JP2018537021A - Apparatus and method for generating electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium - Google Patents

Apparatus and method for generating electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2018537021A
JP2018537021A JP2018519712A JP2018519712A JP2018537021A JP 2018537021 A JP2018537021 A JP 2018537021A JP 2018519712 A JP2018519712 A JP 2018519712A JP 2018519712 A JP2018519712 A JP 2018519712A JP 2018537021 A JP2018537021 A JP 2018537021A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
wave
waveguide
mode
electromagnetic waves
shown
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JP2018519712A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
シャラ ヘンリー,ポール
シャラ ヘンリー,ポール
エム,ザ サード ウィリス,トーマス
エム,ザ サード ウィリス,トーマス
ベネット,ロバート
バーゼガー,ファルハード
ゲルツベルグ,アーウィン
ジェー. バーニッケル,ドナルド
ジェー. バーニッケル,ドナルド
Original Assignee
エイ・ティ・アンド・ティ インテレクチュアル プロパティ アイ,エル.ピー.
エイ・ティ・アンド・ティ インテレクチュアル プロパティ アイ,エル.ピー.
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Priority to US14/885,463 priority Critical
Priority to US14/885,463 priority patent/US9722318B2/en
Priority to US14/965,523 priority patent/US10033107B2/en
Priority to US14/965,523 priority
Priority to US15/274,987 priority
Priority to US15/274,987 priority patent/US10170840B2/en
Application filed by エイ・ティ・アンド・ティ インテレクチュアル プロパティ アイ,エル.ピー., エイ・ティ・アンド・ティ インテレクチュアル プロパティ アイ,エル.ピー. filed Critical エイ・ティ・アンド・ティ インテレクチュアル プロパティ アイ,エル.ピー.
Priority to US15/293,608 priority
Priority to PCT/US2016/057161 priority patent/WO2017066654A1/en
Priority to US15/293,819 priority patent/US10341142B2/en
Priority to US15/293,608 priority patent/US10033108B2/en
Priority to US15/293,819 priority
Priority to US15/293,929 priority
Priority to US15/293,929 priority patent/US10320586B2/en
Publication of JP2018537021A publication Critical patent/JP2018537021A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P3/00Waveguides; Transmission lines of the waveguide type
    • H01P3/16Dielectric waveguides, i.e. without a longitudinal conductor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P1/00Auxiliary devices
    • H01P1/16Auxiliary devices for mode selection, e.g. mode suppression or mode promotion; for mode conversion
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01PWAVEGUIDES; RESONATORS, LINES, OR OTHER DEVICES OF THE WAVEGUIDE TYPE
    • H01P5/00Coupling devices of the waveguide type
    • H01P5/08Coupling devices of the waveguide type for linking dissimilar lines or devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B3/00Line transmission systems
    • H04B3/52Systems for transmission between fixed stations via waveguides
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q13/00Waveguide horns or mouths; Slot antennas; Leaky-waveguide antennas; Equivalent structures causing radiation along the transmission path of a guided wave
    • H01Q13/02Waveguide horns
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/06Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens
    • H01Q19/08Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens for modifying the radiation pattern of a radiating horn in which it is located
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/20Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart the units being spaced along or adjacent to a curvilinear path
    • H01Q21/205Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart the units being spaced along or adjacent to a curvilinear path providing an omnidirectional coverage
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q3/00Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system
    • H01Q3/02Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system using mechanical movement of antenna or antenna system as a whole
    • H01Q3/08Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system using mechanical movement of antenna or antenna system as a whole for varying two co-ordinates of the orientation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q3/00Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system
    • H01Q3/26Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture
    • H01Q3/30Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relative phase between the radiating elements of an array
    • H01Q3/34Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relative phase between the radiating elements of an array by electrical means
    • H01Q3/36Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relative phase between the radiating elements of an array by electrical means with variable phase-shifters

Abstract

Aspects of the present disclosure may include receiving a plurality of communication signals and generating a signal that induces a plurality of electromagnetic waves coupled at least partially to an outer surface of the transmission medium according to the plurality of communication signals. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

Description

Cross-reference of related applications This application is filed October 14, 2016 by Henry et al., Entitled “Apparatus and Methods for Generating Non-Interfering Electromagnetic Waves in US Patent Application No. 15, published in US Patent Application No. 15/29”. No. 929, which is a continuation-in-part application and claims priority, and this US patent application is filed by “Apparatus and Methods for Generating Non-Interfering” filed on October 14, 2016 by Henry et al. A US company named “Electromagnetic Waves on an Unconductored Conductor” No. 15 / 293,819, which is a continuation-in-part of the application, and claims its priority. This U.S. patent application was filed on October 14, 2016 by Henry et al. and Methods for Generating an Electromagnetic Wave having a Wave Mode Mode that Mitigates Interface, which is a continuation-in-part of the US Patent Application Publication No. 15 / 293,608, which claims the priority. The United States patent application was filed on September 23, 2016 by Henry et al. “Apparatus and Methods for Sending or Receiving Electromagnetic S”. is a continuation-in-part of US patent application Ser. No. 15 / 274,987 entitled “Gnals” and claims its priority. This US patent application was filed on December 10, 2015, on Henry Is a continuation-in-part of US Patent Application No. 14 / 965,523, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Coupling an Antenna to a Device”, which claims priority. This U.S. patent application is a part of U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 885,463, entitled "Method and Apparatus for Coupling an Antenna to a Device", filed October 16, 2015 by Adriazola et al. Continue to issue It is a request and claims its priority. All sections of the above application are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. All sections of US Patent Application Publication No. 14 / 799,272, filed July 14, 2015, entitled "Apparatus and Methods for Transmitting Wireless Signals", are hereby incorporated by reference. Incorporated throughout.

  The present disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for generating electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium.

  As smartphones and other portable devices become increasingly popular and data usage increases, macrocell base station devices and existing wireless infrastructures require higher bandwidth capacity than ever before to meet increasing demand. Yes. Small cell deployments are being promoted to provide additional mobile bandwidth, where microcells and picocells provide coverage for areas that are much smaller than previous macrocells.

  In addition, most homes and businesses are growing and relying on broadband data access for services such as voice, video, and internet browsing. Broadband access networks include satellite, 4G or 5G wireless, power line communications, fiber, cable, and telephone networks.

  Reference is now made to the accompanying drawings, which are not necessarily drawn to scale.

1 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide communication system in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a transmitting device in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a graphical diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field distribution in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a graphical diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field distribution in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 7 is a graphical diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a frequency response in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a graphical diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a longitudinal cross section of an insulated wire showing a field of guided electromagnetic waves at various operating frequencies in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a graphical diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field distribution in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an arc coupler in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an arc coupler in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a stub coupler in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 illustrates an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic distribution in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a combiner and transceiver according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a combiner and transceiver according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a double stub coupler in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a repeater system in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a bi-directional repeater in accordance with various aspects described herein. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide system in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide communication system in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a system for managing a power network communication system in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a system for managing a power network communication system in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 16 shows a flow diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a method for detecting and mitigating disturbances that occur in the communication network of the systems of FIGS. 16A and 16B. 16 shows a flow diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a method for detecting and mitigating disturbances that occur in the communication network of the systems of FIGS. 16A and 16B. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a transmission medium that propagates a guided electromagnetic wave. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a transmission medium that propagates a guided electromagnetic wave. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a transmission medium that propagates a guided electromagnetic wave. FIG. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a bundled transmission medium in accordance with various aspects described herein. 18 illustrates one non-limiting embodiment of an example plot illustrating crosstalk between a first transmission medium and a second transmission medium of the bundled transmission medium of FIG. 18D according to various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an exemplary bundled transmission medium that reduces crosstalk in accordance with various aspects described herein. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an exemplary transmission medium having an internal waveguide, according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an exemplary transmission medium having an internal waveguide, according to various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 19 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an exemplary connector configuration that can be used with the transmission medium of FIG. 18A, FIG. 18B, or FIG. 18C. FIG. 19 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an exemplary connector configuration that can be used with the transmission medium of FIG. 18A, FIG. 18B, or FIG. 18C. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a transmission medium through which a guided electromagnetic wave propagates. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a bundled transmission medium that reduces crosstalk in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of an exposed stub from a bound transmission medium used as an antenna in accordance with various aspects described herein. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna coupled to a lens and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna coupled to a lens and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna coupled to a lens having a ridge and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna coupled to a lens having a ridge and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna having an elliptical structure in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 20 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a near-field signal and a far-field signal emitted by the dielectric antenna of FIG. 19G, according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna that modulates a far-field wireless signal in accordance with various aspects described herein. 1 is a block diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example flange that can be coupled to a dielectric antenna in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example flange that can be coupled to a dielectric antenna in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example flange, waveguide, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna coupled to a gimbal that directs a wireless signal generated by the dielectric antenna, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna according to various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of an array of dielectric antennas that can be configured to manipulate wireless signals, in accordance with various aspects described herein. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2 is a side block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a front block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a front block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a front block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna according to various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 18B is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of the example transmission medium of FIG. 18A used to induce electromagnetic waves guided on power lines supported by utility poles. FIG. 18B is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of the example transmission medium of FIG. 18A used to induce electromagnetic waves guided on power lines supported by utility poles. 1 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a communication network in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of an antenna mount for use in a communication network, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of an antenna mount for use in a communication network, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of an antenna mount for use in a communication network, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 shows a flow diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of an example method for transmitting a downlink signal. FIG. 6 shows a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a method for transmitting uplink signals. Fig. 3 shows a flow diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example method for inducing and receiving electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium. Fig. 3 shows a flow diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example method for inducing and receiving electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium. FIG. 6 shows a flow diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example method for transmitting a wireless signal from a dielectric antenna. 2 shows a flow diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example method for receiving a wireless signal at a dielectric antenna. 2 shows a flow diagram of one non-limiting embodiment of an example method for detecting and mitigating disturbances occurring in a communication network. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field alignment that mitigates propagation losses due to water accumulation on a transmission medium in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 20D is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example electric field strength of different electromagnetic waves propagating through the cable shown in FIG. 20H according to various aspects described herein. FIG. 20D is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example electric field strength of different electromagnetic waves propagating through the cable shown in FIG. 20H according to various aspects described herein. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example gobo wave electric field in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a hybrid wave electric field, in accordance with various aspects described herein. 2 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of electric field characteristics of a hybrid wave vs. gobo wave, according to various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting example of a hybrid wave mode size at various operating frequencies in accordance with various aspects described herein. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device delivering hybrid waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of a waveguide device delivering hybrid waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. FIG. 22 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a hybrid wave delivered by the waveguide device of FIGS. 21A and 21B in accordance with various aspects described herein. Fig. 6 shows a flow diagram of a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a method for managing electromagnetic waves. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide device in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide device in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide device in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide device in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide device in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. Fig. 6 shows a flow diagram of a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a method for managing electromagnetic waves. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a substantially orthogonal wave mode in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an insulated conductor in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a non-insulated conductor in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an oxide layer formed on the non-insulated conductor of FIG. 25AB in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a spectral plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a spectral plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a wave mode and electric field plot in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of transmitting an orthogonal wave mode by the method of FIG. 25Y in accordance with various aspects set forth herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of transmitting an orthogonal wave mode by the method of FIG. 25Y in accordance with various aspects set forth herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment for selectively receiving a wave mode according to the method of FIG. 25Y, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment for selectively receiving a wave mode according to the method of FIG. 25Y, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment for selectively receiving a wave mode according to the method of FIG. 25Y, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment for selectively receiving a wave mode according to the method of FIG. 25Y, in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a computing environment in accordance with various aspects set forth herein. FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a mobile network platform in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a communication device in accordance with various aspects described herein.

  One or more embodiments will now be described with reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of various embodiments. It will be apparent, however, that various embodiments may be practiced without these details (and without applying to any particular networked environment or standard).

  In one embodiment, a guided wave communication system is provided that transmits and receives communication signals such as data or other signaling via guided electromagnetic waves. Waveguided electromagnetic waves include, for example, surface waves or other electromagnetic waves that are coupled or guided to a transmission medium. It will be appreciated that a variety of transmission media can be used in conjunction with waveguide communications without departing from the exemplary embodiments. Examples of such transmission media may include one or more of the following, alone or in one or more combinations: whether insulated and whether they are single or stranded Regardless of wire; conductors of other shapes or configurations including wire bundles, cables, rods, rails, pipes; non-conductors such as dielectric pipes, rods, rails or other dielectric members; conductors and dielectrics In combination with materials; or other waveguide transmission media.

  Induction of guided electromagnetic waves in the transmission medium can be independent of any potential, charge, or current injected into or otherwise transmitted to the transmission medium as part of the electrical circuit. For example, if the transmission medium is a wire, a small current can be formed in the wire in response to the propagation of the waveguide along the wire, which can be attributed to the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the surface of the wire, It should be understood that it is not formed in response to a potential, charge, or current injected into a wire as part of the circuit. Therefore, the traveling electromagnetic wave on the electric wire does not require a circuit to propagate along the electric wire surface. Therefore, the electric wire is a single-layer transmission line that is not part of the circuit. Also, in some embodiments, no electrical wires are required, and electromagnetic waves can propagate along single wire transmission media that are not electrical wires.

  More generally, a “waveguided electromagnetic wave” or “waveguide” as described by this disclosure refers to at least a portion of a transmission medium (eg, bare wire or other conductor, dielectric, insulated wire, conduit or other A physical object that is a hollow element, a bundle of insulated wires or other bundles of wires, coated or covered with a dielectric or insulator, or another form of solid or other non-liquid or non-gas transmission medium) Is at least partially directed or guided by the physical object and propagates along the transmission path of the physical object. Such physical objects induce the propagation of guided electromagnetic waves by the interface of the transmission medium (eg, the outer surface, the inner surface, the interior between the outer surface and the inner surface, or other boundaries between elements of the transmission medium). The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves carries energy, data, and / or other signals along the transmission path from the transmitting device to the receiving device. Can do.

  Unlike free space propagation of wireless signals such as non-inductive (or uncoupled) electromagnetic waves whose intensity decreases inversely proportional to the square of the travel distance of electromagnetic waves that are not guided, electromagnetic waves that are guided are more susceptible to electromagnetic waves that are not guided. It can propagate along the transmission medium with a small loss per unit distance.

  The electrical circuit allows electrical signals to propagate from the transmitting device to the receiving device via each of the electrical path and the electrical feedback path. These electrical routes and electrical return paths can be implemented via two conductors such as two wires or a common ground that functions as one wire and a second conductor. In particular, the current (direct current and / or alternating current) from the transmitting device flows through the electrical route and returns to the source through the electrical feedback path as a reverse current. More specifically, the electron flow in one conductor that flows away from the transmitting device returns to the receiving device in the reverse direction via the second conductor or ground. Unlike electrical signals, guided electromagnetic waves are transmitted through transmission media (eg, bare conductors, insulated conductors, conduits, non-conductive materials such as dielectric strips, or any other type of object suitable for surface wave propagation). Along the transmission device to the reception device or vice versa, the transmission medium need not be part of the electrical circuit between the transmission device and the reception device (ie, the transmission device and the reception device) Without the need for an electrical return path). An electromagnetic wave can propagate through an open circuit, i.e., a circuit that does not have an electrical feedback path, or a circuit that has a break or gap that prevents current flow through the circuit, but the electromagnetic wave is actually part of the electrical circuit. Note that it can also propagate along the surface of the transmission medium. That is, the electromagnetic waves can travel along a first surface of the transmission medium having an electrical path and / or along a second surface of the transmission medium having an electrical return path. Thus, guided electromagnetic waves can propagate along the surface of the transmission medium from the transmitting device to the receiving device with or without electrical circuitry, or vice versa.

  This allows, for example, transmission of guided electromagnetic waves along a transmission medium (eg, a dielectric strip) that does not have a conductive component. Thus, for example, a guided electromagnetic wave propagating along a transmission medium having only one conductor (e.g., an electromagnetic wave propagating along the surface of one bare conductor or along the surface of one insulated conductor). Alternatively, transmission of electromagnetic waves propagating in the insulation body of the insulated conductor in whole or in part is also possible. A transmission medium includes one or more conductive components, and a guided electromagnetic wave propagating along the transmission medium sometimes flows within the one or more conductive components in the direction of the guided electromagnetic wave. Even when generating current, such guided electromagnetic waves are transmitted from the transmitting device to the receiving side along the transmission medium in the absence of a reverse current flow on the electrical feedback path from the receiving device back to the transmitting device. Can propagate to the device. Accordingly, such propagation of guided electromagnetic waves can be referred to as propagation through a single transmission line or propagation through a surface wave transmission line.

  In a non-limiting illustration, consider a coaxial cable having a central conductor and a ground shield separated by an insulator. Typically, in the electrical system, the first terminal of the transmitting (and receiving) device can be connected to the center conductor, and the second terminal of the transmitting (and receiving) device is connected to the ground shield. be able to. When the transmitting device injects an electrical signal into the center conductor through the first terminal, the electrical signal propagates along the center conductor, sometimes producing a forward current and a corresponding electron flow in the center conductor. As well as reverse current and reverse flow of electrons in the ground shield. The same situation applies to a two-terminal receiving device.

  In contrast, different embodiments of transmission media (including in particular coaxial cables) for the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves that are guided without an electrical circuit (i.e. without an electrical path or an electrical feedback path depending on the viewpoint). Consider a guided wave communication system as described in this disclosure. In one embodiment, for example, the guided wave communication system of the present disclosure is configured to induce a guided electromagnetic wave that propagates along an outer surface of a coaxial cable (eg, a jacket or insulation layer of the coaxial cable). Can be configured. A guided electromagnetic wave causes a forward current to occur on the ground shield, but a guided electromagnetic wave is placed in the center conductor to allow the guided electromagnetic wave to propagate along the outer surface of the coaxial cable. No feedback current is required. In other words, the guided electromagnetic wave produces a forward current on the ground shield, but the guided electromagnetic wave does not generate a reverse feedback current in the central conductor (or other electrical return path). The same is true for other transmission media used by wave communication systems guided for transmission and reception of guided electromagnetic waves.

  For example, a guided electromagnetic wave induced by a guided wave communication system on the outer surface of a bare conductor or insulated conductor does not generate a reverse feedback current in the electrical return path, and the outer surface of the bare conductor Or it can propagate along other surfaces of the insulated conductor. Another distinction is that if most of the signal energy in the electrical circuit is induced by the flow of electrons in the conductor itself, it is guided through the outer surface of the bare conductor in a guided wave communication system. The forward current generated by the electromagnetic wave in the bare conductor is only minimal, and most of the signal energy of the electromagnetic wave is concentrated above the outer surface of the bare conductor, not inside the bare conductor. Furthermore, the forward current produced by the guided electromagnetic wave coupled to the outer surface of the insulated conductor in one or more central conductors of the insulated conductor is minimal, and most of the signal energy of the electromagnetic wave is within the insulator and And / or concentrated in the region above the outer surface of the insulated conductor—in other words, most of the signal energy of the electromagnetic waves is concentrated outside the central conductor of the insulated conductor.

  Thus, an electrical system that requires two or more conductors that carry forward and reverse currents on separate conductors to allow the propagation of the electrical signal injected by the transmitting device is at the interface of the transmission medium. Unlike a waveguide system that induces electromagnetic waves guided on the interface of a transmission medium that do not require an electrical circuit to allow propagation of guided electromagnetic waves along.

  Waveguide electromagnetic waves described in this disclosure are coupled to a transmission medium or guided by a transmission medium, and over distances longer than a minute distance (on or along the outer surface of the transmission medium). It should be further noted that in order to propagate non-trivial distances), it may have an electromagnetic field structure that exists primarily or substantially outside the transmission medium. In other embodiments, the guided electromagnetic wave is coupled to or guided by the transmission medium and to propagate a distance longer than a small distance within the transmission medium. Can have an electromagnetic field structure that is predominantly or substantially inside. In other embodiments, guided electromagnetic waves are transmitted in order to be coupled to or guided by a transmission medium and to propagate longer than a small distance along the transmission medium. It can have an electromagnetic field structure that lies partly inside and partly outside the medium. The desired electric field structure in one embodiment includes various factors including the desired transmission distance, characteristics of the transmission medium itself, and environmental conditions / characteristics outside the transmission medium (eg, the presence of rain, fog, atmospheric conditions, etc.). Can vary.

  Various embodiments described herein include “waveguide coupling devices”, “guides” that deliver and / or extract guided electromagnetic waves to and from transmission media at millimeter wave frequencies (eg, 30 GHz to 300 GHz). Related to coupling devices, which can be referred to as “waveguide couplers”, or more simply “couplers”, “coupling devices”, or “senders”, where millimeter wavelength is the outer circumference or other cross-sectional dimension of the wire The coupling device and / or transmission medium may be small compared to one or more dimensions, or may be a low-frequency microwave, such as 300 MHz to 30 GHz. Transmission is a strip of dielectric material, arc, or other length; horn, monopole, rod, slot, or other antenna; array of antennas; magnetic resonance cavity, or other resonant coupler; coil, stripline, It can be generated to propagate as a wave guided by a coupling device, such as a waveguide or other coupling device. In operation, the coupling device receives electromagnetic waves from a transmitter or transmission medium. The electromagnetic field structure of the electromagnetic wave can be present inside the coupling device, outside the coupling device, or some combination thereof. If the coupling device is close to the transmission medium, at least a portion of the electromagnetic wave is coupled to the transmission medium and continues to propagate as a guided electromagnetic wave. In a round trip, the coupling device can extract the guided wave from the transmission medium and transfer these electromagnetic waves to the receiver.

  According to an exemplary embodiment, the surface wave is a transmission medium such as the outer or outer surface of the wire or another surface of the wire adjacent to or exposed to another type of media having different properties (eg, dielectric constant). It is a type of waveguide guided by the surface of Indeed, in the exemplary embodiment, the surface of the wire that guides the surface wave can represent a transition plane between two different types of media. For example, in the case of a bare wire or a non-insulated electric wire, the surface of the electric wire can be the outside or outer conductor surface of the bare wire or the non-insulated electric wire exposed to air or free space. As another example, in the case of an insulated wire, the surface of the wire may further depend on one or more of the waveguides depending on the relative differences in properties of the insulator, air, and / or conductor (eg, dielectric constant). Depending on the frequency and mode of propagation, it can be the conductive part of the wire in contact with the insulator part of the wire, or it can be the surface of the wire insulator exposed to air or free space, or else the wire It can be any material region between the insulator surface and the conductive portion of the wire that contacts the insulator portion of the wire.

  According to exemplary embodiments, the term “perimeter” of a wire or other transmission medium used in conjunction with waveguiding is a circular or substantially circular field distribution, a symmetric electromagnetic field distribution (eg, an electric field , Magnetic field, electromagnetic field, etc.), or a fundamental guided wave propagation mode, such as a waveguide with other fundamental mode patterns around at least part of a wire or other transmission medium. In addition, waveguides propagate not only in the fundamental wave propagation mode (eg, zero-order mode) but also in addition to or instead of higher-order guided modes (eg, zero-order mode) when propagating “around” an electrical wire or other transmission medium , Primary modes, secondary modes, etc.), asymmetric modes, and / or non-fundamental wave propagation modes such as other wave guides (surface waves) having a non-circular field distribution around the wire or transmission medium Can do so according to. As used herein, the term “guided mode” refers to a guided propagation mode of a transmission medium, a coupling device, or other system component of a waveguide communication system.

  For example, such a non-circular field distribution may be due to one or more azimuth lobes characterized by a relatively high field strength and / or a relatively low field strength, zero field strength or substantial zero field strength. It can be unilateral or multi-directional with one or more nulls or null regions being characterized. Furthermore, the field distribution is determined according to an exemplary embodiment, in which one or more regions of the azimuthal orientation around the wire is higher than the one or more other regions of the orientation. Others can vary as a function of the longitudinal orientation around the wire to have a combination. It will be appreciated that the relative orientation or relative position of a higher order mode or asymmetric mode waveguide may change as the waveguide travels along the wire.

  As used herein, the term “millimeter wave” can refer to an electromagnetic wave / signal that is within the “millimeter wave frequency band” of 30 GHz to 300 GHz. The term “microwave” can refer to an electromagnetic wave / signal that is within a “microwave frequency band” of 300 MHz to 300 GHz. The term “radio frequency” or “RF” may refer to an electromagnetic wave / signal that is within a “radio frequency band” of 10 kHz to 1 THz. Wireless signals, electrical signals, and guided electromagnetic waves described in this disclosure may be in any desired frequency range, for example, in the millimeter wave and / or microwave frequency bands, at frequencies above or below them. It is understood that it can be configured to operate in In particular, if the coupling device or transmission medium includes a conductive element, the frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave carried by the coupling device and / or propagating along the transmission medium is less than the average collision frequency of electrons in the conductive element. possible. Furthermore, the frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave carried by the coupling device and / or propagating along the transmission medium can be a non-optical frequency, for example a radio frequency below the optical frequency range starting at 1 THz.

  As used herein, the term “antenna” can refer to a device that is part of a transmission system or reception system that transmits / radiates or receives wireless signals.

  According to one or more embodiments, a method receives a plurality of communication signals and transmits a plurality of electromagnetic waves coupled at least partially to an isolated transmission medium according to the plurality of communication signals by a transmitting device. Generating an inductive wireless signal, wherein a plurality of electromagnetic waves propagate along an insulated transmission medium without an electrical feedback path, and each electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves carries at least one communication signal of the plurality of communication signals. Propagating and generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves having a signal multiplexing configuration that reduces interference between the plurality of electromagnetic waves and allows a receiving device to extract at least one communication signal from each electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves Including.

  According to one or more embodiments, the transmitter can include a generator and circuitry coupled to the generator. The controller is configured to receive a plurality of communication signals and to generate a signal inducing a plurality of electromagnetic waves coupled at least partially to a dielectric layer of the transmission medium according to the plurality of communication signals, Each electromagnetic wave transmits at least one communication signal of the plurality of communication signals, and the plurality of electromagnetic waves has a signal multiplexing configuration that reduces interference between the plurality of electromagnetic waves, and performs an operation including generating .

  According to one or more embodiments, the device generates means for receiving a plurality of communication signals and a signal for inducing a plurality of electromagnetic waves coupled at least partially to the dielectric material according to the plurality of communication signals. Each electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves transmits at least one communication signal of the plurality of communication signals, and the plurality of electromagnetic waves have a multiplexing configuration that reduces interference between the plurality of electromagnetic waves, and including.

  Referring now to FIG. 1, a block diagram 100 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide communication system is shown. In operation, the transmitting device 101 receives one or more communication signals 110 containing data from a communication network or other communication device, generates a waveguide 120, and transmits the data over the transmission medium 125. To communicate. The transmitting device 102 receives the waveguide 120 and converts it into a communication signal 112 containing data for transmission to a communication network or other communication device. Multiple such as frequency division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, code division multiplexing, multiplexing by different wave propagation modes, etc. by modulation techniques such as phase modulation, frequency modulation, quadrature amplitude modulation, amplitude modulation, orthogonal carrier frequency division multiplexing, etc. The data can be conveyed by modulating the waveguide 120 according to other access techniques, as well as by other modulation and access methods.

  The one or more communication networks may be wireless communications such as mobile data networks, cellular voice data networks, wireless local area networks (eg, WiFi or 802.xx networks), satellite communications networks, personal area networks, or other wireless networks. A network can be included. The one or more communication networks include a wired communication network such as a telephone network, an Ethernet network, a local area network, a wide area network such as the Internet, a broadband access network, a cable network, an optical fiber network, or other wired network. You can also. Communication devices include network edge devices, bridge devices or home gateways, set top boxes, broadband modems, telephone adapters, access points, base stations, or other fixed communication devices, in-vehicle gateways or auto mobile computers, laptop computers, tablets, Mobile communication devices such as smartphones, cell phones, or other communication devices can be included.

  In an exemplary embodiment, the waveguide communication system 100 can operate in a bidirectional manner, in which the transmitting device 102 can transmit one or more communications that include other data from the communications network or device. The signal 112 is received, a waveguide 122 is generated, and the other data is carried to the transmitting device 101 via the transmission medium 125. In this mode of operation, the transmitting device 101 receives the waveguide 122 and converts it into a communication signal 110 containing the other data described above for transmission to a communication network or device. Multiple such as frequency division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, code division multiplexing, multiplexing by different wave propagation modes, etc. by modulation techniques such as phase modulation, frequency modulation, quadrature amplitude modulation, amplitude modulation, orthogonal carrier frequency division multiplexing, etc. The data can be conveyed by modulating the waveguide 122 according to other access techniques, as well as by other modulation and access methods.

  Transmission medium 125 may include a cable having at least one interior surrounded by a dielectric material, such as an insulator or other dielectric cover, coating, or other dielectric material, the dielectric material corresponding to the outer surface and corresponding. Has a perimeter. In the exemplary embodiment, transmission medium 125 operates as a single-layer transmission line to guide the transmission of electromagnetic waves. Transmission medium 125 may include electrical wires when implemented as a single-wire transmission system. The electrical wire may or may not be insulated, and may be a single wire or a stranded wire (eg, a braid). In other embodiments, the transmission medium 125 may include other shapes or configurations of conductors including wire bundles, cables, rods, rails, pipes. In addition, transmission medium 125 includes non-conductors such as dielectric pipes, rods, rails or other dielectric members, a combination of conductors and dielectric materials, conductors without dielectric materials, or other waveguide transmission media. be able to. Note that transmission medium 125 may include any of the transmission media described above in other respects.

  Further, as described above, the waveguides 120 and 122 may be contrasted with conventional propagation of power or signals through the conductors of the wire via wireless transmission via free space / air or electrical circuits. In addition to the propagation of the waveguides 120 and 122, the transmission medium 125 optionally includes one or more that propagate power or other communication signals in a conventional manner as part of one or more electrical circuits. Can be included.

  Referring now to FIG. 2, a block diagram 200 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a transmitting device is shown. The transmission device 101 or 102 includes a communication interface (I / F) 205, a transceiver 210, and a coupler 220.

  In one example of operation, the communication interface 205 receives a communication signal 110 or 112 that includes data. In various embodiments, the communication interface 205 is an LTE or other cellular voice data protocol, WiFi or 802.11 protocol, WIMAX protocol, ultra wideband protocol, Bluetooth protocol, Zigbee protocol, direct broadcast satellite (DBS) or other satellite. A wireless interface may be included that receives wireless communication signals according to a communication protocol or a wireless standard protocol such as other wireless protocols. Additionally or alternatively, the communication interface 205 may be an Ethernet protocol, a universal serial bus (USB) protocol, a cabled data service interface standard (DOCSIS) protocol, a digital subscriber line (DSL) protocol, a firewire (IEEE 1394) protocol, or Includes a wired interface that operates according to other wired protocols. In addition to standards-based protocols, the communication interface 205 can operate with other wired or wireless protocols. Further, the communication interface 205 can optionally operate with a protocol stack that includes multiple protocol layers including MAC protocols, transport protocols, application protocols, and the like.

  In one example of operation, the transceiver 210 generates an electromagnetic wave based on a communication signal 110 or 112 that carries data. The electromagnetic wave has at least one carrier frequency and at least one corresponding wavelength. The carrier frequency is as low as 300 to 30 GHz in the millimeter wave frequency band of 30 GHz to 300 GHz, such as the carrier frequency in the range of 60 GHz or 30 GHz to 40 GHz, or in the microwave frequency range of 26 GHz to 30 GHz, 11 GHz, 6 GHz, or 3 GHz. It will be appreciated that other carrier frequencies are possible in other embodiments, although they may be in a frequency band. In one mode of operation, the transceiver 210 transmits one or more communication signals to transmit electromagnetic signals in the microwave band or millimeter wave band as guided electromagnetic waves that are guided or coupled by the transmission medium 125. 110 or 112 is simply upconverted. In another mode of operation, the communication interface 205 converts the communication signal 110 or 112 into a baseband signal or a signal near baseband, or extracts data from the communication signal 110 or 112, and the transceiver 210 transmits. Therefore, data, a baseband signal, or a signal in the vicinity of the baseband is modulated to a high frequency carrier wave. One or more data communications of the communication signal 110 or 112 by modulating data received by the transceiver 210 via the communication signal 110 or 112 and encapsulating it in a payload of a different protocol or by simple frequency shift It should be understood that the protocol can be preserved. Alternatively, the transceiver 210 may otherwise convert the data received via the communication signal 110 or 112 into a protocol that is different from the one or more data communication protocols of the communication signal 110 or 112.

  In one example of operation, the coupler 220 couples the electromagnetic wave to the transmission medium 125 as a guided electromagnetic wave carrying one or more communication signals 110 or 112. The previous description focused on the operation of the transceiver 210 as a transmitter, but the transceiver 210 receives electromagnetic waves that carry other data from the single-wire transmission medium via the coupler 220, and the other It can also operate to generate the communication signal 110 or 112 via the communication interface 205 containing data. Consider an embodiment in which additional guided electromagnetic waves carry other data that also propagates along the transmission medium 125. The coupler 220 can also couple this additional electromagnetic wave from the transmission medium 125 to the transceiver 210 for reception.

  The transmitting device 101 or 102 includes an optional training controller 230. In the exemplary embodiment, training controller 230 is implemented by a stand-alone processor or a processor shared with one or more other components of transmitting device 101 or 102. The training controller 230 determines the carrier wave frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave, the modulation scheme, based on feedback data received by the transceiver 210 from at least one remote transmission device coupled to receive the guided electromagnetic wave. And / or to select a guided mode.

