35 on the upstream side of the electromagnetic valve 30, and the bypass pipe 35 is opened by the electromagnetic valve 40 (which also constitutes a flow path switching device) during dehumidifying heating and MAX cooling. ) Through the refrigerant pipe 13E on the downstream side of the outdoor expansion valve 6. Bypass pipe 45, solenoid valve 30 and solenoid valve 40 constitute bypass device 45.

  Since the bypass device 45 is configured by the bypass pipe 35, the electromagnetic valve 30, and the electromagnetic valve 40, the dehumidifying heating mode or the MAX for allowing the refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 to directly flow into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 as will be described later. Switching between the cooling mode and the heating mode in which the refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows into the radiator 4, the dehumidifying cooling mode, and the cooling mode can be performed smoothly.

  The air flow passage 3 on the air upstream side of the heat absorber 9 is formed with each of an outside air inlet and an inside air inlet (represented by the inlet 25 in FIG. 1). 25 is provided with a suction switching damper 26 for switching the air introduced into the air flow passage 3 between the inside air (inside air circulation mode) which is air inside the passenger compartment and the outside air (outside air introduction mode) which is outside the passenger compartment. Yes. Furthermore, an indoor blower (blower fan) 27 for supplying the introduced inside air or outside air to the air flow passage 3 is provided on the air downstream side of the suction switching damper 26.

  Moreover, in FIG. 1, 23 is an auxiliary heater as an auxiliary heating device provided in the vehicle air conditioner 1 of the embodiment. The auxiliary heater 23 of the embodiment is composed of a PTC heater which is an electric heater, and is in the air flow passage 3 which is on the windward side (air upstream side) of the radiator 4 with respect to the air flow in the air flow passage 3. Is provided. When the auxiliary heater 23 is energized and generates heat, the air in the air flow passage 3 flowing into the radiator 4 through the heat absorber 9 is heated. In other words, the auxiliary heater 23 serves as a so-called heater core, which heats or complements the passenger compartment.

  Here, the air flow passage 3 on the leeward side (air downstream side) from the heat absorber 9 of the HVAC unit 10 is partitioned by a partition wall 10A, and a heating heat exchange passage 3A and a bypass passage 3B that bypasses it are formed. The radiator 4 and the auxiliary heater 23 described above are disposed in the heating heat exchange passage 3A.

  Further, the air (inside air or outside air) in the air flow passage 3 after flowing into the air flow passage 3 and passing through the heat absorber 9 is supplemented into the air flow passage 3 on the windward side of the auxiliary heater 23. An air mix damper 28 is provided for adjusting the rate of ventilation through the heating heat exchange passage 3A in which the heater 23 and the radiator 4 are disposed.

  Further, the HVAC unit 10 on the leeward side of the radiator 4 includes a FOOT (foot) outlet 29A (first outlet) and a VENT (vent) outlet 29B (FOOT outlet 29A). For the outlet and the DEF outlet 29C, first outlets) and DEF (def) outlets 29C (second outlets) are formed. The FOOT air outlet 29A is an air outlet for blowing air under the feet in the passenger compartment, and is at the lowest position. Further, the VENT outlet 29B is an outlet for blowing out air near the driver's chest and face in the passenger compartment, and is located above the FOOT outlet 29A. The DEF air outlet 29C is an air outlet for blowing air to the inner surface of the windshield of the vehicle, and is located at the highest position above the other air outlets 29A and 29B.

  The FOOT air outlet 29A, the VENT air outlet 29B, and the DEF air outlet 29C are respectively provided with a FOOT air outlet damper 31A, a VENT air outlet damper 31B, and a DEF air outlet damper 31C that control the amount of air blown out. It has been.

  Next, FIG. 2 shows a block diagram of the control device 11 of the vehicle air conditioner 1 of the embodiment. The control device 11 includes an air-conditioning controller 20 and a heat pump controller 32 each of which is a microcomputer that is an example of a computer including a processor, and these include a CAN (Controller Area Network) and a LIN (Local Interconnect Network). Is connected to a vehicle communication bus 65. The compressor 2 and the auxiliary heater 23 are also connected to the vehicle communication bus 65, and the air conditioning controller 20, the heat pump controller 32, the compressor 2 and the auxiliary heater 23 are configured to transmit and receive data via the vehicle communication bus 65. Has been.

The air conditioning controller 20 is a host controller that controls the air conditioning of the vehicle interior of the vehicle. The input of the air conditioning controller 20 includes an outside air temperature sensor 33 that detects the outside air temperature Tam of the vehicle and an outside air humidity that detects the outside air humidity. The sensor 34, the HVAC suction temperature sensor 36 that detects the temperature of the air (suction air temperature Tas) that is sucked into the air flow passage 3 from the suction port 25 and flows into the heat sink 9, and the temperature of the air (inside air) in the passenger compartment An indoor air temperature sensor 37 that detects (indoor temperature Tin), an indoor air humidity sensor 38 that detects the humidity of the air in the vehicle interior, an indoor CO 2 concentration sensor 39 that detects the carbon dioxide concentration in the vehicle interior, and a blowout into the vehicle interior The temperature sensor 41 that detects the temperature of the air to be discharged, the discharge pressure sensor 42 that detects the refrigerant pressure Pd discharged from the compressor 2, and the amount of solar radiation into the passenger compartment are detected. For example, a photosensor-type solar radiation sensor 51, an output of a vehicle speed sensor 52 for detecting the moving speed (vehicle speed) of the vehicle, and an air conditioning setting operation in the vehicle interior such as switching of a set temperature and an operation mode. The air conditioning operation unit (air conditioner operation unit) 53 is connected.

  The output of the air conditioning controller 20 is connected to an outdoor blower 15, an indoor blower (blower fan) 27, a suction switching damper 26, an air mix damper 28, and air outlet dampers 31A to 31C. It is controlled by the controller 20. The battery 75 has a built-in controller. The controller of the battery 75 transmits / receives data to / from the air conditioning controller 20 via the vehicle communication bus 65, and whether or not the battery 75 is being charged to the air conditioning controller 20 is determined. Information and information related to the remaining amount (charge amount) of the battery 75 are transmitted.

  The heat pump controller 32 is a controller that mainly controls the refrigerant circuit R. The input of the heat pump controller 32 includes a discharge temperature sensor 43 that detects a discharge refrigerant temperature Td of the compressor 2 and a suction refrigerant of the compressor 2. A suction pressure sensor 44 for detecting the pressure Ps, a suction temperature sensor 55 for detecting the suction refrigerant temperature Ts of the compressor 2, a radiator temperature sensor 46 for detecting the refrigerant temperature of the radiator 4 (radiator temperature TCI), A radiator pressure sensor 47 that detects the refrigerant pressure of the radiator 4 (radiator pressure PCI), a heat absorber temperature sensor 48 that detects the refrigerant temperature of the heat absorber 9 (heat absorber temperature Te), and the refrigerant pressure of the heat absorber 9 A heat absorber pressure sensor 49 that detects the temperature of the auxiliary heater 23, an auxiliary heater temperature sensor 50 that detects the temperature of the auxiliary heater 23 (auxiliary heater temperature Tptc), and the outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 The outdoor heat exchanger temperature sensor 54 that detects the refrigerant temperature (refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the outdoor heat exchanger temperature TXO), and the refrigerant pressure at the outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 (of the outdoor heat exchanger 7). Each output of the outdoor heat exchanger pressure sensor 56 for detecting the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO and the outdoor heat exchanger pressure PXO) is connected.

  The output of the heat pump controller 32 includes an outdoor expansion valve 6, an indoor expansion valve 8, an electromagnetic valve 30 (for reheating), an electromagnetic valve 17 (for cooling), an electromagnetic valve 21 (for heating), and an electromagnetic valve 40 (bypass). Are connected to each other and are controlled by the heat pump controller 32. The compressor 2 and the auxiliary heater 23 each have a built-in controller, and the controllers of the compressor 2 and the auxiliary heater 23 send and receive data to and from the heat pump controller 32 via the vehicle communication bus 65. Be controlled.

  The heat pump controller 32 and the air conditioning controller 20 transmit / receive data to / from each other via the vehicle communication bus 65, and control each device based on the output of each sensor and the setting input by the air conditioning operation unit 53. In this embodiment, the output of the outside air temperature sensor 33, the output of the discharge pressure sensor 42, the outputs of the vehicle speed sensor 52, the volumetric air volume Ga of air flowing into the air flow passage 3 (calculated by the air conditioning controller 20), the air mix The air volume ratio SW (calculated by the air conditioning controller 20) by the damper 28, the output of the air conditioning operation unit 53 is transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20 to the heat pump controller 32 via the vehicle communication bus 65, and used for control by the heat pump controller 32. Has been.

  Next, the operation of the vehicle air conditioner 1 having the above-described configuration will be described. In this embodiment, the control device 11 (the air conditioning controller 20 and the heat pump controller 32) has each operation mode of heating mode, dehumidifying heating mode, dehumidifying cooling mode, cooling mode, MAX cooling mode (maximum cooling mode), and auxiliary heater single mode. Switch and execute. First, an outline of refrigerant flow and control in each operation mode will be described.

(1) Heating mode When the heating mode is selected by the heat pump controller 32 (auto mode) or by the manual air conditioning setting operation (manual mode) to the air conditioning operation unit 53, the heat pump controller 32 activates the electromagnetic valve 21 (for heating). Open and close the solenoid valve 17 (for cooling). Further, the electromagnetic valve 30 (for reheating) is opened, and the electromagnetic valve 40 (for bypass) is closed. Then, the compressor 2 is operated. The air conditioning controller 20 operates each of the blowers 15 and 27, and the air mix damper 28 basically heats all the air in the air flow passage 3 that is blown out from the indoor blower 27 and passes through the heat absorber 9 to the heat exchange passage 3A for heating. The auxiliary heater 23 and the radiator 4 are ventilated, but the air volume may be adjusted.

  As a result, the high-temperature and high-pressure gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows into the radiator 4 from the refrigerant pipe 13G via the electromagnetic valve 30. Since the air in the airflow passage 3 is passed through the radiator 4, the air in the airflow passage 3 is converted into the high-temperature refrigerant in the radiator 4 (when the auxiliary heater 23 operates, the auxiliary heater 23 and the radiator 4. On the other hand, the refrigerant in the radiator 4 is cooled by being deprived of heat by the air, and is condensed and liquefied.

  The refrigerant liquefied in the radiator 4 exits the radiator 4 and then reaches the outdoor expansion valve 6 through the refrigerant pipe 13E. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor expansion valve 6 is decompressed there and then flows into the outdoor heat exchanger 7. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 evaporates, and pumps up heat from the outside air that is ventilated by traveling or by the outdoor blower 15. That is, the refrigerant circuit R becomes a heat pump. Then, the low-temperature refrigerant exiting the outdoor heat exchanger 7 enters the accumulator 12 from the refrigerant pipe 13C through the refrigerant pipe 13A, the electromagnetic valve 21 and the refrigerant pipe 13D, and is separated into gas and liquid there. Repeated circulation inhaled. Since the air heated by the radiator 4 (the auxiliary heater 23 and the radiator 4 when the auxiliary heater 23 operates) is blown out from the respective outlets 29A to 29C, the vehicle interior is thereby heated. become.

  The heat pump controller 32 calculates the target radiator pressure PCO (target value of the radiator pressure PCI) from the target heater temperature TCO (target value of the heating temperature TH described later) calculated by the air conditioning controller 20 from the target outlet temperature TAO. Based on the target radiator pressure PCO and the refrigerant pressure of the radiator 4 detected by the radiator pressure sensor 47 (radiator pressure PCI, high pressure of the refrigerant circuit R), the rotational speed NC of the compressor 2 is controlled, and the radiator 4 controls the heating. Further, the heat pump controller 32 opens the outdoor expansion valve 6 based on the refrigerant temperature (radiator temperature TCI) of the radiator 4 detected by the radiator temperature sensor 46 and the radiator pressure PCI detected by the radiator pressure sensor 47. The degree of supercooling of the refrigerant at the outlet of the radiator 4 is controlled.