  In the exemplary embodiment, guided electromagnetic waves transmitted by remote transmission device 101 or 102 carry data that also propagates along transmission medium 125. Data from the remote transmission device 101 or 102 can be generated to include feedback data. In operation, the coupler 220 also couples the guided electromagnetic waves from the transmission medium 125, and the transceiver receives the electromagnetic waves and processes the electromagnetic waves to extract feedback data.

  In an exemplary embodiment, the training controller 230 operates based on feedback data to evaluate multiple frequency candidates, modulation scheme candidates, and / or transmission mode candidates to enhance performance such as throughput, signal strength, etc. The carrier frequency, the modulation scheme, and / or the transmission mode are selected so as to reduce the propagation loss.

  Consider the following example: Transmitting device 101 transmits a plurality of guided waves as test signals, such as pilot waves or other test signals, with a corresponding plurality of frequency candidates and / or mode candidates directed to remote transmitting device 102 coupled to transmission medium 125. By transmitting, the operation starts under the control of the training controller 230. Additionally or alternatively, the wave guide can include test data. The test data may indicate specific frequency candidates and / or guided mode candidates for the signal. In one embodiment, the training controller 230 in the remote transmission device 102 receives test signals and / or test data from any received wave guides as appropriate, and the best frequency candidate and / or guided mode candidate, a set of tolerances. Determine a ranking order of possible frequency candidates and / or guided mode candidates, or frequency candidates and / or guided mode candidates. This selection of frequency candidates and / or guided mode candidates is made by the training controller 230 based on one or more optimization criteria such as received signal strength, bit error rate, packet error rate, signal to noise ratio, propagation loss, etc. Generated. The training controller 230 generates feedback data indicating the selected frequency candidate or / and guided mode candidate, and transmits the feedback data to the transceiver 210 for transmission to the transmission device 101. The transmitting devices 101 and 102 can then communicate data with each other based on the selected frequency candidate or / and guided mode.

  In other embodiments, guided electromagnetic waves including test signals and / or test data are transmitted by the remote transmission device 102 by the remote transmission device 102 for reception and analysis by the training controller 230 of the transmission device 101 that initiated these waves. 101 is reflected, relayed, or otherwise looped back. For example, the transmitting device 101 can transmit a signal to the remote transmitting device 102 to initiate a test mode where the physical reflector is switched on the line and the termination impedance causes a reflection. And the loopback mode is switched on to recouple the electromagnetic wave to the source transmission device 102 and / or the repeater mode is enabled to amplify the electromagnetic wave and retransmit it to the source transmission device 102. The training controller 230 in the source transmission device 102 receives test signals and / or test data from any received wave guides as appropriate and determines selected frequency candidates and / or guided mode candidates.

  Although the above procedure has been described in the start-up or initialization mode of operation, each transmitting device 101 or 102 may transmit a test signal as well, and may either transmit a frequency candidate or wave through a non-test such as normal transmission. Mode candidates may be evaluated, or frequency candidates or guided mode candidates may be evaluated at other times or continuously. In the exemplary embodiment, the communication protocol between the transmitting devices 101 and 102 is a on-demand or periodic test mode where a complete test or a more limited test of a subset of frequency candidates and guided mode candidates is tested and evaluated. Can be included. In other operation modes, re-entry to such a test mode can be triggered by performance degradation due to disturbances, weather conditions, etc. In the exemplary embodiment, the receiver bandwidth of the transceiver 210 is wide enough or swept to receive all frequency candidates, or the training controller 230 causes all of the receiver bandwidth of the transceiver 210 to be Can be selectively adjusted to a training mode that is wide enough or swept to receive the frequency candidates.

  Turning now to FIG. 3, a graphic diagram 300 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field distribution is shown. In this embodiment, the transmission medium 125 in the air includes an inner conductor 301 and an insulating jacket 302 of dielectric material, as shown in cross section. The diagram 300 includes different gray scales representing different electromagnetic field strengths generated by propagation of guided waves having asymmetric and non-basic guided modes.

  In particular, the electromagnetic field distribution corresponds to a modal “sweet spot” that enhances the propagation of guided electromagnetic waves along the insulating transmission medium and reduces end-to-end transmission losses. In this particular mode, electromagnetic waves are guided by the transmission medium 125 and propagate along the outer surface of the transmission medium—in this case, the outer surface of the insulating jacket 302. The electromagnetic waves are partially embedded in the insulator and partially radiated on the outer surface of the insulator. In this way, the electromagnetic wave is “lightly” coupled to the insulator, allowing long-range electromagnetic wave propagation with low propagation loss.

  As shown, the waveguide has a field structure that is primarily or substantially external to the transmission medium 125 that functions to guide electromagnetic waves. The area inside the conductor 301 has little or no field. Similarly, the area inside the insulation jacket 302 also has a low field strength. Most of the electromagnetic field strength is distributed in and around the lobe 304 on the outer surface of the insulating jacket 302. The presence of the asymmetric guided mode is indicated by the high electromagnetic field strength at the top and bottom (in the orientation of the figure) of the outer surface of the insulating envelope 302-what is the very small field strength on the other side of the insulating envelope 302? In contrast.

  The example shown corresponds to a 38 GHz electromagnetic wave guided by a wire having a diameter of 1.1 cm and a dielectric insulation thickness of 0.36 cm. Since electromagnetic waves are guided by the transmission medium 125 and most of the field strength is concentrated in the air outside the insulating envelope 302 within a limited distance of the outer surface, the guided wave is a transmission medium with very low loss. 125 can propagate down the longitudinal direction. In the example shown, this “limited distance” corresponds to a distance from the outer surface that is less than half of the maximum cross-sectional dimension of the transmission medium 125. In this case, the maximum cross-sectional dimension of the wire corresponds to an overall diameter of 1.82 cm, but this value can vary with the size and shape of the transmission medium 125. For example, if the transmission medium 125 has a rectangular shape with a height of 0.3 cm and a width of 0.4 cm, the maximum cross-sectional dimension is 0.5 cm diagonal, and the corresponding limited distance is 0.25 cm. is there. The size of the area containing most of the field strength also varies with frequency and generally increases with decreasing carrier frequency.

  Note also that components of the waveguide communication system, such as couplers and transmission media, may have their own cutoff frequency in each guided mode. The cutoff frequency generally indicates the lowest frequency that is designed for a particular guided mode to be supported by that particular component. In the exemplary embodiment, the particular asymmetric propagation mode shown is on the transmission medium 125 by electromagnetic waves having frequencies that are within a limited range (such as Fc-2Fc) of the low cutoff frequency Fc of this particular asymmetric mode. Be guided to. The low cutoff frequency Fc is unique to the characteristics of the transmission medium 125. For the embodiment shown that includes an inner conductor 301 surrounded by an insulating jacket 302, this cutoff frequency may vary based on the dimensions and characteristics of the insulating jacket 302 and potentially the dimensions and characteristics of the inner conductor 301. And can be experimentally determined to have a desired mode pattern. However, it should be noted that a similar effect can be found with a hollow dielectric or an insulator without an inner conductor. In this case, the cut-off frequency can vary based on the dimensions and characteristics of the hollow dielectric or insulator.

  At frequencies lower than the low cutoff frequency, it is difficult to guide the asymmetric mode to the transmission medium 125, and all propagation fails and propagates only a minute distance. As the frequency increases beyond a limited frequency range before and after the cutoff frequency, the asymmetric mode shifts more and more toward the inner side of the insulation jacket 302. At frequencies much higher than the cut-off frequency, the field strength no longer concentrates outside the insulating envelope, but mainly concentrates inside the insulating envelope 302. The transmission medium 125 provides a strong wave guide for electromagnetic waves and propagation is still possible, but the range is more limited by increased losses due to propagation in the insulation jacket 302-as opposed to ambient air. is there.

  Referring now to FIG. 4, a graphic diagram 400 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field distribution is shown. In particular, a cross-sectional view 400 similar to FIG. 3 is shown with common reference numerals used to refer to similar elements. The example shown corresponds to a 60 GHz wave guided by a wire having a diameter of 1.1 cm and a dielectric insulation thickness of 0.36 cm. Since the frequency of the guided wave exceeds the limited range of the cutoff frequency of this particular asymmetric mode, much of the field strength is shifted inside the insulation jacket 302. In particular, the field strength is mainly concentrated inside the insulating jacket 302. The transmission medium 125 provides a strong guided wave to the electromagnetic wave and propagation is still possible, but the range is more when compared to the embodiment of FIG. Limited.

  Referring now to FIG. 5A, a graphic diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a frequency response is shown. In particular, diagram 500 presents a graph of end-to-end loss (in dB) as a function of frequency overlaid with electromagnetic field distributions 510, 520, and 530 at three points on a 200 cm insulated medium voltage wire. The boundary between the insulator and ambient air is represented by reference numeral 525 in each electromagnetic field distribution.

  As discussed in connection with FIG. 3, an example of the desired asymmetric mode of propagation shown is within a limited range (such as Fc-2Fc) of the low cutoff frequency Fc of the transmission medium in this particular asymmetric mode. It is guided to the transmission medium 125 by electromagnetic waves having a certain frequency. In particular, the electromagnetic field distribution 520 at 6 GHz is within this modal “sweet spot” that enhances electromagnetic wave propagation along an insulated transmission medium and reduces end-to-end transmission loss. In this particular mode, the waveguide is partially embedded in the insulator and partially radiated on the outer surface of the insulator. In this way, the electromagnetic wave is “lightly” coupled to the insulator, allowing long-distance guided electromagnetic wave propagation with low propagation loss.

  At low frequencies, represented by the electromagnetic field distribution 510 at 3 GHz, the asymmetric mode radiates more strongly, resulting in high propagation losses. At the high frequency represented by the electromagnetic field distribution 530 at 9 GHz, the asymmetric mode shifts more and more inside the insulation jacket, providing too much absorption, again resulting in high propagation losses.

Referring now to FIG. 5B, there is a graphic diagram 550 illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a longitudinal section of a transmission medium 125, such as an insulated wire, showing a field of guided electromagnetic waves at various operating frequencies. It is shown. As shown in FIG. 556, when the guided electromagnetic wave is at a cutoff frequency (f c ) that generally corresponds to a modal “sweet spot”, the guided electromagnetic wave loosely couples with the insulated wire, thereby absorbing it. And the guided electromagnetic field is coupled sufficiently to reduce the amount of radiation emitted into the environment (eg, air). Since the absorption and emission of the guided electromagnetic field is low, the resulting propagation loss is low, allowing the guided electromagnetic wave to propagate over longer distances.

As shown in FIG. 554, if the operating frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave exceeds about twice the cut-off frequency (f c ) —or, as mentioned, beyond the “sweet spot” range—the propagation loss Will increase. More of the electromagnetic field strength occurs inside the insulating layer, increasing propagation loss. At a frequency much higher than the cut-off frequency (f c ), the guided electromagnetic wave is a result of the concentration of the field emitted by the guided electromagnetic wave on the insulating layer of the wire, as shown in FIG. Strongly coupled to insulated wires. This further increases the propagation loss due to absorption of the guided electromagnetic wave by the insulating layer. Similarly, as shown in FIG. 558, the propagation loss also increases when the operating frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave is much lower than the cutoff frequency (f c ). At frequencies much lower than the cut-off frequency (f c ), the guided electromagnetic waves are weakly (or nominally) coupled to the insulated wire and thereby have a tendency to radiate into the environment (eg, air). This increases propagation loss due to the radiation of the guided electromagnetic wave.

  Referring now to FIG. 6, a graphical diagram 600 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic field distribution is shown. In this embodiment, the transmission medium 602 is a bare wire as shown in cross section. The diagram 300 includes different gray scales representing different electromagnetic field strengths caused by the propagation of guided waves having symmetric and fundamental guided modes at a single carrier frequency.

  In this particular mode, electromagnetic waves are guided by the transmission medium 602 and propagate along the outer surface of the transmission medium—in this case, the outer surface of the bare wire. The electromagnetic waves are “lightly” coupled to the wires, allowing electromagnetic waves to propagate over long distances with low propagation loss. As shown, the wave guide has a field structure that is substantially external to the transmission medium 602 that functions to guide electromagnetic waves. The area inside the conductor 602 has little or no field at all.

  Referring now to FIG. 7, a block diagram 700 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an arc coupler is shown. In particular, the coupling device is presented for use with a transmitting device, such as transmitting device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. The coupling device includes an arc coupler 704 that is coupled to a transmitter circuit 712 and a termination or damper 714. The arc coupler 704 can be made of a dielectric material, other low loss insulator (eg, Teflon, polyethylene, etc.), a conductive (eg, metal, non-metal, etc.) material, or any combination of the above materials. As shown, arc coupler 704 operates as a waveguide and has a wave 706 that propagates as a waveguide around the waveguide surface of arc coupler 704. In the illustrated embodiment, at least a portion of the arc coupler 704 is disposed near a wire 702 or other transmission medium (such as transmission medium 125) to deliver a waveguide 708 over the wire. Coupling between the arc coupler 704 and the electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium can be facilitated as described in the document. The arc coupler 704 can be arranged such that a portion of the curved arc coupler 704 is tangential to and parallel or substantially parallel to the electrical wire 702. The portion of the arc coupler 704 that is parallel to the wire can be any point where the apex of the curve or the tangent of the curve is parallel to the wire 702. When the arc coupler 704 is positioned or positioned in this manner, the wave 706 traveling along the arc coupler 704 is at least partially coupled to the wire 702 and as a waveguide 708 around the wire surface of the wire 702 or The periphery propagates along the electric wire 702 in the longitudinal direction. Waveguide 708 can be characterized as a surface wave or other electromagnetic wave that is guided or coupled by wire 702 or other transmission medium.

  The portion of the wave 706 that is not coupled to the electrical wire 702 propagates along the arc coupler 704 as a wave 710. It will be appreciated that the arc coupler 704 may be configured and arranged at various locations relative to the wire 702 to achieve a desired level of coupling or decoupling of the wave 706 to the wire 702. For example, the curvature and / or length of arc coupler 704 that is parallel or substantially parallel and its separation distance to wire 702 (which in one embodiment may include a zero separation distance) Changes can be made without departing from the form. Similarly, the placement of the arc coupler 704 relative to the wire 702 can be determined by the unique characteristics (eg, thickness, composition, electromagnetic properties, etc.) of the wire 702 and arc coupler 704 and the characteristics of the waves 706 and 708 (eg, , Frequency, energy level, etc.).

  Waveguide 708 remains parallel or substantially parallel to wire 702 even when wire 702 is curved and bent. The curvature of the wire 702 can increase transmission loss, which also depends on the wire diameter, frequency, and material. If the dimensions of the arc coupler 704 are selected for efficient power transmission, most of the power in the wave 706 is transferred to the wire 702 and very little power remains in the wave 710. While traveling along a path parallel or substantially parallel to the electrical wire 702, the nature of the waveguide 708 is still multimodal, including having a non-basic or asymmetric mode with or without a fundamental transmission mode. It will be understood that (as discussed herein). In one embodiment, non-basic or asymmetric modes can be utilized to minimize transmission loss and / or increase propagation distance.

  Note that the term parallel is generally a geometrical configuration that is often not exactly achievable in real systems. Accordingly, the term parallel utilized in this disclosure represents an approximation rather than a strict configuration when used to describe the embodiments disclosed in this disclosure. In one embodiment, substantially parallel can include approximations that are within 30 degrees of true parallel in all dimensions.

  In one embodiment, the wave 706 may exhibit one or more wave propagation modes. The arc coupler mode may depend on the shape and / or design of the coupler 704. The one or more arc coupler mode waves 706 may generate, influence, or influence one or more wave propagation mode waveguides 708 that propagate along the wire 702. However, it should be particularly noted that the guided mode present in the waveguide 706 may be the same as or different from the guided mode of the waveguide 708. In this way, one or more guided mode waveguides 706 may not move to waveguide 708, and one or more other guided mode waveguides 708 may be guided by waveguide 706. It may not have existed. Note also that the cutoff frequency of arc coupler 704 in a particular guided mode may be different from the cutoff frequency of wire 702 or the cutoff frequency of other transmission media in the same mode. For example, a wire 702 or other transmission medium can operate slightly above the cutoff frequency of a particular guided mode, but the arc coupler 704 has a cutoff frequency of that same mode due to low loss. Can operate well above, eg, to induce greater coupling and transmission, slightly below the same mode cutoff frequency, or related to the cutoff frequency of the arc coupler in that mode And can work at some other point.

In one embodiment, the wave propagation mode on the wire 702 can be similar to the arc coupler mode because both waves 706 and 708 propagate around the outside of the arc coupler 704 and the wire 702, respectively. It is to do. In some embodiments, when the wave 706 is coupled to the electrical wire 702, the mode can change shape or create or create a new mode due to the coupling between the arc coupler 704 and the electrical wire 702. can do. For example, differences in the size, material, and / or impedance of the arc coupler 704 and wire 702 can create additional modes that do not exist in the arc coupler mode and / or suppress some of the arc coupler modes. Can do. The wave propagation mode is a fundamental transverse electromagnetic mode (pseudo TEM 00) in which only a small electric and / or magnetic field extends in the propagation direction, and the electric and magnetic fields extend radially outward while the waveguide propagates along the wire. ) Can be included. This guided mode may be donut shaped with a minority of the electromagnetic field present in the arc coupler 704 or wire 702.

  Waves 706 and 708 include fundamental TEM modes in which the field extends radially outward, as well as other non-fundamental (eg, asymmetric, higher order, etc.) modes. Specific wave propagation modes have been described above, but based on the frequency used, the design of the arc coupler 704, the size and composition of the wire 702 and its surface properties, its insulation if present, the electromagnetic properties of the surrounding environment, etc. Thus, other wave propagation modes such as transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes are possible as well. Depending on the frequency, the electrical and physical properties of the wire 702, and the particular wave propagation mode that is generated, the waveguide 708 may be along the conductive surface of the oxidized non-insulated wire, non-oxidized non-insulated wire, insulated wire. Note that and / or can proceed along the insulating surface of the insulated wire.

  In one embodiment, the diameter of the arc coupler 704 is smaller than the diameter of the wire 702. At the millimeter band wavelengths used, arc coupler 704 supports a single waveguide mode that makes up wave 706. This single waveguide mode can change when coupled to wire 702 as waveguide 708. If the arc coupler 704 is larger, it can support more than one waveguide mode, but these additional waveguide modes may not efficiently couple to the wire 702, resulting in coupling Loss can be high. However, in some alternative embodiments, for example, when higher coupling loss is desired or used in conjunction with other techniques to reduce coupling loss (e.g., impedance matching using taper), The diameter of the arc coupler 704 can be greater than or equal to the diameter of the wire 702.

  In one embodiment, the wavelengths of the waves 706 and 708 are the same size or smaller than the outer perimeter of the arc coupler 704 and the wire 702. In one example, if the wire 702 has a diameter of 0.5 cm and a corresponding outer circumference of about 1.5 cm, the wavelength of transmission is about 1.5 cm or less, corresponding to a frequency of 70 GHz or more. In another embodiment, suitable frequencies for the transmit and carrier signals are in the range of 30 GHz to 100 GHz, perhaps about 30 GHz to 60 GHz, and in one example about 38 GHz. In one embodiment, waves 706 and 708 may support the various communication systems described herein if the perimeter of arc coupler 704 and wire 702 is equal or larger in size and wavelength of transmission. Multiple wave propagation modes may be shown including fundamental and / or non-basic (symmetric and / or asymmetric) modes that propagate over a sufficient distance. Thus, waves 706 and 708 can include more than one type of electric and magnetic field configuration. In one embodiment, as the wave guide 708 propagates down the wire 702, the electric and magnetic field configurations remain the same from end to end of the wire 702. In other embodiments, when the waveguide 708 encounters interference (distortion or obstruction) or loses energy due to transmission loss or scattering, the magnetic and electric field configurations cause the waveguide 708 to propagate down the wire 702. Can change as you go.

  In one embodiment, the arc coupler 704 can be constructed of nylon, Teflon, polyethylene, polyamide, or other plastic. In other embodiments, other dielectric materials are possible. The wire surface of the wire 702 can be a metal having a bare metal surface, or can be insulated with plastic, dielectric, insulator, or other coating, jacket or sheath. In one embodiment, a dielectric or other non-conductive / insulated waveguide can be paired with a bare / metal wire or an insulated wire. In other embodiments, the metal and / or conductive waveguide can be paired with a bare / metal wire or an insulated wire. In one embodiment, the bare metal surface oxide layer of wire 702 (eg, resulting from exposure of the bare metal surface to oxygen / air) is also insulated similar to that provided by some insulator or sheath. Characteristics or dielectric properties can be provided.

  It is noted that the graphic representations of waves 706, 708, and 710 are merely presented to illustrate the principle that wave 706 directs or otherwise guides waveguide 708 to wire 702 that operates as a single layer transmission line, for example. I want. Wave 710 represents the portion of wave 706 that remains in arc coupler 704 after wave guide 708 is generated. The actual electric and magnetic fields generated as a result of such wave propagation are the frequency utilized, the particular wave propagation mode or modes, the design of the arc coupler 704, the dimensions and composition of the wire 702, and the surface It can vary depending on the characteristics, optional insulation, electromagnetic characteristics of the surrounding environment, etc.

  Note that arc coupler 704 may include a termination circuit or damper 714 at the end of arc coupler 704 that can absorb residual radiation or energy from wave 710. The termination circuit or damper 714 can avoid and / or minimize residual radiation or energy from the wave 710 that reflects toward the transmitter circuit 712. In one embodiment, the termination circuit or damper 714 may include termination resistors and / or other components that perform impedance matching to attenuate reflections. In some embodiments, if the coupling efficiency is high enough and / or the wave 710 is small enough, it may not be necessary to use a termination circuit or damper 714. For simplicity, these transmitters 712 and termination circuits or dampers 714 may not be shown in other figures, but in those embodiments it is likely to use transmitters and termination circuits or dampers. it can.

  In addition, a single arc coupler 704 that produces a single waveguide 708 is presented, but multiple arc couplers 704 located at different points along the wire 702 and / or at different orientations around the wire. Can be used to generate and receive multiple waveguides 708 at the same or different frequencies, the same or different phases, the same or different wave propagation modes.

  FIG. 8 shows a block diagram 800 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an arc coupler. In the illustrated embodiment, at least one portion of the coupler 704 is disposed near the electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium (such as transmission medium 125) to provide a connection between the arc coupler 704 and the electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium. A portion of the waveguide 806 can be extracted as a waveguide 808 as described herein. The arc coupler 704 can be arranged such that a portion of the curved arc coupler 704 is tangential to and parallel or substantially parallel to the electrical wire 702. The portion of the arc coupler 704 that is parallel to the wire can be any point where the apex of the curve or the tangent of the curve is parallel to the wire 702. When the arc coupler 704 is positioned or arranged in this manner, the wave 806 traveling along the electrical wire 702 is at least partially coupled to the arc coupler 704 and received along the arc coupler 704 as a waveguide 808. Propagate to the side device (not explicitly shown). The portion of the wave 806 that is not coupled to the arc coupler propagates as a wave 810 along the wire 702 or other transmission medium.

  In one embodiment, the wave 806 may exhibit one or more wave propagation modes. The arc coupler mode may depend on the shape and / or design of the coupler 704. One or more modes of waveguide 806 may create, influence, or influence one or more guided modes of waveguide 808 that propagates along arc coupler 704. However, it should be particularly noted that the guided mode present in the waveguide 806 can be the same as or different from the guided mode of the waveguide 808. In this way, one or more guided mode waveguides 806 may not move to waveguide 808, and one or more other guided mode waveguides 808 may be guided by waveguide 806. It may not have existed.

  Referring now to FIG. 9A, a block diagram 900 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a stub coupler is shown. In particular, a coupling device that includes a stub coupler 904 is presented for use with a transmission device, such as transmission device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. The stub coupler 904 can be made of a dielectric material, other low loss insulator (eg, Teflon, polyethylene, etc.), a conductive (eg, metal, non-metal, etc.) material, or any combination of the above materials. As shown, the stub coupler 904 has a wave 906 that operates as a waveguide and propagates as a waveguide around the waveguide surface of the stub coupler 904. In the illustrated embodiment, at least one portion of the stub coupler 904 is disposed near the electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium (such as transmission medium 125) to provide a stub coupler 904 as described herein. Can be coupled to the electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium to deliver a waveguide 908 to the electrical wire.

  In one embodiment, the stub coupler 904 is curved and the end of the stub coupler 904 can be tied to the wire 702, secured, or otherwise mechanically coupled. When the end of the stub coupler 904 is secured to the electrical wire 702, the end of the stub coupler 904 is parallel or substantially parallel to the electrical wire 702. Alternatively, another portion of the dielectric waveguide beyond the end can be secured or coupled to the wire 702 such that the portion to be secured or coupled is parallel or substantially parallel to the wire 702. The fastener 910 may be separate from the nylon cable ties or stub coupler 904 or may be other types of non-conductive / dielectric material constructed as an integral component of the stub coupler 904. The stub coupler 904 can be adjacent to the wire 702 without surrounding the wire 702.

  Like the arc coupler 704 described in connection with FIG. 7, when the stub coupler 904 is positioned with its ends parallel to the electrical wire 702, the waveguide 906 traveling along the stub coupler 904 is The wire 702 is coupled to the wire 702 and propagates around the wire surface of the wire 702 as a waveguide 908. In exemplary embodiments, the waveguide 908 can be characterized as a surface wave or other electromagnetic wave.

  Note that the graphical representations of waves 906 and 908 are presented merely to illustrate the principle that wave 906 directs or otherwise guides wave guide 908 to electrical wire 702 operating as a single wire transmission line, for example. The actual electric and magnetic fields generated as a result of such wave propagation are the shape and / or design of the coupler, the relative position of the dielectric waveguide relative to the wire, the frequency used, the design of the stub coupler 904, the wire 702. May vary depending on one or more of the following: size and composition, surface characteristics thereof, optional insulation of the electrical wire 702, electromagnetic properties of the surrounding environment, and the like.

  In one embodiment, the end of the stub coupler 904 has a tapered shape toward the wire 702, which can increase the coupling efficiency. Indeed, the tapered shape of the end of the stub coupler 904 can provide impedance matching to the wire 702 and reduce reflection, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure. For example, the end of the stub coupler 904 can gradually taper to obtain a desired level of coupling between the waves 906 and 908 as shown in FIG. 9A.

  In one embodiment, the fixture 910 can be positioned such that there is a short length stub coupler 904 between the fixture 910 and the end of the stub coupler 904. Maximum coupling efficiency is achieved in this embodiment when the length of the end of the stub coupler 904 beyond the fixture 910 is at least several times the wavelength of the frequency being transmitted, regardless of the frequency being transmitted. The

  Referring now to FIG. 9B, illustrated is a diagram 950 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of an electromagnetic distribution in accordance with various aspects described herein. In particular, in one example, the electromagnetic distribution in the case of a transmitting device including a coupler 952 shown in a stub coupler constructed of a dielectric material is presented in two dimensions. Coupler 952 couples electromagnetic waves for propagation as a waveguide along the outer surface of electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium.

Coupler 952 is guided through the electromagnetic wave at the junction of the x 0 through symmetrical guided mode. Some of the energy of the electromagnetic wave propagating along the coupler 952 is external to the coupler 952, but most of the energy of this electromagnetic wave is contained within the coupler 952. joint portions in the x 0 is coupled to the wire 702, or other transmission medium electromagnetic waves in the azimuth angle corresponding to the lower portion of the transmission medium. This coupling induces electromagnetic waves that are guided to propagate along the outer surface of the wire 702 or other transmission medium via at least one guided mode in direction 956. The majority of the energy of the guided electromagnetic wave is outside of the outer surface of the electrical wire 702 or other transmission medium, but is in the vicinity of the outer surface. In the example shown, the junction at x 0 is of a symmetric mode and of at least one asymmetric surface mode, such as the primary mode presented in connection with FIG. 3, passing very close to the surface of the wire 702 or other transmission medium. It forms an electromagnetic wave that propagates through both.

  Note that the graphical representation of the waveguide is presented merely to illustrate examples of waveguide coupling and propagation. The actual electric and magnetic fields generated as a result of such wave propagation are the frequency utilized, the design and / or configuration of the coupler 952, the dimensions and composition of the wire 702 or other transmission medium, and its surface properties, If present, it can vary depending on insulation, electromagnetic characteristics of the surrounding environment, and the like.

  Referring now to FIG. 10A, shown is a block diagram 1000 of an example non-limiting embodiment of a combiner and transceiver system in accordance with various aspects described herein. The system is an example of the transmission device 101 or 102. In particular, communication interface 1008 is an example of communication interface 205, stub combiner 1002 is an example of combiner 220, transmitter / receiver device 1006, diplexer 1016, power amplifier 1014, low noise amplifier 1018, frequency mixer. 1010 and 1020 and the local oscillator 1012 collectively constitute an example of the transceiver 210.

  In operation, transmitter / receiver device 1006 sends and receives waves (eg, waveguide 1004 to stub coupler 1002). Waveguide 1004 can be used by communication interface 1008 to send signals received from and transmitted to a host device, base station, mobile device, building, or other device. Communication interface 1008 may be an integral part of system 1000. Alternatively, the communication interface 1008 can be coupled to the system 1000. Communication interface 1008 is a host that utilizes any of a variety of wireless signaling protocols (eg, LTE, WiFi, WiMAX, IEEE 802.xx, etc.), including infrared protocols such as the Infrared Communication Association (IrDA) protocol or other line-of-sight optical protocols. It may include a wireless interface that interfaces with a device, base station, mobile device, building, or other device. The communication interface 1008 is a wired interface such as an optical fiber line, a coaxial cable, a twisted pair cable, a category 5 (CAT-5) cable, an Ethernet protocol, a universal serial bus (USB) protocol, a data service interface standard (DOCSIS) protocol using a cable. Communicate with host devices, base stations, mobile devices, buildings, or other devices via protocols such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) protocol, FireWire (IEEE 1394) protocol, or other wired or optical protocols Any suitable wired or optical medium may also be included. In embodiments where the system 1000 functions as a repeater, the communication interface 1008 may not be necessary.

  The output signal (eg, Tx) of communication interface 1008 can be combined with a carrier wave (eg, millimeter wave carrier wave) generated by local oscillator 1012 in frequency mixer 1010. The frequency mixer 1010 can frequency shift the output signal from the communication interface 1008 using a heterodyne technique or other frequency shifting technique. For example, signals transmitted to and from communication interface 1008 may be Long Term Evolution (LTE) wireless protocol or other wireless 3G, 4G, 5G or higher order voice and data protocols, Zigbee, WIMAX, ultra-wideband Or IEEE 802.11 wireless protocol; Ethernet protocol, universal serial bus (USB) protocol, cabled data service interface standard (DOCSIS) protocol, digital subscriber line (DSL) protocol, firewire (IEEE 1394) protocol or other wired protocol, or Variables such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signals formatted according to other wired or wireless protocols It may be a signal. In an exemplary embodiment, this frequency conversion can be performed in the analog domain, and as a result, the frequency shift can be performed regardless of the type of communication protocol used by the base station, mobile device, or in-building device. . As new communication technologies are developed, the communication interface 1008 can be upgraded (eg, updated using software, firmware, and / or hardware) or replaced, leaving the frequency shift and transmission device intact. Upgrade can be simplified. The carrier wave can then be transmitted to a power amplifier (“PA”) 1014 and can be transmitted via the diplexer 1016 via the transmitter receiver device 1006.

  Signals received from transmitter / receiver device 1006 and directed to communication interface 1008 can be separated from other signals via diplexer 1016. The received signal can then be sent to a low noise amplifier (“LNA”) 1018 for amplification. The frequency mixer 1020 can shift the received signal (in some embodiments in the millimeter waveband or about 38 GHz) down to its original frequency with the help of the local oscillator 1012. The communication interface 1008 can then receive the transmission at the input port (Rx).

  In one embodiment, the transmitter / receiver device 1006 may be a cylindrical or non-cylindrical metal (eg, may be hollow in one embodiment, but not necessarily drawn to scale), or other conductive Or it can include a non-conductive waveguide, and the end of the stub coupler 1002 is placed in the waveguide or transmitter / receiver device 1006 or proximate to the waveguide or transmitter / receiver device 1006 So that when the transmitter / receiver device 1006 generates a transmission, the waveguide is coupled to the stub coupler 1002 and propagates as a waveguide 1004 around the waveguide surface of the stub coupler 1002. can do. In some embodiments, the waveguide 1004 can propagate partially on the outer surface of the stub coupler 1002 and partially within the stub coupler 1002. In other embodiments, the waveguide 1004 can propagate substantially or completely on the outer surface of the stub coupler 1002. In yet another embodiment, the waveguide 1004 can propagate substantially or completely within the stub coupler 1002. In this latter embodiment, the waveguide 1004 radiates at the end of the stub coupler 1002 (such as the tapered end shown in FIG. 4) for coupling to a transmission medium such as the wire 702 of FIG. Can do. Similarly, when the waveguide 1004 is coming (coupled from the wire 702 to the stub coupler 1002), the waveguide 1004 enters the transmitter / receiver device 1006 and becomes a cylindrical or conductive waveguide. Join. The transmitter / receiver device 1006 is shown to include a separate waveguide, but utilizes an antenna, cavity resonator, klystron, magnetron, traveling wave tube or other radiating element with or without a separate waveguide. Thus, a guided wave can be induced on the coupler 1002.

  In one embodiment, the stub coupler 1002 can be composed entirely of dielectric material (or another suitable insulating material) without using any metal or other conductive material. The stub coupler 1002 is nylon, Teflon, polyethylene, polyamide, other plastics, or other non-conductive and suitable for facilitating transmission of electromagnetic waves at least in part on the outer surface of such materials. It can be comprised from the material of. In another embodiment, the stub coupler 1002 can include a core that is conductive / metal and have an outer dielectric surface. Similarly, the transmission medium coupled to the stub coupler 1002 for propagating the electromagnetic wave induced by the stub coupler 1002 or supplying the electromagnetic wave to the stub coupler 1002 is a bare wire or an insulated wire. In addition, it can be composed entirely of dielectric material (or another suitable insulating material) without the use of any metal or other conductive material.

  FIG. 10A shows that the opening of the transmitter receiver device 1006 is much wider than the stub coupler 1002, which is not to scale, and in other embodiments the width of the stub coupler 1002 is Note that it is as small or slightly smaller than the hollow waveguide opening. Also, although not shown, in one embodiment, the end of the coupler 1002 inserted into the transmitter / receiver device 1006 is tapered to reduce reflection and increase coupling efficiency.

Prior to coupling to the stub coupler 1002, one or more waveguide modes of the waveguide generated by the transmitter / receiver device 1006 are coupled to the stub coupler 1002, and one or more of the waveguides 1004 are coupled. The wave propagation mode can be induced. The wave propagation mode of the waveguide 1004 may be different from the hollow metal waveguide mode due to the difference in characteristics between the hollow metal waveguide and the dielectric waveguide. For example, the wave propagation mode of the waveguide 1004 can include a fundamental transverse electromagnetic mode (pseudo TEM 00 ), in which a small electric field and / or while the waveguide propagates along the stub coupler 1002. Only the magnetic field extends in the propagation direction, and the electric and magnetic fields extend radially outward from the stub coupler 1002. The fundamental transverse electromagnetic mode wave propagation mode may or may not exist inside a hollow waveguide. Thus, the hollow metal waveguide mode used by the transmitter / receiver device 1006 is a waveguide mode that can be effectively and efficiently coupled to the wave propagation mode of the stub coupler 1002.

  It will be appreciated that other configurations or combinations of transmitter / receiver device 1006 and stub combiner 1002 are possible. For example, as indicated by reference numeral 1000 ′ in FIG. 10B, the stub coupler 1002 ′ is the outer surface of the hollow metal waveguide of the transmitter / receiver device 1006 ′ (corresponding circuitry not shown). Can be arranged tangentially or parallel to (with or without a gap). In another embodiment not indicated by reference numeral 1000 ′, the stub coupler 1002 ′ can be placed inside the hollow metal waveguide of the transmitter / receiver device 1006 ′, and the stub coupler 1002 ′. Is not required to be coaxially aligned with the axis of the hollow metal waveguide of the transmitter / receiver device 1006 ′. In any of these embodiments, the waveguide generated by the transmitter / receiver device 1006 ′ is coupled to the surface of the stub coupler 1002 ′ to provide fundamental mode (eg, symmetric mode) and / or non-basic. One or more wave propagation mode waveguides 1004 ′ including modes (eg, asymmetric modes) can be guided onto the stub coupler 1002 ′.

  In one embodiment, the waveguide 1004 'can partially propagate on the outer surface of the stub coupler 1002' and partially propagate inside the stub coupler 1002 '. In another embodiment, the waveguide 1004 'can propagate substantially or completely on the outer surface of the stub coupler 1002'. In yet another embodiment, the waveguide 1004 'can propagate substantially or completely within the stub coupler 1002'. In this latter embodiment, the waveguide 1004 ′ is coupled to a transmission medium such as the wire 702 of FIG. 9 at the end of the stub coupler 1002 ′ (such as the tapered end shown in FIG. 9). Can be emitted.

  It will be further appreciated that other configurations of the transmitter / receiver device 1006 are possible. For example, the hollow metal waveguide of the transmitter / receiver device 1006 '' (corresponding circuitry not shown) is shown as stub coupler 1002 as shown in FIG. Without being used, it can be arranged tangentially or parallel to the outer surface of the transmission medium such as the electric wire 702 in FIG. 4 (with or without a gap). In this embodiment, the waveguides generated by the transmitter / receiver device 1006 '' are coupled to the surface of the electrical wire 702 and can be fundamental mode (eg, symmetric mode) and / or non-fundamental mode (eg, asymmetric mode). ) Of one or more wave propagation modes including) can be induced on the wire 702. In another embodiment, the wire 702 can be positioned within the hollow metal waveguide of the transmitter / receiver device 1006 ′ ″ (corresponding circuitry not shown), thereby providing a wire 702. Is aligned coaxially (or not coaxially) with the hollow metal waveguide axis without the use of a stub coupler 1002—reference number 1000 ′ in FIG. 10B. See ''. In this embodiment, the waveguide generated by the transmitter / receiver device 1006 ′ ″ couples to the surface of the electrical wire 702 to provide a fundamental mode (eg, symmetric mode) and / or a non-fundamental mode (eg, asymmetric). One or more wave propagation modes 908 including (mode) can be guided over the wire.

  In the embodiment of 1000 ″ and 1000 ′ ″, in the case of an electrical wire 702 having an insulating outer surface, the waveguide 908 partially propagates on the outer surface of the insulator and partially propagates inside the insulator. Can do. In embodiments, the waveguide 908 can propagate substantially or completely on the outer surface of the insulator, or can propagate substantially or completely inside the insulator. In the 1000 ″ and 1000 ′ ″ embodiments, for a wire 702 that is a bare conductor, the waveguide 908 may partially propagate on the outer surface of the conductor and partially propagate within the conductor. it can. In another embodiment, the waveguide 908 can propagate substantially or completely on the outer surface of the conductor.

  Referring now to FIG. 11, a block diagram 1100 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a double stub coupler is shown. In particular, the double coupler design is presented for use with a transmitting device, such as transmitting device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. In one embodiment, two or more couplers (such as stub couplers 1104 and 1106) can be positioned around wire 1102 to receive waveguide 1108. In one embodiment, one coupler is sufficient to receive the waveguide 1108. In that case, waveguide 1108 couples to coupler 1104 and propagates as waveguide 1110. If the field structure of the waveguide 1108 vibrates or waves around the wire 1102 due to a particular guided mode or various external factors, the coupler 1106 is positioned so that the waveguide 1108 couples to the coupler 1106. be able to. In some embodiments, guided waves that may oscillate or rotate around the wire 1102, guided waves in different orientations, or non-directional, for example, orientation dependent lobes and / or nulls or other asymmetries. Four or more couplers can be placed around a portion of the wire 1102, for example 90 degrees from each other, or at other intervals, to receive a guided wave having a fundamental mode or higher order modes. However, it will be appreciated that fewer or more than four couplers may be disposed around a portion of the wire 1102 without departing from the exemplary embodiment.

  The couplers 1106 and 1104 are shown as stub couplers, but any other coupler design described herein including arc couplers, antenna or horn couplers, magnetic couplers, etc. can be used as well. Note that there are. Also, although some example embodiments have presented multiple couplers around at least a portion of the wire 1102, the multiple couplers are single couplings having multiple coupler subcomponents. It will also be appreciated that it can be considered as part of the vessel system. For example, two or more couplers can be manufactured as a single system that can be installed around a wire in a single installation, whereby the couplers are pre-positioned according to the single system. Or adjustable relative to each other (manually or automatically using a controllable mechanism such as a motor or other actuator).

  A receiver coupled to combiners 1106 and 1104 can combine the signals received from both combiners 1106 and 1104 using diversity combining to maximize signal quality. In other embodiments, if either one of the combiners 1104 and 1106 receives transmissions above a predetermined threshold, the receiver may use selection diversity when determining which signal to use. it can. Further, although reception by multiple combiners 1106 and 1104 is shown, transmission by combiners 1106 and 1104 in the same configuration can be performed as well. In particular, a wide range of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission / reception techniques are available for transmissions including transmission devices 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. 1 including multiple transceivers and multiple combiners. is there.

  Note that the graphical representations of waves 1108 and 1110 are only presented to illustrate the principle that wave guide 1108 directs or otherwise delivers wave 1110 onto coupler 1104. The actual electric and magnetic fields generated as a result of such wave propagation are the frequency used, the design of the coupler 1104, the dimensions and composition of the wire 1102, and its surface properties, insulation if present, the ambient environment It can be changed according to the electromagnetic characteristics and the like.

  Referring now to FIG. 12, a block diagram 1200 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a repeater system is shown. In particular, a repeater device 1210 is provided for use with a transmitting device such as the transmitting device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. In this system, a waveguide 1205 propagating along the wire 1202 is extracted as a wave 1206 (eg, as a waveguide) by the coupler 1204 and then boosted or reproduced by the repeater device 1210 as a wave 1216 (eg, Two couplers 1204 and 1214 can be placed near the wire 1202 or other transmission medium to be delivered onto the coupler 1214 (as a waveguide). The wave 1216 can then be sent out on the wire 1202 and continue to propagate along the wire 1202 as a waveguide 1217. In one embodiment, repeater device 1210 receives at least a portion of the power utilized for boosting or reproduction through magnetic field coupling with wire 1202, for example, when wire 1202 is a power line or otherwise includes a power transmission conductor. be able to. Couplers 1204 and 1214 are shown as stub couplers, but any other types of coupler designs described herein, such as arc couplers, antenna or horn couplers, or magnetic couplers, etc. Note that can be used.

  In some embodiments, the repeater device 1210 can reproduce the transmission associated with the wave 1206, and in other embodiments the repeater device 1210 can extract data or other signals from the wave 1206 to Such data or signals to another network and / or one or more other devices as communication signal 110 or 112 and / or communication signal 110 or 112 to another network and / or one or more A communication interface 205 for receiving from other devices can be included, and a waveguide 1216 having the received communication signal 110 or 112 embedded therein can be transmitted. In a repeater configuration, the receiver waveguide 1208 can receive the wave 1206 from the coupler 1204, and the transmitter waveguide 1212 can deliver the waveguide 1216 as the waveguide 1217 onto the coupler 1214. Between receiver waveguide 1208 and transmitter waveguide 1212, the signal embedded in waveguide 1206 and / or waveguide 1216 itself is amplified to compensate for signal loss and other inefficiencies associated with waveguide communications. Or the signal can be received and processed, and the data contained therein can be extracted and played back for transmission. In one embodiment, the receiver waveguide 1208 extracts data from the signal, processes the data, corrects the data error using, for example, an error correction code, and is updated with the corrected data. It can be configured to reproduce the signal. The transmitter waveguide 1212 can then transmit the waveguide 1216 in which the updated signal is embedded. In one embodiment, the signal embedded in the waveguide 1206 is extracted from the transmission and processed to another network and / or one or more other devices via the communication interface 205 as the communication signal 110 or 112. Can communicate with. Similarly, the communication signal 110 or 112 received by the communication interface 205 can be inserted into the transmission of the waveguide 1216 that is generated by the transmitter waveguide 1212 and sent to the coupler 1214.

  It should be noted that FIG. 12 shows waveguide transmissions 1206 and 1216, each entering from the left and exiting to the right, but this is for simplicity only and is not intended to be limiting. In other embodiments, receiver waveguide 1208 and transmitter waveguide 1212 can also serve as transmitter and receiver, respectively, thereby allowing repeater device 1210 to be bi-directional.

  In one embodiment, repeater device 1210 may be placed where there are intermittent or obstructions on wire 1202 or other transmission medium. If the wire 1202 is a power line, these obstacles can include transformers, connections, utility poles, and other such power line devices. The repeater device 1210 can facilitate waveguiding (eg, surface waves) over these obstacles on the line and simultaneously boosting the transmitted power. In other embodiments, a coupler can be used to overcome an obstacle without using a repeater device. In that embodiment, both ends of the coupler can be connected to or secured to the wire, thereby providing a path for the guided wave to travel without being obstructed by the obstruction.

  Referring now to FIG. 13, illustrated is a block diagram 1300 of an example non-limiting embodiment of a bidirectional repeater in accordance with various aspects described herein. In particular, the interactive repeater device 1306 is presented for use with a transmitting device such as the transmitting device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. Although the coupler is shown as a stub coupler, any other coupler design described herein, including arc couplers, antenna or horn couplers, magnetic couplers, etc. can be used as well. Please note that. The bi-directional repeater 1306 can utilize a diversity path when there are two or more wires or other transmission media. Waveguide transmission has different transmission and coupling efficiencies with different types of transmission media, such as insulated wires, non-insulated wires, or other types of transmission media, and when exposed to elements, weather and other atmospheres Since it can be influenced by the situation, it may be advantageous to selectively transmit on different transmission media at specific times. In various embodiments, the various transmission media may be referred to as primary, secondary, tertiary, etc., regardless of whether the designation indicates that one transmission medium is preferred over another.

  In the illustrated embodiment, the transmission medium includes an insulated or non-insulated wire 1302 and an insulated or non-insulated wire 1304 (referred to herein as wires 1302 and 1304, respectively). The repeater device 1306 receives the waveguide traveling along the wire 1302 using the receiver coupler 1308 and reproduces the transmission using the transmitter waveguide 1310 as a waveguide along the wire 1304. In other embodiments, the repeater device 1306 can switch from the wire 1304 to the wire 1302 or can reproduce its transmission along the same path. The repeater device 1306 may include sensors that indicate conditions that may affect the transmission, or may communicate with such sensors (or the network management system 1601 shown in FIG. 16A). Based on the feedback received from the sensor, repeater device 1306 can make a determination as to whether to keep the transmission along the same wire or forward the transmission to another wire.

  Referring now to FIG. 14, a block diagram 1400 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a bidirectional repeater system is shown. In particular, the interactive repeater system is presented for use with a transmitting device, such as transmitting device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. The bi-directional repeater system includes waveguide coupling devices 1402 and 1404 that receive and transmit transmissions from distributed antenna systems or other coupling devices located within the backhaul system.

  In various embodiments, the waveguide coupling device 1402 can receive a transmission from another waveguide coupling device, the transmission having multiple subcarriers. A diplexer 1406 may separate the transmission from other transmissions and send the transmission to a low noise amplifier (“LNA”) 1408. The frequency mixer 1428 receives the assistance from the local oscillator 1412 and transmits it (in some embodiments, in the millimeter wave band or about 38 GHz) to the cellular band (about 1.9 GHz) for a distributed antenna system. Can shift down to lower frequencies, such as the original frequency, or other frequencies in the case of a backhaul system. An extractor (or demultiplexer) 1432 extracts the signal on the subcarrier, sends the signal to the output component 1422, and optionally amplifies, buffers, or separates it by the power amplifier 1424 and couples it to the communication interface 205. be able to. The communication interface 205 further processes the signal received from the power amplifier 1424 or otherwise transmits such signal via wireless or wired interface to other devices such as base stations, mobile devices, buildings, etc. can do. For signals that are not extracted at this location, the extractor 1432 can redirect them to another frequency mixer 1436 where the signal is used to modulate the carrier wave generated by the local oscillator 1414. It is done. The carrier is sent along with its subcarriers to a power amplifier (“PA”) 1416 and retransmitted by waveguide coupling device 1404 to another system via diplexer 1420.

  The LNA 1426 can be used to amplify, buffer, or separate the signal received from the communication interface 205 and then send the signal to the multiplexer 1434, which receives from the waveguide coupling device 1404. Fusing the signal with the signal. The signal received from the coupling device 1404 has been split by the diplexer 1420 and then passed through the LNA 1418 and shifted down in frequency by the frequency mixer 1438. When the signal is combined by multiplexer 1434, the frequency is shifted up by frequency mixer 1430 and then boosted by PA 1410 and transmitted to another system by waveguide coupling device 1402. In one embodiment, the bi-directional repeater system may be simply a repeater that does not have an output device 1422. In this embodiment, multiplexer 1434 is not utilized and the signal from LNA 1418 is sent to mixer 1430 as described above. It will be appreciated that in some embodiments, the bidirectional repeater system may be implemented using two different separate unidirectional repeaters. In alternative embodiments, the bi-directional repeater system can be a booster or can perform retransmissions without any other downshifts and upshifts. In practice, in an exemplary embodiment, the retransmission receives the signal or waveguide and performs some signal or waveguide processing or shaping, filtering, and / or amplification prior to the retransmission of the signal or waveguide. Can be based on performing.

  Turning now to FIG. 15, a block diagram 1500 illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide communication system is shown. This figure illustrates an exemplary environment in which a waveguide communication system such as the waveguide communication system presented in connection with FIG. 1 may be used.

  To provide network connectivity to additional base station devices, backhaul networks that link communication cells (eg, microcells and macrocells) to core network network devices are correspondingly expanded. Similarly, an enhanced communication system that links base station devices to a distributed antenna is desirable to provide network connectivity to the distributed antenna system. A waveguide communication system 1500 such as that shown in FIG. 15 may be provided to allow alternative, augmented, or additional network connections, and the waveguide coupling system may be a single wire transmission line (eg, a utility line). Line) and can be used as a waveguide and / or transmit and / or transmit guided wave (eg, surface wave) over a transmission medium such as an electrical wire that otherwise operates to induce transmission of electromagnetic waves Can be provided to receive.

  The waveguide communication system 1500 includes a first instance 1550 of a distributed system that includes one or more base station devices (eg, base station device 1504) that are communicatively coupled to a central office 1501 and / or a macrocell site 1502. Can be included. Base station device 1504 can be connected to macrocell site 1502 and central office 1501 by wired connection (eg, fiber and / or cable) or wireless connection (eg, microwave wireless connection). A second instance 1560 of the distributed system may be used to provide wireless voice and data services to mobile devices 1522 and residential and / or commercial facilities 1542 (referred to herein as facilities 1542). The system 1500 can have additional instances 1550 and 1560 of distributed systems that provide voice and / or data services to mobile devices 1522-1524 and facilities 1542, as shown in FIG.

  Macrocells, such as macrocell site 1502, can have dedicated connections to mobile networks and base station devices 1504, or can be shared, and / or other connections can be used. Central office 1501 may be used to distribute media content and / or provide Internet Service Provider (ISP) services to mobile devices 1522-1524 and facility 1542. Central office 1501 receives media content from a collection of satellites 1530 (one of which is shown in FIG. 15) or other content source, and through its first and second instances 1550 and 1560 of the distributed system. Such content can be delivered to mobile devices 1522-1524 and facility 1542. Central office 1501 may also be communicatively coupled to the Internet 1503, thereby providing Internet data services to mobile devices 1522-1524 and facility 1542.

  Base station device 1504 can be mounted on or attached to a utility pole 1516. In other embodiments, the base station device 1504 can be near the transformer and / or elsewhere near the power line. Base station device 1504 can facilitate connection of mobile devices 1522 and 1524 to a mobile network. Antennas 1512 and 1514 mounted on or near utility poles 1518 and 1520, respectively, receive signals from base station device 1504 and than antennas 1512 and 1514 are located at or near base station device 1504. Those signals can be transmitted to mobile devices 1522 and 1524 over a much larger area.

  Note that FIG. 15 displays three utility poles with one base station device in each instance 1550 and 1560 of the distributed system for simplicity. In other embodiments, the utility pole 1516 can have a greater number of base station devices, with more utility poles being connected to distributed antennas and / or facilities 1542.

  Transmitting device 1506, such as transmitting device 101 or 102 presented in connection with FIG. 1, transmits signals from base station device 1504 to antennas 1512 and 1514 via utilities or power lines connecting utility poles 1516, 1518, and 1520. be able to. To transmit the signal, the wireless source and / or transmission device 1506 upconverts the signal from the base station device 1504 (eg, via frequency mixing) or microwaves the signal from the base station device 1504. The other is converted to a band signal, and the transmitting device 1506 emits a microwave band wave, which, as described in the previous embodiment, is as a wave guide traveling along a utility line or other wire. Propagate. At utility pole 1518, another transmitting device 1508 receives the guided wave (and can optionally amplify the guided wave as necessary or desired, or as a repeater that receives and regenerates the guided wave. Transfer) as a wave guide on utility lines or other wires. The transmitting device 1508 extracts the signal from the microwave band waveguide and shifts its frequency down, or else the original cellular band frequency (eg, 1.9 GHz or other defined cellular frequency) or another It can also be converted to a cellular (or non-cellular) band frequency. Antenna 1512 can wirelessly transmit the down-shifted signal to mobile device 1522. The process can be repeated with transmitting device 1510, antenna 1514, and mobile device 1524 as needed or desired.

  Transmissions from mobile devices 1522 and 1524 can also be received by antennas 1512 and 1514, respectively. Transmitting devices 1508 and 1510 shift the cellular band signal up to the microwave band or otherwise convert the signal to the base station device 1504 via the power line as a guided wave (eg, surface wave or other electromagnetic wave) transmission. Can be sent to.

  Media content received by the central office 1501 can be provided to the second instance 1560 of the distributed system via the base station device 1504 for distribution to the mobile device 1522 and the facility 1542. The transmitting device 1510 can be connected to the facility 1542 by one or more wired connections or wireless interfaces. The one or more wired connections include, but are not limited to, power lines, coaxial cables, fiber cables, twisted pair cables, waveguide transmission media, or other suitable wired to deliver media content and / or provide Internet services. Media can be included. In the exemplary embodiment, the wired connection from the transmitting device 1510 is connected to one or more corresponding service area interfaces (SAI—not shown) or one or more ultra high-speed digital subscriber lines located at the pedestal. A (VDSL) modem can be communicatively coupled, with each SAI or pedestal serving a portion of the facility 1542. A VDSL modem can be used to selectively distribute media content and / or provide Internet services to a gateway (not shown) located at the facility 1542. The SAI or pedestal can also be communicatively coupled to the facility 1542 via a wired medium, such as a power line, coaxial cable, fiber cable, twisted pair cable, waveguide transmission medium, or other suitable wired medium. In other exemplary embodiments, the transmitting device 1510 can be communicatively coupled directly to the facility 1542 without an intermediate interface such as SAI or pedestal.

  In another exemplary embodiment, system 1500 can utilize a diversity path, in which two or more transmission lines or other wires are stretched between utility poles 1516, 1518, and 1520 (eg, Redundant transmissions from the base station / macrocell site 1502 are transmitted downstream on the surface of the transmission line or other wires as a wave guide. Transmission lines or other wires can be either insulated or non-insulated, and depending on the environmental conditions that cause transmission loss, the coupling device selectively receives signals from insulated or non-insulated transmission wires or other wires can do. The selection can be based on a measurement of the signal to noise ratio of the wire or can be based on specified weather / environment conditions (eg, moisture detectors, weather forecasts, etc.). Using a diversity path with the system 1500 may allow alternative routing capabilities, load balancing, increased load handling, simultaneous bi-directional or synchronous communication, spread spectrum communication, and so forth.

  Note that the use of transmitting devices 1506, 1508, and 1510 in FIG. 15 is merely an example and other uses are possible in other embodiments. For example, the transmitting device can be used in a backhaul communication system that provides network connectivity to a base station device. Transmitting devices 1506, 1508, and 1510 can be used in many situations where it is desirable to transmit waveguide communications over electrical wires, whether or not they are insulated. Transmitting devices 1506, 1508, and 1510 are more than other coupling devices due to lack of contact with electrical wires that can carry high voltages or due to limited physical and / or electrical contact. This is an excellent improvement. Transmitting devices are separated from the wire (e.g., as long as they are not in electrical contact with the wire so that the dielectric functions as an insulator, is inexpensive, easy and / or allows for low complexity installation) , Spaced from the electrical wire) and / or on the electrical wire. However, as described above, for example, in a configuration in which the electric wire uses a telephone network, a cable TV network, a broadband data service, an optical fiber communication system, or other networks having a low voltage or having an insulated transmission line. Conductive or non-dielectric couplers can be utilized.

  It is further noted that although base station device 1504 and macrocell site 1502 are illustrated in the embodiments, other network configurations are possible as well. For example, a device such as an access point or other wireless gateway may be utilized as well to establish a wireless local area network, wireless personal area network, or 802.11 protocol, WIMAX protocol, ultra wideband protocol, Bluetooth protocol, Zigbee The communication range of other networks, such as other wireless networks that operate according to a communication protocol such as a protocol or other wireless protocol, can be increased.

  Referring now to FIGS. 16A and 16B, a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a system for managing a power network communication system is shown. Considering FIG. 16A, a waveguide system 1602 is presented for use in a waveguide communication system, such as the system presented in connection with FIG. The waveguide system 1602 can include a transmitting device 101 or 102 that includes a sensor 1604, a power management system 1605, at least one communication interface 205, a transceiver 210, and a coupler 220.

  The waveguide system 1602 can be coupled to the power line 1610 to facilitate waveguide communication according to embodiments described in this disclosure. In the exemplary embodiment, transmitting device 101 or 102 includes a coupler 220 that induces electromagnetic waves on the surface of power line 1610 that propagate longitudinally along the surface of power line 1610, as described in this disclosure. . The transmitting device 101 or 102 can also function as a repeater that retransmits electromagnetic waves on the same power line 1610 or routes electromagnetic waves between the power lines 1610 as shown in FIGS.

  The transmitting device 101 or 102, for example, operates at a carrier frequency that propagates a signal operating in the original frequency range along the coupler and induces a corresponding guided electromagnetic wave that propagates along the surface of the power line 1610. Or transceiver 210 configured to upconvert to an electromagnetic wave associated with or indicative of the carrier frequency. The carrier frequency can be represented by a center frequency having an upper limit and a lower limit cutoff frequency that define the bandwidth of the electromagnetic wave. The power line 1610 can be a wire (eg, a single wire or a stranded wire) having a conductive surface or an insulating surface. The transceiver 210 can receive a signal from the coupler 220 and down-convert an electromagnetic wave operating at a carrier frequency to a signal having the original frequency.

  The signal received by the communication interface 205 of the transmitting device 101 or 102 for up-conversion is not limited, and the signal supplied by the central office 1611 via the wired or wireless interface of the communication interface 205, the wired of the communication interface 205 Or a signal supplied by the base station 1614 via a wireless interface, a wired signal of the communication interface 205 or a wireless signal transmitted by the mobile device 1620 to the base station 1614 for distribution via the wireless interface, Mobile that roams to the wireless communication range of the communication interface 205 and / or signals provided by the in-building communication device 1618 via the wireless interface It may include a wireless signal to be supplied to the communication interface 205 by device 1612. As shown in FIGS. 12 and 13, in embodiments where the waveguide system 1602 functions as a repeater, the communication interface 205 may or may not be included in the waveguide system 1602.

  The electromagnetic wave propagating along the surface of the power line 1610 is modulated to include a data packet or frame that includes a data payload and further includes networking information (such as header information identifying one or more destination waveguide systems 1602). And can be formatted. Networking information may be provided by a originating device such as a waveguide system 1602 or central office 1611, base station 1614, mobile device 1620, or in-building device 1618, or a combination thereof. Further, the modulated electromagnetic wave can include error correction data to reduce signal disturbances. Destination waveguide system 1602 uses networking information and error correction data to detect transmissions directed to destination waveguide system 1602 and is directed to a receiving communication device communicatively coupled to destination waveguide system 1602. Transmissions containing voice and / or data signals can be downconverted and processed using error correction data.

  Referring now to sensor 1604 of waveguide system 1602, sensor 1604 includes temperature sensor 1604a, disturbance detection sensor 1604b, energy loss sensor 1604c, noise sensor 1604d, vibration sensor 1604e, environment (eg, weather) sensor 1604f, and One or more of image sensors 1604g may be included. The temperature sensor 1604a may be the ambient temperature, the temperature of the transmitting device 101 or 102, the temperature of the power line 1610, the temperature difference (eg, between the transmitting device 101 or 102 and 1610 compared to a set point or baseline, etc.), or any of them Can be used for combination measurements. In one embodiment, temperature metrics can be collected periodically and reported to network management system 1601 via base station 1614.

  The disturbance detection sensor 1604b can perform measurements on the power line 1610 to detect disturbances such as signal reflections that may indicate the presence of downstream disturbances that may interfere with the propagation of electromagnetic waves on the power line 1610. The signal reflection is transmitted on the power line 1610 by the transmitting device 101 or 102, for example, reflecting in whole or in part to the transmitting device 101 or 102 from disturbance in the power line 1610 disposed downstream from the transmitting device 101 or 102. The distortion generated from the electromagnetic wave can be expressed.

  Signal reflections may be caused by obstacles on the power line 1610. For example, tree branches may cause electromagnetic wave reflection when lying on power line 1610 or in the vicinity of power line 1610 that may cause corona discharge. Other obstacles that may cause electromagnetic wave reflection include, but are not limited to, objects entangled with the power line 1610 (eg, clothes, shoes with shoelaces wrapped around the power line 1610), corrosion deposits on the power line 1610, Or an ice deposit can be mentioned. The power grid components may also prevent or interfere with the propagation of electromagnetic waves on the surface of power line 1610. Examples of power grid components that can cause signal reflection include, but are not limited to, joints connecting transformers and relayed power lines. The power line 1610 having an acute angle may also cause electromagnetic wave reflection.

  The disturbance detection sensor 1604b includes a circuit that compares the magnitude of the electromagnetic wave reflection with the magnitude of the original electromagnetic wave transmitted by the transmission device 101 or 102 and identifies the amount of downstream disturbance in the power line 1610 that attenuates transmission. Can do. The disturbance detection sensor 1604b may further include a spectrum analyzer circuit that performs spectral analysis on the reflected waves. Spectral data generated by the spectrum analyzer circuit is compared with the spectral profile via pattern recognition, expert systems, curve fitting, matched filtering, or other artificial intelligence, classification, or comparison techniques, for example, spectral data The type of disturbance can be identified based on the spectral profile that most closely matches. The spectral profile can be stored in the memory of the disturbance detection sensor 1604b or can be remotely accessible by the disturbance detection sensor 1604b. The profile can include spectral data that models different disturbances that may be encountered on the power line 1610 so that the disturbance detection sensor 1604b can identify the disturbances locally. If known, the identification of the disturbance can be reported to the network management system 1601 via the base station 1614. The disturbance detection sensor 1604b can also use the transmission device 101 or 102 to transmit an electromagnetic wave as a test signal and specify the round-trip time of electromagnetic wave reflection. The round trip time measured by the disturbance detection sensor 1604b can be used to calculate the distance that the electromagnetic wave travels to the point where the reflection occurs, so that the disturbance detection sensor 1604b can be transmitted from the transmitting device 101 or 102 on the power line 1610. The distance to the disturbance downstream of can be calculated.

  The calculated distance can be reported to the network management system 1601 via the base station 1614. In one embodiment, the location of the waveguide system 1602 on the power line 1610 may be known to the network management system 1601, which uses the location on the power line 1610 based on the known topology of the power network. The position of the disturbance can be specified. In another embodiment, the waveguide system 1602 can provide its location to the network management system 1601 to assist in identifying the location of the disturbance on the power line 1610. The position of the waveguide system 1602 can be obtained by the waveguide system 1602 from a pre-programmed position of the waveguide system 1602 stored in the memory of the waveguide system 1602, or the waveguide system 1602 can be The location can be determined using a GPS receiver (not shown) included in the system 1602.

  The power management system 1605 provides energy to the above-described components of the waveguide system 1602. The power management system 1605 can receive energy from a solar cell or from a transformer (not shown) coupled to the power line 1610 or by inductive coupling to the power line 1610 or another nearby power line. The power management system 1605 can also include reserve batteries and / or supercapacitors or other capacitor circuits that provide temporary power to the waveguide system 1602. The energy loss sensor 1604c can be used to detect when the waveguide system 1602 has a power loss situation and / or the occurrence of some other malfunction. For example, the energy loss sensor 1604c may be used when a solar cell is defective, interferes with the solar cell that malfunctions the solar cell, there is a power loss due to power loss on the power line 1610, and / or when the reserve battery expires or is a supercapacitor. It is possible to detect when the standby power system malfunctions due to a detectable defect. If a malfunction and / or power loss occurs, the energy loss sensor 1604c can notify the network management system 1601 via the base station 1614.

  The noise sensor 1604d can be used to measure noise on the power line 1610 that can adversely affect the transmission of electromagnetic waves on the power line 1610. Noise sensor 1604d can detect unexpected electromagnetic interference, noise bursts, or other sources of disturbance that can interfere with the reception of modulated electromagnetic waves on the surface of power line 1610. Noise bursts can be caused by, for example, corona discharge or other noise sources. Noise sensor 1604d stores measured noise, an internal database of noise profiles, or a noise profile, via pattern recognition, expert systems, curve fitting, matched filtering, or other artificial intelligence, classification, or comparison techniques. It can be compared to a noise profile obtained by the waveguide system 1602 from a remotely located database. From the comparison, the noise sensor 1604d can identify a noise source (eg, a corona discharge, etc.) based on, for example, a noise profile that provides the closest match to the measured noise. The noise sensor 1604d can also detect how noise affects transmission by measuring transmission metrics such as bit error rate, packet loss rate, jitter, and packet retransmission request. The noise sensor 1604d can report to the network management system 1601 via the base station 1614, in particular, noise source identification information, noise generation time, and transmission metric, among others.

  The vibration sensor 1604e may include an accelerometer and / or a gyroscope that detects 2D or 3D vibration on the power line 1610. Vibrations are stored locally in the waveguide system 1602 via pattern recognition, expert systems, curve fitting, matched filtering, or other artificial intelligence, classification, or comparison techniques, or by the waveguide system 1602 from a remote database. It can be compared with a vibration profile that can be obtained. The vibration profile can be used, for example, to distinguish a fallen tree from a gust based on the vibration profile that provides the closest match to the measured vibration. The result of this analysis can be reported to the network management system 1601 via the base station 1614 by the vibration sensor 1604e.