  Further, in this heating mode, when the heating capability by the radiator 4 is insufficient with respect to the heating capability required for the cabin air conditioning, the heat pump controller 32 supplements the shortage with the heat generated by the auxiliary heater 23. The energization of the auxiliary heater 23 is controlled. Thereby, comfortable vehicle interior heating is realized and frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is also suppressed. At this time, since the auxiliary heater 23 is disposed on the air upstream side of the radiator 4, the air flowing through the air flow passage 3 is vented to the auxiliary heater 23 before the radiator 4.

  Here, when the auxiliary heater 23 is disposed on the air downstream side of the radiator 4, when the auxiliary heater 23 is configured by a PTC heater as in the embodiment, the temperature of the air flowing into the auxiliary heater 23 is determined by the radiator. 4, the resistance value of the PTC heater increases, the current value also decreases, and the heat generation amount decreases. However, by arranging the auxiliary heater 23 on the air upstream side of the radiator 4, Thus, the capacity of the auxiliary heater 23 composed of the PTC heater can be sufficiently exhibited.

(2) Dehumidifying heating mode Next, in the dehumidifying heating mode, the heat pump controller 32 opens the electromagnetic valve 17 and closes the electromagnetic valve 21. Further, the electromagnetic valve 30 is closed, the electromagnetic valve 40 is opened, and the valve opening degree of the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully closed. Then, the compressor 2 is operated. The air conditioning controller 20 operates each of the blowers 15 and 27, and the air mix damper 28 basically heats all the air in the air flow passage 3 that is blown out from the indoor blower 27 and passes through the heat absorber 9 to the heat exchange passage 3A for heating. The auxiliary heater 23 and the radiator 4 are ventilated, but the air volume is also adjusted.

  Accordingly, the high-temperature and high-pressure gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 to the refrigerant pipe 13G flows into the bypass pipe 35 without going to the radiator 4, passes through the electromagnetic valve 40, and is connected to the refrigerant pipe on the downstream side of the outdoor expansion valve 6. 13E. At this time, since the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully closed, the refrigerant flows into the outdoor heat exchanger 7. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is cooled and condensed by running there or by the outside air ventilated by the outdoor blower 15. The refrigerant that has exited the outdoor heat exchanger 7 sequentially flows from the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> A through the electromagnetic valve 17 into the receiver dryer unit 14 and the supercooling unit 16. Here, the refrigerant is supercooled.

  The refrigerant that has exited the supercooling section 16 of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 enters the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> B, reaches the indoor expansion valve 8 through the internal heat exchanger 19. After the refrigerant is depressurized by the indoor expansion valve 8, it flows into the heat absorber 9 and evaporates. The air blown out from the indoor blower 27 by the heat absorption action at this time is cooled, and moisture in the air condenses and adheres to the heat absorber 9, so that the air in the air flow passage 3 is cooled, and Dehumidified. The refrigerant evaporated in the heat absorber 9 reaches the accumulator 12 through the refrigerant pipe 13C through the internal heat exchanger 19, and repeats circulation that is sucked into the compressor 2 there through.

  At this time, since the valve opening degree of the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully closed, it is possible to suppress or prevent inconvenience that the refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows backward from the outdoor expansion valve 6 into the radiator 4. It becomes. Thereby, the fall of a refrigerant | coolant circulation amount can be suppressed or eliminated and air-conditioning capability can be ensured now. Further, in this dehumidifying and heating mode, the heat pump controller 32 energizes the auxiliary heater 23 to generate heat. As a result, the air cooled and dehumidified by the heat absorber 9 is further heated in the process of passing through the auxiliary heater 23 and the temperature rises, so that the dehumidifying heating in the passenger compartment is performed.

  The heat pump controller 32 is a compressor based on the temperature of the heat absorber 9 (heat absorber temperature Te) detected by the heat absorber temperature sensor 48 and a target heat absorber temperature TEO that is a target value of the heat absorber temperature Te calculated by the air conditioning controller 20. 2, and the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc detected by the auxiliary heater temperature sensor 50 and the above-described target heater temperature TCO (in this case, the target value of the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc) is used. By controlling energization (heating by heat generation), the air temperature of the air blown out from the respective outlets 29A to 29C by heating by the auxiliary heater 23 while appropriately cooling and dehumidifying the air in the heat absorber 9 is controlled. Prevent the decline accurately. As a result, it is possible to control the temperature to an appropriate heating temperature while dehumidifying the air blown into the vehicle interior, and it is possible to realize comfortable and efficient dehumidification heating in the vehicle interior.

  In addition, since the auxiliary heater 23 is disposed on the air upstream side of the radiator 4, the air heated by the auxiliary heater 23 passes through the radiator 4. In this dehumidifying heating mode, the refrigerant is supplied to the radiator 4. Therefore, the disadvantage that the radiator 4 absorbs heat from the air heated by the auxiliary heater 23 is also eliminated. That is, the temperature of the air blown out into the vehicle compartment by the radiator 4 is suppressed, and the COP is improved.

(3) Dehumidifying and Cooling Mode Next, in the dehumidifying and cooling mode, the heat pump controller 32 opens the electromagnetic valve 17 and closes the electromagnetic valve 21. Further, the electromagnetic valve 30 is opened and the electromagnetic valve 40 is closed. Then, the compressor 2 is operated. The air conditioning controller 20 operates each of the blowers 15 and 27, and the air mix damper 28 basically heats all the air in the air flow passage 3 that is blown out from the indoor blower 27 and passes through the heat absorber 9 to the heat exchange passage 3A for heating. The auxiliary heater 23 and the radiator 4 are ventilated, but the air volume is also adjusted.

  As a result, the high-temperature and high-pressure gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows into the radiator 4 from the refrigerant pipe 13G via the electromagnetic valve 30. Since the air in the air flow passage 3 is passed through the radiator 4, the air in the air flow passage 3 is heated by the high-temperature refrigerant in the radiator 4, while the refrigerant in the radiator 4 heats the air. It is deprived and cooled, and condensates.

  The refrigerant that has exited the radiator 4 reaches the outdoor expansion valve 6 through the refrigerant pipe 13E, and flows into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 through the outdoor expansion valve 6 that is controlled to open. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is cooled and condensed by running there or by the outside air ventilated by the outdoor blower 15. The refrigerant that has exited the outdoor heat exchanger 7 sequentially flows from the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> A through the electromagnetic valve 17 into the receiver dryer unit 14 and the supercooling unit 16. Here, the refrigerant is supercooled.

  The refrigerant that has exited the supercooling section 16 of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 enters the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> B, reaches the indoor expansion valve 8 through the internal heat exchanger 19. After the refrigerant is depressurized by the indoor expansion valve 8, it flows into the heat absorber 9 and evaporates. Since the moisture in the air blown out from the indoor blower 27 by the heat absorption action at this time condenses and adheres to the heat absorber 9, the air is cooled and dehumidified.

  The refrigerant evaporated in the heat absorber 9 reaches the accumulator 12 through the refrigerant pipe 13C through the internal heat exchanger 19, and repeats circulation that is sucked into the compressor 2 there through. In this dehumidifying and cooling mode, the heat pump controller 32 does not energize the auxiliary heater 23, so that the air that has been cooled and dehumidified by the heat absorber 9 is reheated in the process of passing through the radiator 4 (the heat dissipation capability is lower than that during heating). Is done. As a result, dehumidifying and cooling in the passenger compartment is performed.

  The heat pump controller 32 determines the temperature of the compressor 2 based on the temperature of the heat absorber 9 (heat absorber temperature Te) detected by the heat absorber temperature sensor 48 and the target heat absorber temperature TEO (transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20) that is the target value. The rotational speed NC is controlled. The heat pump controller 32 calculates the target radiator pressure PCO from the target heater temperature TCO described above, and the target radiator pressure PCO and the refrigerant pressure (radiator pressure PCI) of the radiator 4 detected by the radiator pressure sensor 47. Based on the high pressure of the refrigerant circuit R), the valve opening degree of the outdoor expansion valve 6 is controlled, and heating by the radiator 4 is controlled.

(4) Cooling mode Next, in the cooling mode, the heat pump controller 32 fully opens the valve opening degree of the outdoor expansion valve 6 in the dehumidifying and cooling mode. Then, the compressor 2 is operated and the auxiliary heater 23 is not energized. The air-conditioning controller 20 operates each of the blowers 15 and 27, and the air mix damper 28 is blown from the indoor blower 27 and the air in the air flow passage 3 that has passed through the heat absorber 9 is used as the auxiliary heater 23 in the heating heat exchange passage 3A. And it is set as the state which adjusts the ratio ventilated by the heat radiator 4. FIG.

  As a result, the high-temperature and high-pressure gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows into the radiator 4 from the refrigerant pipe 13G via the electromagnetic valve 30, and the refrigerant exiting the radiator 4 passes through the refrigerant pipe 13E and the outdoor expansion valve 6. To. At this time, since the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully opened, the refrigerant passes through it and flows into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 as it is, where it is cooled by air or by outside air that is ventilated by the outdoor blower 15 and condensed. Liquefaction. The refrigerant that has exited the outdoor heat exchanger 7 sequentially flows from the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> A through the electromagnetic valve 17 into the receiver dryer unit 14 and the supercooling unit 16. Here, the refrigerant is supercooled.

  The refrigerant that has exited the supercooling section 16 of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 enters the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> B, reaches the indoor expansion valve 8 through the internal heat exchanger 19. After the refrigerant is depressurized by the indoor expansion valve 8, it flows into the heat absorber 9 and evaporates. The air blown out from the indoor blower 27 by the heat absorption action at this time is cooled. Further, moisture in the air condenses and adheres to the heat absorber 9.

  The refrigerant evaporated in the heat absorber 9 reaches the accumulator 12 through the refrigerant pipe 13C through the internal heat exchanger 19, and repeats circulation that is sucked into the compressor 2 there through. Since the air cooled and dehumidified by the heat absorber 9 is blown into the vehicle interior from each of the air outlets 29A to 29C (partly passes through the radiator 4 to exchange heat), thereby cooling the vehicle interior. Will be done. Further, in this cooling mode, the heat pump controller 32 uses the temperature of the heat absorber 9 (heat absorber temperature Te) detected by the heat absorber temperature sensor 48 and the above-described target heat absorber temperature TEO which is the target value of the compressor 2. The number of revolutions NC is controlled.

(5) MAX cooling mode (maximum cooling mode)
Next, in the MAX cooling mode as the maximum cooling mode, the heat pump controller 32 opens the electromagnetic valve 17 and closes the electromagnetic valve 21. Further, the electromagnetic valve 30 is closed, the electromagnetic valve 40 is opened, and the valve opening degree of the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully closed. Then, the compressor 2 is operated and the auxiliary heater 23 is not energized. The air conditioning controller 20 operates each of the blowers 15 and 27, and the air mix damper 28 is blown from the indoor blower 27 and the air in the air flow passage 3 passing through the heat absorber 9 is used as an auxiliary heater for the heating heat exchange passage 3 </ b> A. 23 and the rate of ventilation through the radiator 4 are adjusted.

  Accordingly, the high-temperature and high-pressure gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 to the refrigerant pipe 13G flows into the bypass pipe 35 without going to the radiator 4, passes through the electromagnetic valve 40, and is connected to the refrigerant pipe on the downstream side of the outdoor expansion valve 6. 13E. At this time, since the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully closed, the refrigerant flows into the outdoor heat exchanger 7. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is cooled and condensed by running there or by the outside air ventilated by the outdoor blower 15. The refrigerant that has exited the outdoor heat exchanger 7 sequentially flows from the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> A through the electromagnetic valve 17 into the receiver dryer unit 14 and the supercooling unit 16. Here, the refrigerant is supercooled.