  The environmental sensor 1604f can include, among other things, a barometer that measures atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature (which can be provided by the temperature sensor 1604a), wind speed, humidity, wind direction, and rainfall. The environmental sensor 1604f collects raw information and outputs it to the waveguide system via pattern recognition, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, or other artificial intelligence, classification, or other weather modeling and prediction techniques. This information can be processed by comparing it to an environmental profile that can be obtained from 1602 memory or from a remote database to predict the weather conditions before they occur. The environmental sensor 1604f can report the raw data and its analysis to the network management system 1601.

  The image sensor 1604g may be a digital camera (eg, a charge coupled device or CCD imager, an infrared camera, etc.) that captures images in the vicinity of the waveguide system 1602. Image sensor 1604g includes an electromechanical mechanism that controls camera movement (eg, actual position or focus / zoom) to inspect power line 1610 from multiple viewpoints (eg, top, bottom, left, right, etc.). Can be included. Alternatively, the image sensor 1604g can be designed such that an electromechanical mechanism is not required to acquire multiple viewpoints. Collection and retrieval of imaging data generated by the image sensor 1604g can be controlled by the network management system 1601 or can be autonomously collected by the image sensor 1604g and reported to the network management system 1601.

  The waveguide system 1602 is for the purpose of detecting, predicting, and / or mitigating disturbances that may interfere with propagation of electromagnetic wave transmission on the power line 1610 (or any other form of electromagnetic wave transmission medium). And / or other sensors that may be suitable for collecting telemetry information associated with power line 1610 may be utilized.

  Referring now to FIG. 16B, a block diagram 1650 is a non-limiting example of a system for managing a power network 1653 and a communication system 1655 incorporated or associated therewith in accordance with various aspects described herein. Various embodiments are shown. Communication system 1655 includes a plurality of waveguide systems 1602 coupled to power lines 1610 of power network 1653. At least a portion of the waveguide system 1602 used within the communication system 1655 may communicate directly with the base station 1614 and / or the network management system 1601. The waveguide system 1602 that is not directly connected to the base station 1614 or the network management system 1601 is connected to the base station 1614 or the network management system 1601 via the other downstream waveguide system 1602 connected to the base station 1614 or the network management system 1601. You can engage in communication sessions with either.

  The network management system 1601 can be communicatively coupled to the equipment of the utility enterprise 1652 and the equipment of the communication service provider 1654 to provide status information associated with the power network 1653 and the communication system 1655 to each entity, respectively. Network management system 1601, utility company 1652 equipment, and communication service provider 1654 may be utilized by utility company personnel 1656 to provide status information and / or direct personnel to manage power network 1653 and / or communication system 1655. Communication devices and / or communication devices utilized by communication service provider personnel 1658 can be accessed.

  FIG. 17A shows a flowchart of an example non-limiting embodiment of a method 1700 for detecting and mitigating disturbances that occur in the communication network of the systems of FIGS. 16A and 16B. The method 1700 may begin at step 1702, where the waveguide system 1602 is embedded in or forms a modulated electromagnetic wave or another type of electromagnetic wave that travels along the surface of the power line 1610. Send and receive. Messages can be voice messages, streaming video, and / or other data / information exchanged between communication devices communicatively coupled to communication system 1655. In step 1704, the sensor 1604 of the waveguide system 1602 can collect sensing data. In one embodiment, sensing data may be collected at step 1704 before, during, or after sending and / or receiving messages at step 1702. In step 1706, the waveguide system 1602 (or sensor 1604 itself) may affect communications originating from (eg, transmitted) or received by the waveguide system 1602 from the sensed data. The actual or predicted occurrence of disturbances within the communication system 1655 can be identified. The waveguide system 1602 (or sensor 1604) may process temperature data, signal reflection data, energy loss data, noise data, vibration data, environmental data, or any combination thereof to perform this identification. The waveguide system 1602 (or sensor 1604) may also detect, identify, estimate, or predict the cause and / or location of disturbances in the communication system 1655. If no disturbance is detected / identified and not predicted / estimated at step 1708, the waveguide system 1602 can proceed to step 1702 and be incorporated into a modulated electromagnetic wave traveling along the surface of the power line 1610, or Or continue to send and receive messages that form part of it.

  In step 1708, if a disturbance is detected / identified or occurrence is predicted / estimated, the waveguide system 1602 proceeds to step 1710, where the disturbance may adversely affect message transmission or reception in the communication system 1655. (Or alternatively, whether there is a tendency to have an adverse effect, or to some extent the possibility of an adverse effect). In one embodiment, the duration threshold and the frequency threshold can be used in step 1710 to identify when disturbances adversely affect communications in the communication system 1655. For purposes of illustration only, assume that the duration threshold is set to 500 ms, while the occurrence frequency threshold is set to 5 disturbance occurrences during a 10 second observation period. Thus, a disturbance having a duration longer than 500 ms triggers a duration threshold. Furthermore, disturbances that occur six times or more during a 10 second time interval trigger an occurrence frequency threshold.

  In one embodiment, a disturbance can be considered to adversely affect signal integrity in the communication system 1655 if it only exceeds the duration threshold. In another embodiment, a disturbance can be considered to adversely affect signal integrity in the communication system 1655 if it exceeds both a duration threshold and a frequency threshold. Thus, with respect to the classification of disturbances that adversely affect signal integrity in the communication system 1655, the latter embodiment is more conservative than the former embodiment. It will be appreciated that many other algorithms and associated parameters and thresholds may be utilized in step 1710 according to exemplary embodiments.

  Referring back to the method 1700, at step 1710, if the disturbance detected at step 1708 does not meet the conditions of the adversely affected communication (eg, neither the duration threshold nor the frequency threshold is exceeded), the waveguide system 1602 Proceeding to step 1702, message processing may continue. For example, if the disturbance detected in step 1708 has one occurrence during a duration of 1 ms and a time period of 10 seconds, neither threshold is exceeded. Thus, such disturbances can be viewed as having only a minor impact on signal integrity in the communication system 1655 and are therefore not flagged as disturbances that need mitigation. Although not flagged, the occurrence of the disturbance, its time of occurrence, its frequency of occurrence, spectral data, and / or other useful information can be reported to the network management system 1601 as telemetry data for monitoring purposes.

  Referring again to step 1710, if, on the other hand, the disturbance meets the conditions of the adversely affected communication (eg, exceeds one or both thresholds), the waveguide system 1602 proceeds to step 1712 and the incident is network managed. Can be reported to the system 1601. Reports include raw detection data collected by sensor 1604, disturbance description, time of disturbance occurrence, frequency of disturbance occurrence, position associated with disturbance, bit rate error, packet loss, if known by waveguide system 1602 Parameter readings such as rate, retransmission request, jitter, latency, etc. can be included. If the disturbance is based on predictions by one or more sensors of the waveguide system 1602, the report will indicate the type of expected disturbance and, if predictable, the predicted occurrence time of the disturbance, and the prediction of the sensor 1604 of the waveguide system 1602. When based on the past detection data collected by the above, it is possible to include the predicted occurrence frequency of the predicted disturbance.

  In step 1714, the network management system 1601 may determine a mitigation, diversion, or correction technique that, if the technique can locate the disturbance, reroutes the traffic to bypass the disturbance. Directing to the waveguide system 1602. In one embodiment, a waveguide coupling device 1402 that detects disturbances connects the waveguide system 1602 from a primary power line to a secondary power line that is affected by the disturbance, and the waveguide system 1602 reroutes traffic to a different transmission medium. Repeaters such as those shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 can be directed to route and allow disturbances to be avoided. In one embodiment where the waveguide system 1602 is configured as a repeater, the waveguide system 1602 can itself perform rerouting of traffic from the primary power line to the secondary power line. For bidirectional communication (eg, full duplex or half duplex communication), the repeater may be configured to reroute traffic from the secondary power line back to the primary power line for processing by the waveguide system 1602 Please note further.

  In another embodiment, the waveguide system 1602 temporarily redirects traffic from the primary power line to the secondary power line to avoid disturbances, and a first repeater upstream of the disturbances to return to the primary power line and Traffic can be redirected by directing a second repeater downstream of the disturbance. Note further that in the case of bi-directional communication (eg, full-duplex or half-duplex communication), the repeater may be configured to re-route traffic from the secondary power line back to the primary power line.

  In order to avoid interruption to an existing communication session occurring on the secondary power line, the network management system 1601 utilizes unused time slots and / or frequency bands of the secondary power line to make data and / or voice traffic. Can be redirected away from the primary power line and the waveguide system 1602 can be instructed to instruct the repeater to bypass the disturbance.

  In step 1716, while the traffic is being rerouted to avoid the disturbance, the network management system 1601 detects the detected disturbance and is known to the equipment of the utility enterprise 1652 and / or the equipment of the communication service provider 1654. In some cases, the location can be notified, and these devices can then notify personnel of the utility company 1656 and / or personnel of the communications service provider 1658. Field personnel from either party can respond to and resolve the disturbance at the identified disturbance location. When disturbances are eliminated or otherwise mitigated by utility company personnel and / or communications service provider personnel, such personnel may be replaced with field equipment (eg, a laptop that is communicatively coupled to network management system 1601). Each company and / or the network management system 1601 can be notified using a device of a computer, a smart phone, etc.) and / or a utility company and / or a communication service provider. The notification can include a description of how the disturbance has been mitigated and any changes to the power line 1610 that may change the topology of the communication system 1655.

  When the disturbance is resolved (as determined in decision 1718), the network management system 1601 restores the previous routing configuration used by the waveguide system 1602 or the restoration method used to reduce the disturbance. When a new network topology of the communication system 1655 is generated, the waveguide system 1602 can be instructed in step 1720 to route traffic according to the new routing configuration. In another embodiment, the waveguide system 1602 can be configured to monitor disturbance mitigation by sending a test signal on the power line 1610 to detect when the disturbance is gone. When the waveguide system 1602 detects that there is no disturbance, the waveguide system 1602 can autonomously restore the routing configuration without assistance from the network management system 1601 when determining that the network topology of the communication system 1655 has not been changed. Alternatively, a new routing configuration that matches the detected new network topology can be utilized.

  FIG. 17B shows a flowchart of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a method 1750 for detecting and mitigating disturbances that occur in the communication network of the systems of FIGS. 16A and 16B. In one embodiment, the method 1750 may begin at step 1752 where the network management system 1601 receives maintenance information associated with a maintenance plan from a utility company 1652 device or a communication service provider 1654 device. The network management system 1601 may identify maintenance activities to be performed during the maintenance plan from the maintenance information at step 1754. From these activities, the network management system 1601 can cause disturbances arising from maintenance (eg, planned replacement of power line 1610, planned replacement of waveguide system 1602 on power line 1610, planned power line 1610 in power network 1653). Reconfiguration etc.) can be detected.

  In another embodiment, network management system 1601 may receive telemetry information from one or more waveguide systems 1602 at step 1755. Telemetry information includes, among other things, identification information for each waveguide system 1602 that submits telemetry information, measurements taken by sensors 1604 of each waveguide system 1602, detected or predicted by sensors 1604 of each waveguide system 1602. Information associated with each waveguide system 1602, estimated position of the detected disturbance, identification information of the disturbance, and the like. The network management system 1601 can identify from the telemetry information the types of disturbances that can be detrimental to the operation of the waveguide, the transmission of electromagnetic waves along the wire surface, or both. The network management system 1601 can also isolate and identify disturbances using telemetry information from multiple waveguide systems 1602. In addition, the network management system 1601 requests telemetry information from the waveguide system 1602 in the vicinity of the affected waveguide system 1602, identifies the location of the disturbance by triangulation, and / or other waveguide systems. Disturbance identification can be confirmed by receiving similar telemetry information from 1602.

  In yet another embodiment, network management system 1601 may receive an unplanned activity report from maintenance site personnel at step 1756. Unplanned maintenance can be performed as a result of an unplanned field call or as a result of an unexpected field problem discovered during a field call or planned maintenance activity. The activity report is a change to the topology configuration of the power network 1653 resulting from the handling of personnel found in the communication system 1655 and / or the power network 1653 by one or more waveguide systems 1602 Replacement or repair, etc.), disturbance mitigation performed when there is a disturbance, etc. can be identified.

  In step 1758, the network management system 1601 predicts from the reports received according to steps 1752 to 1756 whether or not a disturbance occurs based on the maintenance plan or whether or not a disturbance occurs based on the telemetry data. Whether or not the disturbance has occurred due to unplanned maintenance identified in the field activity report. From these optional reports, the network management system 1601 determines whether the detected or predicted disturbance requires rerouting of traffic by the affected waveguide system 1602 or other waveguide system 1602 of the communication system 1655. Can be determined.

  If a disturbance is detected or predicted at step 1758, the network management system 1601 may proceed to step 1760, where the network management system 1601 may include one or more waveguides to reroute traffic to bypass the disturbance. System 1602 can be instructed. If the disturbance is permanent due to a permanent topology change of the power grid 1653, the network management system 1601 may proceed to step 1770 and skip steps 1762, 1764, 1766, and 1772. In step 1770, the network management system 1601 may instruct one or more waveguide systems 1602 to use a new routing configuration that matches the new topology. However, if a disturbance is detected from telemetry information provided by one or more waveguide systems 1602, the network management system 1601 knows the location of the disturbance to the maintenance personnel of the utility company 1656 or the communications service provider 1658. In some cases, the type of disturbance and the relevant information that such personnel may be useful in mitigating the disturbance can be communicated. If the disturbance is expected to be due to maintenance activities, the network management system 1601 may reconfigure the traffic route with a given plan (consistent with the maintenance plan) to avoid disturbances caused by maintenance activities during the maintenance plan. One or more waveguide systems 1602 can be directed to.

  Returning to step 1760 again, once step 1760 is complete, the process may continue to step 1762. In step 1762, the network management system 1601 can monitor when the disturbance is mitigated by on-site personnel. Disturbance mitigation can be achieved by using on-site equipment (eg, a laptop computer or handheld computer / device) via a communication network (eg, a cellular communication system) and submitted to the network management system 1601 by the on-site personnel. Can be detected in step 1762 by analyzing the report. If the site personnel report that the disturbance has been reduced, the network management system 1601 proceeds to step 1764 and can determine from the site report whether a topology change was required to reduce the disturbance. Topology changes may include rerouting power lines 1610, reconfiguring the waveguide system 1602 to utilize a different power line 1610, using alternative links to bypass disturbances, and the like. If a topology change has occurred, the network management system 1601 may direct the one or more waveguide systems 1602 to use a new routing configuration that matches the new topology at step 1770.

  However, if the topology change is not reported by field personnel, the network management system 1601 can proceed to step 1766, where the network management system 1601 sends a test signal to indicate the routing that was used before the disturbance was detected. One or more waveguide systems 1602 can be instructed to test the configuration. The test signal can be transmitted to the waveguide system 1602 affected by the disturbance vicinity. The test signal can be used to determine whether a signal disturbance (eg, electromagnetic wave reflection) is detected by any waveguide system 1602. If the test signal confirms that the previous routing configuration is no longer subject to the previously detected disturbance, the network management system 1601 sends the previous routing configuration to the affected waveguide system 1602 in step 1772. Can be instructed to restore. However, if the test signal analyzed by one or more waveguide coupling devices 1402 and reported to the network management system 1601 indicates that the disturbance or a new disturbance exists, the network management system 1601 returns to step 1768. Go ahead and report this information to on-site personnel to further deal with on-site issues. Network management system 1601 may continue to monitor disturbance mitigation at step 1762 in this situation.

  In the above embodiment, the waveguide system 1602 can be configured to be self-adaptive to changing the power grid 1653 and / or mitigating disturbances. That is, one or more affected waveguide systems 1602 can be configured to self-monitor disturbance mitigation and reconfigure the traffic route without requiring the network management system 1601 to send instructions. it can. In this embodiment, the self-configurable one or more waveguide systems 1602 can inform the network management system 1601 of the routing selection of the waveguide system 1602, which allows the network management system 1601 to communicate. A macro level view of the communication topology of the system 1655 can be maintained.

  For ease of explanation, each process is shown and described as a series of blocks in FIGS. 17A and 17B, respectively, but the claimed subject matter is not limited by the order of the blocks, It will be understood and appreciated that this may be done in a different order and / or similar to other blocks than shown and described herein. Moreover, not all illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methods described herein.

  Referring now to FIG. 18A, a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a transmission medium 1800 that propagates guided electromagnetic waves is shown. In particular, a further example of the transmission medium 125 presented in connection with FIG. 1 is presented. In one embodiment, the transmission medium 1800 can include a first dielectric material 1802 and a second dielectric material 1804 deposited on the transmission medium 1800. In one embodiment, the first dielectric material 1802 can include a dielectric core (referred to herein as a dielectric core 1802), and the second dielectric material 1804 can be wholly or partly dielectric core. Can include a cladding or shell (referred to herein as a dielectric foam 1804), such as a dielectric foam. In one embodiment, the dielectric core 1802 and the dielectric foam 1804 can be coaxially aligned with each other (but need not be). In one embodiment, the combination of dielectric core 1802 and dielectric foam 1804 can be bent or curved by at least 45 degrees without damaging the material of dielectric core 1802 and dielectric foam 1804. In one embodiment, the outer surface of the dielectric foam 1804 is further surrounded, in whole or in part, by a third dielectric material 1806 that can function as a jacket (referred to herein as a jacket 1806). Can do. The jacket 1806 can avoid exposing the dielectric core 1802 and the dielectric foam 1804 to an environment (for example, water, soil, etc.) that may adversely affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

  The dielectric core 1802 can include, for example, a high density polyethylene material, a high density polyurethane material, or other suitable dielectric material. The dielectric foam 1804 can comprise a foamed plastic material, such as, for example, a foamed polyethylene material or other suitable dielectric material. The jacket 1806 can include, for example, a polyethylene material or an equivalent material. In one embodiment, the dielectric constant of the dielectric foam 1804 can be lower (or substantially lower) than the dielectric constant of the dielectric core 1802. For example, dielectric core 1802 can have a dielectric constant of about 2.3, while dielectric foam 1804 can have a dielectric constant of about 1.15 (slightly higher than the dielectric constant of air).

  The dielectric core 1802 receives signals in the form of electromagnetic waves from a transmitter or other coupling device described herein that can be configured to transmit electromagnetic waves guided on the transmission medium 1800. Can be used for In one embodiment, the transmission medium 1800 is coupled to a hollow waveguide 1808 that can receive electromagnetic waves from a radiating device such as a stub antenna (not shown), eg, constructed as a circular waveguide 1809. it can. Therefore, the hollow waveguide 1808 can induce an electromagnetic wave guided to the dielectric core 1802. In this configuration, the electromagnetic wave to be guided is guided or coupled to the dielectric core 1802 by the dielectric core 1802 and propagates along the dielectric core 1802 in the longitudinal direction. Selecting the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave such that the field intensity profile 1810 of the guided electromagnetic wave extends slightly (or does not extend at all) outside the envelope 1806 by adjusting the electronics of the transmitter. Can do.

  By maintaining the majority (if not all) of the field strength of the guided electromagnetic wave within the dielectric core 1802, dielectric foam 1804 and / or jacket 1806, the transmission medium 1800 propagates inside. It can be used in harsh environments without adversely affecting the propagation of electromagnetic waves. For example, the transmission medium 1800 can be embedded in the soil without adversely affecting (or substantially not affecting) the guided electromagnetic wave propagating through the transmission medium 1800. Similarly, transmission medium 1800 may be exposed to water (eg, disposed in the rain or water) without adversely affecting (or substantially not affecting) guided electromagnetic waves propagating through transmission medium 1800. it can. In one embodiment, the propagation loss of the guided electromagnetic wave in the above embodiment may be 1 dB to 2 dB or more per meter at an operating frequency of 60 GHz. Depending on the operating frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave and / or the material used for the transmission medium 1800, other propagation losses may be possible. Further, depending on the materials used to construct the transmission medium 1800, the transmission medium 1800 may adversely affect guided electromagnetic waves that propagate through the dielectric core 1802 and the dielectric foam 1804 in some embodiments. It can be bent laterally without (or substantially without).

  18B shows a transmission medium 1820 that differs from the transmission medium 1800 of FIG. 18A but still provides a further example of the transmission medium 125 presented in connection with FIG. Transmission medium 1820 indicates similar reference numbers to similar elements of transmission medium 1800 of FIG. 18A. In contrast to transmission medium 1800, transmission medium 1820 includes a conductive core 1822 having an insulating layer 1823 that entirely or partially surrounds conductive core 1822. The combination of the insulating layer 1823 and the conductive core 1822 is referred to herein as an insulated conductor 1825. In the view of FIG. 18B, the insulating layer 1823 is wholly or partially covered by a dielectric foam 1804 and a jacket 1806 that can be constructed from the materials described above. In one embodiment, the insulating layer 1823 can include a dielectric material, such as polyethylene, having a higher dielectric constant (eg, 2.3) than that of the dielectric foam 1804 (eg, 1.15). In one embodiment, the components of transmission medium 1820 can be aligned coaxially (but need not be). In one embodiment, a hollow waveguide 1808 having a metal plate 1809 that may be (but need not be) separate from the insulating layer 1823 is used to guide that propagates substantially on the outer surface of the insulating layer 1823. However, other coupling devices as described herein can be utilized as well. In one embodiment, the guided electromagnetic wave can be coupled to the waveguide or insulating layer 1823 by the insulating layer 1823 sufficient to guide the electromagnetic wave longitudinally along the insulating layer 1823. By adjusting the operating parameters of the transmitter, the operating frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave transmitted by the hollow waveguide 1808 generates a guided electromagnetic wave substantially confined within the dielectric foam 1804. An electric field strength profile 1824 can be generated so that the guided electromagnetic wave is not exposed to an environment (eg, water, soil, etc.) that adversely affects the propagation of the guided electromagnetic wave through the transmission medium 1820. To.

  18C shows a transmission medium 1830 that differs from the transmission media 1800 and 1820 of FIGS. 18A and 18B, but still provides a further example of the transmission medium 125 presented in connection with FIG. Transmission medium 1830 indicates similar reference numbers to similar elements of transmission media 1800 and 1820 of FIGS. 18A and 18B, respectively. In contrast to transmission media 1800 and 1820, transmission media 1830 is bare (or non-insulated) that is wholly or partially surrounded by dielectric foam 1804 and jacket 1806 that can be constructed from the materials described above. A conductor 1832 is included. In one embodiment, the components of transmission medium 1830 can be aligned coaxially (but need not be). In one embodiment, a hollow waveguide 1808 having a metal plate 1809 coupled to a bare conductor 1832 can be used to deliver a guided electromagnetic wave that propagates substantially on the outer surface of the bare conductor 1832. However, other coupling devices as described herein can be utilized as well. In one embodiment, the guided electromagnetic wave is guided by the bare conductor 1832 or coupled to the bare conductor 1832 sufficiently to guide the electromagnetic wave guided longitudinally along the bare conductor 1832. can do. By adjusting the operating parameters of the transmitter, the operating frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave transmitted by the hollow waveguide 1808 generates a guided electromagnetic wave substantially confined within the dielectric foam 1804. An electric field strength profile 1834 can be generated so that the guided electromagnetic wave is not exposed to an environment (eg, water, soil, etc.) that adversely affects the propagation of the electromagnetic wave through the transmission medium 1830.

  Note that the hollow transmitter 1808 used in conjunction with the transmission media 1800, 1820, and 1830 of FIGS. 18A, 18B, and 18C, respectively, can be replaced with other transmitters or coupling devices. Furthermore, the propagation mode of electromagnetic waves in any of the above embodiments may be a fundamental mode, a non-basic (or asymmetric) mode, or a combination thereof.

  FIG. 18D is a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a transmission media bundle 1836 in accordance with various aspects described herein. The transmission media bundle 1836 can include a plurality of cables 1838 that are held in place by a flexible sleeve 1839. The plurality of cables 1838 can include multiple instances of the cable 1800 of FIG. 18A, multiple instances of the cable 1820 of FIG. 18B, multiple instances of the cable 1830 of FIG. 18C, or any combination thereof. The sleeve 1839 can include a dielectric material that prevents soil, water, or other external material from contacting the plurality of cables 1838. In one embodiment, multiple transmitters, each utilizing a transceiver similar to that shown in FIG. 10A or other coupling device described herein, selectively transmits electromagnetic waves guided by each cable. The guided electromagnetic waves can carry different data (eg, bundles, audio, video, messaging, content, etc.). In one embodiment, by adjusting the operating parameters of each transmitter or other coupling device, the respective electric field strength profile of the guided electromagnetic wave is completely or substantially within the corresponding cable 1838 layer. It is confined and crosstalk between cables 1838 can be reduced.

  In situations where the field strength profile of each electromagnetic wave being guided is not completely confined or substantially confined within the corresponding cable 1838, the crosstalk of the electromagnetic signal will result in the two cables shown in FIG. 18E. It can occur between cables 1838, as shown by the associated signal plot. The plot in FIG. 18E shows that when a guided electromagnetic wave is induced on the first cable, the electric and magnetic fields emitted by the first cable induce a signal on the second cable, causing crosstalk. Show you get. Several mitigation options can be used to reduce crosstalk between cables 1838 in FIG. 18D. In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 18F, an absorbing material 1840 capable of absorbing an electromagnetic field such as carbon is applied to a cable 1838 to polarize each of the electromagnetic waves guided in various polarization states. Thus, the crosstalk between the cables 1838 can be reduced. In another embodiment (not shown), carbon beads can be added to the gap between cables 1838 to reduce crosstalk.

  In yet another embodiment (not shown), the cable 1838 can be configured with different diameters to change the propagation speed of the guided electromagnetic wave between the cables 1838 and reduce crosstalk between the cables 1838. . In one embodiment (not shown), the shape of each cable 1838 can be asymmetric (eg, elliptical) to reduce the crosstalk by directing the guided electromagnetic fields of each cable 1838 away from each other. . In one embodiment (not shown), a filler material such as dielectric foam can be added between the cables 1838 to separate the cables 1838 sufficiently to reduce crosstalk between the cables. In one embodiment (not shown), a longitudinal carbon strip or swirl is applied to the outer surface of the jacket 1806 of each cable 1838 to reduce the radiation of guided electromagnetic waves outside the jacket 1806, thereby making the cable Crosstalk between 1838 can be reduced. In yet another embodiment, each transmitter is configured to transmit a guided electromagnetic wave having a different frequency, modulation, wave propagation mode, such as orthogonal frequency, modulation or mode, to reduce crosstalk between cables 1838. can do.

  In yet another embodiment (not shown), a pair of cables 1838 can be twisted in a spiral to reduce crosstalk between other cables 1838 between and near the pair. In some embodiments, certain cables 1838 can be twisted while other cables 1838 are not twisted and crosstalk between cables 1838 can be reduced. In addition, each pair of twisted cables 1838 has a different pitch (ie, a different twist rate such as the number of twists per meter) between the other cables 1838 between and near the pair. Crosstalk can be further reduced. In another embodiment (not shown), the transmitter or other coupling device induces a guided electromagnetic wave in the cable 1838 having an electromagnetic field that extends beyond the jacket 1806 and into the gap between the cables. Thus, the crosstalk between the cables 1838 can be reduced. It is proposed that any one of the above embodiments that reduce crosstalk between cables 1838 may be combined to further reduce crosstalk between cables 1838.

  18G and 18H are block diagrams illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of a transmission medium having an internal waveguide, according to various aspects described herein. In one embodiment, transmission medium 1841 may include a core 1842. In one embodiment, the core 1842 can be a dielectric core 1842 (eg, polyethylene). In another embodiment, the core 1842 can be an insulated conductor or a non-insulated conductor. The core 1842 may be surrounded by a shell 1844 that includes a dielectric foam (eg, a foamed polyethylene material) having a dielectric constant lower than that of the dielectric core or the insulating layer of the conductive core. Due to the difference in dielectric constant, electromagnetic waves can be coupled to the core 1842 and guided. The jacket 1844 can be covered with a shell jacket 1845. The shell jacket 1845 can be made of a rigid material (eg, high density plastic) or a high tension material (eg, synthetic fiber). In one embodiment, shell envelope 1845 may be used to prevent shell 1844 and core 1842 from being exposed to adverse environments (eg, water, moisture, soil, etc.). In one embodiment, the shell jacket 1845 is rigid enough that the outer surface of the core 1842 is spaced from the inner surface of the shell jacket 1845, thereby creating a longitudinal gap between the shell jacket 1854 and the core 1842. Can have. The longitudinal gap can be filled with a dielectric foam of shell 1844.

  The transmission medium 1841 can further include a plurality of outer ring conductors 1846. The outer ring conductor 1846 may be a strand of conductive material woven around the shell jacket 1845, thereby covering the shell jacket 1845 in whole or in part. The outer ring conductor 1846 can serve as a power line with a return electrical path, similar to the embodiments described in this disclosure that receive a power signal from a source (eg, transformer, generator, etc.). In one embodiment, the outer ring conductor 1846 can be covered with a cable jacket 1847 so that the outer ring conductor 1846 is not exposed to water, dirt, or other environmental factors. The cable jacket 1847 can be made of an insulating material such as polyethylene. The core 1842 can be used as a central waveguide for electromagnetic wave propagation. A signal that induces an electromagnetic wave guided by the core 1842 using the hollow waveguide transmitter 1808 such as the circular waveguide described above, similar to that described for the embodiments of FIGS. 18A, 18B, and 18C. Can be sent out. The electromagnetic wave can be guided by the core 1842 without using the electrical return path of the outer ring conductor 1846 or any other electrical return path. By adjusting the electronic circuitry of the transmitter 1808, the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave can be selected such that the field intensity profile of the guided electromagnetic wave extends slightly (or not at all) outside the shell envelope 1845. .

  In another embodiment, the transmission medium 1843 may include a hollow core 1842 'surrounded by a shell envelope 1845'. The shell envelope 1845 'can have an internal conductive surface or other surface material that allows the hollow core 1842' to be used as a conduit for electromagnetic waves. The shell jacket 1845 'can be at least partially covered by the outer ring conductor 1846 described above for conduction of power signals. In one embodiment, a cable jacket 1847 may be placed on the outer surface of the outer ring conductor 1846 to prevent the outer ring conductor 1846 from being exposed to water, soil, or other environmental factors. A waveguide transmitter 1808 can be used to transmit electromagnetic waves that are guided by the conductive inner surfaces of the hollow core 1842 ′ and the shell envelope 1845 ′. In one embodiment (not shown), the hollow core 1842 'can further include a dielectric foam as described above.

  Transmission medium 1841 represents a multipurpose cable that conducts power on outer ring conductor 1846 utilizing an electrical return path and provides communication services through an internal waveguide that includes a combination of core 1842, shell 1844, and shell jacket 1845. be able to. The internal waveguide can be used for transmission or reception of electromagnetic waves guided by the core 1842 (without using an electrical feedback path). Similarly, transmission medium 1843 uses an electrical return path to conduct power on outer ring conductor 1846 and provides a multi-purpose cable that provides communication services through an internal waveguide that includes a combination of hollow core 1842 ′ and shell jacket 1845 ′. Can be expressed. The internal waveguide can be used to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves guided by the hollow core 1842 'and the shell envelope 1845' (without using an electrical feedback path).

  It is proposed that the embodiments of FIGS. 18G and 18H can be configured to use a plurality of internal waveguides surrounded by an outer ring conductor 1846. The internal waveguide is configured to use the crosstalk mitigation techniques described above (eg, waveguide twist pairs, waveguides of different structural dimensions, use of polarisers within the shell, use of different wave modes, etc.). be able to.

  For purposes of illustration only, transmission media 1800, 1820, 1830, 1836, 1841, and 1843 are used herein to describe any one or more instances of transmission media for which cable 1850 is described in this disclosure. With the understanding that it can represent a bundle of cables called cable 1850. For illustrative purposes only, the dielectric core 1802, the insulated conductor 1825, and the bare conductor 1832, the core 1842, or the hollow core 1842 ′ of the transmission media 1800, 1820, 1830, 1836, 1841, and 1843 are cables herein. 1850 may utilize the respective dielectric core 1802, insulated conductor 1825, bare conductor 1832, core 1842, or hollow core 1842 ′ of transmission media 1800, 1820, 1830, 1836, 1841, and / or 1843. Under the understanding, each is referred to as a transmission medium 1852.

  Referring now to FIGS. 18I and 18J, a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an exemplary connector configuration that can be used with cable 1850 is shown. In one embodiment, the cable 1850 can be configured in a female connection configuration or a male connection configuration, as shown in FIG. 18I. The male configuration on the right side of FIG. 18I can be achieved by stripping the dielectric foam 1804 (and the jacket 1806 if there is a jacket 1806) to expose a portion of the transmission core 1852. The female configuration on the left side of FIG. 18I can be achieved by removing portions of the transmission core 1852 while maintaining the dielectric foam 1804 (and the jacket 1806 if there is a jacket 1806). In one embodiment where the transmission core 1852 is hollow, as described in connection with FIG. 18H, the male portion of the transmission core 1852 slides into the female configuration on the left side of FIG. A hollow core having a rigid outer surface that can be aligned together can be represented. It should further be noted that in the embodiment of FIGS. 18G and 18H, the outer ring conductor 1846 can be modified to connect the male and female portions of the cable 1850.

  Based on the above embodiment, two cables 1850 having a male connector configuration and a female connector configuration can be coupled together. A sleeve with an adhesive inner lining or shrink wrap material (not shown) is applied to the area of the joint between the cables 1850 to keep the joint in a fixed position and exposed (eg, to water, soil, etc.) Can be avoided. When the cable 1850 is coupled, the transmission core 1852 of one cable will be in close proximity to the transmission core 1852 of the other cable. A guided electromagnetic wave propagated by one of the transmission cores 1852 of the cable 1850 traveling from either direction is coaxially aligned regardless of whether the transmission core 1852 contacts or not. It is possible to cross between non-identical transmission cores 1852 regardless of whether or not and / or there is a gap between transmission cores 1852.

  In another embodiment, a splice device 1860 having a female connector configuration at both ends can be used to couple with a cable 1850 having a male connector configuration, as shown in FIG. 18J. In an alternative embodiment not shown in FIG. 18J, the splice device 1860 can be configured to have a male connector configuration at both ends that can be coupled to a cable 1850 having a female connector configuration. In another embodiment not shown in FIG. 18J, the splice device 1860 has a male connector configuration and a female connector configuration at opposite ends that can be coupled to a cable 1850 having a female connector configuration and a male connector configuration, respectively. It can be constituted as follows. In the case of a transmission core 1852 having a hollow core, regardless of whether both ends of the splice device 1860 are male, both are female, or a combination thereof, the male illustrated in FIG. Note further that the configuration and female configuration are applicable to the splice device 1860.

  The above embodiment of connecting the cables shown in FIGS. 18I and 18J can be applied to each one instance of the cable 1838 of the bundled transmission medium 1836. Similarly, the above embodiment shown in FIGS. 18 and 18J can be applied to one instance of each of the internal waveguides of cable 1841 or 1843 having multiple internal waveguides.

  Referring now to FIG. 18K, a block illustrating an example, non-limiting embodiment of a transmission medium 1800 ′, 1800 ″, 1800 ′ ″, and 1800 ″ ″ that propagates guided electromagnetic waves. The figure is shown. In one embodiment, the transmission medium 1800 'can include a core 1801 and a dielectric foam 1804' divided into sections and covered with a jacket 1806 as shown in FIG. 18K. Core 1801 can be represented by dielectric core 1802 in FIG. 18A, insulated conductor 1825 in FIG. 18B, or bare conductor 1832 in FIG. 18C. Each section of the dielectric foam 1804 'can be separated by a gap (eg, air, gas, vacuum, or a material having a low dielectric constant). In one embodiment, the gap separation between sections of dielectric foam 1804 ′ can be quasi-random, as shown in FIG. 18K, as the electromagnetic wave propagates longitudinally along core 1801. This may be useful in reducing the reflection of electromagnetic waves that occur in each section of the conductive foam 1804 ′. The section of dielectric foam 1804 'can be constructed, for example, as a washer made of dielectric foam with an internal opening that supports the core 1801 in place. For purposes of illustration only, the washer is referred to herein as a washer 1804 '. In one embodiment, the internal opening of each washer 1804 ′ can be coaxially aligned with the axis of the core 1801. In another embodiment, the internal opening of each washer 1804 ′ can be offset from the axis of the core 1801. In another embodiment (not shown), each washer 1804 'can have a variable longitudinal thickness, as indicated by the difference in thickness of the washer 1804'.

  In an alternative embodiment, transmission medium 1800 ″ is a strip of dielectric foam 1804 ″ covered by a core 1801 and a jacket 1806 as shown in FIG. 18K and spirally wound around the core. Can be included. Although it may not be apparent from the drawing shown in FIG. 18K, in one embodiment, the strips of dielectric foam 1804 ″ are variable pitch (ie, different sections of the strip of dielectric foam 1804 ″). Can be wound around the core 1801 with different twist rates. The use of variable pitch can help reduce electromagnetic wave reflections or other disturbances that occur between areas of the core 1801 that are not covered by strips of dielectric foam 1804 '. It should further be noted that the thickness (diameter) of the dielectric foam 1804 ″ strip can be much larger (eg, twice or more) than the diameter of the core 1801 shown in FIG. 18K. .

  In an alternative embodiment, the transmission medium 1800 ″ ″ (shown in cross-sectional view) can include a non-circular core 1801 ′ covered with a dielectric foam 1804 and a jacket 1806. In one embodiment, the non-circular core 1801 'can have an elliptical structure or other suitable non-circular structure as shown in FIG. 18K. In another embodiment, the non-circular core 1801 'can have an asymmetric structure. The non-circular core 1801 'can be used to polarize the electromagnetic field induced on the non-circular core 1801'. The structure of the non-circular core 1801 'can help maintain the polarization of the electromagnetic wave as it propagates along the non-circular core 1801'.

  In an alternative embodiment, the transmission medium 1800 '' '' (shown in cross-sectional view) can include multiple cores 1801 '' (only two cores are shown, but more cores Is possible). The plurality of cores 1801 ″ can be covered with a dielectric foam 1804 and a jacket 1806. The plurality of cores 1801 "can be used to polarize the electromagnetic field induced on the plurality of cores 1801". The structure of the plurality of cores 1801 ′ can maintain polarization of the guided electromagnetic waves when the guided electromagnetic waves propagate along the plurality of cores 1801 ″.

  It will be appreciated that the embodiment of FIG. 18K can be used to modify the embodiments of FIGS. 18G-18H. For example, the core 1842 or core 1842 'can be configured to utilize a sectioned shell 1804' with a gap or one or more strips of dielectric foam 1804 "therebetween. Similarly, core 1842 or core 1842 'can be configured to have a non-circular core 1801' that can have a symmetric or asymmetric cross-sectional structure. Further, the core 1842 or core 1842 ′ may be configured to use multiple cores 1801 ″ in a single internal waveguide, or to use a different number of cores when multiple internal waveguides are used. it can. Accordingly, any of the embodiments shown in FIG. 18K can be applied alone or in combination with the embodiments of FIGS. 18G-18H.

  Referring now to FIG. 18L, a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of a bundled transmission medium that reduces crosstalk in accordance with various aspects described herein. In one embodiment, the bundled transmission medium 1836 ′ can include a variable core structure 1803. By changing the structure of the core 1803, the guided electromagnetic field induced in each core of the transmission medium 1836 'can be sufficiently different to reduce crosstalk between the cables 1838. In another embodiment, the bundled transmission medium 1836 "can include a variable number of cores 1803 'per cable 1838. By changing the number of cores 1803 ′ per cable 1838, the guided electromagnetic field induced in one or more cores of transmission medium 1836 ″ reduces crosstalk between cables 1838. Can be different enough to do. In another embodiment, the core 1803 or 1803 'can be of a different material. For example, the core 1803 or 1803 'can be a dielectric core 1802, an insulated conductor core 1825, a bare conductor core 1832, or any combination thereof.

  It should be noted that the embodiments shown in FIGS. 18A-18D and 18F-18H may be modified according to and / or in combination with some of the embodiments of FIGS. 18K and 18L. One or more of the embodiments shown in FIGS. 18K and 18L can be combined (eg, sectioned dielectric foam 1804 ′ or dielectric foam with core 1801 ′, 1801 ″, 1803, or 1803 ′ Note further (using a 1804 ″ spiral strip). In some embodiments, the guided electromagnetic wave propagating in the transmission medium 1800 ′, 1800 ″, 1800 ′ ″, and / or 1800 ″ ″ of FIG. 18K is transmitted through the transmission medium of FIGS. 18A-18C. Less propagation loss can be shown than the guided electromagnetic wave propagating at 1800, 1820, and 1830. Further, the embodiment shown in FIGS. 18K and 18L can be configured to use the connection embodiment shown in FIGS. 18I and 18J.

  Referring now to FIG. 18M, a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of a tapered stub exposed from a transmission media bundle 1836 for use as an antenna 1855 is shown. Each antenna 1855 can function as a directional antenna that radiates a wireless signal that is directed at a wireless communication device or induces electromagnetic wave propagation on the surface of a transmission medium (eg, a power line). In one embodiment, the wireless signal emitted by the antennas 1855 may be beams steered by configuring the phase and / or other characteristics of the wireless signals generated by each antenna 1855. In one embodiment, the antennas 1855 can be individually placed within a pie-pan antenna assembly to direct wireless signals in various directions.

  The terms "core", "cladding", "shell", and "foam" utilized in this disclosure can leave an electromagnetic wave coupled to the core while the electromagnetic wave propagates longitudinally along the core. It should further be noted that any type of material (or combination of materials) may be included. For example, the strip of dielectric foam 1804 ″ described above is a strip of conventional dielectric material (eg, polyethylene) wound around a dielectric core 1802 (referred to herein as a “wrap” for illustrative purposes only). Can be substituted. In this configuration, the average density of the wrap can be a low density as a result of the air space between the sections of the wrap. Accordingly, the effective dielectric constant of the wrap may be lower than the dielectric constant of the dielectric core 1802, thereby allowing the guided electromagnetic wave to remain coupled to the core. Thus, any embodiment of the present disclosure relating to the material used for the core and the wrap around the core can be achieved by other dielectric materials that achieve the result of maintaining electromagnetic waves coupled to the core while propagating along the core. Can be used to structurally configure and / or change. Further, the core as described in any embodiment of the present disclosure comprises a wholly or partially opaque material (eg, polyethylene) that is resistant to the propagation of electromagnetic waves having an optical operating frequency. Can do. Thus, the electromagnetic wave guided and coupled to the core has a non-optical frequency range (eg, less than the lowest visible light frequency).

  18N, 18O, 18P, 18Q, 18R, 18S, and 18T are non-limiting examples of waveguide devices that transmit or receive electromagnetic waves in accordance with various aspects described herein. It is a block diagram which shows an embodiment. In one embodiment, FIG. 18N shows a front view of a waveguide device 1865 having a plurality of slots 1863 (eg, openings or apertures) that emit electromagnetic waves having a radiated electric field (E field) 1861. In one embodiment, the radiated E-field 1861 of a pair of symmetrically located slots 1863 (eg, north and south slots of waveguide 1865) can be directed away from each other (ie, centered on cable 1862). Radially opposite pole). Although the slot 1863 is shown as having a rectangular shape, other shapes such as other polygons, sectors and arcs, ovals, and other shapes are possible as well. For illustration purposes only, the term north refers to the relative direction, as shown in the figure. All references in this disclosure to other directions (eg, south, east, west, northwest, etc.) are relative to the north-facing view. In one embodiment, for example, to achieve opposite E-fields in the north and south slots 1863, the north and south slots 1863 are perimeter distances that are approximately one wavelength of the electromagnetic wave signal supplied to these slots. Can be placed between each other. The waveguide 1865 can have a cylindrical cavity in the center of the waveguide 1865 to allow placement of the cable 1862. In one embodiment, cable 1862 can include an insulated conductor. In another embodiment, the cable 1862 can include a non-insulated conductor. In still other embodiments, the cable 1862 can include any of the transmission cores 1852 of the cable 1850 described above.

  In one embodiment, the cable 1862 can slide into the cylindrical cavity of the waveguide 1865. In another embodiment, the waveguide 1865 can utilize an assembly mechanism (not shown). An assembly mechanism (eg, a hinge or other suitable mechanism that provides a way to open the waveguide 1865 in one or more locations) is used to place the waveguide 1865 on the outer surface of the cable 1862, or otherwise. The separate pieces can be assembled together so that a waveguide 1865 can be formed as shown. According to these and other suitable embodiments, the waveguide 1865 can be configured to wrap around the cable 1862 like a collar.

  FIG. 18O shows a side view of one embodiment of waveguide 1865. The waveguide 1865 is configured to have a hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867 that receives the electromagnetic wave 1866 generated by the transmitter circuit, as described above in this disclosure (see, eg, FIGS. 1 and 10A). be able to. The electromagnetic wave 1866 can be distributed in the hollow collar 1869 of the waveguide 1865 by the hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867. Rectangular waveguide portion 1867 and hollow collar 1869 can be constructed of a material (eg, carbon fiber material) suitable for maintaining electromagnetic waves within the hollow chambers of these assemblies. Note that although the waveguide portion 1867 is shown and described in a hollow rectangular configuration, other shapes and / or other non-hollow configurations may be utilized. In particular, the waveguide portion 1867 can have a square or other polygonal cross-section, an arcuate or sectoral cross-section that is truncated to fit the outer surface of the cable 1862, a circular or elliptical cross-section or cross-sectional shape. In addition, the waveguide portion 1867 can be configured as a solid dielectric material or otherwise include a solid dielectric material.

  As described above, the hollow collar 1869 can be configured to emit electromagnetic waves from each slot 1863 having opposite E-fields 1861 in a pair of symmetrically located slots 1863 and 1863 '. In one embodiment, electromagnetic waves emitted by the combination of slots 1863 and 1863 ′ are therefore coupled to cable 1862 and propagate according to the fundamental wave mode in the absence of other wave modes—such as non-fundamental wave modes. An electromagnetic wave 1868 can be induced. In this configuration, electromagnetic wave 1868 can propagate longitudinally along cable 1862 to other downstream waveguide systems that are coupled to cable 1862.

  Since the hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867 of FIG. 18O is closer to the slot 1863 (in the north position of the waveguide 1865), the slot 1863 has an electromagnetic wave having a stronger magnitude than the electromagnetic wave emitted by the slot 1863 ′ (in the south position). Note that this can occur. To reduce the size difference between these slots, slot 1863 'can be made larger than slot 1863. Techniques for balancing the magnitude of signals between slots utilizing different slot sizes are described in any embodiment of the present disclosure related to FIGS. 18N, 18O, 18Q, 18S, 18U, and 18V. Can be applied-some of them are described below.

  In another embodiment, FIG. 18P may be configured to utilize a circuit, such as a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) 1870, each coupled to a signal input 1872 (eg, a coaxial cable that provides a communication signal). A possible waveguide 1865 ′ is shown. The signal input 1872 is generated by a transmitter circuit as described above in this disclosure (eg, see reference numerals 101, 1000 in FIGS. 1 and 10A) configured to provide an electrical signal to the MMIC 1870. be able to. Each MMIC 1870 can be configured to receive a signal 1872 that can modulate the signal 1872 and use a radiating element (eg, an antenna) to emit an electromagnetic wave having a radiated E-field 1861. In one embodiment, the MMIC 1870 can be configured to receive the same signal 1872 but transmit an electromagnetic wave having an E-field 1861 in the opposite direction. This can be accomplished by configuring one of the MMICs 1870 to transmit electromagnetic waves that are 180 degrees out of phase with those transmitted by other MMICs 1870. In one embodiment, the combination of electromagnetic waves emitted by the MMIC 1870 are coupled together and coupled to the cable 1862 to propagate in accordance with the fundamental wave mode 1868 in the absence of other wave modes—such as non-fundamental wave modes. Can be induced. In this configuration, electromagnetic wave 1868 can propagate longitudinally along cable 1862 to other downstream waveguide systems that are coupled to cable 1862.

  Tapered horn 1880 can be added to the embodiment of FIGS. 18O and 18P to assist in guiding electromagnetic wave 1868 on cable 1862 as described in FIGS. 18Q and 18R. In one embodiment where the cable 1862 is a non-insulated conductor, the electromagnetic waves induced on the cable 1862 can have a large radial dimension (eg, 1 m). Insulating layer 1879 can be applied to the portion of cable 1862 at or near the cavity, as shown using hash lines in FIGS. 18Q and 18R, so that a smaller tapered horn 1880 can be used. The insulating layer 1879 can have a tapered end facing away from the waveguide 1865. Due to the added insulation, the electromagnetic wave 1868 can first be transmitted by the waveguide 1865 (or 1865 ′) so that it is tightly coupled to the insulation, thereby reducing the radial dimension of the electromagnetic wave 1868 (eg, A few cm). When the electromagnetic wave 1868 propagates away from the waveguide 1865 (1865 ′) and reaches the tapered end of the insulating layer 1879, the radial dimension of the electromagnetic wave 1868 begins to increase, and finally the electromagnetic wave 1868 has no insulating layer. To achieve the radial dimension that would have been induced on non-insulated conductors. In the views of FIGS. 18Q and 18R, the tapered end begins at the end of the tapered horn 1880. In other embodiments, the tapered end of the insulating layer 1879 can begin before or after the end of the tapered horn 1880. Tapered horns may be made of metal, constructed of other conductive materials, or coated or covered with a dielectric layer, or doped with a conductive material to reflect similar to metal horns. It may be constructed of plastic or other non-conductive material that provides properties.

  In one embodiment, cable 1862 can include any of the embodiments of cable 1850 described above. In this embodiment, waveguides 1865 and 1865 'can be coupled to the transmission core 1852 of cable 1850, as shown in FIGS. 18S and 18T. Waveguides 1865 and 1865 'may induce electromagnetic waves 1868 propagating in the inner layer of cable 1850, in whole or in part, on transmission core 1852, as described above.

  Note that in the above embodiments of FIGS. 18Q, 18R, 18S, and 18T, the electromagnetic wave 1868 can be bidirectional. For example, electromagnetic waves 1868 of different operating frequencies can be received by slots 1863 or MMIC 1870 of waveguides 1865 and 1865 ', respectively. When received, the electromagnetic waves can be transmitted by a receiver circuit (see, eg, reference numbers 101, 1000 in FIGS. 1 and 10A) to generate a communication signal to be processed.

  Although not shown, it is further noted that the waveguides 1865 and 1865 'can be configured such that the electromagnetic wave 1868 can be directed longitudinally upstream or downstream. For example, a first tapered horn 1880 coupled to a first instance of waveguide 1865 or 1865 ′ can be directed west over cable 1862, while a second instance of waveguides 1865 and 1865 ′. A second tapered horn 1880 coupled to can be directed east on cable 1862. The first and second instances of the waveguide 1865 or 1865 ′ provide a signal received by the first waveguide 1865 or 1865 ′ to the second waveguide 1865 or 1865 ′ in a repeater configuration to provide the cable 1862 can be combined so that it can be retransmitted in the east direction. The repeater configuration described here can also be applied on the cable 1862 from east to west.

  The waveguides 1865 of FIGS. 18N, 18O, 18Q, and 18S can also be configured to generate an electromagnetic field having only non-fundamental or asymmetric wave modes. FIG. 18U illustrates one embodiment of a waveguide 1865 that can be configured to generate an electromagnetic field having only non-fundamental wave modes. Midline 1890 represents the separation between slots where the current on the back side (not shown) of the front plate of waveguide 1865 changes polarity. For example, the current on the back side of the front plate corresponding to the E field that is radially outward (ie, pointing away from the center point of the cable 1862) is, in some embodiments, located outside the midline 1890. Slot (eg, slots 1863A and 1863B). The current on the back side of the front plate corresponding to the E field, which is radially inward (ie, refers to the center point of cable 1862), in some embodiments, is associated with a slot located inside midline 1890. be able to. The direction of the current can depend, among other parameters, on the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave 1866 supplied to the hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867 (see FIG. 18O).

  For purposes of illustration, assume that the electromagnetic wave 1866 supplied to the hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867 has an operating frequency such that the outer perimeter distance between the slots 1863A and 1863B is one full wavelength of the electromagnetic wave 1866. In this case, the E field of electromagnetic waves emitted by the slots 1863A and 1863B points outward in the radial direction (ie, has an opposite direction). When the electromagnetic waves emitted by slots 1863A and 1863B are combined, the resulting electromagnetic waves on cable 1862 propagate according to the fundamental wave mode. Conversely, by repositioning one of the slots (eg, slot 1863B) within the midline 1890 (ie, slot 1863C), slot 1863C is approximately 180 degrees out of phase with the E field of the electromagnetic wave generated by slot 1863A. An electromagnetic wave having an E field that is shifted is generated. As a result, the E field direction of the electromagnetic wave generated by the slot pairs 1863A and 1863C is substantially aligned. Thus, the coupling of electromagnetic waves emitted by the slot pairs 1863A and 1863C generates an electromagnetic wave coupled to the cable 1862 that propagates according to the non-fundamental wave mode.

  To achieve a reconfigurable slot configuration, the waveguide 1865 can be configured in accordance with the embodiment shown in FIG. 18V. Configuration (A) shows a waveguide 1865 having a plurality of symmetrically located slots. Each slot 1863 in configuration (A) can be selectively disabled by plugging the slot with a material (eg, carbon fiber or metal) to avoid emission of electromagnetic waves. A blocked (ie, disabled) slot 1863 is shown in black, while an enabled (ie, unclosed) slot 1863 is shown in white. Although not shown, the blocking material can be placed behind (or in front of) the front plate of waveguide 1865. A mechanism (not shown) can be coupled to the blocking material so that the blocking material can slide in and out of a particular slot 1863 much like opening and closing a window with a cover. The mechanism can be coupled to a linear motor that can be controlled by circuitry in waveguide 1865 to selectively enable or disable individual slots 1863. Using such a mechanism in each slot 1863, the waveguide 1865 can be configured to select various configurations of the enabled or disabled slot 1863, as shown in the embodiment of FIG. 18V. . Other methods or techniques to cover or open the slot (eg, use of a rotatable disk behind or in front of waveguide 1865) may also be applied to embodiments of the present disclosure.

  In one embodiment, the waveguide system 1865 enables a particular slot 1863 outside the midline 1890 and disables a particular slot 1863 inside the midline 1890, as shown in configuration (B), It can be configured to generate a fundamental wave. For example, assume that the perimeter distance between slots 1863 outside the midline 1890 (i.e., north of the waveguide system 1865 and in the south city) is one full wavelength. Thus, these slots have an electric field (E field) pointing radially outward at a particular moment, as described above. Conversely, the slots inside the midline 1890 (ie, at the west and east positions of the waveguide system 1865) have a ½ wavelength perimeter distance to any of the slots 1863 outside the midline. Since slots within the midline 1890 are separated by ½ wavelength, such slots generate electromagnetic waves having an E field pointing radially outward. If the west and east slots 1863 outside the midline 1890 are enabled instead of the west and east slots inside the midline 1890, the E-field emitted by these slots points radially inward, which When coupled with north and south electric fields, it generates non-fundamental wave mode propagation. Thus, configuration (B) as shown in FIG. 18V generates electromagnetic waves in the north and south slots 1863 that have an E field pointing radially outward, which also has an E field that points radially outward. And in the east slot 1863, these electromagnetic waves, when combined, induce an electromagnetic wave having a fundamental wave mode onto the cable 1862.

  In another embodiment, the waveguide system 1865 enables all the north, south, west, and east slots 1863 outside the midline 1890 and all other slots 1863 as shown in configuration (C). It can be configured to be disabled. Assuming that the perimeter distance between pairs of opposing slots (eg, north and south or west and east) is separated by one full wavelength, using configuration (C), several An electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode with an E field and another field pointing radially inward can be generated. In yet another embodiment, the waveguide system 1865 enables the northwest slot 1863 outside the midline 1890, enables the southeast slot 1863 inside the midline 1890, as shown in configuration (D), all other The slot 1863 can be configured to be disabled. Assuming that the circumferential distance between such slot pairs is separated by one full wavelength, using such a configuration, an electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode with an E field aligned in the northwest direction. Can be generated.

  In another embodiment, the waveguide system 1865 can be configured to generate an electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode with an E field aligned in the southwest direction. This can be achieved by utilizing a different configuration than that used in configuration (D). Configuration (E) enables southwest slot 1863 outside midline 1890, enables northwest slot 1863 inside midline 1890, and disables all other slots 1863, as shown in configuration (E). Can be achieved. Assuming that the outer circumferential distance between such a pair of slots is separated by one full wavelength, using such a configuration, an electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode with an E field aligned in the southwest direction. Can be generated. Accordingly, configuration (E) generates a non-fundamental wave mode that is orthogonal to the non-fundamental wave mode of configuration (D).

  In yet another embodiment, the waveguide system 1865 can be configured to generate an electromagnetic wave having a fundamental wave mode with an E field pointing radially inward. This enables the north slot 1863 inside the midline 1890, enables the south slot 1863 inside the midline 1890, and enables the east slot outside the midline 1890, as shown in configuration (F). This can be accomplished by enabling the west slot 1863 external to 1890 and disabling all other slots 1863. Assuming that the outer perimeter distance between the north and south slots is separated by one full wavelength, such a configuration is used to generate an electromagnetic wave having a fundamental wave mode with an E field radially inward. be able to. Although the slots selected in configurations (B) and (F) are different, the fundamental wave modes generated by configurations (B) and (F) are the same.

  In yet another embodiment, fundamental or non-fundamental wave modes can be generated by manipulating the E-field between slots and changing the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave 1866 supplied to the hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867. For example, in the diagram of FIG. 18U, assume that at a particular operating frequency of electromagnetic wave 1866, the outer peripheral distance between slots 1863A and 1863B is one full wavelength of electromagnetic wave 1866. In this case, the E field of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the slots 1863A and 1863B points outward in the radial direction, as shown, and can be used in combination to guide electromagnetic waves having a fundamental wave mode onto the cable 1862. Conversely, the E-fields of electromagnetic waves emitted by slots 1863A and 1863C are aligned in the radial direction (ie, pointing north) and used in combination as shown to cable electromagnetic waves having non-fundamental wave modes. 1862 can be guided.

  Here, it is assumed that the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave 1866 supplied to the hollow rectangular waveguide portion 1867 is changed so that the outer peripheral distance between the slots 1863A and 1863B is ½ wavelength of the electromagnetic wave 1866. In this case, the E fields of electromagnetic waves emitted by the slots 1863A and 1863B are aligned in the radial direction (that is, pointing in the same direction). That is, the E field of the electromagnetic wave emitted by the slot 1863B indicates the same direction as the E field of the electromagnetic wave emitted by the slot 1863A. By using such electromagnetic waves in combination, an electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode can be induced on the cable 1862. Conversely, E fields of electromagnetic waves emitted by slots 1863A and 1863C are used radially outward (ie, away from cable 1862) and used in combination to induce electromagnetic waves having a fundamental wave mode on cable 1862. Can do.

  In another embodiment, the waveguide 1865 'of FIGS. 18P, 18R, and 18T can be configured to generate an electromagnetic wave having only a non-fundamental wave mode. This can be achieved by adding more MMIC 1870, as shown in FIG. 18W. Each MMIC 1870 can be configured to receive the same signal input 1872. However, the MMIC 1870 can be selectively configured to emit electromagnetic waves having different phases using a controllable phase shift circuit within each MMIC 1870. For example, the north and south MMICs 1870 can be configured to emit electromagnetic waves having a 180 degree phase difference, thereby aligning the E field in either the north or south direction. Any combination of MMIC 1870 pairs (eg, west and east MMIC 1870, northwest and southeast MMIC 1870, northeast and southwest MMIC 1870) can be configured to face or align E fields. Accordingly, the waveguide 1865 'can be configured to generate electromagnetic waves having one or more non-fundamental wave modes, one or more fundamental wave modes, or any combination thereof.

  It is proposed that slots 1863 need not be selected in pairs to generate electromagnetic waves having non-fundamental wave modes. For example, an electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode can be generated by enabling a single slot from the plurality of slots shown in configuration (A) of FIG. 18V and disabling all other slots. . Similarly, a single MMIC 1870 of the MMIC 1870 shown in FIG. 18W can be configured to generate an electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode, while all other MMICs 1870 are unused, ie, disabled. Is done. Similarly, other wave modes and combinations of wave modes can be induced by enabling a suitable subset of waveguide slots 1863 or other non-null MMIC 1870s.

  It is further suggested that the E field arrows shown in FIGS. 18U and 18V are merely exemplary and represent a static view of the E field. In practice, an electromagnetic wave can have an oscillating E-field that points to the outside at one moment and to the inside at another moment. For example, in the case of a non-fundamental wave mode with an E field aligned in one direction (eg, north), such waves have an E field pointing in the opposite direction (eg, south) at another moment. Can do. Similarly, a fundamental wave mode having an E field that is radial may have an E field that points away from the cable 1862 in the radial direction at one instant and points to the cable 1862 in the radial direction at another instant. . The embodiments of FIGS. 18U-18W are capable of generating electromagnetic waves having one or more non-fundamental wave modes, electromagnetic waves having one or more fundamental wave modes (eg, TM00 and HE11 modes), or any combination thereof. Note further that it can be configured to generate. It is further noted that such a configuration may be used in combination with any embodiment described in this disclosure. It should also be noted that the embodiments of FIGS. 18U-18W can be combined (eg, slots used in combination with MMIC).

  Further note that in some embodiments, the waveguide systems 1865 and 1865 ′ of FIGS. 18N-18W may generate a combination of fundamental and non-fundamental wave modes where one wave mode is superior to the other. I want to be. For example, in one embodiment, the electromagnetic waves generated by the waveguide systems 1865 and 1865 ′ of FIGS. 18N-18W have a weak signal component having a non-fundamental wave mode and a substantially strong signal component having a fundamental wave mode. Can have. Therefore, in this embodiment, the electromagnetic wave substantially has a fundamental wave mode. In another embodiment, the electromagnetic waves generated by the waveguide systems 1865 and 1865 ′ of FIGS. 18N-18W have a weak signal component having a fundamental wave mode and a substantially strong signal component having a non-fundamental wave mode. Can do. Therefore, in this embodiment, the electromagnetic wave has a substantially non-fundamental wave mode. Furthermore, it is possible to generate a nondominant wave mode that propagates only a small distance along the length of the transmission medium.

  The waveguide systems 1865 and 1865 ′ of FIGS. 18N-18W can be configured to generate an instance of an electromagnetic wave having a wave mode that can be different from one or more generated wave modes of the combined electromagnetic wave. Please also note. It is further noted that each MMIC 1870 of the waveguide system 1865 ′ of FIG. 18W can be configured to generate an instance of an electromagnetic wave having a wave characteristic that differs from the wave characteristic of another instance of the electromagnetic wave generated by another MMIC 1870. I want to be. One MMIC 1870 may be, for example, a spatial orientation and phase, frequency, magnitude different from the spatial orientation and phase, frequency, magnitude, electric field orientation, and / or magnetic field orientation of different instances of another electromagnetic wave generated by another MMIC 1870, An instance of an electromagnetic wave having an electric field orientation and / or a magnetic field orientation can be generated. Thus, the waveguide system 1865 ′ is configured to generate an instance of an electromagnetic wave having different wave and spatial characteristics that, when combined, achieves a resulting electromagnetic wave having one or more desired wave modes. be able to.

  From these illustrations, it is proposed that the waveguide systems 1865 and 1865 'of FIGS. 18N-18W can be configured to generate electromagnetic waves having one or more selectable wave modes. In one embodiment, for example, the waveguide systems 1865 and 1865 ′ are from a process of selecting one or more wave modes and combining instances of electromagnetic waves having one or more configurable wave and spatial characteristics. It may be configured to generate an electromagnetic wave having one or more wave modes that are selected and generated. In one embodiment, for example, parametric information can be stored in a lookup table. Each entry in the lookup table can represent a selectable wave mode. The selectable wave mode can represent a single wave mode or a combination of multiple wave modes. The combination of multiple wave modes can have one or a dominant wave mode. Parametric information can provide configuration information that creates an instance of an electromagnetic wave that produces a resultant electromagnetic wave having a desired wave mode.

  For example, once one or more wave modes are selected, parametric information from entries associated with the selected one or more wave modes in the lookup table is used to achieve an electromagnetic wave having the desired wave mode. To do so, any of one or more MMICs 1870 can be utilized and / or their corresponding configurations identified. The parametric information can identify the selection of one or more MMICs 1870 based on the spatial orientation of the MMIC 1870 that may be required to generate an electromagnetic wave having a desired wave mode. The parametric information may be the same in each of the selected MMICs 1870, or may be one or more to have a particular phase, frequency, magnitude, electric field orientation, and / or magnetic field orientation that may or may not be the same. Information may also be provided to configure each of the MMIC 1870s. A lookup table with selectable wave modes and corresponding parametric information can be configured to configure slotted waveguide system 1865.

  In some embodiments, guided electromagnetic waves propagate in a transmission medium longer than a small distance (non-trivial distances) and may or may not be desirable. If it has a field strength that is much larger than other wave modes (eg, 20 dB higher), it can be considered to have the desired wave mode. Such desired one or more wave modes can be referred to as dominant wave modes, and other wave modes are referred to as non-dominant wave modes. Similarly, a guided electromagnetic wave that can be said to have substantially no fundamental guided mode does not have a fundamental wave mode or has a nondominant fundamental wave mode. A guided electromagnetic wave that can be said to have substantially no non-fundamental wave mode does not have a non-fundamental wave-guide mode or has only a non-dominant non-fundamental wave-guide mode. In some embodiments, a guided electromagnetic wave that can be said to have only a single guided mode or a selected guided mode can have only one corresponding dominant guided mode.

  It should further be noted that the embodiments of FIGS. 18U-18W are applicable to other embodiments of the present disclosure. For example, the embodiment of FIGS. 18U-18W can be used as an alternative to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 18N-18T, or used in combination with the embodiment shown in FIGS. 18N-18T. Can do.

  Referring now to FIGS. 19A and 19B, a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example dielectric antenna and corresponding gain and field strength plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. Show. FIG. 19A shows a dielectric horn antenna 1901 having a conical structure. Dielectric horn antenna 1901 is coupled to one end 1902 ′ of feed line 1902 having a feed point 1902 ″ at the opposite end of feed line 1902. Dielectric horn antenna 1901 and feed line 1902 (and other embodiments of dielectric antennas described below in this disclosure) may be made of polyethylene material, polyurethane material, or other suitable dielectric material (eg, synthetic resin, etc. And other dielectric materials such as plastic). Dielectric horn antenna 1901 and feed line 1902 (and other embodiments of the dielectric antenna described below in this disclosure) may be configured to be substantially or totally free of any conductive material. .

  For example, the dielectric horn antenna 1901 and the outer surface 1907 of the feed line 1902 can be non-conductive or substantially non-conductive if at least 95% of the outer surface area is non-conductive, and the dielectric horn antenna 1901 and The dielectric material used to construct the feed line 1902 may be substantially free of impurities that may be conductive (eg, less than 1 ppt), or may not impart electrical conductivity. However, in other embodiments, one or more screws, rivets, or other coupling elements used to couple parts together are used to couple to feed point 1902 ″ of feed line 1902. A limited number of conductive components can be used, such as one or more structural elements that do not significantly change the radiation pattern of the metal connector component and / or the dielectric antenna.