  The refrigerant that has exited the supercooling section 16 of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 enters the refrigerant pipe 13 </ b> B, reaches the indoor expansion valve 8 through the internal heat exchanger 19. After the refrigerant is depressurized by the indoor expansion valve 8, it flows into the heat absorber 9 and evaporates. The air blown out from the indoor blower 27 by the heat absorption action at this time is cooled. In addition, since moisture in the air condenses and adheres to the heat absorber 9, the air in the air flow passage 3 is dehumidified. The refrigerant evaporated in the heat absorber 9 reaches the accumulator 12 through the refrigerant pipe 13C through the internal heat exchanger 19, and repeats circulation that is sucked into the compressor 2 there through. At this time, since the outdoor expansion valve 6 is fully closed, similarly, it is possible to suppress or prevent the disadvantage that the refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows backward from the outdoor expansion valve 6 into the radiator 4. . Thereby, the fall of a refrigerant | coolant circulation amount can be suppressed or eliminated and air-conditioning capability can be ensured now.

  Here, since the high-temperature refrigerant flows through the radiator 4 in the cooling mode described above, direct heat conduction from the radiator 4 to the HVAC unit 10 occurs not a little, but in this MAX cooling mode, the refrigerant flows into the radiator 4. Therefore, the air in the air flow passage 3 from the heat absorber 9 is not heated by the heat transmitted from the radiator 4 to the HVAC unit 10. Therefore, powerful cooling of the passenger compartment is performed, and particularly in an environment where the outside air temperature Tam is high, the passenger compartment can be quickly cooled to realize comfortable air conditioning in the passenger compartment. Also in this MAX cooling mode, the heat pump controller 32 is also connected to the compressor based on the temperature of the heat absorber 9 (heat absorber temperature Te) detected by the heat absorber temperature sensor 48 and the target heat absorber temperature TEO, which is the target value. 2 is controlled.

(6) Auxiliary heater single mode The control device 11 of the embodiment stops the compressor 2 and the outdoor blower 15 of the refrigerant circuit R when excessive frost formation occurs in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 as will be described later. The auxiliary heater 23 has a single auxiliary heater mode in which the auxiliary heater 23 is energized and the vehicle interior is heated only by the auxiliary heater 23. Also in this case, the heat pump controller 32 controls energization (heat generation) of the auxiliary heater 23 based on the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc detected by the auxiliary heater temperature sensor 50 and the target heater temperature TCO described above.

  The air conditioning controller 20 operates the indoor blower 27, and the air mix damper 28 passes the air in the air flow passage 3 blown out from the indoor blower 27 to the auxiliary heater 23 of the heat exchange passage 3A for heating, and the air volume is reduced. The state to be adjusted. Since the air heated by the auxiliary heater 23 is blown into the vehicle interior from the respective outlets 29A to 29C, the vehicle interior is thereby heated.

(7) Switching of operation mode The air-conditioning controller 20 calculates the target blowing temperature TAO mentioned above from following formula (I). This target blowing temperature TAO is a target value of the temperature of the air blown into the passenger compartment.
TAO = (Tset−Tin) × K + Tbal (f (Tset, SUN, Tam))
.. (I)
Here, Tset is a set temperature in the passenger compartment set by the air conditioning operation unit 53, Tin is a room temperature detected by the inside air temperature sensor 37, K is a coefficient, Tbal is a set temperature Tset, and a solar radiation amount detected by the solar radiation sensor 51. SUN is a balance value calculated from the outside air temperature Tam detected by the outside air temperature sensor 33. And generally this target blowing temperature TAO is so high that the outside temperature Tam is low, and it falls as the outside temperature Tam rises.

  When the heat pump controller 32 is activated, the heat pump controller 32 determines which one of the above operation modes based on the outside air temperature Tam (detected by the outside air temperature sensor 33) transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20 via the vehicle communication bus 65 and the target outlet temperature TAO. The operation mode is selected and each operation mode is transmitted to the air conditioning controller 20 via the vehicle communication bus 65. In addition, after the start, the outside air temperature Tam, the humidity in the passenger compartment, the target blowing temperature TAO, the heating temperature TH (the temperature of the air on the leeward side of the radiator 4. By switching each operation mode based on parameters such as the target heat absorber temperature TEO and whether or not there is a dehumidification request in the passenger compartment, the heating mode, dehumidification heating mode, and dehumidification are accurately performed according to the environmental conditions and necessity of dehumidification. The cooling mode, the cooling mode, the MAX cooling mode, and the auxiliary heater single mode are switched to control the temperature of the air blown into the vehicle interior to the target blowing temperature TAO, thereby realizing comfortable and efficient vehicle interior air conditioning.

(8) Control of compressor 2 in heating mode by heat pump controller 32 Next, control of the compressor 2 in heating mode mentioned above using FIG. 4 is explained in full detail. FIG. 4 is a control block diagram of the heat pump controller 32 that determines the target rotational speed (compressor target rotational speed) TGNCh of the compressor 2 for heating mode. The F / F (feed forward) manipulated variable calculation unit 58 of the heat pump controller 32 has an outside air temperature Tam obtained from the outside air temperature sensor 33, a blower voltage BLV of the indoor blower 27, and SW = (TAO−Te) / (TH−Te). ) Obtained by the air mix damper 28, the target supercooling degree TGSC that is the target value of the supercooling degree SC at the outlet of the radiator 4, and the target heater that is the target value of the heating temperature TH described later. Based on the temperature TCO (transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20) and the target radiator pressure PCO that is the target value of the pressure of the radiator 4, the F / F manipulated variable TGNChff of the compressor target rotational speed is calculated.

Here, the above-mentioned TH for calculating the air volume ratio SW is the temperature of the leeward air of the radiator 4 (hereinafter referred to as the heating temperature), and the heat pump controller 32 calculates the first-order lag calculation formula (II) shown below. presume.
TH = (INTL × TH0 + Tau × THz) / (Tau + INTL) (II)
Here, INTL is the calculation cycle (constant), Tau is the time constant of the primary delay, TH0 is the steady value of the heating temperature TH in the steady state before the primary delay calculation, and THz is the previous value of the heating temperature TH. By estimating the heating temperature TH in this way, there is no need to provide a special temperature sensor.

  The heat pump controller 32 changes the time constant Tau and the steady value TH0 according to the operation mode described above, thereby making the above-described estimation formula (II) different depending on the operation mode, and estimates the heating temperature TH. The heating temperature TH is transmitted to the air conditioning controller 20 via the vehicle communication bus 65.

  The target radiator pressure PCO is calculated by the target value calculator 59 based on the target subcooling degree TGSC and the target heater temperature TCO. Further, the F / B (feedback) manipulated variable calculator 60 calculates the F / B manipulated variable TGNChfb of the compressor target rotational speed based on the target radiator pressure PCO and the radiator pressure PCI that is the refrigerant pressure of the radiator 4. To do. Then, the F / F manipulated variable TGNCnff computed by the F / F manipulated variable computing unit 58 and the TGNChfb computed by the F / B manipulated variable computing unit 60 are added by the adder 61, and the control upper limit value ECNpdLimHi is obtained by the limit setting unit 62. After the limit of the control lower limit ECNpdLimLo is set, it is determined as the compressor target rotational speed TGNCh. In the heating mode, the heat pump controller 32 controls the rotational speed NC of the compressor 2 based on the compressor target rotational speed TGNCh.

(9) Control of Compressor 2 and Auxiliary Heater 23 in Dehumidifying Heating Mode by Heat Pump Controller 32 On the other hand, FIG. 5 determines a target rotational speed (compressor target rotational speed) TGNCc of the compressor 2 for the dehumidifying and heating mode. 4 is a control block diagram of a heat pump controller 32. FIG. The F / F manipulated variable calculation unit 63 of the heat pump controller 32 is a target heat release that is a target value of the outside air temperature Tam, the volumetric air volume Ga of the air flowing into the air flow passage 3, and the pressure of the radiator 4 (radiator pressure PCI). Based on the compressor pressure PCO and the target heat absorber temperature TEO which is the target value of the temperature of the heat absorber 9 (heat absorber temperature Te), the F / F manipulated variable TGNCcff of the compressor target rotational speed is calculated.

  Further, the F / B operation amount calculation unit 64 calculates the F / B operation amount TGNCcfb of the compressor target rotational speed based on the target heat absorber temperature TEO (transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20) and the heat absorber temperature Te. Then, the F / F manipulated variable TGNCcff computed by the F / F manipulated variable computing unit 63 and the F / B manipulated variable TGNCcfb computed by the F / B manipulated variable computing unit 64 are added by the adder 66, and the limit setting unit 67 After the limits of the control upper limit value TGNCcLimHi and the control lower limit value TGNCcLimLo are set, it is determined as the compressor target rotational speed TGNCc. In the dehumidifying and heating mode, the heat pump controller 32 controls the rotational speed NC of the compressor 2 based on the compressor target rotational speed TGNCc.

  FIG. 6 is a control block diagram of the heat pump controller 32 that determines the auxiliary heater required capacity TGQPTC of the auxiliary heater 23 in the dehumidifying heating mode. The subtractor 73 of the heat pump controller 32 receives the target heater temperature TCO and the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc, and calculates a deviation (TCO−Tptc) between the target heater temperature TCO and the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc. This deviation (TCO-Tptc) is input to the F / B control unit 74. The F / B control unit 74 eliminates the deviation (TCO-Tptc) so that the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc becomes the target heater temperature TCO. The required capacity F / B manipulated variable is calculated.

  The auxiliary heater required capability F / B manipulated variable Qafb calculated by the F / B control unit 74 is set as the auxiliary heater required capability TGQPTC after the limit setting unit 76 limits the control upper limit value QptcLimHi and the control lower limit value QptcLimLo. It is determined. In the dehumidifying heating mode, the controller 32 controls energization of the auxiliary heater 23 based on the auxiliary heater required capacity TGQPTC, thereby generating heat (heating) of the auxiliary heater 23 so that the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc becomes the target heater temperature TCO. To control.

  Thus, in the dehumidifying heating mode, the heat pump controller 32 controls the operation of the compressor based on the heat absorber temperature Te and the target heat absorber temperature TEO, and controls the heat generation of the auxiliary heater 23 based on the target heater temperature TCO. Thus, cooling and dehumidification by the heat absorber 9 and heating by the auxiliary heater 23 in the dehumidifying heating mode are accurately controlled. As a result, it is possible to control the temperature to a more accurate heating temperature while more appropriately dehumidifying the air blown into the passenger compartment, thereby realizing more comfortable and efficient dehumidifying heating in the passenger compartment. Will be able to. In the control block of the auxiliary heater 23 in the heating mode in this embodiment and in Embodiment 2 described later, the target heater temperature TCO in FIG. 6 is replaced with the target auxiliary heater temperature THO (target value of the auxiliary heater temperature Tptc). Become a shape. Further, in the dehumidifying heating mode of this embodiment, the auxiliary heater 23 is controlled with the target auxiliary heater temperature THO = the target heater temperature TCO (FIG. 6), but in this embodiment and the heating mode in Embodiment 2 described later, As described above, the shortage of the heating capacity of the radiator 4 is supplemented by the heat generated by the auxiliary heater 23. Therefore, the target auxiliary heater temperature THO is derived from this shortage, and the derived target auxiliary heater temperature THO and auxiliary heater temperature are derived. The auxiliary heater 23 is F / B controlled by Tptc.

(10) Control of Air Mix Damper 28 Next, control of the air mix damper 28 by the air conditioning controller 20 will be described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 3, Ga is the volumetric volume of the air flowing into the air flow passage 3 described above, Te is the heat absorber temperature, and TH is the heating temperature described above (the temperature of the air on the leeward side of the radiator 4).