  The feed point 1902 ″ can be configured to couple to a core 1852 such as described above by way of example in FIGS. 18I and 18J. In one embodiment, feed point 1902 ″ can be coupled to core 1852 utilizing a joint (not shown in FIG. 19A), such as splice device 1860 of FIG. 18J. Other embodiments that couple the feed point 1902 ″ to the core 1852 can also be used. In one embodiment, the joint can be configured to contact the end point of the core 1852 at the feed point 1902 ″. In another embodiment, the joint can create a gap between the feed point 1902 ″ and the end of the core 1852. In yet another embodiment, the joint may or may not align the feed point 1902 ″ and the core 1852 coaxially. Despite any combination of the above embodiments, electromagnetic waves can propagate in whole or at least partially between the feed point 1902 ″ and the core 1852.

  The cable 1850 may be coupled to the waveguide system 1865 shown in FIG. 18S or the waveguide system 1865 'shown in FIG. 18T. For illustrative purposes only, reference is made to the waveguide system 1865 'of FIG. 18T. However, it is understood that the waveguide system 1865 of FIG. 18S or other waveguide systems may also be utilized with the following considerations. The waveguide system 1865 ′ selects a wave mode (eg, a non-fundamental wave mode, a fundamental wave mode, a hybrid wave mode, or a combination thereof as described above) and has a non-optical operating frequency (eg, 60 GHz). Can be configured to send instances of The electromagnetic waves can be directed to the interface of the cable 1850 as shown in FIG. 18T.

  The instance of the electromagnetic wave generated by the waveguide system 1865 'can induce a coupled electromagnetic wave having a selected wave mode that propagates from the core 1852 to the feed point 1902 ". The coupled electromagnetic wave can propagate partially within the core 1852 and partially on the outer surface of the core 1852. When the coupled electromagnetic wave propagates through the joint between the core 1852 and the feed point 1902 ″, it can continue to partially propagate inside the feeder line 1902 and partially on the outer surface of the feeder line 1902. In some embodiments, the portion of the combined electromagnetic wave that propagates on the outer surface of the core 1852 and the feed line 1902 is small. In these embodiments, it can be said that the coupled electromagnetic wave is guided by the core 1852 and the feed line 1902 and is closely coupled while propagating in the longitudinal direction toward the dielectric antenna 1901.

  When the coupled electromagnetic wave reaches the base end of the dielectric antenna 1901 (at the junction 1902 ′ between the feed line 1902 and the dielectric antenna 1901), it enters the base end of the dielectric antenna 1901 and enters the dielectric antenna 1901. Propagates longitudinally along the axis of (indicated as a hash line). By the time the coupled electromagnetic wave reaches the aperture 1903, the coupled electromagnetic wave has an intensity pattern similar to that shown by the side view and front view shown in FIG. 19B. The electric field strength pattern of FIG. 19B shows that the electric field of the coupled electromagnetic wave is strongest in the central region of the aperture 1903 and weaker in the outer region. In one embodiment, if the wave mode of the electromagnetic wave propagating through the dielectric antenna 1901 is a hybrid wave mode (eg, HE11), electromagnetic wave leakage at the outer surface 1907 is reduced or in some cases. Disappear. Although the dielectric antenna 1901 is constructed of a solid dielectric material without a physical aperture, the front or operating surface of the dielectric antenna 1901 from which free space wireless signals are radiated or received is some conventional. In a technical system, the term aperture further refers to the aperture 1903 of the dielectric antenna 1901 even though it may be used to describe an antenna aperture that radiates or receives a free space wireless signal. Please keep in mind. The method for delivering the hybrid wave mode over cable 1850 is discussed below.

  In one embodiment, the far-field antenna gain pattern shown in FIG. 19B can be broadened by reducing the operating frequency of the combined electromagnetic wave from the nominal frequency. Similarly, the gain pattern can be narrowed by increasing the operating frequency of the combined electromagnetic wave from the nominal frequency. Accordingly, the beam width of the wireless signal emitted by the aperture 1903 can be controlled by configuring the waveguide system 1865 'to increase or decrease the operating frequency of the combined electromagnetic wave.

  The dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19A can also be used to receive wireless signals such as free space wireless signals transmitted by either a similar antenna or a conventional antenna design. A wireless signal received by the dielectric antenna 1901 in the aperture 1903 induces an electromagnetic wave propagating toward the feeder line 1902 into the dielectric antenna 1901. The electromagnetic wave continues to propagate from the feed line 1902 to the junction between the feed point 1902 ″ and the end point of the core 1852, thereby providing a waveguide system 1865 ′ coupled to the cable 1850, as shown in FIG. 18T. It is conveyed to. In this configuration, the waveguide system 1865 ′ can perform bidirectional communication using the dielectric antenna 1901. It should be further noted that in some embodiments, the core 1852 of the cable 1850 (shown in dashed lines) can be configured to be collinear with the feed point 1902 ″ to avoid the curvature shown in FIG. 19A. . In some embodiments, collinear configurations can reduce changes in electromagnetic propagation due to bending of the cable 1850.

  Referring now to FIGS. 19C and 19D, a dielectric antenna 1901 coupled to or constructed integrally with lens 1912 and corresponding gain and field intensity plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 shows a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, the lens 1912 can include a dielectric material having a first dielectric constant that is substantially similar to or substantially equal to the second dielectric constant of the dielectric antenna 1901. In other embodiments, the lens 1912 can include a dielectric material having a first dielectric constant different from the second dielectric constant of the dielectric antenna 1901. In any of these embodiments, the shape of the lens 1912 can be selected or formed to equalize the delay of various electromagnetic waves propagating at different points in the dielectric antenna 1901. In one embodiment, the lens 1912 can be an integral part of a dielectric antenna 1901, as shown in the upper diagram of FIG. 19C, in particular, the lens and dielectric antenna 1901 are made from a single dielectric material. It can be formed by molding, machining, or other methods. Alternatively, the lens 1912 can be an assembly component of a dielectric antenna 1901, as shown in the lower view of FIG. 19C, and can be attached by adhesive material, brackets at the outer edge, or other suitable attachment technique. it can. The lens 1912 can have a convex structure as shown in FIG. 19C configured to adjust the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the dielectric antenna 1901. Although circular lens and conical dielectric antenna configurations are shown, other shapes include pyramids, ellipses, and other geometric shapes and can be similarly implemented.

  In particular, the curvature of the lens 1912 can be selected to reduce the phase difference between near-field wireless signals generated by the aperture 1903 of the dielectric antenna 1901. Lens 1912 accomplishes this by applying a position dependent delay to the propagating electromagnetic wave. Depending on the curvature of the lens 1912, the delay differs depending on where the electromagnetic wave is emitted from the aperture 1903. For example, the electromagnetic wave propagates through the central axis 1905 of the dielectric antenna 1901, and the electromagnetic wave propagates away from the central axis 1905 in the radial direction. Is also subject to a greater delay through lens 1912. For example, the delay experienced by the electromagnetic wave propagating toward the outer edge of the aperture 1903 through the lens is minimal or not subject to delay. The propagation delay increases as the electromagnetic wave approaches the central axis 1905. Accordingly, the curvature of the lens 1912 can be configured such that the near-field wireless signals have substantially the same phase. By reducing the difference between the phases of the near-field wireless signal, the width of the far-field signal generated by the dielectric antenna 1901 is narrowed, as shown by the far-field intensity plot shown in FIG. 19D. The strength of the far field wireless signal within the width of the main lobe increases, producing a relatively narrow beam pattern with high gain.

  Referring now to FIGS. 19E and 19F, a dielectric antenna 1901 coupled to a lens 1912 having a ridge (or step) 1914 and corresponding gain and field intensity plots in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 6 shows a block diagram illustrating an example non-limiting embodiment of the invention. In these figures, lens 1912 may include a concentric ridge 1914 as shown in the side and perspective views of FIG. 19E. Each ridge 1914 may include a riser 1916 and a tread 1918. The size of the tread 1918 varies depending on the curvature of the aperture 1903. For example, the tread 1918 at the center of the aperture 1903 can be larger in size than the tread at the outer edge of the aperture 1903. In order to reduce the reflection of electromagnetic waves reaching the aperture 1903, each riser 1916 can be configured to have a depth that represents a wavelength selection factor. For example, the riser 1916 can be configured to have a depth of ¼ wavelength of the electromagnetic wave propagating through the dielectric antenna 1901. Such a configuration reflects electromagnetic waves from a riser 1916 and has a phase difference of 180 degrees with respect to the electromagnetic waves reflected from the adjacent riser 1916. Thus, out-of-phase electromagnetic waves reflected from adjacent risers 1916 are substantially canceled, thereby reducing the distortion and reflection caused thereby. Although particular riser / tread configurations are shown, other configurations having different numbers of risers, different riser shapes, etc. can be implemented as well. In some embodiments, the electromagnetic reflection reflected by the lens 1912 having a concentric ridge shown in FIG. 19E is less than the lens 1912 having a smooth convex surface shown in FIG. 19C. FIG. 19F shows the far field gain plot resulting from the dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19E.

  Referring now to FIG. 19G, a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna 1901 having an elliptical structure in accordance with various aspects described herein is shown. FIG. 19G shows a side view, a top view, and a front view of the dielectric antenna 1901. The oval shape is achieved by reducing the height of the dielectric antenna 1901 as indicated by reference numeral 1922 and lengthening the dielectric antenna 1901 as indicated by reference numeral 1924. The resulting oval 1926 is shown in the front view illustrated by FIG. 19G. The ellipse can be formed using machining tools or other suitable construction techniques via machining.

  Referring now to FIG. 19H, one non-limiting example implementation of a near-field signal 1928 and a far-field signal 1930 emitted by the dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19G in accordance with various aspects described herein. The block diagram which shows a form is shown. The cross section of the near-field beam pattern 1928 mimics the elliptical shape of the aperture 1903 of the dielectric antenna 1901. The cross-section of the far-field beam pattern 1930 has a rotational offset (about 90 degrees) resulting from the oval shape of the near-field signal 1928. The offset can be determined by applying a Fourier transform to the near field signal 1928. The cross-section of the near-field beam pattern 1928 and the cross-section of the far-field beam pattern 1930 are shown as being approximately the same size to show the effect of rotation, but the actual size of the far-field beam pattern 1930 is dielectric It can increase with the distance from the antenna 1901.

  The elongated shape of the far field signal 1930 and its orientation are useful in aligning the dielectric antenna 1901 in relation to a remotely located receiver configured to receive the far field signal 1930. Can prove. The receiver may include one or more dielectric antennas coupled to a waveguide system, such as described by this disclosure. The elongate far field signal 1930 can increase the probability that a remotely located receiver will detect the far field signal 1930. In addition, the elongate far-field signal 1930 is obtained when the dielectric antenna 1901 is replaced with a gimbal assembly such as that shown in FIG. Including, but not limited to, a co-pending application having 0603 — 7785-1210 and a driven gimbal mount as described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 14 / 873,241 filed October 2, 2015. It may be useful in situations coupled to other drive antenna mounts, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes. In particular, the elongate far field signal 1930 indicates that such a gimbal mount has only two degrees of freedom to align the dielectric antenna 1901 in the direction of the receiver (eg, yaw and pitch are adjustable). Can be useful in situations with rolls fixed).

  Although not shown, the dielectric antenna 1901 of FIGS. 19G and 19H has an integral or attachable lens 1912 such as shown in FIGS. 19C and 19E to reduce the phase difference of the near-field signal. It will be appreciated that can increase the strength of the far-field signal 1930.

  Referring now to FIG. 19I, a block diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna 1901 that modulates a far field wireless signal is shown in accordance with various aspects described herein. In some embodiments, the width of the far-field wireless signal generated by the dielectric antenna 1901 is the number of wavelengths of electromagnetic waves propagating in the dielectric antenna 1901 that can match the surface area of the aperture 1903 of the dielectric antenna 1901. It can be said that it is inversely proportional to. Thus, as the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave increases, the width of the far-field wireless signal increases proportionally (and its intensity decreases). In other words, when the frequency of the electromagnetic wave decreases, the width of the far field wireless signal increases proportionally. Thus, in order to enhance the process of aligning the dielectric antenna 1901 in the direction of the receiver, for example using the gimbal assembly shown in FIG. The frequency of the electromagnetic wave supplied to 1901 can be reduced so that the far-field wireless signal is wide enough to increase the probability that the receiver will detect a portion of the far-field wireless signal.

  In some embodiments, the receiver can be configured to perform measurements on far-field wireless signals. From these measurements, the receiver can point a waveguide system coupled to a dielectric antenna 1901 that generates a far-field wireless signal. The receiver can provide instructions to the waveguide system via an omnidirectional wireless signal or an interface connected therebetween. The instructions provided by the receiver cause the waveguide system that controls the actuator in the gimbal assembly coupled to the dielectric antenna 1901 to adjust the orientation of the dielectric antenna 1901 to improve alignment with the receiver. be able to. As the quality of the far-field wireless signal increases, the receiver can also instruct the waveguide system to increase the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, thereby reducing the width of the far-field wireless signal and correspondingly Its strength increases.

  In an alternative embodiment, as shown by the perspective and front views shown in FIG. 19I, an absorbent sheet 1932 and / or other absorbent material constructed from a carbon material or conductive material is embedded in the dielectric antenna 1901. Can do. When the electromagnetic field is parallel to the absorbing sheet 1932, the electromagnetic wave is absorbed. However, in the clearance region 1934 where the absorbing sheet 1932 does not exist, the electromagnetic wave propagates to the aperture 1903, thereby generating a near-field wireless signal having a width that is approximately the clearance region 1934. By reducing the number of wavelengths relative to the surface area of the clearance region 1932, the width of the near-field wireless signal is reduced, while the width of the far-field wireless signal is increased. This property can be useful during the alignment process described above.

  For example, the polarity of the electric field emitted by the electromagnetic wave at the start of the alignment process can be configured to be parallel to the absorbent sheet 1932. If the remotely positioned receiver commands a waveguide system coupled to the dielectric antenna 1901 to direct the dielectric antenna 1901 using an actuator or other drive mount of the gimbal assembly, the remotely positioned receiver As the signal measurements performed by the receiver improve, the waveguide system can also be instructed to incrementally adjust the alignment of the electromagnetic field with respect to the absorbent sheet 1932. As alignment improves, the waveguide system eventually adjusts the electric field to be orthogonal to the absorbent sheet 1932. At this point, electromagnetic waves near the absorbing sheet 1932 are no longer absorbed, and all or substantially all electromagnetic waves propagate to the aperture 1903. Since the near-field wireless signal now covers all or substantially all of the aperture 1903, the far-field signal has a narrower width and higher intensity when directed to the receiver.

  A transmitter configured to receive a far field wireless signal (as described above) utilizes a transmitter that can transmit a wireless signal directed to a dielectric antenna 1901 utilized by the waveguide system. It will be understood that it may also be configured. For purposes of illustration, such a receiver is referred to as a remote system that can receive far-field wireless signals and transmit wireless signals that are directed to the waveguide system. In this embodiment, the waveguide system analyzes the wireless signal received by the dielectric antenna 1901 so that the quality of the wireless signal generated by the remote system improves the reception of far field wireless signals by the remote system. Whether to justify further adjustments to the far-field signal pattern and / or whether further azimuth alignment of the dielectric antenna with a gimbal (see FIG. 19M) or other drive mount is required It can be configured to determine whether or not. As the reception quality of wireless signals by the waveguide system improves, the waveguide system can increase the operating frequency of electromagnetic waves, thereby reducing the width of the far field wireless signal and correspondingly its strength. Will increase. In other modes of operation, the gimbal or other drive mount can be adjusted periodically to maintain optimal alignment.

  The above embodiment of FIG. 19I can also be combined. For example, a waveguide system may be based on a combination of analysis of a wireless signal generated by a remote system and a message or command provided by the remote system that indicates the quality of the far field signal received by the remote system. Adjustments to distance field signal patterns and / or antenna orientation adjustments can be performed.

  Referring now to FIG. 19J, a block diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a collar such as a flange 1942 that can be coupled to a dielectric antenna 1901 in accordance with various aspects described herein. Show. The flange can be constructed of a metal (eg, aluminum), a dielectric material (eg, polyethylene and / or foam), or other suitable material. Utilizing the flange 1942, as shown in FIG. 19K, align the feed point 1902 ″ (and also the feed line 1902 in some embodiments) to the waveguide system 1948 (eg, a circular waveguide). Can do. To accomplish this, the flange 1942 can include a central hole 1946 that engages the feed point 1902 ″. In one embodiment, the hole 1946 can have a thread and the feed line 1902 can have a smooth surface. In this embodiment, the flange 1942 is complementary to the soft outer surface of the feed line 1902 by inserting a portion of the feed point 1902 ″ into the hole 1946 and rotating the flange 1942 to function as a male threader. By forming a simple thread, it is possible to engage a feed point 1902 ″ (built with a dielectric material such as polyethylene).

  When feed line 1902 is threaded by or into flange 1942, feed point 1902 '' and the portion of feed line 1902 extending from flange 1942 can be shortened or lengthened by rotating flange 1942 accordingly. . In other embodiments, the feed line 1902 can be pre-threaded with a mating screw that engages the flange 1942 to improve ease of engaging the flange 1942. In still other embodiments, the feed line 1902 can have a smooth surface and the hole 1946 in the flange 1942 can have no threading. In this embodiment, the hole 1946 has a diameter similar to that of the power supply line 1902, and the engagement of the power supply line 1902 can be maintained at a fixed position by a frictional force.

  For alignment purposes, the flange 1942 can further include a threaded hole 1944 that is accompanied by two or more alignment holes 1947, which are used to complement the complementary alignment pins 1949 of the waveguide system 1948. Can be aligned, thereby assisting in aligning the hole 1944 ′ of the waveguide system 1948 with the threaded hole 1944 of the flange 1942 (see FIGS. 19K and 19L). Once the flange 1942 is aligned with the waveguide system 1948, the flange 1942 and the waveguide system 1948 can be secured to each other using a threaded screw 1950, producing the completed assembly shown in FIG. 19L. . In a threaded design, the feed point 1902 ″ of the feed line 1902 can be adjusted inward or outward relative to the port 1945 of the waveguide system 1948 where electromagnetic waves are exchanged. Adjustment can increase or decrease the gap 1943 between the feed point 1902 ″ and the port 1945. The adjustment can be used to adjust the coupling interface between the waveguide system 1948 and the feed point 1902 ″ of the feed line 1902. FIG. 19L also shows that the feed line 1902 can be used to align with a coaxially aligned dielectric foam section 1951 held by a tubular jacket 1952. The diagram in FIG. 19L is similar to the transmission medium 1800 ″ shown in FIG. 18K. To complete the assembly process, the flange 1942 can be coupled to a waveguide system 1948, as shown in FIG. 19L.

  Referring now to FIG. 19N, a block diagram of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a dielectric antenna 1901 'is shown in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 19N shows an array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 'each having a corresponding aperture 1903'. Each antenna in the array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 ′ may have a feed line 1902 having a corresponding feed point 1902 ″ coupled to each corresponding core 1852 of the plurality of cables 1850. Each cable 1850 can be coupled to a different (or the same) waveguide system 1865 ', such as shown in FIG. 18T. An array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 'can be used to transmit wireless signals having multiple spatial orientations. An array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 ′ covering 360 degrees allows one or more waveguide systems 1865 ′ coupled to the antenna to be omnidirectionally communicated with other communication devices or similar types of antennas. Can be executed.

  The bidirectional propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic wave described above for the dielectric array 1901 of FIG. It can also be applied to electromagnetic waves propagating in the reverse direction. Similarly, an array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 'may be substantially or entirely free of conductive outer surfaces and inner conductive materials as described above. For example, in some embodiments, an array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 'and corresponding feed points 1902' do not substantially change the radiation pattern of the dielectric-only material, such as polyethylene or polyurethane material, or the antenna. It can be constructed using only a trace amount of conductive material.

  Note further that each antenna of the array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 'may have a gain and field strength map similar to that shown for dielectric antenna 1901 in FIG. 19B. Each antenna in the array of pyramidal dielectric horn antennas 1901 'can also be used to receive wireless signals as described above for dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19A. In some embodiments, a single instance of a pyramidal dielectric horn antenna can be used. Similarly, multiple instances of the dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19A can be used in an array configuration similar to that shown in FIG. 19N.

  Referring now to FIG. 19O, a block of an example non-limiting embodiment of an array 1976 of dielectric antennas 1901 that can be configured to manipulate wireless signals in accordance with various aspects described herein. The figure is shown. The array 1976 of dielectric antennas 1901 can be a conical antenna 1901 or a pyramidal dielectric antenna 1901 '. To perform beam manipulation, a waveguide system coupled to an array 1976 of dielectric antenna 1901 can be configured to utilize a circuit 1972 that includes an amplifier 1973 and a phase shifter 974, and the amplifier 1973 and phase shifter Each pair of 1974 is coupled to one of the dielectric antennas 1901 in the array 1976. The waveguide system can manipulate far field wireless signals from left to right (west to east) by incrementally increasing the phase delay of the signal supplied to the dielectric antenna 1901.

  For example, the waveguide system may provide a first signal to a dielectric antenna in column 1 (“C1”) that has no phase delay. The waveguide system may further provide a second signal to column 2 (“C2”), the second signal including a first signal having a first phase delay. The waveguide system can further provide a third signal to the dielectric antenna of column 3 (“C3”), where the third signal includes a second signal having a second phase delay. Finally, the waveguide system can provide a fourth signal to the dielectric antenna in column 4 (“C4”), where the fourth signal includes a third signal having a third phase delay. These phase shift signals shift the far field wireless signal generated by the array from left to right. Similarly, far field signals are from right to left (east to west) (from “C4” to C1), from north to south (from “R1” to “R4”), and from south to north (“R4 To “R1”) and from southwest to northeast (from “C1-R4” to “C4-R1”).

  Perform beam manipulation in other directions, such as from southwest to northeast, by using similar techniques to configure the waveguide system to incrementally increase the phase of the signal transmitted by the following antenna sequence: It can also be: "C1-R4", "C1-R3 / C2-R4", "C1-R2 / C2-R3 / C3-R4", "C1-R1 / C2-R2 / C3-R3 / C4-R4" "," C2-R1 / C3-R2 / C4-R3 "," C3-R1 / C4-R2 "," C4-R1 ". Similarly, beam manipulation can be performed from northeast to southwest, from northwest to southeast, from southeast to northwest, and in other directions in three-dimensional space. Beam manipulation can be used, among other things, to align an array 1976 of dielectric antennas 1901 with a remote receiver and / or to direct the signal to a mobile communication device. In some embodiments, the phased array 1976 of the dielectric antenna 1901 can also be used to avoid the use of the gimbal assembly of FIG. 19M or other drive mounts. While the above described beam manipulation controlled by phase delay, similarly, gain and phase adjustment can be applied to the dielectric antenna 1901 of the phased array 1976 as well to provide additional control in forming the desired beam pattern. And can provide diversity.

  19P1-19P8, there is shown a side block diagram of a non-limiting embodiment of an example cable, flange, and dielectric antenna assembly in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 19P1 shows a cable 1850, such as that described above, that includes a transmission core 1852. FIG. Transmission core 1852 includes dielectric core 1802, insulated conductor 1825, bare conductor 1832 shown in transmission media 1800, 1820, 1830, 1836, 1841, and / or 1843 of FIGS. 18A-18D and 18F-18H, respectively. , Core 1842, or hollow core 1842 ′. The cable 1850 can further include a shell (such as a dielectric shell) covered by a jacket such as that shown in FIGS. 18A-18C. In some embodiments, the jacket can be conductorless (eg, polyethylene or equivalent). In other embodiments, the jacket can be a conductive shield that can reduce leakage of electromagnetic waves propagating along the transmission core 1852.

  In some embodiments, one end of the transmission core 1852 can be coupled to the flange 1942 as described above in connection with FIGS. 19J-19L. As described above, the flange 1942 can allow the transmission core 1852 of the cable 1850 to be aligned with the feed point 1902 of the dielectric antenna 1901. In some embodiments, the feed point 1902 can be constructed of the same material as the transmission core 1852. For example, in one embodiment, the transmission core 1852 can include a dielectric core and the feed point 1902 can also include a dielectric material. In this embodiment, the dielectric constants of transmission core 1852 and feed point 1902 can be similar or can differ by a controlled amount. The difference in dielectric constant can be controlled to adjust the interface between the transmission core 1852 and the feed point 1902 for the exchange of electromagnetic waves propagating between them. In other embodiments, the transmission core 1852 may have a different structure than the feed point 1902. For example, in one embodiment, the transmission core 1852 can include an insulated conductor, while the feed point 1902 includes a dielectric material without a conductive material.

  As shown in FIG. 19J, the transmission core 1852 can be coupled to the flange 1942 via a central hole 1946, although it is understood that in other embodiments such holes may be similarly eccentric. Like. In one embodiment, the hole 1946 can have a thread and the transmission core 1852 can have a smooth surface. In this embodiment, the flange 1942 functions as a die that inserts a portion of the transmission core 1852 into the hole 1946 and rotates the flange 1942 to form complementary threads on the outer surface of the transmission core 1852. , Can engage the transmission core 1852. When the flange 1942 is screwed into the transmission core 1852 or the transmission core 1852 is screwed into the flange 1942, the portion of the transmission core 1852 that extends from the flange 1942 rotates the flange 1942 according to the shortening or extension of that portion. Can be shortened or extended.

  In other embodiments, the transmission core 1852 is pre-threaded to engage the hole 1946 of the flange 1942 to improve the ease of engagement of the flange 1942 with the transmission core 1852. be able to. In yet other embodiments, the transmission core 1852 can have a smooth surface and the hole 1946 in the flange 1942 can be threadless. In this embodiment, the hole 1946 has a diameter similar to the diameter of the transmission core 1852, and the engagement of the transmission core 1852 can be held in place by a frictional force. It will be appreciated that there may be several other ways of engaging the transmission core 1852 to the flange 1942, including various clips, fusions, compression joints, and the like. The feed point 1902 of the dielectric antenna 1901 can engage the other side of the hole 1946 in the flange 1942 in the same manner as described for the transmission core 1852.

  A gap 1943 can exist between the transmission core 1852 and the feed point 1902. However, the gap 1943 can be adjusted in one embodiment by rotating the feed point 1902 while the transmission core 1852 is held in place or vice versa. In some embodiments, the transmission core 1852 engaged with the flange 1942 and the end of the feed point 1902 can be adjusted to contact and thereby eliminate the gap 1943. In other embodiments, the end of the transmission core 1852 or feed point 1902 engaged with the flange 1942 can be intentionally adjusted to provide a specified gap size. Adjustability of the gap 1943 can provide additional degrees of freedom to adjust the interface between the transmission core 1852 and the feed point 1902.

  Although not shown in FIGS. 19P1-19P8, the reverse end of the transmission core 1852 of the cable 1850 utilizes another flange 1942 and similar coupling techniques, such as the waveguide shown in FIGS. 18S and 18T. Can be coupled to the device. The waveguide device can be used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves along the transmission core 1852. Depending on the operating parameters of the electromagnetic wave (eg, operating frequency, wave mode, etc.), the electromagnetic wave may be transmitted within the transmission core 1852, on the outer surface of the transmission core 1852, or partially within the transmission core 1852 and partially with the outer surface of the transmission core 1852. Can be propagated. When the waveguide device is configured as a transmitter, the signal generated thereby propagates along the transmission core 1852 and induces an electromagnetic wave that transitions to the feed point 1902 at the junction therebetween. Next, the electromagnetic wave propagates from the feed point 1902 to the dielectric antenna 1901 and becomes a wireless signal in the aperture 1903 of the dielectric antenna 1901.

  Frame 1982 is used to enclose all or at least a significant portion of the outer surface of dielectric antenna 1901 (except aperture 1903) to improve transmission or reception of electromagnetic waves as they propagate toward aperture 1903, and / Or leakage can be reduced. In some embodiments, the portion 1984 of the frame 1982 can extend to the feed point 1902 to avoid leakage on the outer surface of the feed point 1902, as shown in FIG. 19P2. The frame 1982 can be constructed of, for example, a material (for example, a conductive material or a carbon material) that reduces leakage of electromagnetic waves. The shape of the frame 1982 can be changed based on the shape of the dielectric antenna 1901. For example, the frame 1852 can have a straight surface shape with widened hems, as shown in FIGS. 19P1 to 19P4. Alternatively, the frame 1852 can have a parabolic surface shape with an expanded hem, as shown in FIGS. 19P5 to 19P8. It will be appreciated that the frame 1852 may have other shapes.

  The aperture 1903 can be of different shapes and sizes. In one embodiment, for example, the aperture 1903 can utilize a lens having a convex structure 1983 of various dimensions, as shown in FIGS. 19P1, 19P4, and 19P6 to 19P8. In other embodiments, the aperture 1903 can have a flat structure 1985 of various dimensions, as shown in FIGS. 19P2 and 19P5. In still other embodiments, the aperture 1903 can utilize a lens having a pyramid structure 1986 as shown in FIGS. 19P3 and 19Q1. The lens of the aperture 1903 can be an integral part of the dielectric antenna 1901 or can be a component coupled to the dielectric antenna 1901 as shown in FIG. 19C. Further, the lens of the aperture 1903 can be constructed using the same or different material as the dielectric antenna 1901. Also, in some embodiments, the aperture 1903 of the dielectric antenna 1901 may extend outside the frame 1982, as shown in FIGS. 19P7 and 19P8, or as shown in FIGS. 19P1-19P6. In addition, it may be confined within the frame 1982.

  In one embodiment, the dielectric constant of the lens of the aperture 1903 shown in FIGS. 19P1 to 19P8 can be configured to be substantially similar to or different from that of the dielectric antenna 1901. Further, one or more interiors of the dielectric antenna 1901, such as section 1986 of FIG. The surface of the lens of the aperture 1903 shown in FIGS. 19P1 to 19P8 may have a smooth surface, or a ridge such as that shown in FIG. 19E to reduce surface reflection of electromagnetic waves as described above. You may have.

  Depending on the shape of the dielectric antenna 1901, the frame 1982 can be of different shapes and sizes, as shown in the front views shown in FIGS. 19Q1, 19Q2, and 19Q3. For example, the frame 1982 can have a pyramid shape as shown in FIG. 19Q1. In other embodiments, the frame 1982 can have a circular shape as shown in FIG. 19Q2. In still other embodiments, the frame 1982 can have an oval shape as shown in FIG. 19Q3.

  The embodiments of FIGS. 19P1-19P8 and 19Q1-19Q3 can be combined in whole or in part with each other to create other embodiments contemplated by this disclosure. Furthermore, the embodiments of FIGS. 19P1-19P8 and 19Q1-19Q3 can be combined with other embodiments of the present disclosure. For example, the multi-antenna assembly of FIG. 20F can be configured to utilize any one of the embodiments of FIGS. 19P1-19P8 and 19Q1-19Q3. Furthermore, multiple instances of a multi-antenna assembly configured to utilize one of the embodiments of FIGS. 19P1-19P8, 19Q1-19Q3 are stacked one above the other, similar to the phased array of FIG. 19O. A functioning phased array can be formed. In other embodiments, as shown in FIG. 19I, an absorbent sheet 1932 can be added to the dielectric antenna 1901 to control the width of the near-field signal and far-field signal. Other combinations of the embodiments of FIGS. 19P1-19P8 and 19Q1-19Q3 and the embodiments of the present disclosure are also contemplated.

  Referring now to FIGS. 20A and 20B, a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of the example cable 1850 of FIG. 18A used to induce electromagnetic waves guided on power lines supported by utility poles. FIG. In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 20A, the cable 1850 is connected at one end to one or more inner layers of the cable 1850 utilizing, for example, the hollow waveguide 1808 shown in FIGS. 18A-18C. It can be coupled to a microwave device that emits electromagnetic waves guided into it. The microwave device may utilize a microwave transceiver such as that shown in FIG. 10A to transmit signals or receive signals from cable 1850. The guided electromagnetic wave induced in one or more inner layers of the cable 1850 propagates to the exposed stub (shown as a dotted line in FIG. 20A) of the cable 1850 disposed inside the horn antenna, causing the horn antenna to pass through. Electromagnetic waves can be radiated through. Therefore, the radiation signal from the horn antenna can induce a guided electromagnetic wave propagating in the longitudinal direction on a power line such as a medium voltage (MV) power line. In one embodiment, the microwave device can receive AC power from a low voltage (eg, 220V) power line. Alternatively, the horn antenna replaces a stub antenna as shown in FIG. 20B to induce guided electromagnetic waves that propagate longitudinally over a power line, such as an MV power line, or one or more other Wireless signals can be sent to the antenna system.

  In an alternative embodiment, the hollow horn antenna shown in FIG. 20A can be replaced with a solid dielectric antenna such as the dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19A or the pyramidal horn antenna 1901 'of FIG. 19N. In this embodiment, the horn antenna can radiate a wireless signal directed to another horn antenna, such as the bidirectional horn antenna 2040 shown in FIG. 20C. In this embodiment, each horn antenna 2040 can transmit a wireless signal to another horn antenna 2040 or receive a wireless signal from another horn antenna 2040, as shown in FIG. 20C. Such a configuration can be used to perform bi-directional wireless communication between antennas. Although not shown, the horn antenna 2040 can comprise an electromechanical device that manipulates the direction of the horn antenna 2040.

  In an alternative embodiment, the first cable 1850A 'and the second cable 1850B' can be coupled to a microwave device and a transformer 2052, respectively, as shown in FIGS. 20A and 20B. The first cable 1850A 'and the second cable 1850B' can be represented, for example, by the cable 1820 or cable 1830 of FIGS. 18B and 18C, respectively, each cable having a conductive core. The first end of the conductive core of the first cable 1850A 'can be coupled to a microwave device to propagate the guided electromagnetic wave transmitted inside. The second end of the conductive core of the first cable 1850A ′ is coupled to the first end of the conductive coil of the transformer 2052 to transmit the guided electromagnetic wave propagating through the first cable 1850A ′. Upon receipt, the second end of the conductive coil of the transformer 2052 can provide an associated signal to the first end of the second cable 1850B ′. The second end of the second cable 1850B ′ is coupled to the horn antenna of FIG. 20A or exposed as a stub antenna of FIG. 20B to transmit guided electromagnetic waves propagating longitudinally on the MV power line. Can be guided.

  In one embodiment where cables 1850, 1850A ′, and 1850B ′ each include multiple instances of transmission media 1800, 1820, and / or 1830, a polyrod structure of antenna 1855, such as that shown in FIG. 18K, can be formed. . Each antenna 1855 can be coupled to, for example, a horn antenna assembly or a pie-pan antenna assembly (not shown) as shown in FIG. 20A to radiate a plurality of wireless signals. . Alternatively, antenna 1855 can be used as a stub antenna in FIG. 20B. The microwave device of FIGS. 20A and 20B can be configured to adjust the guided electromagnetic wave to beam manipulate the wireless signal emitted by the antenna 1855. One or more of the antennas 1855 can also be used to induce electromagnetic waves that are guided over power lines.

  Referring now to FIG. 20C, a block diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a communication network 2000 is shown in accordance with various aspects described herein. In one embodiment, for example, the waveguide system 1602 of FIG. 16A can be incorporated into an NID, such as network interface devices (NIDs) 2010 and 2020 of FIG. 20C. NIDs having the functionality of waveguide system 1602 can be used to enhance the transmission capabilities between customer premises 2002 (business or residence) and pedestal 2004 (sometimes referred to as the service area interface or SAI).

  In one embodiment, the central office 2030 may supply one or more fiber cables 2026 to the pedestal 2004. The fiber cable 2026 can provide high speed full duplex data services (eg, 1-100 Gbps or higher) to the mini DSLAM 2024 located within the pedestal 2004. Data services can be used for transport of voice, Internet traffic, and media content services (eg, streaming video services, broadcast TV) and the like. In prior art systems, the mini DSLAM 2024 typically includes a twisted pair telephone line (e.g., category 5e that includes an unshielded bundle of twisted pair cable, such as a 24 gauge insulated solid wire, surrounded by an outer insulating sheath. Category 5e untwisted twisted pair (UTP) cable included in unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable), and the twisted pair telephone line connects directly to customer premises 2002. In such systems, the DSL data rate tapers below 100 Mbps, among other factors, due in part to the length of the legacy twisted pair cable pair to the customer premises 2002.

  However, the embodiment of FIG. 20C differs from the prior art DSL system. In the illustration of FIG. 20C, the mini DSLAM 2024 can be, for example, a cable 1850 (in whole or in part, alone or in combination with any of the cable embodiments described in connection with FIGS. 18A-18D and 18F-18L. It can be configured to connect to NID 2020 via By using the cable 1850 between the customer premises 2002 and the pedestal 2004, the NIDs 2010 and 2020 can transmit and receive electromagnetic waves guided in uplink communication and downlink communication. Based on the above-described embodiments, the cable 1850 can be configured for a downlink or uplink path as long as the electric field profile of such a wave in either direction is at least partially or wholly confined within the inner layer of the cable 1850. It can be exposed to rain or embedded without adversely affecting electromagnetic wave propagation in either. In this example, downlink communication represents a communication path from the pedestal 2004 to the customer premises 2002, while uplink communication represents a communication path from the customer premises 2002 to the pedestal 2004. In one embodiment where cable 1850 includes one of the embodiments of FIGS. 18G and 18H, cable 1850 may serve the purpose of supplying power to NIDs 2010 and 2020 and other equipment on customer premises 2002 and pedestal 2004. .

  At customer premises 2002, DSL signals can originate from DSL modem 2006 (which can have an internal router and can provide wireless services such as WiFi to user equipment shown within customer premises 2002). . The DSL signal can be supplied to NID 2010 by twisted pair telephone 2008. The NID 2010 can use the integrated waveguide 1602 to transmit a guided electromagnetic wave 2014 directed to the pedestal 2004 on the uplink path within the cable 1850. On the downlink, the DSL signal generated by the mini DSLAM 2024 can flow through the twisted pair telephone line 2022 to the NID 2020. The waveguide system 1602 integrated with the NID 2020 can convert a DSL signal or a portion thereof from an electrical signal into a guided electromagnetic wave 2014 propagating in the cable 1850 on the downlink. To provide full-duplex communication, the guided wave 2014 on the uplink operates with a different carrier frequency and / or different modulation scheme than the guided wave 2014 on the downlink to reduce interference. Or it can be configured to avoid. Furthermore, on the uplink and downlink paths, the guided electromagnetic wave 2014 is guided by the core section of the cable 1850, as described above, and such waves can be guided in whole or in part by the guided electromagnetic waves. In particular, it can be configured to have a field strength profile confined to the inner layer of cable 1850. The guided electromagnetic wave 2014 is shown outside the cable 1850, but these wave diagrams are for illustrative purposes only. For this reason, the guided electromagnetic wave 2014 is drawn using “hash marks” to indicate that it is guided by the inner layer of the cable 1850.

  On the downlink, the integrated waveguide system 1602 of the NID 2010 receives the guided electromagnetic waves 2014 generated by the NID 2020 and converts them back into DSL signals that comply with the requirements of the DSL modem 2006. The DSL signal is then provided to the DSL modem 2006 via a set of twisted pairs of telephone line 2008 for processing. Similarly, on the uplink, the NID 2020 integrated waveguide system 1602 receives the guided electromagnetic waves 2014 generated by the NID 2010 and converts them back into DSL signals that comply with the requirements of the mini DSLAM 2024. The DSL signal is then provided to the mini DSLAM 2024 via a set of twisted pairs of telephone line 2022 for processing. Because the lengths of the telephone lines 2008 and 2022 are short, the DSL modem 2006 and mini DSLAM 2024 are very fast (eg, 1 Gbps to 60 Gbps and above) and send and receive DSL signals between them on the uplink and downlink can do. Thus, the uplink and downlink paths can exceed the data rate limits of conventional DSL communication over twisted pair telephone lines in most situations.

  Since the downlink path typically supports higher data rates than the uplink path, DSL devices are typically configured for asymmetric data rates. However, cable 1850 can provide much higher speeds on both downlink and uplink paths. Using firmware updates, a legacy DSL modem 2006 such as shown in FIG. 20C can be configured faster on both the uplink and downlink paths. Similar firmware updates can be made to the mini DSLAM 2024 to utilize higher speeds on the uplink and downlink paths. The interface to the DSL modem 2006 and mini DSLAM 2024 remains a traditional twisted pair telephone line, so the firmware changes to perform the conversion from the DSL signal to the guided wave 2014 and vice versa Besides the addition of NIDs 2010 and 2020, no hardware changes to legacy DSL modems or legacy mini DSLAMs are required. By using NID, legacy modem 2006 and mini DSLAM 2024 can be reused, thereby significantly reducing installation costs and system upgrades. For new buildings, an updated version of the mini DSLAM and DSL modem can be configured with an integrated waveguide system to perform the functions described above, thereby necessitating NIDs 2010 and 2020 with an integrated waveguide system. Disappear. In this embodiment, the updated version of the modem 2006 and the updated version of the mini DSLAM 2024 are connected directly to the cable 1850 and communicate via bi-directional guided wave transmission so that the twisted pair telephone lines 2008 and 2022 To eliminate the need to send or receive DSL signals.

  In one embodiment where the use of cable 1850 between pedestal 2004 and customer premises 2002 is logistically impractical or costly, NID 2010 may instead originate from waveguide 108 on utility pole 118, and customer premises It can be configured to couple to a cable 1850 ′ (similar to cable 1850 of the present disclosure) that can be buried in the soil before reaching the 2002 NID 2010. Cable 1850 ′ can be used to receive and transmit waveguide electromagnetic wave 2014 ′ between NID 2010 and waveguide 108. The waveguide 108 can be connected through the waveguide 106, which can be coupled to the base station 104. Base station 104 may provide data communication services to customer premises 2002 by connection to central office 2030 via fiber 2026 '. Similarly, in situations where access from the central office 2030 to the pedestal 2004 is not practical via a fiber link and a connection to the base station 104 is possible via the fiber link 2026 ', an alternative path is used to It can be connected to the NID 2020 of the pedestal 2004 via a cable 1850 ″ starting from 116 (similar to the cable 1850 of the present disclosure). The cable 1850 ″ may be embedded before reaching the NID 2020.

  20D-20F, non-limiting examples of antenna mounts that can be used in communication network 2000 (or other suitable communication network) of FIG. 20C in accordance with various aspects described herein. 1 shows a block diagram of an exemplary embodiment. In some embodiments, the antenna mount 2053 is provided by a dielectric power source that provides energy to one or more waveguide systems (not shown) integrated in the antenna mount 2053 as shown in FIG. 20D. Can be coupled to a medium voltage power line. The antenna mount 2053 can include an array of dielectric antennas 1901 (eg, 16 antennas) such as shown by the top and side views shown in FIG. 20F. The dielectric antenna 1901 shown in FIG. 20F can be of small dimensions, as shown by a comparison of the diagram of a group of dielectric antennas 1901 and a conventional ballpoint pen. In other embodiments, a utility pole-mounted antenna 2054 can be used as shown in FIG. 20D. In yet other embodiments, the antenna mount 2056 can be attached to the utility pole using an arm assembly, as shown in FIG. 20E. In other embodiments, the antenna mount 2058 shown in FIG. 20E can be placed on top of a utility pole coupled to a cable 1850, such as a cable as described in this disclosure.

  The array of dielectric antennas 1901 in any of the antenna mounts of FIGS. 20D and 20E can include one or more waveguide systems as described in this disclosure with FIGS. The waveguide system can be configured to perform beam manipulation (to transmit or receive wireless signals) using an array of dielectric antennas 1901. Alternatively, each dielectric antenna 1901 can be utilized as a separate sector that receives and transmits wireless signals. In other embodiments, one or more waveguide systems integrated into the antenna mounts of FIGS. 20D and 20E can combine a combination of dielectric antennas 1901 in a wide range of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission and reception techniques. It can be configured to be utilized. One or more waveguide systems that are integrated into the antenna mounts of FIGS. 20D and 20E can be obtained using any combination of dielectric antennas 1901 in any of the antenna mounts of FIGS. 20D and 20E. Communication techniques such as MISO, SISO, and signal diversity (eg, frequency, time, space, polarization, or other forms of signal diversity techniques) may also be configured to apply. In yet another embodiment, the antenna mount of FIGS. 20D and 20E can be configured with two or more stacks of antenna arrays shown in FIG. 20F.

  21A and 21B describe an embodiment of downlink communication and uplink communication. The method 2100 of FIG. 21A can begin at step 2102, where an electrical signal (eg, a DSL signal) is generated by a DSLAM (eg, from the mini DSLAM 2024 of the pedestal 2004 or the central office 2030), and the electrical signal is , Converted to electromagnetic wave 2014 guided by NID 2020, propagates on a transmission medium such as cable 1850, and provides a downlink service to customer premises 2002. In step 2108, the NID 2010 of the customer premises 2002 converts the guided electromagnetic wave 2014 into an electrical signal (eg, DSL signal) again, and the electrical signal is transmitted to the DSL modem 2006 or the like via the telephone line 2008 in step 2110. Supplied to customer premises equipment (CPE). Alternatively or in combination, the power and / or guided wave 2014 ′ may be used as an alternative or additional downlink (and / or uplink) path as shown in FIG. 18G or 18H. NID 2010 can be supplied from a power line 1850 ′ (with an internal waveguide).

  In step 2122 of the method 2120 of FIG. 21B, the DSL modem 2006 can provide an electrical signal (eg, a DSL signal) to the NID 2010 via the telephone line 2008, which in step 2124 can provide the DSL signal, It is converted into a guided electromagnetic wave directed to NID 2020 by cable 1850. In step 2128, the NID 2020 of the pedestal 2004 (or central office 2030) converts the guided electromagnetic wave 2014 back into an electrical signal (eg, a DSL signal), which in step 2129 is a DSLAM (eg, a mini DSLAM 2024). ). Alternatively or in combination, the power and guided electromagnetic wave 2014 ′ may be used as an alternative or additional uplink (and / or downlink) path for the power system (as shown in FIG. 18G or 18H). NID 2020 can be supplied from a power line 1850 ′ (having a waveguide).

  Referring now to FIG. 21C, a flowchart of one non-limiting embodiment of an example method 2130 for inducing and receiving electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium is shown. In step 2132, waveguides 1865 and 1865 ′ of FIGS. 18N-18T generate a first electromagnetic wave from a first communication signal (eg, supplied by a communication device such as a base station), and in step 2134, The first electromagnetic wave having the fundamental wave mode “only” can be induced at the interface of the transmission medium. In one embodiment, the interface may be the outer surface of the transmission medium, as shown in FIGS. 18Q and 18R. In another embodiment, the interface may be the inner layer of the transmission medium, as shown in FIGS. 18S and 18T. In step 2136, the waveguides 1865 and 1865 'of FIGS. 18N-18T can be configured to receive a second electromagnetic wave at the interface of the same or different transmission medium described in FIG. 21C. In one embodiment, the second electromagnetic wave may have a fundamental wave mode “only”. In other embodiments, the second electromagnetic wave can have a combination of wave modes such as a fundamental wave mode and a non-fundamental wave mode. In step 2138, a second communication signal can be generated from the second electromagnetic wave and processed, for example, by the same or different communication devices. The embodiment of FIGS. 21C and 21D can be applied to any embodiment described in this disclosure.

  Referring now to FIG. 21D, a flowchart of an example non-limiting embodiment of a method 2140 for inducing and receiving electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium is shown. In step 2142, waveguides 1865 and 1865 ′ of FIGS. 18N-18W generate a first electromagnetic wave from a first communication signal (eg, supplied by a communication device), and in step 2144 a transmission medium boundary. A second electromagnetic wave having a non-fundamental wave mode “only” in the plane can be induced. In one embodiment, the interface may be the outer surface of the transmission medium, as shown in FIGS. 18Q and 18R. In another embodiment, the interface may be the inner layer of the transmission medium, as shown in FIGS. 18S and 18T. In step 2146, the waveguides 1865 and 1865 'of FIGS. 18N-18W can be configured to receive electromagnetic waves at the interface of the same or different transmission media described in FIG. 21E. In one embodiment, the electromagnetic waves can have a non-fundamental wave mode “only”. In other embodiments, the electromagnetic wave can have a combination of wave modes, such as a fundamental wave mode and a non-fundamental wave mode. In step 2148, a second communication signal can be generated from the electromagnetic waves and processed, for example, by the same or different communication devices. The embodiments of FIGS. 21E and 21F can be applied to any of the embodiments described in this disclosure.

  FIG. 21E shows a flowchart of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a method 2150 for radiating a signal from a dielectric antenna such as that shown in FIGS. 19A and 19N. The method 2150 may begin at step 2152, where a transmitter such as the waveguide system 1865 'of FIG. 18T generates a first electromagnetic wave that includes a first communication signal. Accordingly, in step 2153, the first electromagnetic wave induces a second electromagnetic wave on the core 1852 of the cable 1850 that is coupled to the feedpoint of any dielectric antenna described in this disclosure. The second electromagnetic wave is received at the feed point at step 2154 and propagates to the proximal end of the dielectric antenna at step 2155. In step 2156, the second electromagnetic wave continues to propagate from the proximal end of the dielectric antenna to the aperture of the antenna, thereby transmitting the wireless signal in step 2157 as described above in connection with FIGS. 19A-19N. Let it radiate.

  FIG. 21F shows a flowchart of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a method 2160 for receiving a wireless signal at a dielectric antenna such as the dielectric antenna of FIG. 19A or 19N. The method 2160 may begin at step 2161, where the dielectric antenna aperture receives a wireless signal. In step 2162, the wireless signal induces electromagnetic waves that propagate from the aperture to the feed point of the dielectric antenna. When the electromagnetic wave is received at the feed point in step 2163, it propagates to the core of the cable coupled to the feed point in step 2164. In step 2165, a receiver, such as the waveguide system 1865 'of FIG. 18T, receives the electromagnetic wave and generates a second communication signal therefrom in step 2166.

  Two-way wireless communication with other dielectric antennas such as dielectric antenna 2040 shown in FIG. 20C using methods 2150 and 2160 and / or portable communication devices (eg, cell phones, tablets, laptops) and buildings 19A, 19C, 19E, 19G-19I, and 19L- 19 to perform two-way wireless communication with other communication devices, such as wireless communication devices located in (eg, homes). A 19O dielectric antenna can be constructed. One or more cables 1850 coupled to a plurality of dielectric antennas 2040 can be configured in a microwave device, such as that shown in FIG. 20A, as shown in FIG. 20C. In some embodiments, the dielectric antenna 2040 shown in FIG. 20C can be configured with more dielectric antennas (eg, 19C, 19E, 19G-19I, and 19L-19O), depending on such antennas. The area of wireless communication can be further expanded.

  Methods 2150 and 2160 are further configured for use with phased array 1976 of dielectric antenna 1901 of FIG. 19O by applying incremental phase delay to the portion of the antenna to manipulate the emitted far field wireless signal. can do. Methods 2150 and 2160 utilize the gimbal shown in FIG. 19M (which can have controllable actuators) to provide far field wireless signals generated by dielectric antenna 1901 and / or orientation of dielectric antenna 1901. Can be configured to improve reception of far-field wireless signals by a remote system (such as another dielectric antenna 1901 coupled to the waveguide system). Further, methods 2150 and 2160 may receive instructions, messages, or wireless signals from a remote system so that waveguide systems that receive such signals via their dielectric antenna 1901 can perform far field signal conditioning. Can be configured.

  For ease of explanation, each process is shown and described as a series of blocks in FIGS. 21A-21F, but the claimed subject matter is not limited by the order of the blocks, and some blocks It should be understood and appreciated that this may be done in a different order and / or concurrently with other blocks than shown and described in the specification. Moreover, not all illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methods described herein.

  FIG. 21G shows a flowchart of an example non-limiting embodiment of a method 2170 for detecting and mitigating disturbances that occur in a communication network, such as the systems of FIGS. 16A and 16B, for example. The method 2170 can begin at step 2172 such that a network element, such as the waveguide system 1602 of FIGS. Can be configured. The deterioration of the signal includes that the magnitude of the signal of the guided electromagnetic wave is lowered below a specific magnitude threshold, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is reduced below a specific SNR threshold, and the quality of service (QoS) is 1. The bit error rate (BER) exceeds a specific BER threshold, the packet loss rate (PLR) exceeds a specific PLR threshold, and the ratio of reflected and forward electromagnetic waves is specified. A change in the spectrum of the guided electromagnetic wave, indicating that one or more objects are causing a propagation loss or scattering of the guided electromagnetic wave. Including, but not limited to, water accumulation on the outer surface of the transmission medium, transmission medium seams, broken tree branches, etc.), or any combination thereof. It can be detected according to factors number at will. A sensing device, such as the disturbance sensor 1604b of FIG. 16A, can be configured to perform one or more of the above signal measurements, thereby determining whether the electromagnetic wave is undergoing a signal drop. Other sensing devices suitable for performing the above measurements are also contemplated by this disclosure.

  In step 2174, if a signal drop is detected, the network element can proceed to step 2176 to identify and detect which one or more objects may be causing the drop. One or more detected objects can be reported to the network management system 1601 of FIGS. 16A and 16B. Object detection can adversely affect spectral or other forms of signal analysis, environmental analysis (eg, barometer readings, rain detection, etc.), or propagation of electromagnetic waves guided by transmission media It can be achieved by other suitable techniques for detecting foreign objects. For example, the network element can be configured to generate spectral data derived from electromagnetic waves received by the network element. The network element can then compare the spectral data with multiple spectral profiles stored in memory. Multiple spectral profiles can be pre-stored in the memory of the network element and, if the obstacle is present on the outer surface of the transmission medium, such an obstacle can be caused that may cause propagation loss or signal degradation. Can be used to characterize or identify.

  For example, the accumulation of water on the outer surface of a transmission medium, such as a thin layer of water and / or water droplets, is guided by the transmission medium, which may be identifiable by a spectral profile containing spectral data modeling such obstacles. There is a possibility of causing signal degradation in the electromagnetic wave. A spectral profile is spectral data generated by test equipment (eg, a waveguide system with spectral analysis capabilities) when receiving electromagnetic waves through the outer surface of a transmission medium subjected to water (eg, simulated rainfall). Can be generated in a controlled environment (such as a laboratory or other suitable test environment). Obstacles such as water can produce different spectral signatures than other obstacles (eg, transmission media seams). A unique spectral signature can be used to identify, among other things, specific obstacles. Using this technique, a spectral profile can be generated that characterizes other obstacles such as tree branches and seams that have fallen into the transmission medium. In addition to the spectral profile, different scale thresholds such as SNR, BER, and PLR can be generated. These thresholds can be selected by the service provider according to desired performance measurements for a communication network that utilizes electromagnetic waves guided to transport data. Some obstacles can be detected by other methods. For example, rainfall can be detected by a rain detector coupled to the network element, a fallen tree branch can be detected by a vibration detector coupled to the network element, and so on.

  If the network element does not have access to the device that detects the object that may be causing the electromagnetic wave degradation, the network element can skip step 2176 and proceed to step 2178. Network elements in the vicinity (eg, one or more other waveguide systems 1602 in the vicinity of the network element) are notified of the detected signal degradation. If the signal degradation is significant, the network element can use a different medium, such as wireless communication, for communication with neighboring network elements. Alternatively, the network element substantially reduces the operating frequency of the guided electromagnetic wave (eg, from 40 GHz to 1 GHz) or other wave guides operating at low frequencies such as a control channel (eg, 1 MHz). It is possible to communicate with nearby network elements using the generated electromagnetic waves. The low frequency control channel can be much less susceptible to interference by objects that cause signal degradation at much higher operating frequencies.

  Once a communication alternative is established between the network elements, in step 2180, the network element and neighboring network elements work together to adjust the guided electromagnetic waves to mitigate detected signal degradation. It can be carried out. The process is, for example, a protocol that selects which of the network elements performs the electromagnetic wave adjustment, the frequency and magnitude of the adjustment, and a goal (eg, QoS, BER, PLR, SNR, etc.) that achieves the desired signal quality. Can be included. For example, if the object causing the signal drop is water accumulation on the outer surface of the transmission medium, the network element may adjust the polarization of the electric field (E field) and / or the magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave (H field). 21H can be configured to maintain radial alignment of the E-field. In particular, FIG. 21H illustrates one non-limiting implementation of an E-field alignment of electromagnetic waves that reduces propagation loss due to water accumulation on the transmission medium, according to various aspects described herein. A block diagram 2101 showing the form is presented. In this example, a longitudinal cross section of a cable, such as an insulated metal cable implementation of transmission medium 125, is presented with a field vector that indicates an E field associated with a guided electromagnetic wave propagating at 40 GHz. The stronger the E field, the stronger the field vector is presented compared to the weak E field.

  In one embodiment, the adjustment of the polarization is a specific wave mode of electromagnetic waves (eg, TM, also known as transverse magnetic field (TM) mode, transverse electric field (TE) mode, transverse electromagnetic field (TEM) mode, or HE mode). This can be achieved by generating a hybrid of mode and TE mode. For example, if the network element includes the waveguide system 1865 ′ of FIG. 18W, the adjustment of the E field polarization alternates between the phase, frequency, amplitude, or a combination of the electromagnetic waves generated by each MMIC 1870. This can be accomplished by configuring more than one MMIC 1870. A particular adjustment can, for example, align the E field in the region of the water film shown in FIG. 21H perpendicular to the surface of the water. An electric field perpendicular to (or generally perpendicular to) the surface of the water induces a weaker current in the water film than the E field parallel to the water film. By inducing a weaker current, the propagation loss experienced by the electromagnetic wave propagating in the longitudinal direction is reduced. It is also desirable to extend the density of the E field into the air above the water film. Propagation loss is also reduced when the density of the E-field in air remains high and most of the total field strength is in the air instead of concentrating on the water and insulator regions. For example, the E field of an electromagnetic wave tightly coupled to an insulating layer such as a gubo wave (or TM00 wave—see block diagram 2131 in FIG. 21K) is such that the E field is perpendicular to the water film (or in the radial direction). Despite being aligned, it suffers higher propagation losses because more of the field strength is concentrated in the water region.

  Therefore, the propagation loss experienced by an electromagnetic wave having an E field perpendicular (or generally perpendicular) to the water film that has a higher percentage of field strength in the air region (ie, above the water film) is the insulation layer or water Closely coupled electromagnetic waves with more field strength in the layer or in the propagation direction are lower than electromagnetic waves with an E field in the region of the water film that results in greater loss.

  FIG. 21H shows the E field in the longitudinal view of the insulated conductor for a TM01 electromagnetic wave operating at 40 GHz. Conversely, FIGS. 21I and 21J are cross-sectional views of the insulated conductor of FIG. 21H showing the field strength of the E field in the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave (that is, the E field directed in the direction of jumping out from the page of FIGS. 21I and 21J). 2111 and 2121 are shown respectively. The electromagnetic waves shown in FIGS. 21I and 21J have a TM01 wave mode at 45 GHz and 40 GHz, respectively. FIG. 21I shows that the intensity of the E field in the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave is high in the region between the outer surface of the insulator and the outer surface of the water film (that is, the region of the water film). The high intensity is indicated by a bright color (the brighter the color, the higher the intensity of the E field directed in the direction of popping off the page). FIG. 21I shows that there is a longitudinally polarized high-density E-field in the region of the water film, which causes a high current in the water film and thus a high propagation loss. Thus, under certain circumstances, electromagnetic waves at 45 GHz (having the TM01 wave mode) are not well suited for mitigating rainwater or other obstacles placed on the outer surface of the insulated conductor.

  Conversely, FIG. 21J shows that the intensity of the E field in the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave is weaker in the region of the water film. The weaker intensity is indicated by the darker color in the area of the water film. The lower intensity is a result of the E field being polarized in a direction that is largely perpendicular or radial to the water film. The E field aligned in the radial direction is also present at high density in the air region, as shown in FIG. 21H. Thus, electromagnetic waves at 40 GHz (with TM01 wave mode) generate an E field that induces a lower current in the water film than 45 GHz waves with the same wave mode. Accordingly, the electromagnetic wave of FIG. 21J exhibits characteristics that are more suitable for reducing propagation loss due to accumulation of water film or water droplets on the outer surface of the insulated conductor.

  Since the physical properties of the transmission medium can vary and the influence of water or other obstacles on the outer surface of the transmission medium can cause non-linear effects, in the first iteration of step 2182, FIG. It is not always possible to precisely model all situations to achieve the indicated E-field polarization and E-field concentration in the air. In order to speed up the mitigation process, the network element can be configured to select a starting point to adjust the electromagnetic wave from the look-up table in step 2186. In one embodiment, a lookup table entry may be searched for a match with the type of object detected in step 2176 (eg, rainwater). In another embodiment, the look-up table can be searched for a match with spectral data derived from the affected electromagnetic wave received by the network element. The table entry provides specific parameters (eg, frequency, phase, amplitude, wave mode, etc.) that adjust the electromagnetic wave to achieve at least coarse adjustment that achieves similar E-field characteristics as shown in FIG. 21H. be able to. Coarse adjustment can function to improve the probability of convergence to a solution that achieves the desired propagation characteristics described above with respect to FIGS. 21H and 21J.

  Once the coarse adjustment is made at step 2186, the network element can determine at step 2184 whether the adjustment has improved the signal quality to the desired target. Step 2184 can be implemented by cooperative exchange between network elements. For example, in step 2186, consider that a network element generates an electromagnetic wave that is adjusted according to parameters obtained from a lookup table and transmits the adjusted electromagnetic wave to a nearby network element. In step 2184, the network element receives feedback from a nearby network element that has received the conditioned electromagnetic wave, analyzes the quality of the received wave according to the agreed target target, and provides the result to the network element for adjustment. Can determine whether the signal quality has improved. Similarly, network elements can test conditioned electromagnetic waves received from neighboring network elements and provide feedback including the results of the analysis to neighboring network elements. Although specific search algorithms have been described above, other search algorithms such as gradient search, genetic algorithm, global search, or other optimization techniques can be utilized as well. Thus, steps 2182, 2186, and 2184 represent the coordination and testing process performed by the network element and its neighboring network elements.

  With this in mind, in step 2184, the network element (or nearby network element) has not achieved signal quality of one or more desired parameter targets (eg, SNR, BER, PLR, etc.). If so, an incremental adjustment may be initiated for the network element and its neighboring network elements at step 2182. At step 2182, the network element (and / or its neighboring network elements) may have the target goal It can be configured to incrementally adjust the magnitude, phase, frequency, wave mode, and / or other tunable characteristics of the electromagnetic wave until it is achieved. 18 (and the nearby network elements) include the waveguide Network elements (and nearby network elements) can utilize one or more MMICs 1870 to incrementally adjust one or more operating parameters of the electromagnetic wave to identify E-fields polarized in the direction of the water film (eg, away from the propagation direction in the region of the water film) can be achieved. Can be configured to incrementally adjust one or more operating parameters of the electromagnetic wave that achieves.

  The iterative process may be a trial and error process that is coordinated between network elements to reduce the time to converge to a solution that improves upstream and downstream communications. As part of the coordination process, for example, one network element can be configured to adjust the magnitude of the electromagnetic wave but not adjust the wave mode, while another network element adjusts the wave mode, It can be configured not to adjust the size. In accordance with experiments and / or simulations, the service provider can establish and program a combination of iterations and adjustments to achieve the desired characteristics in the electromagnetic waves to mitigate obstacles to the outer surface of the transmission medium and to program the network elements it can.

  In step 2184, when the network element detects that the signal quality of the upstream and downstream electromagnetic waves has been improved to a desired level to achieve one or more parametric targets (eg, SNR, BER, PLR, etc.). The network element can proceed to step 2188 and resume communication in accordance with the adjusted upstream and downstream electromagnetic waves. While communicating at step 2188, the network element may be configured to send upstream and downstream test signals based on the original electromagnetic wave to determine whether the signal quality of such waves has improved. it can. These test signals can be transmitted at regular intervals (eg, once every 30 seconds or other suitable period). Each network element, for example, analyzes the received test signal's spectral data to determine whether to achieve a desired spectral profile and / or other parametric targets (eg, SNR, BER, PLR, etc.). Can do. If the signal quality has not been improved or if the improvement is negligible, the network element can be configured to continue communication using the adjusted upstream and downstream electromagnetic waves at step 2188.

  However, if the signal quality has improved sufficiently to return to the use of the original electromagnetic wave, the network element proceeds to step 2192 and sets the original electromagnetic wave to be generated (eg, the original wave mode, the original magnitude, the original electromagnetic wave, Frequency, original phase, original spatial orientation, etc.) can be recovered. Signal quality can be improved as a result of removing obstacles (eg, evaporating rainwater, removing fallen tree branches by field personnel). In step 2194, the network element can initiate communication using the original electromagnetic wave and perform upstream and downstream tests. In step 2196, if the network element determines from the test performed in step 2194 that the signal quality of the original electromagnetic wave is satisfactory, the network element resumes communication using the original electromagnetic wave; As described above, step 2172 and subsequent steps may be taken.

  Pass or failure of the test can be determined in step 2196 by analyzing the test signal according to a parametric target (eg, BER, SNR, PLR, etc.) associated with the original electromagnetic wave. If the test performed at step 2194 is determined to be failed at step 2196, the network element may proceed to steps 2182, 2186, and 2184 as described above. Since previous adjustments to the upstream and downstream electromagnetic waves may have already been determined to be acceptable, the network element can restore the settings used for the previous adjusted electromagnetic waves. Thus, one iteration of any one of steps 2182, 2186, and 2184 may be sufficient to return to step 2188.

  In some embodiments, for example, if the data throughput when using the original electromagnetic wave is better than the data throughput when using the adjusted electromagnetic wave, the restoration of the original electromagnetic wave may be desirable. Please keep in mind. However, if the adjusted electromagnetic wave data throughput is better than or substantially close to the original electromagnetic wave data throughput, the network element can instead be configured to continue from step 2188.

  21H and 21K describe the TM01 wave mode, other wave modes (eg, HE wave, TE wave, TEM wave, etc.) or combinations of wave modes can achieve the desired effect shown in FIG. 21H. Note also that. Thus, the wave mode, alone or in combination with one or more other wave modes, generates an electromagnetic wave having an E-field characteristic that reduces propagation loss as described in connection with FIGS. 21H and 21J. be able to. Thus, such a wave mode is intended as a possible wave mode that can be configured to be generated by a network element.

  It is further noted that the method 2170 may be configured to generate other wave modes in step 2182 or 2186 that may not be subject to a cut-off frequency. For example, FIG. 21L shows a block diagram 2141 of one non-limiting example of a hybrid wave electric field in accordance with various aspects described herein. A wave having the HE mode has a linearly polarized E field that points away from the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave, and is perpendicular (or substantially perpendicular) to the area of the obstacle (for example, the water film shown in FIGS. 21H to 21J). It can be. A wave having the HE mode can be configured to generate an E field that extends substantially outwardly of the outer surface of the insulated conductor so that more of the total accumulated field strength is in the air. Thus, some electromagnetic waves having the HE mode can exhibit the characteristics of a large wave mode having an E field that is orthogonal or approximately orthogonal to the area of the obstacle. As described above, such characteristics can reduce propagation loss. Electromagnetic waves having the HE mode also have unique characteristics that do not have a cut-off frequency (ie, can operate at quasi-DC), unlike other wave modes that have a non-zero cut-off frequency.