The air conditioning controller 20 is based on the air volume ratio SW that is passed through the radiator 4 and the auxiliary heater 23 in the heating heat exchange passage 3A calculated by the above-described expression (the following expression (III)) so that the air volume of the ratio is obtained. Further, by controlling the air mix damper 28, the amount of ventilation to the radiator 4 (and the auxiliary heater 23) is adjusted.
SW = (TAO-Te) / (TH-Te) (III)

  That is, the air flow rate ratio SW passing through the radiator 4 and the auxiliary heater 23 in the heat exchange passage 3A for heating changes in a range of 0 ≦ SW ≦ 1, and when “0”, the air is not passed through the heat exchange passage 3A for heating. The air mix fully closed state in which all the air in the air flow passage 3 is passed through the bypass passage 3B, and the air mix fully open state in which all the air in the air flow passage 3 is passed through the heating heat exchange passage 3A with "1" It becomes. That is, the air volume to the radiator 4 is Ga × SW.

(11) Determination of frost formation of outdoor heat exchanger and associated control of compressor and the like As described above, in the heating mode, the refrigerant evaporates in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and absorbs heat from the outside air to become a low temperature. Moisture in the outside air adheres to the vessel 7 as frost. If this frost growth grows, the heat exchange between the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and the outside air vented to the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is hindered, so that the operating efficiency of the compressor 2 decreases. Further, if overfrosting occurs, the outdoor fan 15 or the like may be damaged. Therefore, the heat pump controller 32 determines the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 as follows.

(11-1) Determination of progress of frost formation on outdoor heat exchanger and control of compressor, etc. (1)
Next, an example of determination of the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and an example of control of the compressor 2 and defrosting based on the determination will be described with reference to FIG. In this embodiment, the heat pump controller 32 uses the current refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 obtained from the outdoor heat exchanger temperature sensor 54, and the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is not frosted in a low humidity environment. Based on the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 at the time of frost formation, the progress state of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is determined.

  First, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether or not the vehicle is started (IG ON) in step S1 of FIG. 7 and whether there is an air conditioning request (hereinafter referred to as an HP air conditioning request) in the vehicle interior by the vehicle air conditioner 1. Judge whether or not. In this case, whether or not the vehicle has been started is determined from ignition (IG) ON information (transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20). Further, the HP air conditioning request is an operation request for the vehicle air conditioner 1. In the embodiment, whether or not there is an HP air conditioning request is turned on by an air conditioner ON / OFF switch provided in the air conditioning operation unit 53. It is determined from the information (transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20).

  If the vehicle is activated and there is an HP air conditioning request, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S2, and if not, the process proceeds to step S18. In step S18, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether there is no HP air-conditioning request. If there is an HP air-conditioning request, that is, whether there is an HP air-conditioning request regardless of whether or not the vehicle is starting, step S2 is also executed. If there is no HP air conditioning request in step S18, the process proceeds to step S19.

  In step S2, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether or not the vehicle air conditioner 1 (HP) has been determined to be faulty. If the fault has been determined, the process proceeds to step S12 to stop the compressor 2 (HP operation not possible). Permission). On the other hand, if no failure is determined in step S2, the process proceeds to step S3, and it is determined whether the current severe frost flag fFST2 is reset (“0”). Assuming that the heavy frost flag fFST2 has been reset at present, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S4, and determines whether or not the current operation mode is the heating mode.

  When the current operation mode is the heating mode, the process proceeds to step S5, and a difference ΔTXO (ΔTXO = TXObase−TXO) between the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase and the current refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO when no frost is formed is calculated (calculated). To do. In this case, the heat pump controller 32 estimates the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 during non-frosting by calculating using the following equation (IV).

TXObase = f (Tam, NC, Ga * SW, VSP, PCI)
= K1 * Tam + k2 * NC + k3 * Ga * SW + k4 * VSP + k5 * PCI
.. (IV)
Here, Tam, which is a parameter of the formula (IV), is the outside air temperature obtained from the outside air temperature sensor 33, NC is the number of revolutions of the compressor 2, Ga * SW is the air flow to the radiator 4 (and the auxiliary heater 23), VSP Is a vehicle speed obtained from the vehicle speed sensor 52, PCI is a radiator pressure, k1 to k5 are coefficients, and are obtained by experiments in advance.

The outside air temperature Tam is an index indicating the intake air temperature (environmental condition) of the outdoor heat exchanger 7. The lower the outside air temperature Tam (the intake air temperature of the outdoor heat exchanger 7), the lower the TXObase. Therefore, the coefficient k1 is a positive value. Similarly, the index indicating the intake air temperature of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is not limited to the outdoor air temperature Tam.
Further, the rotational speed NC of the compressor 2 is an index indicating the refrigerant flow rate (operating condition) in the refrigerant circuit R, and TXObase tends to decrease as the rotational speed NC increases (the refrigerant flow rate increases). Therefore, the coefficient k2 is a negative value.
Ga * SW is an index indicating the amount of air passing through the radiator 4 (operating condition). The larger the Ga * SW (the larger the amount of air passing through the radiator 4), the lower the TXObase. Therefore, the coefficient k3 is a negative value. The index indicating the amount of air passing through the radiator 4 is not limited to this, and the blower voltage BLV of the indoor blower 27 may be used.
Further, the vehicle speed VSP is an index indicating the passing air speed (operation state) of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, and the TXObase tends to be lower as the vehicle speed VSP is lower (lower the passing air speed of the outdoor heat exchanger 7). Therefore, the coefficient k4 is a positive value. The index indicating the passing air speed of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is not limited to this, and the voltage of the outdoor blower 15 may be used.
The radiator pressure PCI is an index indicating the refrigerant pressure (operating condition) of the radiator 4. The higher the radiator pressure PCI, the lower the TXObase. Accordingly, the coefficient k5 is a negative value.
In addition, although the outside temperature Tam, the rotation speed NC of the compressor 2, the passing air amount Ga * SW of the radiator 4, the vehicle speed VSP, and the radiator pressure PCI are used as parameters of the expression (IV) of this embodiment. The parameters of IV) are not limited to all of the above, and any one of them or a combination thereof may be used.

  Then, in step S5, the heat pump controller 32 calculates the difference ΔTXO (ΔTXO) between the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase and the current refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO at the time of non-frosting obtained by substituting the current values of the respective parameters into the formula (IV). = TXObase-TXO). Next, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether or not a predetermined time has elapsed after the activation of the heating mode in step S6. If the predetermined time has not elapsed since the start of the heating mode, the process proceeds to step S17 and the compressor 2 is operated. Continue (HP operation). That is, the compressor 2 does not stop and permits execution of the heating mode.

  When the predetermined time has elapsed since the activation of the heating mode in step S6, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S7, where the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase when there is no frost formation, and the difference ΔTXO is predetermined. It is determined whether or not the normal frost determination condition is satisfied.

  In this embodiment, the normal frost determination condition is that the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase at the time of no frost formation, and the difference ΔTXO is larger than a first threshold A1 (for example, 3 deg). When the state has continued for a first predetermined time t1 (for example, 60 seconds) and the difference ΔTXO satisfies this normal frost determination condition, mild frost has grown in the outdoor heat exchanger 7. Can be judged.

  If the state in which the difference ΔTXO is still greater than the first threshold A1 has not continued for the first predetermined time t1, the process proceeds to step S17, and the operation of the compressor 2 (HP operation) is continued. On the other hand, if the state in which the difference ΔTXO is greater than the first threshold value A1 continues for the first predetermined time t1 in step S7, the heat pump controller 32 indicates that the difference ΔTXO satisfies the normal frost determination condition (in the outdoor heat exchanger 7). It is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary, and the process proceeds from step S7 to step S8.

  Here, in FIG. 9, the solid line shows the change in the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, and the broken line shows the change in the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase when there is no frost formation. In the initial state where the operation is started (non-frosting), the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase at the time of no frosting are substantially the same value. As the heating mode progresses, the temperature in the passenger compartment is warmed and the load on the vehicle air conditioner 1 is reduced. Therefore, the refrigerant flow rate and the amount of air passing through the radiator 4 are also reduced. The calculated TXObase (broken line in FIG. 9) rises.

  On the other hand, when frost formation occurs in the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the heat exchange performance with the outside air is hindered, so the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO (solid line) decreases and eventually falls below the TXObase. Then, a slight frost grows on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO further decreases, the difference ΔTXO (TXObase−TXO) becomes larger than the first threshold value A1, and this state is the first predetermined value. If the time t1 continues, the heat pump controller 32 determines in step S7 that the difference ΔTXO satisfies the above-described normal frost determination condition (slight frost formation has occurred in the outdoor heat exchanger 7), and the outdoor heat It is determined that defrosting of the exchanger 7 is necessary, and the process proceeds to step S8, where the normal frost flag fFST1 is set (“1”) (steps S7 and S8 are normal frost determination).

  Next, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S9, and this time the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO falls below the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase at the time of no frost formation, and the difference ΔTXO is a predetermined first heavy frost determination condition (first It is determined whether or not (severe frost determination condition) is satisfied.

  In this embodiment, the first severe frost determination condition is that the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase at the time of no frost formation, and the difference ΔTXO is a second threshold A2 (1) (for example, 15 deg). ) Is greater than the second predetermined time t2 (1) (for example, 30 seconds), and the outdoor heat exchange is performed when the difference ΔTXO satisfies the first severe frost determination condition. It can be determined that excessive frosting has progressed in the vessel 7 in a short time.

  If the state where ΔTXO is not yet greater than the second threshold A2 (1) has not continued for the second predetermined time t2 (1), the process proceeds to step S16, and this time ΔTXO is a predetermined second heavy frost determination. It is determined whether the condition (another severe frost determination condition) is satisfied.

  In this embodiment, the second severe frost determination condition is that the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase at the time of no frost formation, and the difference ΔTXO is another second threshold A2 (2) (for example, 5 deg, etc.) is continued for another second predetermined time t2 (2) (for example, 60 minutes), and the difference ΔTXO satisfies the second severe frost determination condition. In this case, it can be determined that moderate frost formation has continued in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 for a long time.

  If the state in which ΔTXO is still greater than the second threshold value A2 (2) has not continued for the second predetermined time t2 (2) in step S16, the process proceeds to step S17, and the compressor 2 is operated (HP operation). continue.

  The second threshold A2 (1) of the first severe frost determination condition is much larger than the first threshold A1 of the normal frost determination condition described above, and the second predetermined time t2 (1) is the first. Shorter than the predetermined time t1. In addition, the second threshold A2 (2) of the second severe frost determination condition is larger than the first threshold A1 of the normal frost determination condition described above, and the second predetermined time t2 (2) is 1 is much longer than the predetermined time t1. And these 1st and 2nd heavy frost determination conditions can determine that the frost formation to the outdoor heat exchanger 7 has progressed further than both normal frost determination conditions.

  After the normal frost flag fFST1 is set in step S8, the frost on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 further increases, and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO shown in FIG. 9 further decreases, and the difference ΔTXO (TXObase−TXO) Is greater than the second threshold value A2 (1), the heat pump controller 32 satisfies the first severe frost determination condition in step S9 when the difference ΔTXO is continued in the second predetermined time t2 (1). Excessive frost formation has progressed in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 in a short time, and it is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary, and the process proceeds to step S10.

  If the state in which the difference ΔTXO is larger than the second threshold value A2 (2) continues for another second predetermined time t2 (2), the heat pump controller 32 determines that the difference ΔTXO is the first difference in step S16. It is judged that the condition for severe frost formation of No. 2 is satisfied, moderate frost formation has continued in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 for a long time, and defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary, and the process proceeds to step S10. Then, the heat pump controller 32 sets the heavy frost flag fFST2 in this step S10 ("1"), and proceeds to step S11 (step S9, step S16, and step S10 are heavy frost determination).

  The heat pump controller 32 includes a non-volatile memory (EEP-ROM) 80. The normal frost flag fFST1 and the heavy frost flag fFST2 are set (“1”) and reset (“0”). Even when the vehicle air conditioner 1 is stopped and the control device 11 (the air conditioning controller 20, the heat pump controller 32) is turned off, the normal frost flag fFST1 and the heavy frost flag are stored in the nonvolatile memory 80. It is assumed that the state of fFST2 is held in the nonvolatile memory 80.

  In step S11, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether the heating temperature TH, which is the temperature of the air downstream of the radiator 4, is lower than the target heater temperature TCO-α (α is a relatively small differential) that is the target value. . As described above, the target heater temperature TCO calculated from the target outlet temperature TAO is the required capacity of the vehicle air conditioner 1 in the heating mode. When the auxiliary heater 23 is not generating heat, the heating temperature TH indicates the current heating capacity of the radiator 4. Therefore, when TH ≧ TCO−α (that is, TCO−TH ≦ α), the heating capacity of the radiator 4 satisfies the required capacity. And in the situation where the heating capacity of the radiator 4 satisfies the required capacity (No in Step S11), the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to Step S17 and continues the operation of the compressor 2.

  On the other hand, when the heating temperature TH is lower than the target heater temperature TCO in step S11 and the difference is larger than α (Yes: the heating capacity of the radiator 4 does not satisfy the required capacity), the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S12. Proceed and stop the compressor 2 (HP operation not permitted). That is, when the difference ΔTXO satisfies the first or second severe frost determination condition, the severe frost flag fFST2 is set, the heating temperature TH is lower than the target heater temperature TCO, and the difference is larger than α. The heat pump controller 32 prohibits the operation of the compressor 2 by determining that it is difficult to perform further heat pump operation.

  Then, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S13, and performs the heating operation similar to the above-described auxiliary heater single mode in which the auxiliary heater 23 is energized to heat the vehicle interior. That is, the heat pump controller 32 stops the compressor 2 and the outdoor blower 15 of the refrigerant circuit R, energizes the auxiliary heater 23, and heats the vehicle interior only by the auxiliary heater 23. As long as the heavy frost flag fFST2 is set (“1”), the heat pump controller 32 proceeds from step S3 to step S11. Therefore, in a situation where the heating capacity of the radiator 4 satisfies the required capacity (step (No in S11), the process proceeds to step S17 and the operation of the compressor 2 is continued. If not satisfied (YES in step S11), the process proceeds to step S12 to prohibit the operation of the compressor 2, and the auxiliary heater single mode is set. Similar heating of the passenger compartment is performed.

  Next, it is determined whether or not the normal frost flag fFST1 described above in step S14 is set (“1”) or the heavy frost flag fFST2 is set (“1”), and the normal frost flag is determined. If fFST1 or the heavy frost flag fFST2 is set ("1"), that is, if it is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary, the process proceeds to step S15 to request frosting. The flag fDFSTReq is set (“1”). The fact that the defrost request flag fDFSTReq has been set (“1”) is notified from the heat pump controller 32 to the air conditioning controller 20 as a defrost request (FIG. 2).

  On the other hand, if the vehicle is activated in step S1 and there is no HP air conditioning request, and if there is no HP air conditioning request even after proceeding to step S18, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S19. In step S19, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether or not the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set (“1”). If it is reset (“0”), the process proceeds to step S24 and is stored in the nonvolatile memory 80. The normal frosting flag fFST1 and the severe frosting flag fFST2 are kept as the previous state (previous value).

  On the other hand, when the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set (“1”) in step S15 described above, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds from step S19 to step S20, and whether or not defrost permission is notified from the air conditioning controller 20 or not. to decide.

  Here, when the air conditioning controller 20 is notified as the defrost request that the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set from the heat pump controller 32 as described above, the current vehicle state is the defrost permission of the outdoor heat exchanger 7. By determining whether or not the conditions are satisfied, it is determined whether or not the outdoor heat exchanger 7 can be defrosted. The defrost permission condition in the embodiment is that the above-described HP air conditioning request is not made, and the battery 75 is being charged (the vehicle is stopped) or the remaining amount of the battery 75 is equal to or greater than a predetermined value.

  The air conditioning controller 20 sets the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm (“1”) when the current vehicle state satisfies the defrost permission condition. The fact that the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm is set (“1”) is notified from the air conditioning controller 20 to the heat pump controller 32 as defrost permission (FIG. 2). When the defrost permission is notified from the air conditioning controller 20, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds from step S20 to step S21 to perform the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, and when not notified, the process proceeds to step S24.

  In the defrosting operation of step S21, the heat pump controller 32 sets the refrigerant circuit R in the heating mode, fully opens the valve opening of the outdoor expansion valve 6, and sets the air volume ratio SW by the air mix damper 28 to “0”. It is set as the state which does not ventilate to the heat exchange path 3A for heating (it does not ventilate to the heat radiator 4). Then, the compressor 2 is operated, and the high-temperature refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 is caused to flow into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 through the radiator 4 and the outdoor expansion valve 6, and frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is performed. Melt.

  In step S22, the heat pump controller 32 detects that the temperature of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 detected by the outdoor heat exchanger temperature sensor 54 (in this case, the outdoor heat exchanger temperature TXO) is a predetermined defrosting end temperature (for example, + 3 ° C. or the like). ) It is determined whether the higher state continues for a predetermined time (for example, several minutes) (defrosting termination condition), the defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is finished, and the outdoor heat exchanger temperature TXO is When the defrost termination condition is satisfied, it is assumed that the defrosting is completed by proceeding to step S23, and the above-described normal frost flag fFST1 and severe frost flag fFST2 are reset (“0”) (step S19 to step S24). Defrost control).

  As a result, when the process proceeds from step S1 to step S2 and step S3 thereafter, the process proceeds to step S4. Accordingly, the prohibition of operation of the compressor 2 is canceled by the subsequent determination, and the vehicle interior heating in the heating mode can be performed. Become.

(11-2) Determination of progress of frost formation on outdoor heat exchanger and control of compressor, etc. (2)
Next, another example of the determination of the frosting state of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and the control of the compressor 2 and the like will be described with reference to FIG. In this example, the heat pump controller 32 performs the same control as in FIG. 7, but the difference ΔTXO in FIG. 7 is replaced with a difference ΔPXO described later. In this embodiment, the heat pump controller 32 and the current refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 obtained from the outdoor heat exchanger pressure sensor 56 and the outdoor heat exchanger 7 are not frosted in a low humidity environment. Based on the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 at the time of no frost formation, the progress state of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is determined. In this case, the heat pump controller 32 estimates the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 during non-frosting by calculating using the following equation (V).

PXObase = f (Tam, NC, Ga * SW, VSP, PCI)
= K6 * Tam + k7 * NC + k8 * Ga * SW + k9 * VSP + k10 * PCI
.. (V)
In addition, since each parameter of Formula (V) is the same as that of Formula (IV), description will be omitted. The coefficients k6 to k10 have the same tendency (positive / negative) as the coefficients k1 to k5 described above.

  In FIG. 10, a solid line indicates a change in the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, and a broken line indicates a change in the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase when there is no frost formation. In the initial stage of startup (non-frosting), the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase at the time of no frosting are substantially the same value. As the heating mode progresses, the temperature in the passenger compartment is warmed and the load on the vehicle air conditioner 1 is reduced. Therefore, the refrigerant flow rate and the amount of air passing through the radiator 4 are also reduced. The calculated PXObase (broken line in FIG. 10) rises.

  On the other hand, when frost formation occurs in the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the heat exchange performance with the outside air is hindered, so the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO (solid line) decreases and eventually falls below PXObase. In the case of this embodiment, the heat pump controller 32 substitutes the current parameter values into the equation (V) in step S5 of FIG. 7 to obtain the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase at the time of no frost formation and the current refrigerant evaporation. A difference ΔPXO (ΔPXO = PXObase−PXO) from the pressure PXO is calculated (calculated). Thereafter, the control is performed by replacing the difference ΔTXO in step S7, step S9, and step S16 in FIG. 7 with the difference ΔPXO. However, the first threshold A1, the second threshold A2 (1), A2 (2), the first predetermined time t1, the second predetermined time t2 (1), and t2 (2) are different from the case of ΔTXO. Be different.

  As described above, when the heat pump controller 32 has the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 when there is no frost formation, Refrigerant based on difference ΔTXO = TXObase−TXO from refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase or when refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of outdoor heat exchanger 7 is lower than refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of outdoor heat exchanger 7 when there is no frost formation Based on the difference ΔPXO = PXObase−PXO between the evaporating pressure PXO and the refrigerant evaporating pressure PXObase when there is no frosting, the progress of frosting on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is determined, and the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO is predetermined. When the normal frost determination condition is satisfied, the normal frost flag fFST1 is set (“1”). When the constant frost flag fFST1 is set (“1”), the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set (“1”), a predetermined defrost request is made, and the control device 11 is turned off. Since the state of the normal frost flag fFST1 is maintained and the execution of the heating mode is permitted, even if the frost progress state of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 satisfies the normal frost determination condition, The heating will continue. Further, since the state of the normal frost flag fFST1 is maintained even when the power of the control device 11 is turned off, the execution of the heating mode is permitted even when the vehicle is stopped and then started.

  That is, when the degree of frost formation in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is such that the normal frost determination condition is satisfied, heating of the vehicle interior is continued when the vehicle and the vehicle air conditioner 1 are in operation. When the vehicle and the vehicle air conditioner 1 are activated, heating can be performed from the time of activation to maintain comfort.

  In the embodiment, when the heat pump controller 32 sets the defrost request flag fDFSTReq (“1”) and makes a defrost request, the air conditioning controller 20 determines whether or not the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is defrosted and permits it. In this case, the heat pump controller 32 defrosts the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and resets the normal frost flag fFST1 ("0"). Therefore, the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is defrosted, It is possible to suppress a decrease in operating efficiency due to frost formation. In this case, the heat pump controller 32 maintains the state of the normal frost flag fFST1 even when the power is turned off. Therefore, even after the vehicle is once stopped and the power of the vehicle air conditioner 1 is turned off, the outdoor The defrosting of the heat exchanger 7 is surely performed.

  As to the defrosting permission of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the air conditioning controller 20 has no air conditioning request (HP air conditioning request) in the vehicle interior as in the embodiment, and the battery 75 for driving the compressor 2 is installed. What is necessary is just to permit defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 on condition that it is charging or the remaining amount of the battery 75 is a predetermined value or more, or other conditions (environmental conditions such as outside temperature) Or the state of the vehicle air conditioner 1).

  Further, as in the embodiment, the control device 11 is composed of an air conditioning controller 20 to which an air conditioning operation unit 53 for performing an air conditioning setting operation in the passenger compartment is connected, and a heat pump controller 32 that controls the operation of the compressor 2. When the air conditioning controller 20 and the heat pump controller 32 transmit and receive information via the vehicle communication bus 65, the heat pump controller 32 calculates the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO as described above, and the difference ΔTXO Alternatively, when the difference ΔPXO satisfies the normal frost determination condition, the normal frost flag fFST1 is set (“1”), a defrost request is issued to the air conditioning controller 20, and the defrost permission is received from the air conditioning controller 20. When notified, the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is defrosted, the normal frost flag fFST1 is reset (“0”), When the conditioning controller 20 receives a defrost request from the heat pump controller 32, it determines whether or not the outdoor heat exchanger 7 can be defrosted, and when permitting, sets the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm ("1") and By notifying the heat pump controller 32 of the defrosting permission of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the vehicle interior is comfortably heated and air-conditioned, and a decrease in operating efficiency due to frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is appropriately suppressed. Will be able to.

  Furthermore, in the embodiment, the heat pump controller 32 has first and second severe frost determination conditions for determining that frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 has progressed further than the normal frost determination conditions. When the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO satisfies any severe frost determination condition, the severe frost flag fFST2 is set (“1”), and the severe frost flag fFST2 is set The defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set ("1") to request the defrost, and the state of the heavy frost flag fFST2 is maintained even when the heat pump controller 32 is powered off, and the compressor in the heating mode 2 is prohibited, the frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 further proceeds than the normal frost determination condition described above, and the first or second severe frost determination condition is satisfied. When it comes to adding, it becomes possible to stop the compressor 2 and prevent further reduction in operating efficiency and occurrence of excessive frost.

  In the embodiment, the two-stage heavy frost determination is performed as the first heavy frost determination condition and the second heavy frost determination condition. However, the determination is made based on any one of the heavy frost determination conditions. May be. However, by determining in two stages as in the embodiment, excessive frosting has progressed in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 in a short time, and moderate frosting has continued in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 for a long time. It is possible to determine both of the things that are occurring.

  In the embodiment, the auxiliary heater 23 is provided in the heating heat exchange passage 3A of the air flow passage 3, and the heat pump controller 32 determines whether the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO is the first or second severe frost formation. When the operation of the compressor 2 is prohibited because the condition is satisfied, the interior of the vehicle is heated by the auxiliary heater 23, so that the frosting state of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is the first or second severity. Even after the frosting determination condition is satisfied and the operation of the compressor 2 is prohibited, the auxiliary heater 23 can continue heating the passenger compartment.

  As described above, even when the frosting state of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 satisfies the first or second heavy frosting determination condition and the defrosting request is made, the air conditioning controller 20 is operated by the outdoor heat exchanger. 7 is judged and permitted, the heat pump controller 32 defrosts the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and resets the heavy frost flag fFST2, so that the outdoor heat exchanger 7 By performing defrosting, it is possible to suppress a decrease in operating efficiency due to frost formation. Even in this case, the heat pump controller 32 maintains the state of the severe frost flag fFST2 even when the power is cut off. Therefore, even after the vehicle is temporarily stopped and the vehicle air conditioner 1 is turned off, The defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is surely performed.

  In this case, as to the defrosting permission of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the air conditioning controller 20 does not have an air conditioning request (HP air conditioning request) in the vehicle interior and drives the compressor 2 as in the embodiment. Defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 may be permitted on the condition that the battery 75 is being charged or that the remaining amount of the battery 75 is greater than or equal to a predetermined value.

  Similarly, as in the embodiment, the control device 11 includes an air-conditioning controller 20 to which an air-conditioning operation unit 53 for performing an air-conditioning setting operation in the passenger compartment is connected, and a heat pump controller 32 that controls the operation of the compressor 2. When the air conditioning controller 20 and the heat pump controller 32 transmit / receive information via the vehicle communication bus 65, the heat pump controller 32 also calculates the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO in this case, When the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO satisfies the first or second severe frost determination condition, the severe frost flag fFST2 is set (“1”), and the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set (“1”). If the defrost request is sent to the air conditioning controller 20 and the defrost permission is notified from the air conditioning controller 20, the removal of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is performed. And the heavy frost flag fFST2 is reset ("0"), and when the air conditioning controller 20 receives a defrost request from the heat pump controller 32, the outdoor heat exchanger 7 determines whether or not the defrost is permitted and permits it. In this case, the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm is set (“1”) to notify the heat pump controller 32 of the defrost permission of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, thereby comfortably heating and air-conditioning the vehicle interior. It becomes possible to appropriately suppress a decrease in operation efficiency due to frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7.

  Further, as in the embodiment, the normal frost determination condition is that the difference ΔTXO or the state where the difference ΔPXO is greater than the first threshold value A1 continues for the first predetermined time t1, and the first and second heavy frost formations. The determination condition is that the difference ΔTXO or the difference ΔPXO is larger than the second threshold value A2 (1), A2 (2) for the second predetermined time period t2 (1), t2 (2). If the threshold values A2 (1) and A2 (2) of 2 are larger than the first threshold value A1, the compressor 2 is operated and the heating mode is continued according to the degree of frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7. This makes it possible to accurately make a step-by-step determination as to whether or not to prohibit the operation of the compressor 2.

  The first predetermined time t1 and the second predetermined time t2 (1), t2 (2) of each frosting determination condition are not limited to the conditions of the embodiment, and for example, the first predetermined time t1 and the second predetermined time t2 The predetermined times t2 (1) and t2 (2) are the same, or the second predetermined time t2 (1) is longer than the first predetermined time t1, and the second predetermined time t2 (2) is the first predetermined time. It may be shorter than the time t1, and may be appropriately set according to the apparatus within a range not departing from the purpose (stepwise determination) of the normal frost determination condition and the first and second severe frost determination conditions.

  In addition, as in the embodiment, the heat pump controller 32 is configured so that the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when no frost is formed or the outdoor heat when no frost is formed based on the environmental condition and / or the index indicating the operation state. By estimating the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXObase of the exchanger, it is possible to accurately detect the progress of frost formation in the outdoor heat exchanger 7.

(12) Natural Defrost Determination Control of Outdoor Heat Exchanger Next, natural defrost determination of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 by the heat pump controller 32 and control related to defrost in that case will be described with reference to FIG. As described above, the heat pump controller 32 determines that the outdoor heat exchanger 7 needs to be defrosted, sets the light frost flag fFST1 in step S8 of FIG. 7, sets the heavy frost flag fFST2 in step S10, and finally If the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set in step S15 and defrosting is permitted by the air conditioning controller 20 (defrost permission flag fDFSPerm is set), the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is executed in step S21. However, for example, in an environment where the outside air temperature Tam is relatively high, the frost that has grown on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 naturally melts.

  Further, frost that has grown on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 in the heating mode can also be used as a refrigerant in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 if the dehumidifying heating mode, the dehumidifying cooling mode, the cooling mode, and the MAX cooling mode in this embodiment are performed. In this case as well, frost is heated from a high-temperature refrigerant and is naturally melted (deiced) to be removed.

  Therefore, in this embodiment, after the heat pump controller 32 once determines that the defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary, before the defrosting operation is performed, the outdoor heat exchanger 7 naturally defrosts (defrosts). Judgment is made so as not to perform defrosting. Hereinafter, specific control will be described. That is, in step S25 of FIG. 8 following the flowchart of FIG. 7, the heat pump controller 32 determines whether or not the vehicle is activated (IG is ON). If activated, the process proceeds to step S26, and in this embodiment, it is determined whether or not the above-described severe frost flag fFST2 is set ("1").

  As described above, when it is determined that the outdoor heat exchanger 7 needs to be defrosted and the heavy frost flag fFST2 is set in step S10 of FIG. 7 and the state is held in the nonvolatile memory 80, the heat pump controller 32 In step S27, it is determined whether or not the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 has been performed. If the severe frost flag fFST2 is set but the defrost permission condition is not satisfied and the defrosting operation of step S21 in FIG. 7 has not been executed yet, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S28 and proceeds to the first natural removal. It is determined whether the frost condition is satisfied.

(12-1) First Natural Defrosting Condition The first natural defrosting condition of the embodiment is a predetermined value Tam1 (eg, + 5 ° C.) or higher where the outside air temperature Tam detected by the outside air temperature sensor 33 is relatively higher than the freezing point. And the refrigerant evaporating temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 detected by the outdoor heat exchanger temperature sensor 54 (when the refrigerant is radiating heat in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 or the like, the refrigerant is A state where the refrigerant temperature at the outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is equal to or higher than the outdoor air temperature Tam-β (β is a relatively small predetermined value) when it is not evaporated is a predetermined time t5 (for example, several tens of minutes, etc.) ) It is continuing.

  When the outdoor temperature Tam is relatively high and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is equal to or higher than the outdoor temperature Tam−β as in the first natural defrosting condition of the embodiment, the outdoor temperature It is considered that frost formation on the heat exchanger 7 is naturally melted (defrosted) and removed. Therefore, when the first natural defrosting condition is satisfied in step S28, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S29, and all the frosting-related flags, that is, the light frosting flags stored in the nonvolatile memory 80, The fFST1, the severe frost flag fFST2, and the defrost request flag fDFSTReq are reset.

  As a result, the air conditioning controller 20 does not set the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm, and the heat pump controller 32 also does not proceed from step S19 to step S20. Therefore, the process does not proceed to step S21, and the defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is performed. Will no longer be performed.

  On the other hand, if the vehicle is not activated in step S25, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S30 to determine whether or not the vehicle is stopped (IG OFF state where it is not activated). Then, it is determined whether or not there is a frosting history of the outdoor heat exchanger 7, that is, whether or not the light frosting flag fFST1 or the heavy frosting flag fFST2 is set (“1”).

(12-2) Second natural defrosting condition If the light frosting flag fFST1 or the heavy frosting flag fFST2 is set in step S7, the defrosting operation has not yet been performed, and they are not reset, the heat pump controller In step S32, it is determined whether or not the vehicle is currently being activated (from IG OFF to ON). If it is in operation, the process proceeds to step S33, and an operation mode other than the heating mode, in the embodiment, the dehumidifying heating mode in which the refrigerant is not absorbed by the outdoor heat exchanger 7, the dehumidifying cooling mode, the cooling mode, and the MAX cooling mode are performed. Is selected, and it is determined whether or not the operation mode is continued for a predetermined time or more.

  The operation mode other than the heating mode is selected and the operation mode is continued for a predetermined time or more as the second natural defrosting condition. When the dehumidifying / heating mode, the dehumidifying / cooling mode, the cooling mode, and the MAX cooling mode are selected, the refrigerant radiates heat in the outdoor heat exchanger 7 in this embodiment, so the frost is melted by the heat of the high-temperature refrigerant. Removed. Therefore, even when the second natural defrosting condition is satisfied in step S33, the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S29 and proceeds to all frosting related flags (light frosting flag fFST1, heavy frosting flag fFST2 and defrosting request). The flag fDFSTReq) is reset.

  As a result, similarly, the air conditioning controller 20 does not set the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm, and the heat pump controller 32 also does not proceed from step S19 to step S20. Therefore, the air conditioning controller 20 does not proceed to step S21, and the outdoor heat exchanger 7 Defrosting is no longer performed.

(12-3) Natural defrost determination based on outside air temperature history (third and fourth natural defrost conditions)
On the other hand, if the vehicle is not currently activated in step S32, that is, if the vehicle is stopped (IG OFF), the heat pump controller 32 proceeds to step S34, and the natural heat of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 based on the outside air temperature history. Defrost determination is performed. There are two types of conditions for determining the natural defrost based on the outside air temperature history in the embodiment, the third natural defrost condition and the fourth natural defrost condition.

(12-3-1) Third Natural Defrosting Condition Note that the air conditioning controller 20 and the heat pump controller 32 configuring the control device 11 are activated at a predetermined sampling period (for example, every minute) even when the vehicle is stopped. It is assumed that the outside air temperature Tam detected by the outside air temperature sensor 33 is acquired and stored in the nonvolatile memory 80 as a history. As shown in FIG. 11, the third natural defrosting condition of the embodiment is a predetermined value Tam2 (for example, Tam1) in which the outside air temperature Tam detected by the outside air temperature sensor 33 is relatively higher than the freezing point while the vehicle is stopped. +5 [deg.] C., which may be different values), and the integrated value of the time that is equal to or greater than a predetermined time t3 (for example, several tens of minutes).

  As in the third natural defrosting condition, if the outdoor air temperature Tam is kept high for a predetermined time t3 or more while the vehicle is stopped, the frost on the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is naturally melted (defrosted). It is considered to be removed. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 11, there are times a, b, and c during which the outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped, and these integrated values (a + b + c) are equal to or longer than the predetermined time t3. If it becomes, the heat pump controller 32 determines in step S34 that the third natural defrosting condition is satisfied, and proceeds to step S35, where all the frost-related flags (light frost flag fFST1, heavy frost) The flag fFST2 and the defrost request flag fDFSTReq) are reset.

  As a result, the air conditioning controller 20 does not set the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm as described above, and the heat pump controller 32 also does not proceed from step S19 to step S20. Therefore, the air conditioning controller 20 does not proceed to step S21, and the outdoor heat exchanger 7 No defrosting is performed.

(12-3-2) Fourth Natural Defrost Condition The fourth natural defrost condition of the natural defrost determination based on the outside air temperature history in step S34 is that the vehicle is stopped as shown in FIG. Furthermore, the outside air temperature Tam detected by the outside air temperature sensor 33 is equal to or higher than a predetermined value Tam2 that is relatively higher than the freezing point, and the integral value obtained from the difference between the outside air temperature Tam and the predetermined value Tam2 and the elapsed time is equal to or higher than the predetermined value X1. That is.

  As in the fourth natural defrosting condition, if the outside air temperature Tam becomes relatively high while the vehicle is stopped and the integral value obtained from the difference from the predetermined value Tam2 and the elapsed time becomes the predetermined value X1, the outdoor heat exchanger It is considered that the frost formation of No. 7 is naturally melted (deiced) and removed. Therefore, while the vehicle is stopped as shown in FIG. 12, the outside air temperature Tam becomes equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2, and a value obtained by integrating the difference (Tam−Tam2) with the elapsed time (range shown by hatching in FIG. 12). When the area 9 is equal to or greater than the predetermined value X1, the heat pump controller 32 determines in step S34 that the fourth natural defrosting condition is satisfied, and proceeds to step S35, where all the frosting-related flags (mild) The frosting flag fFST1, the severe frosting flag fFST2, and the defrosting request flag fDFSTReq) are reset.

  As a result, the air conditioning controller 20 does not set the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm as described above, and the heat pump controller 32 also does not proceed from step S19 to step S20. Therefore, the air conditioning controller 20 does not proceed to step S21, and the outdoor heat exchanger 7 No defrosting is performed. In particular, if the difference between the outside air temperature Tam and the predetermined value Tam2 is integrated with the elapsed time as in the fourth natural defrosting condition, the state of the natural defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 can be determined with higher accuracy. Will be able to.

(12-4) Fifth natural defrost condition In addition, in the Example, it was made to judge all the said 1st-4th natural defrost conditions, but it is not restricted to them either, or those You may make it judge by a combination. In addition to the natural defrosting conditions described above, the outdoor heat exchanger is also used when a relatively long predetermined period t4 (for example, one month) has elapsed since the vehicle stopped, for example, as determined in step S34 of FIG. It is considered that the frost formation of No. 7 has been melted (melted) naturally and disappeared. Therefore, with this as the fifth natural defrost condition, even when the fifth natural defrost condition is satisfied by the heat pump controller 32, the process proceeds from step S34 to step S35 so as to reset all the frosting related flags. It may be.

  In the embodiment, the outside air temperature sensor 33 is connected to the air conditioning controller 20, and the outside air temperature Tam is sent to the heat pump controller 32 to determine whether the natural defrosting condition is satisfied by the heat pump controller 32. The controller 20 may determine that the natural defrost condition is satisfied and notify the heat pump controller 32 of the condition. In this case, the determinations in step S28, step S33, and step S34 in FIG. 8 are performed on the air conditioning controller 20 side, and the heat pump controller 32 receives the notification from the air conditioning controller 20 and resets all the frosting related flags. become. Thereby, unnecessary defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 can be avoided without any trouble. Conversely, the outside air temperature sensor 33 may be connected to the heat pump controller 32, and the above-described determination may be performed by taking in the outside air temperature Tam on the heat pump controller 32 side.

  As described above in detail, when it is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary and before the defrosting operation is performed, the defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is performed when a predetermined natural defrosting condition is satisfied. If not, even if it is determined that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is necessary, it is predicted that the predetermined natural defrosting condition is established and the frosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is naturally melted. In such a case, unnecessary defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 can be avoided without performing defrosting. As a result, comfortable heating and air conditioning in the vehicle interior is achieved while contributing to energy saving without defrosting in a situation where the vehicle interior can be heated without defrosting the outdoor heat exchanger 7. Will be able to.

  Further, as in the example, the first natural defrosting condition is that the outdoor air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam1, and the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 is equal to or higher than the outdoor air temperature Tam−the predetermined value β. It is assumed that the state has continued for a predetermined time t5, and the second natural defrosting condition is selected as an operation mode other than the heating mode (an operation mode in which the refrigerant is not absorbed by the outdoor heat exchanger 7 in this embodiment), Assuming that the third natural defrosting condition is that the accumulated value of the time during which the outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 is equal to or higher than the predetermined time t3 while the vehicle is stopped, the fourth natural defrosting condition is While the vehicle is stopped, the outside air temperature Tam becomes equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2, and the integrated value obtained from the difference and the elapsed time becomes equal to or higher than the predetermined value X1, and the vehicle further satisfies the fifth natural defrosting condition. After a predetermined period of time t4 As a lapse of time, it is possible to accurately predict that the frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 has naturally melted by judging any of them, a combination thereof, or all of them. become able to.

  Further, as in the embodiment, when the control device 11 includes the air conditioning controller 20 and the heat pump controller 32, and the air conditioning controller 20 and the heat pump controller 32 transmit and receive information via the vehicle communication bus 65, the heat pump controller 32. However, when it is determined that the outdoor heat exchanger 7 needs to be defrosted, the predetermined defrost request flag fDFSReq is set, and when the air conditioning controller 20 sets the predetermined defrost permission flag fDFSPerm, the outdoor heat exchanger 7 After defrosting and resetting the defrost request flag fDFSTReq, and after setting the defrost request flag fDFSTReq, even when the natural defrost condition is satisfied, the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is reset and the air conditioning controller 20 , By heat pump controller 32 When the defrost request flag fDFSTReq is set, it is determined whether or not the defrost permission condition is satisfied, and when satisfied, the defrost permission flag fDFSPerm is set to make the vehicle interior comfortable. In addition, unnecessary defrosting can be avoided while appropriately suppressing a decrease in operating efficiency associated with frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger 7.

  Next, FIG. 13 shows a configuration diagram of a vehicle air conditioner 1 of another embodiment to which the present invention is applied. In this figure, the same reference numerals as those in FIG. 1 indicate the same or similar functions. In the case of this embodiment, the outlet of the supercooling section 16 is connected to the check valve 18, and the outlet of the check valve 18 is connected to the refrigerant pipe 13B. The check valve 18 has a forward direction on the refrigerant pipe 13B (indoor expansion valve 8) side.

  The refrigerant pipe 13E on the outlet side of the radiator 4 is branched before the outdoor expansion valve 6, and the branched refrigerant pipe (hereinafter referred to as second bypass pipe) 13F is an electromagnetic valve 22 (for dehumidification). Is connected to the refrigerant pipe 13B downstream of the check valve 18. Further, an evaporating pressure adjusting valve 70 is connected to the refrigerant pipe 13C on the outlet side of the heat absorber 9 on the refrigerant downstream side of the internal heat exchanger 19 and upstream of the refrigerant with respect to the refrigerant pipe 13D. . The electromagnetic valve 22 and the evaporation pressure adjusting valve 70 are also connected to the output of the heat pump controller 32. Note that the bypass device 45 including the bypass pipe 35, the electromagnetic valve 30, and the electromagnetic valve 40 in FIG. 1 of the above-described embodiment is not provided. Others are the same as in FIG.

  With the above configuration, the operation of the vehicle air conditioner 1 of this embodiment will be described. In this embodiment, the heat pump controller 32 switches between the heating mode, the dehumidifying heating mode, the internal cycle mode, the dehumidifying cooling mode, the cooling mode, and the auxiliary heater single mode (the MAX cooling mode is present in this embodiment). do not do). The operation when the heating mode, the dehumidifying and cooling mode, and the cooling mode are selected, the refrigerant flow, and the auxiliary heater single mode are the same as those in the above-described embodiment (embodiment 1), and thus the description thereof is omitted. However, in this embodiment (Example 3), the solenoid valve 22 is closed in these heating mode, dehumidifying cooling mode, and cooling mode.

(13) Dehumidifying heating mode of vehicle air conditioner 1 of FIG. 13 On the other hand, when the dehumidifying heating mode is selected, in this embodiment, heat pump controller 32 opens electromagnetic valve 21 (for heating) and electromagnetic valve 17 ( Close for cooling. Further, the electromagnetic valve 22 (for dehumidification) is opened. Then, the compressor 2 is operated. The air conditioning controller 20 operates each of the blowers 15 and 27, and the air mix damper 28 basically heats all the air in the air flow passage 3 that is blown out from the indoor blower 27 and passes through the heat absorber 9 to the heat exchange passage 3A for heating. The auxiliary heater 23 and the radiator 4 are ventilated, but the air volume is also adjusted.

  Thereby, the high-temperature and high-pressure gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 2 flows into the radiator 4 from the refrigerant pipe 13G. Since the air in the air flow path 3 that has flowed into the heat exchange path 3A for heating is passed through the heat radiator 4, the air in the air flow path 3 is heated by the high-temperature refrigerant in the heat radiator 4, while the heat radiator The refrigerant in 4 is deprived of heat by the air and cooled to condense.

  The refrigerant liquefied in the radiator 4 exits the radiator 4 and then reaches the outdoor expansion valve 6 through the refrigerant pipe 13E. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor expansion valve 6 is decompressed there and then flows into the outdoor heat exchanger 7. The refrigerant flowing into the outdoor heat exchanger 7 evaporates, and pumps up heat from the outside air that is ventilated by traveling or by the outdoor blower 15. That is, the refrigerant circuit R becomes a heat pump. Then, the low-temperature refrigerant exiting the outdoor heat exchanger 7 enters the accumulator 12 through the refrigerant pipe 13C through the refrigerant pipe 13A, the solenoid valve 21 and the refrigerant pipe 13D, and is gas-liquid separated there. Repeated circulation inhaled.

  Further, a part of the condensed refrigerant flowing through the refrigerant pipe 13E through the radiator 4 is diverted, passes through the electromagnetic valve 22, and reaches the indoor expansion valve 8 through the internal heat exchanger 19 from the second bypass pipe 13F and the refrigerant pipe 13B. It becomes like this. After the refrigerant is depressurized by the indoor expansion valve 8, it flows into the heat absorber 9 and evaporates. Since the moisture in the air blown out from the indoor blower 27 by the heat absorption action at this time condenses and adheres to the heat absorber 9, the air is cooled and dehumidified.

  The refrigerant evaporated in the heat absorber 9 sequentially passes through the internal heat exchanger 19 and the evaporation pressure adjusting valve 70 and then merges with the refrigerant from the refrigerant pipe 13D in the refrigerant pipe 13C. Then, the refrigerant is sucked into the compressor 2 through the accumulator 12. repeat. Since the air dehumidified by the heat absorber 9 is reheated in the process of passing through the radiator 4, dehumidifying heating in the passenger compartment is thereby performed.

  The air conditioning controller 20 transmits the target heater temperature TCO (target value of the heating temperature TH) calculated from the target blowing temperature TAO to the heat pump controller 32. The heat pump controller 32 calculates a target radiator pressure PCO (target value of the radiator pressure PCI) from the target heater temperature TCO, and the refrigerant of the radiator 4 detected by the target radiator pressure PCO and the radiator pressure sensor 47. The number of revolutions NC of the compressor 2 is controlled based on the pressure (radiator pressure PCI, high pressure of the refrigerant circuit R), and heating by the radiator 4 is controlled. The heat pump controller 32 controls the valve opening degree of the outdoor expansion valve 6 based on the temperature Te of the heat absorber 9 detected by the heat absorber temperature sensor 48 and the target heat absorber temperature TEO transmitted from the air conditioning controller 20. In addition, the heat pump controller 32 opens (enlarges the flow path) / closes (flows a small amount of refrigerant) the heat absorber 9 based on the temperature Te of the heat absorber 9 detected by the heat absorber temperature sensor 48. The inconvenience of freezing due to too low temperature is prevented.

(14) Internal cycle mode of the vehicle air conditioner 1 of FIG. 13 In the internal cycle mode, the heat pump controller 32 fully closes the outdoor expansion valve 6 in the dehumidifying and heating mode (fully closed position), The solenoid valve 21 is closed. Since the outdoor expansion valve 6 and the electromagnetic valve 21 are closed, the inflow of refrigerant to the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and the outflow of refrigerant from the outdoor heat exchanger 7 are blocked. The condensed refrigerant flowing through the refrigerant pipe 13E through the refrigerant flows through the electromagnetic valve 22 to the second bypass pipe 13F. The refrigerant flowing through the second bypass pipe 13F reaches the indoor expansion valve 8 via the internal heat exchanger 19 from the refrigerant pipe 13B. After the refrigerant is depressurized by the indoor expansion valve 8, it flows into the heat absorber 9 and evaporates. Since the moisture in the air blown out from the indoor blower 27 by the heat absorption action at this time condenses and adheres to the heat absorber 9, the air is cooled and dehumidified.

  The refrigerant evaporated in the heat absorber 9 sequentially flows through the refrigerant pipe 13C through the internal heat exchanger 19 and the evaporation pressure adjustment valve 70, and repeats circulation that is sucked into the compressor 2 through the accumulator 12. Since the air dehumidified by the heat absorber 9 is reheated in the process of passing through the radiator 4, dehumidifying heating in the passenger compartment is thereby performed. Since the refrigerant is circulated between the radiator 4 (radiation) and the heat absorber 9 (heat absorption) in the passage 3, heat from the outside air is not pumped up, and heating for the consumed power of the compressor 2 is performed. Ability is demonstrated. Since the entire amount of the refrigerant flows through the heat absorber 9 that exhibits the dehumidifying action, the dehumidifying capacity is higher than that in the dehumidifying and heating mode, but the heating capacity is lowered.

  The air conditioning controller 20 transmits a target heater temperature TCO (target value of the heating temperature TH) calculated from the target blowing temperature TAO to the heat pump controller 32. The heat pump controller 32 calculates the target radiator pressure PCO (target value of the radiator pressure PCI) from the transmitted target heater temperature TCO, and the target radiator pressure PCO and the radiator 4 detected by the radiator pressure sensor 47. The rotational speed NC of the compressor 2 is controlled based on the refrigerant pressure (radiator pressure PCI, high pressure of the refrigerant circuit R), and heating by the radiator 4 is controlled.

  And also in the case of this Example, the frost formation determination of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 and control of the compressor 2 etc. of (11) mentioned above, and the natural defrost determination control of the outdoor heat exchanger 7 of (12) are carried out. By performing the heating and air-conditioning of the passenger compartment comfortably, unnecessary defrosting can be avoided while suppressing a decrease in operation efficiency due to frost formation of the outdoor heat exchanger 7. However, the operation modes other than the heating mode in step S33 of FIG. 8 in this embodiment are the dehumidifying cooling mode and the cooling mode, which are operation modes in which the refrigerant is not absorbed by the outdoor heat exchanger 7.

  Note that the numerical values and the like shown in the embodiments are not limited to those as described above, and should be appropriately set according to the apparatus to be applied. Further, the auxiliary heating device is not limited to the auxiliary heater 23 shown in the embodiment, and a heat medium circulation circuit that heats the air in the air flow passage 3 by circulating the heat medium heated by the heater or an engine. You may utilize the heater core etc. which circulate through the heated radiator water.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Vehicle air conditioner 2 Compressor 3 Air flow path 4 Radiator 6 Outdoor expansion valve 7 Outdoor heat exchanger 8 Indoor expansion valve 9 Heat absorber 10 HVAC unit 11 Controller 20 Air conditioning controller 23 Auxiliary heater (auxiliary heating device)
27 Indoor blower
28 Air Mix Damper 32 Heat Pump Controller 33 Outside Air Temperature Sensor 53 Air Conditioning Operation Unit 54 Outdoor Heat Exchanger Temperature Sensor 56 Outdoor Heat Exchanger Pressure Sensor 65 Vehicle Communication Bus 75 Battery R Refrigerant Circuit

Claims (7)

  1. A compressor for compressing the refrigerant;
    An air flow passage through which air to be supplied into the passenger compartment flows;
    A radiator for radiating the refrigerant to heat the air supplied from the air flow passage to the vehicle interior;
    An outdoor heat exchanger provided outside the passenger compartment to absorb heat from the refrigerant;
    A control device,
    Heating mode in which at least the refrigerant discharged from the compressor is radiated by the radiator and the radiated refrigerant is depressurized by the control device, and is then absorbed by the outdoor heat exchanger to heat the vehicle interior. In the vehicle air conditioner for executing
    The control device determines the progress of frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger, and when it is determined that defrosting is necessary, when the predetermined defrost permission condition is satisfied, the outdoor heat exchanger While defrosting,
    After determining that defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is necessary, before performing defrosting, if a predetermined natural defrosting condition is satisfied, defrosting of the outdoor heat exchanger is not performed. A vehicle air conditioner.
  2. The natural defrosting condition is
    The outside air temperature Tam is not less than a predetermined value Tam1, and the refrigerant evaporating temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is not less than the outside air temperature Tam−predetermined value β,
    The accumulated value of the time during which the outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped is equal to or higher than the predetermined time t3.
    The outside air temperature Tam is equal to or higher than the predetermined value Tam2 while the vehicle is stopped, and the integrated value obtained from the difference and the elapsed time is equal to or higher than the predetermined value X1,
    That a predetermined period t4 or more has elapsed since the vehicle stopped,
    The operation mode in which the refrigerant does not absorb heat in the outdoor heat exchanger is selected,
    2. The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 1, which is any one of them, a combination thereof, or all of them.
  3.   The control device includes the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger and the non-adherence when the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is lower than the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger when no frost is formed. Based on the difference ΔTXO = TXObase−TXO from the refrigerant evaporation temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger during frost, or the refrigerant evaporation pressure of the outdoor heat exchanger when the refrigerant evaporation pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger is not frosted Based on the difference ΔPXO = PXObase−PXO between the refrigerant evaporating pressure PXO of the outdoor heat exchanger when lower than PXObase and the refrigerant evaporating pressure PXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger at the time of no frost formation, The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a progress state of frost formation is determined.
  4.   The control device is configured such that the refrigerant evaporating temperature TXObase of the outdoor heat exchanger at the time of no frost formation or the refrigerant of the outdoor heat exchanger at the time of no frost formation based on an index indicating environmental conditions and / or operating conditions. 4. The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 3, wherein an evaporation pressure PXObase is estimated.
  5. The compressor is driven by a battery mounted on the vehicle,
    The defrost permission condition is that there is no air conditioning request in the vehicle interior, and the battery is being charged or the remaining amount of the battery is a predetermined value or more. 4. The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 4.
  6. The control device includes an air conditioning controller to which an air conditioning operation unit for performing an air conditioning setting operation in the vehicle interior is connected, and a heat pump controller that controls the operation of the compressor, and the air conditioning controller and the heat pump controller are , Send and receive information via the vehicle communication bus,
    When the heat pump controller determines that the outdoor heat exchanger needs to be defrosted, the heat pump controller sets a predetermined defrost request flag, and when the air conditioning controller sets a predetermined defrost permission flag, the outdoor heat exchanger The defrost request flag is reset, and after the defrost request flag is set, the defrost request flag is reset even when the natural defrost condition is satisfied,
    The air conditioning controller determines whether or not the defrost permission condition is satisfied when the defrost request flag is set by the heat pump controller, and sets the defrost permission flag when satisfied. The vehicle air conditioner according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the vehicle air conditioner is provided.
  7. The air conditioning controller or the heat pump controller determines whether the natural defrosting condition is satisfied,
    The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 6, wherein, when the air conditioning controller determines, the heat pump controller is notified that the natural defrost condition is established.
JP2017170226A 2017-09-05 2017-09-05 Air conditioner for vehicle Pending JP2019043422A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2017170226A JP2019043422A (en) 2017-09-05 2017-09-05 Air conditioner for vehicle

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2017170226A JP2019043422A (en) 2017-09-05 2017-09-05 Air conditioner for vehicle
PCT/JP2018/030589 WO2019049636A1 (en) 2017-09-05 2018-08-13 Vehicular air conditioning device

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2019043422A true JP2019043422A (en) 2019-03-22

Family

ID=65633989

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2017170226A Pending JP2019043422A (en) 2017-09-05 2017-09-05 Air conditioner for vehicle

Country Status (2)

Country Link
JP (1) JP2019043422A (en)
WO (1) WO2019049636A1 (en)

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4439995A (en) * 1982-04-05 1984-04-03 General Electric Company Air conditioning heat pump system having an initial frost monitoring control means
US4563877A (en) * 1984-06-12 1986-01-14 Borg-Warner Corporation Control system and method for defrosting the outdoor coil of a heat pump
US4573326A (en) * 1985-02-04 1986-03-04 American Standard Inc. Adaptive defrost control for heat pump system
US5257506A (en) * 1991-03-22 1993-11-02 Carrier Corporation Defrost control
JP2010111222A (en) * 2008-11-05 2010-05-20 Denso Corp Air-conditioner for vehicle
JP5851704B2 (en) * 2011-02-25 2016-02-03 サンデンホールディングス株式会社 Air conditioner for vehicles
JP6108067B2 (en) * 2012-10-31 2017-04-05 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Air conditioner for vehicles

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2019049636A1 (en) 2019-03-14

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
EP1995094B1 (en) Vehicle air conditioning system
EP0691229B1 (en) Air conditioner for vehicles
US9250005B2 (en) Air conditioner for vehicle with heat pump cycle
US5586448A (en) Defrosting control system for use in an air-conditioner in an electric vehicle
US5983652A (en) Automotive air conditioner having condenser and evaporator provided within air duct
US5299431A (en) Automotive air conditioner having condenser and evaporator provided within air duct
JP3711445B2 (en) Charge management system of the air conditioning charge control device and a vehicle battery for a vehicle
US6715540B2 (en) Air-conditioning apparatus for vehicle
JP3284648B2 (en) Heat pump heating and cooling system for a vehicle
JP2013023210A (en) Vehicular heat pump system, and method of controlling the same
EP2463131B1 (en) Vehicle air conditioning system
US6430951B1 (en) Automotive airconditioner having condenser and evaporator provided within air duct
US6044653A (en) Automotive air conditioner having condenser and evaporator provided within air duct
US6314750B1 (en) Heat pump air conditioner
US20100326127A1 (en) Air conditioner for vehicle with heat pump cycle
WO2012060132A1 (en) Heat-pump vehicular air conditioner and defrosting method thereof
JP5494312B2 (en) Air conditioner for vehicles
JP5663849B2 (en) Air conditioner for vehicles
JP2001063347A (en) Vehicular air-conditioning control system
JP4321594B2 (en) Vehicle air-conditioning system
EP1599352A2 (en) Ventilation/heating and/or air conditioning device for the passenger compartment of a motor vehicle with simultaneous cooling of air and coolant
JP2005059797A (en) Air-conditioner for vehicle
JP2677966B2 (en) The heat pump type air conditioner for a vehicle
DE112014002131T5 (en) Vehicle air conditioning apparatus
JP5851704B2 (en) Air conditioner for vehicles