  Referring now to FIG. 21M, shown is a block diagram 2151 illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example of electric field characteristics of a hybrid wave vs. gobo wave in accordance with various aspects described herein. FIG. 2158 shows the energy distribution between the HE11 mode wave and the gobo wave of the insulated conductor. The energy plot of FIG. 2158 assumes that the amount of power used to generate the goobo wave is the same as the HE11 wave (ie, the area under the energy curve is the same). In the view of FIG. 2158, the Gobo wave has a sharp drop in power when it extends beyond the outer surface of the insulated conductor, while the HE11 wave has a substantially lower drop in power across the insulating layer. Therefore, the gobo wave has a higher energy density near the insulating layer than the HE11 wave. FIG. 2167 shows a similar gobo and HE11 energy curve when a water film is present on the outer surface of the insulator. The difference between the energy curves in FIGS. 2158 and 2167 is that the power drop in the Gobo and HE11 energy curves starts at the outer edge of the insulator in the case of FIG. 2158 and at the outer edge of the water film in the case of FIG. 2167. is there. However, the energy curve diagrams 2158 and 2167 show the same behavior. That is, when the electric field of the gobo wave is tightly coupled to the insulating layer and exposed to water, a propagation loss is generated that is larger than the electric field of the HE11 wave having a higher density outside the insulating layer and the water film. These characteristics are shown in FIG. 2168 and Gobo 2159 of HE11, respectively.

  By adjusting the operating frequency of the HE11 wave, the E field of the HE11 wave has a greater accumulated field strength in the area in the air when compared to the field in the water layer surrounding the insulator and the exterior of the insulator. As shown in 21N block diagram 2169, it can be configured to extend substantially above the thin water film. FIG. 21N shows a wire having an insulation radius of 1.5 cm with a radius of 1 cm and a dielectric constant of 2.25. As the operating frequency of the HE11 wave decreases, the E-field extends outward and increases the size of the wave mode. At a particular operating frequency (eg, 3 GHz), the expansion of the wave mode can be substantially larger than the diameter of the insulated wire and any obstacles that can exist on the insulated wire.

  By having an E field perpendicular to the water film and placing most of its energy outside the water film, the HE11 wave has a lower propagation loss than the Gobo wave when the transmission medium is subject to water or other obstacles . Gobo waves have a desirable radial E field, but the waves are tightly coupled to the insulating layer, producing a dense E field in the area of the obstacle. Accordingly, when an obstacle such as a water film is present on the outer surface of the insulated conductor, the gobo wave still receives a high propagation loss.

  Referring now to FIGS. 22A and 22B, a block diagram illustrating one non-limiting embodiment of an example waveguide system 2200 for delivering a hybrid wave in accordance with various aspects described herein is shown. The waveguide system 2200 may include a probe 2202 coupled to a slidable or rotatable mechanism 2204 that allows the probe 2202 to be positioned at different positions or orientations relative to the outer surface of the insulated conductor 2208. Mechanism 2204 may include a coaxial feed 2206 or other coupling that allows transmission of electromagnetic waves by probe 2202. The coaxial feed 2206 can be placed at a location on the mechanism 2204 such that the path difference between the probes 2202 is half the wavelength or some odd integer multiple of the wavelength. When the probe 2202 generates an anti-phase electromagnetic signal, the electromagnetic wave can be induced on the outer surface of the insulated conductor 2208 having a hybrid mode (such as HE11 mode).

  The mechanism 2204 can also be coupled to a motor or other actuator (not shown) that moves the probe 2202 to a desired position. In one embodiment, for example, the waveguide system 2200 rotates the probe 2202 to different positions (eg, left and west) (assuming that the probe 2202 is rotatable), and the block diagram 2300 of FIG. A controller may be included that instructs the motor to generate an electromagnetic wave having a horizontally polarized HE11 mode as shown in FIG. In order to guide electromagnetic waves onto the outer surface of insulated conductor 2208, waveguide system 2200 may further include a tapered horn 2210 shown in FIG. 22B. The tapered horn 2210 can be aligned coaxially with the insulated conductor 2208. To reduce the cross-sectional dimension of the tapered horn 2210, an additional insulating layer (not shown) can be disposed on the insulated conductor 2208. The additional insulating layer may be similar to the tapered insulating layer 1879 shown in FIGS. 18Q and 18R. The additional insulating layer can have a tapered end that points away from the tapered horn 2210. The tapered insulating layer 1879 can reduce the size of the initial electromagnetic wave transmitted according to the HE11 mode. As the electromagnetic wave propagates toward the tapered end of the insulating layer, the HE11 mode expands until it reaches a full size as shown in FIG. In other embodiments, the waveguide system 2200 may not need to use a tapered insulating layer 1879.

  FIG. 23 shows that HE11 mode waves can be used to mitigate obstacles such as rainwater. For example, as shown in FIG. 23, it is considered that a water film surrounds the outer surface of the insulated conductor 2208 by rainwater. Furthermore, it is assumed that water droplets have gathered below the insulated conductor 2208. As shown in FIG. 23, the water film occupies a small part of the total HE11 wave. Also, by having a horizontally polarized HE11 wave, the water drops are in the area where the density of the HE11 wave is lowest, reducing the loss caused by the water drops. Thus, the HE11 wave is tightly coupled to the gubo wave or insulated conductor 2208 and therefore experiences much lower propagation losses than waves having modes with greater energy in the area occupied by water.

  It is proposed that the waveguide system 2200 of FIGS. 22A and 22B can be replaced with other waveguide systems of the present disclosure capable of generating electromagnetic waves having a HE mode. For example, the waveguide system 1865 'of FIG. 18W can be configured to generate electromagnetic waves having a HE mode. In one embodiment, two or more MMICs 1870 of the waveguide system 1865 'can be configured to generate anti-phase electromagnetic waves to generate a polarized E field, such as present in the HE mode. In another embodiment, different pairs of MMICs 1870 are selected to polarize HE waves at different spatial locations (eg, north and south, west and east, northwest and southeast, northeast and southeast, or other subfraction combinations). Can be generated. Further, the waveguide system of FIGS. 18N-18W may be configured to deliver electromagnetic waves having an HE mode onto the core 1852 of one or more embodiments of a cable 1850 suitable for propagation of HE mode waves. it can.

  HE waves can have desirable characteristics for mitigating obstacles on the transmission medium, but certain wave modes with a cut-off frequency (eg, TE mode, TM mode, TEM mode, or combinations thereof) are also sufficient. It is proposed that a wave with a polarized E-field that is large and orthogonal (or generally orthogonal) to the obstacle region can be used to reduce the propagation loss caused by the obstacle. The method 2070 can be configured to generate such a wave mode from a look-up table, for example, at step 2086. For example, a wave mode having a cutoff frequency that indicates a wave mode having a polarized E-field that is larger than the obstacle and perpendicular (or generally perpendicular) to the obstacle can be determined by experiment and / or simulation. Once the combination of parameters (eg, magnitude, phase, frequency, wave mode, spatial position, etc.) that generate one or more waves with a cut-off frequency with low propagation loss characteristics is determined, the parametric result for each wave Can be stored in a look-up table in the memory of the waveguide system. Similarly, a wave mode having a cut-off frequency that exhibits characteristics that reduce propagation loss can be iteratively generated by any of the search algorithms described above in the process of steps 2082-2084.

  For ease of explanation, each process is shown and described as a series of blocks in FIG. 21G, but the claimed subject matter is not limited by the order of the blocks, and some blocks are shown herein. It should be understood and appreciated that this may be done in a different order and / or concurrently with other blocks than those described and described. Moreover, not all illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methods described herein.

  FIG. 24 shows a flowchart of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a method 2400 for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic waves. The method 2400 may be configured for the waveguide 2522 shown in FIGS. 25A-25C. The method 2400 may begin at step 2402 where the generator generates a first electromagnetic wave. In step 2404, the waveguide guides the first electromagnetic wave to the transmission medium interface, thereby inducing the second electromagnetic wave in the transmission medium interface in step 2406. Steps 2402-2406 can be applied to the waveguide 2522 of FIGS. 25A, 25B, and 25C. The generator may be an MMIC 1870 or a slot 1863, as shown in FIGS. 18N-18W. For purposes of illustration only, assume that the generator is an MMIC 2524 located within the waveguide 2522, as shown in FIGS. 25A-25C. 25A-25C show longitudinal views of a cylindrical waveguide 2522, the waveguide 2522 can take other structural shapes (eg, square, rectangular, etc.).

  Referring to the view of FIG. 25A, the waveguide 2522 covers the first region 2506 of the core 2528. Within the first region 2506, the waveguide 2522 has an outer surface 2522A and an inner surface 2523. The inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522 reflects the electromagnetic wave, thereby enabling the waveguide 2522 to be configured to guide the first electromagnetic wave 2502 toward the core 2528 in step 2404, carbon, Or it can be constructed from other materials. The core 2528 can include a dielectric core (as described in this disclosure) that extends to the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522. In other embodiments, the dielectric core can be surrounded by a cladding (such as shown in FIG. 18A), whereby the cladding extends to the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522. In still other embodiments, the core 2528 can include an insulated conductor, in which case the insulator extends to the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522. In this embodiment, the insulated conductor may be a power line, coaxial cable, or other type of insulated conductor.

  In the first region 2506, the core 2528 includes an interface 2526 that receives the first electromagnetic wave 2502. In one embodiment, the interface 2526 of the core 2528 can be configured to reduce reflection of the first electromagnetic wave 2502. In one embodiment, the interface 2526 has a tapered structure and can reduce the reflection of the first electromagnetic wave 2502 from the surface of the core 2528. Other structures can be used for interface 2526. For example, the interface 2526 can be partially tapered and the tip can be rounded. Accordingly, any structure, configuration, or compatible interface 2526 that can reduce the reflection of the first electromagnetic wave 2502 is contemplated by the present disclosure. In step 2406, the first electromagnetic wave 2502 induces (or otherwise generates) a second electromagnetic wave 2504 that propagates in the core 2528 in the first region 2506 covered by the waveguide 2522. The inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522 confines the second electromagnetic wave 2504 in the core 2528.

  The second region 2508 of the core 2528 is not covered by the waveguide 2522 and is thereby exposed to the environment (eg, air). In the second region 2508, the second electromagnetic wave 2504 extends outward starting from a discontinuity between the edge of the waveguide 2522 and the exposed core 2528. To reduce radiation from the second electromagnetic wave 2504 to the environment, the core 2528 can be configured with a tapered structure 2520. As the second electromagnetic wave 2504 propagates along the tapered structure 2520, the second electromagnetic wave 2504 remains substantially coupled to the tapered structure 2520, thereby reducing radiation loss. The tapered structure 2520 ends at the transition from the second region 2508 to the third region 2510. In the third region, the core has a cylindrical structure 2529 having a diameter equal to the end point of the tapered structure 2520 at the junction between the second region 2508 and the third region 2510. In the third region 2510 of the core 2528, the second electromagnetic wave 2504 undergoes low propagation loss. In one embodiment, this can be accomplished by selecting the diameter of the core 2528 that allows the second electromagnetic wave 2504 to loosely couple with the outer surface of the core 2528 in the third region 2510. Alternatively or in combination, the propagation loss of the second electromagnetic wave 2504 is reduced by configuring the MMIC 2524 to adjust the wave mode, wavelength, operating frequency, or other operating parameter of the first electromagnetic wave 2502. be able to.

  FIG. 25D shows a portion of the waveguide 2522 of FIG. 25A shown as a cylindrical ring (not showing the MMIC 2524 or tapered structure 2526 of FIG. 25A). In the simulation, the first electromagnetic wave is injected at the end point of the core 2528 shown in FIG. 25D. The simulation assumes that there is no such reflection, based on the assumption that a tapered structure 2526 (or other suitable structure) is used to reduce the reflection of the first electromagnetic wave. The simulation is shown as two longitudinal sections of core 2528 and a cross section of core 2528 partially covered by waveguide section 2523A. In the case of a longitudinal sectional view, one of the figures is a photograph-like figure of a part of the first figure.

  As can be seen from the simulation, the electromagnetic field 2532 of the second electromagnetic wave 2504 is confined within the core 2528 by the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide section 2523A. As the second electromagnetic wave 2504 enters the second region 2508 (which is no longer covered by the waveguide section 2523A), the tapered structure 2520 extends across the tapered outer surface of the core 2528, thus reducing the radiation loss of the electromagnetic field 2532. To do. When the second electromagnetic wave 2504 enters the third region 2510, the electromagnetic field 2532 stabilizes and then remains loosely coupled to the core 2528 (shown in longitudinal and transverse cross-sectional views), thereby reducing propagation loss. To do.

  FIG. 25B provides an alternative embodiment for the tapered structure 2520 in the second region 2508. The tapered structure 2520 extends the waveguide 2522 into the second region 2508 having the tapered structure 2522B, and as shown in FIG. 25B, the first region 2506, the second region 2508, and the third region of the core 2528. This can be avoided by maintaining the diameter of the core 2528 throughout the region 2510. Using the horn structure 2522B, the radiation loss of the second electromagnetic wave 2504 can be reduced when the second electromagnetic wave 2504 transitions from the first region 2506 to the second region 2508. In the third region 2510, the core 2528 is exposed to the environment. As described above, the core 2528 is configured to reduce the propagation loss due to the second electromagnetic wave 2504 in the third region 2510. In one embodiment, this can be accomplished by selecting the diameter of the core 2528 that allows the second electromagnetic wave 2504 to be loosely coupled to the outer surface of the core 2528 in the third region 2510. Alternatively or in combination, the propagation loss of the second electromagnetic wave 2504 can be reduced by adjusting the wave mode, wavelength, operating frequency, or other performance parameter of the first electromagnetic wave 2502.

  The waveguide 2522 of FIGS. 25A and 25B can also be configured to receive electromagnetic waves. For example, the waveguide 2522 of FIG. 25A can be configured to receive electromagnetic waves in step 2412. This can be represented by an electromagnetic wave 2504 propagating from the east to the west in the third region 2510 (in the orientation shown in the lower right of FIGS. 25A and 25B) toward the second region 2508. When reaching the second region 2508, the electromagnetic wave 2504 gradually becomes tightly coupled to the tapered structure 2520. When the electromagnetic wave 2504 reaches the boundary between the second region 2508 and the first region 2506 (that is, the edge of the waveguide 2522), the electromagnetic wave 2504 propagates in the core 2528 confined by the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522. . Finally, the electromagnetic wave 2504 reaches the end point of the tapered interface 2526 of the core 2528 and is emitted as a new electromagnetic wave 2502 guided by the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522.

  One or more antennas of the MMIC 2524 are configured to receive the electromagnetic wave 2502, thereby converting the electromagnetic wave 2502 into an electrical signal that can be processed by a processing device (eg, receiver circuit and microprocessor) in step 2414. can do. To avoid interference between electromagnetic waves transmitted by MMIC 2524, a remote waveguide system transmitting electromagnetic wave 2504 received by waveguide 2522 of FIG. 25A may have different operating frequencies, different wave modes, different phases, or other adjustments. The electromagnetic wave 2504 can be transmitted with possible operating parameters to avoid interference. The electromagnetic wave can be received by the waveguide 2522 in FIG. 25B in the same manner as described above.

  Referring now to FIG. 25C, the waveguide 2522 of FIG. 25B can be configured to support a transmission medium 2528 that does not have an endpoint, such as that shown in FIG. 25C. In this illustration, waveguide 2522 includes chamber 2525 in first region 2506 of core 2528. The chamber 2525 creates a gap 2527 between the outer surface 2521 of the core 2528 and the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522. The gap 2527 provides sufficient room to place the MMIC 2524 on the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522. Symmetric regions: 2508 and 2508 ', 2510 and 2510', and 2512 and 2512 'can be configured in the waveguide 2522 to allow the waveguide 2522 to receive electromagnetic waves from either direction. In the first region 2506, the chamber 2525 of the waveguide 2522 has two tapered structures 2522B 'and 2522B ". With these tapered structures 2522B 'and 2522B ", electromagnetic waves can gradually enter or exit the chamber 2525 from either direction of the core 2528. A directional antenna can be configured in the MMIC 2524 to transmit a first electromagnetic wave 2502 that is directed east to west or west to east with respect to the longitudinal view of the core 2528. Similarly, the directional antenna of the MMIC 2524 can be configured to receive electromagnetic waves that propagate in the longitudinal direction on the core 2528 from east to west or from west to east. The process of transmitting electromagnetic waves is similar to that described for FIG. 25B depending on whether the directional antenna of the MMIC 2524 is transmitting from east to west or from west to east.

  Although not shown, the waveguide 2522 of FIG. 25C can be configured with a mechanism such as one or more hinges that allow the waveguide 2522 to be split into two parts that can be separated. This mechanism can be used to allow placement of waveguide 2522 on core 2528 without an endpoint. Other mechanisms for installing the waveguide 2522 of FIG. 25C on the core 2528 are also contemplated by the present disclosure. For example, the waveguide 2522 can be configured with a slot opening extending in the longitudinal direction over the entire waveguide structure. In the slot-designed waveguide 2522, the regions 2522C 'and 2522C of the waveguide 2522 can be configured such that the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522 is tightly coupled to the outer surface of the core 2528. The tight coupling between the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide 2522 and the outer surface of the core 2528 prevents the waveguide 2522 from sliding or moving relative to the core 2528. The tight coupling in regions 2522C 'and 2522C can also be applied to the hinge design of waveguide 2522.

  The waveguide 2522 shown in FIGS. 25A, 25B, and 25C can be configured to perform one or more embodiments described in other figures of this disclosure. Accordingly, it is contemplated that such an embodiment is applicable to the waveguide 2522 of FIGS. 25A, 25B, and 25C. Further, any configuration in the present disclosure of the core can be applied to the waveguide 2522 of FIGS. 25A, 25B, and 25C.

  For simplicity of explanation, each process is shown and described as a series of blocks in FIG. 24, but the spirit of the claims is not limited by the order of the blocks, and some blocks are described herein. It should be understood and appreciated that it may be executed in a different order and / or concurrently with other blocks than shown and described in FIG. Moreover, not all of the illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methods described herein.

  25A-25D and / or other waveguide transmitters 2522 described and / or illustrated in the figures of the present disclosure (eg, FIGS. 7-14, 18N-18W, 22A, 22B, and other drawings). Waveguide transmitter of any of the above methods, for example, on a transmission medium having an outer surface comprised of a dielectric material (e.g., insulator, oxidation, or other material having dielectric properties). A single wave mode or wave mode that reduces propagation loss when propagating through substances such as liquids placed above (eg, water generated by moisture, snow, dew, sleet, and / or rain) It should further be noted that a combination of the above may be generated.

  25E, 25F, 25G, 25H, 25I, 25J, 25K, 25L, 25M, 25N, 25O, 25P, 25Q, 25R, 25S, and 25T FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of wave modes (and associated electric field plots) that can be generated on the outer surface of a transmission medium by one or more of the waveguides of the present disclosure and adaptations thereof. . Referring initially to FIG. 25E, a diagram illustrating a longitudinal cross section of transmission medium 2542 is provided. Transmission medium 2542 includes conductor 2543, dielectric material 2544 (eg, insulator, oxidation, etc.) disposed on conductor 2543, and substance / water film 2545 (or water, disposed on the outer surface of dielectric material 2544). Liquid, or other accumulations of other substances). Transmission medium 2542 can be exposed to a gaseous material, such as air or air 2546 (or can be placed in a vacuum). The thicknesses of the conductor 2543, the dielectric material 2544, and the water film 2545 are not drawn to scale, and thus are merely illustrative. Although not shown in FIG. 25E, conductor 2543 may be a cylindrical conductor surrounded by dielectric material 2544 and air 2546, such as a single conductor, twisted multiple strands, and the like. To simplify the illustration of the present disclosure, only the portion of the conductor 2543 near the top (or first) surface is shown. In addition, the symmetrical portions of dielectric material 2544, water film 2545, and air 2546 located below conductor 2543 (or the opposite / lower side of conductor 2543) in the longitudinal cross section of FIG. 25E are not shown.

  In certain embodiments, gravity can concentrate the water film 2545 primarily on a limited portion of the outer surface of the transmission medium 2542 (eg, below the transmission medium 2542). Therefore, in this example, it is not necessary to completely surround the outer surface of the dielectric material with the water film 2545. It should further be noted that the water film 2545 can be a drop of water or a water ball rather than a continuous water film. FIG. 25E shows an insulated conductor (ie, conductor 2543 surrounded by dielectric material 2544), for example, bare wire or other structures of various structural shapes (eg, cylindrical, rectangular, square, etc.) Other configurations of the transmission medium 2542 such as a transmission medium 2542 composed only of a non-insulated conductor or a dielectric material are also possible and applicable to the present disclosure.

  FIG. 25E is delivered on the outer surface of transmission medium 2542 by one or a adaptation of the waveguide transmitters described in this disclosure and travels longitudinally along transmission medium 2542 corresponding to the wave propagation direction shown. 3 further shows the electric field of the basic transverse magnetic wave mode in the form of a TM00 wave mode, sometimes referred to as a gobo wave mode. An electromagnetic wave propagating along a transmission medium via a transverse magnetic (TM) mode extends radially outward from the transmission medium, a radial low field component perpendicular to the longitudinal direction, and a function of time and a propagation distance parallel to the longitudinal direction. As well as a longitudinal z-field component that varies as an electric field with no azimuth phi component orthogonal to both the longitudinal and radial directions.

  The TM00 gobo wave mode produces an electric field with a pronounced radial low field component that extends away from the conductor with high field strength throughout the dielectric in region 2550. The TM00 Gobo wave mode also generates an electric field with a significant radial low field component that extends into the conductor with high field strength through the entire dielectric in region 2550 ''. Furthermore, in the region 2550 'between regions 2550 and 2550 ", an electric field is generated that is smaller in magnitude and has a significant longitudinal z-field component. The presence of these electric fields inside the dielectric causes some attenuation, but the losses in these regions are negligible compared to the effects of a thin water film as described below.

  An enlarged view 2548 of a small area of the transmission medium 2542 (shown by the dashed oval) is shown in the lower right of FIG. 25E. The magnified view 2548 shows the electric field present in a small area of the transmission medium 2542 at a higher resolution. The enlarged view shows the electric field, water film 2545, and air 2546 in the dielectric material 2544. Most of the electric field shown in region 2547 of enlarged view 2548 has a large longitudinal component, particularly in the region near the outer surface of dielectric material 2544 in the area of water film 2545. When the electromagnetic wave indicating the TM00 (gobo) wave mode propagates in the longitudinal direction (from left to right or from right to left), the area of the high vertical component of the electric field shown in the region 2547 is larger than that of the water film 2545. The part is traversed, thereby producing a large propagation loss, which can be, for example, in the order of 200 dB / M for frequencies in the range of 24 GHz to 40 GHz.

  FIG. 25F illustrates a simulated electromagnetic wave having a TM00 (Gobo) wave mode and when such a wave propagates over a dry transmission medium 2542 implemented as a 1 m (length) insulated conductor and a wet transmission medium 2542. The longitudinal cross-sectional view of the influence in the case of propagating above is shown. For illustrative purposes only, the simulation assumes a lossless insulator to focus on analysis of the degree of attenuation caused by the 0.1 mm water film. As illustrated, when an electromagnetic wave having a TM00 (Gobo) wave mode propagates on a dry transmission medium 2452, the propagation loss experienced by the wave is minimal. In contrast, when the same electromagnetic wave having a TM00 (Gobo) wave mode propagates through a wet transmission medium 2542, for example, in the range of 24 GHz to 40 GHz, attenuation is 200 dB over the length of 1 m of the insulated conductor. Large propagation loss exceeding

  FIG. 25G shows a simulation showing the magnitude and frequency characteristics of an electromagnetic wave having a TM00 Gobo wave mode when propagating on a dry insulated conductor 2542 and propagating on a wet insulated conductor 2542. For illustrative purposes only, the simulation assumes a lossless insulator to focus on analysis of the degree of attenuation caused by the 0.1 mm water film. The plot shows that when the transmission medium 2542 is wet, an electromagnetic wave having a TM00 gobo wave mode is attenuated by about 200 dB / M over a frequency range of 24 GHz to 40 GHz. In contrast, the plot for dry insulated conductor 2542 is substantially undamped at the same range of frequencies.

  FIGS. 25H and 25I show electric field plots of electromagnetic waves having a TM00 gobo wave mode with operating frequencies of 3.5 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. The vertical axis represents field strength, not distance, but a hash line is superimposed on the plots of FIGS. 25H and 25I (as well as the plots of FIGS. 25M-25S) to provide conductors and insulation for the position indicated by the x-axis. The body and each part of the water film are shown. The field strength was calculated in FIGS. 25H and 25I (as well as the plots of FIGS. 25M-25S) based on the absence of water, nevertheless, the plot shown in FIG. When water is present at the indicated location on the outer surface of body material 2544, it helps to explain why the TM00 gobo wave mode at low frequencies has low propagation loss.

  In order to understand the plots of FIGS. 25H and 25I, it is important to understand the difference between a radial low field and a longitudinal z field. When looking at a longitudinal section of a transmission medium 2542, such as that shown in FIG. Represents an electric field extending perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. In contrast, the z field is an electric field aligned with dielectric material 2544, water film 2545, or air 2546 so as to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of transmission medium 2542. Propagating electromagnetic waves having only electric field components that are radial or orthogonal to the water film 2545 propagate in the longitudinal direction (from left to right or from right to left) along the outer surface of the transmission medium 2542. In this case, the field strength is not greatly attenuated. In contrast, a propagating electromagnetic wave having an electric field component parallel to (or longitudinally) the water film 2545 having a field strength substantially greater than zero, ie, a z-field aligned with the water film 2545. When the electromagnetic wave propagates along the outer surface of the transmission medium 2542 in the longitudinal direction (from left to right or from right to left), it receives a loss with a large field strength (ie, propagation loss).

  For the TM00 gobo wave mode at 3.5 GHz shown in the plot of FIG. 25H, the z-field component of the electric field begins at the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and the water film 2545 may be present, as shown in FIG. 25H. And has a field strength that is less than the low field (radial) component. In particular, plot 25H shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low and z field components at the point in time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium. Although the field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, nevertheless, the plot shown in FIG. 25G shows a low frequency when water is present at the indicated location on the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544. Help to explain why the TM00 Gobo wave mode in the US has low propagation loss. In practice, according to one embodiment, the electric field has a large radial component (eg, a radial low field) orthogonal to the propagation direction, and conversely a relatively small longitudinal component (eg, z field) When it has in the area | region of a water film, a propagation loss can be made comparatively low. Thus, for electromagnetic waves having a TM00 gobo wave mode at 3.5 GHz, a water film 2545 is disposed on the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 (due to rain, snow, dew, sleet, and / or excessive moisture). If not, it will not be subject to significant attenuation. However, this is not true at all frequencies, and is not particularly true as the frequency approaches the millimeter wave range.

  For example, FIG. 25I shows a plot of TM00 wave mode at 10 GHz. In this plot, the field strength of the z field component in the water film region is relatively large when compared to the low field (radial) component. Therefore, the propagation loss is very high. FIG. 25J shows that when a water film having a thickness of 0.1 mm is present on the outer surface of the insulated conductor, the TM00 wave mode at 4 GHz is much lower than the TM00 wave mode at 10 GHz which exhibits 45 dB / M attenuation. Shows 62 dB / M attenuation. Therefore, the TM00 wave mode operating at high frequencies approaching millimeter wave frequencies can experience significant propagation losses when a water film is present on the outer surface of the transmission medium.

  Now, with reference to FIG. 25K, an illustration is provided showing an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode (eg, non-fundamental wave mode) propagating on the outer surface of dielectric material 2544. In the enlarged view 2548, a region 2547 shows a large radial low-field component and a not-so-long longitudinal z-field component in a region where the electric field of the electromagnetic wave having the TM01 wave mode is close to the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 in the water film 2545 area. It has shown that. The TM01 wave mode has a cutoff frequency greater than zero hertz. When configured with the waveguide transmitter of the present disclosure (its adapted or other transmitter) so that electromagnetic waves having the TM01 wave mode operate in a frequency range near the cutoff frequency, the low power portion is dielectric material 2544. While the majority of the power is concentrated in the air 2546.

  The TM01 wave mode creates an electric field in the region 2551 that primarily causes a radial low field component to extend away from the conductor and reverse in the dielectric 2544, pointing inward from the air to the dielectric 2544 at the surface of the dielectric. . In the TM01 wave mode, in the region 2551 ″, mainly the radial low field component extends into the conductor, the radial low field component is reversed in the dielectric 2544, and out of the dielectric 2544 into the air at the surface of the dielectric. An electric field pointing to is also generated. Further, an electric field having a longitudinal z-field component mainly in the region 2551 ′ between the regions 2551 and 2551 ″ is generated in the dielectric layer 2544. As in the TM00 mode, the presence of these electric fields inside the dielectric 2544 causes some attenuation, but the losses in these regions are large enough to prevent the propagation of TM01 waves over long distances. There can be nothing.

  Furthermore, the electric field of the TM01 wave mode in the region 2547 of the water film 2545 is mainly a radial component and a relatively small longitudinal component. Therefore, the propagation wave does not receive a large propagation loss when the electromagnetic wave having this field structure propagates in the longitudinal direction (from left to right or from right to left) along the outer surface of the transmission medium 2542.

  FIG. 25L is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode and the case where such a wave propagates over a dry transmission medium 2542 at a millimeter wave frequency or slightly lower and a wet transmission medium. 2542 and the effect when propagating over 2542. As shown in the figure, when the electromagnetic wave having the TM01 wave mode propagates on the dry transmission medium 2542, the propagation loss that the wave receives is minimum. In contrast to an electromagnetic wave having a TM00 gobo wave mode at a similar frequency, when an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode propagates on a wet transmission medium 2542, the electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode has only a small additional attenuation. receive. Therefore, for example, an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode in the millimeter frequency range is much less susceptible to an increase in propagation loss due to the presence of the water film 2545 than an electromagnetic wave having a TM00 gobo wave mode in the same frequency range.

  FIG. 25M provides a diagram of the electric field plot of the radial low field component and the longitudinal z field component of the TM01 wave mode electric field having an operating frequency at 30.437 GHz, which is 50 MHz above the cutoff frequency. The cutoff frequency is 30.387 GHz based on the radius of the conductor 2543 of 4 mm and the thickness of the dielectric material 2544 of 4 mm. If the dimensions of the conductor 2543 and the dielectric material 2544 are different from this example, higher or lower cutoff frequencies are possible with the TM01 wave mode. In particular, the plot shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low and z field components at the point in time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium. The field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, nevertheless, the plot shown in FIG. 25M shows that the TM01 wave when water is present at the indicated location on the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544. It helps to explain why the mode has low propagation loss. As described above, the electric field substantially orthogonal to the water film 2545 is not subject to a large loss of field strength, while the electric field that is parallel / longitudinal to the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 in the area of the water film 2545 When an electromagnetic wave having a field structure propagates along the transmission medium 2542, it receives a loss with a large field strength.

  For the TM01 wave mode, the longitudinal z-field component of the electric field starts at the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and passes through the water film 2545, as shown in FIG. 25M, with a very small field strength compared to the magnitude of the radial field. Can have. Thus, an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode at 30.437 GHz is when the water film 2545 is disposed on the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 (due to rain, dew, snow, sleet, and / or excessive moisture): At frequencies higher than 6 GHz (eg, at 10 GHz—see FIG. 25J), it experiences much less attenuation than the TM00 gobo wave mode.

  FIG. 25N shows a plot showing the magnitude and frequency characteristics of an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode when propagating on a dry transmission medium 2542 and propagating on a wet transmission medium 2542. The plot shows that when the transmission medium 2542 is wet, when the TM01 wave mode is operating in a frequency range near the cut-off frequency (eg, 28 GHz to 31 GHz), the electromagnetic wave having the TM01 wave mode undergoes less attenuation. . In contrast, the TM00 gobo wave mode undergoes a large attenuation of 200 dB / M over this same frequency range, as shown in the plot of FIG. 25G. Thus, the plot of FIG. 25N confirms the results of the dry and wet simulations shown in FIG. 25L.

  FIG. 25O, FIG. 25P, FIG. 25Q, FIG. 25R, and FIG. 25S show other wave modes that can exhibit characteristics similar to those shown in the TM01 wave mode. For example, FIG. 25O provides a diagram of the electric field plot of the radial low field component and the longitudinal z field component of the TM02 wave mode electric field having an operating frequency at 61.121 GHz, which is 50 MHz above the cutoff frequency. As described above, the cut-off frequency can be higher or lower if the dimensions of the conductor 2543 and the dielectric material 2544 are different from this example. In particular, the plot shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low and z field components at the point in time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium. Although the field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, the z-field component of the electric field would start from the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and be occupied by the water film 2545, as shown in FIG. 25O. Through position, it can have a very small field strength relative to the magnitude of the radial row field. Thus, the electromagnetic wave exhibiting the TM02 wave mode is attenuated much less than the wave mode with a much larger longitudinal z-field component at a position corresponding to the water film due to the accumulation of water on the outer surface of the dielectric layer. Receive.

  FIG. 25P shows an electric field plot of the radial low-field component, longitudinal z-field component, and azimuthal phi-field component of the electric field in the hybrid wave mode, particularly the EH11 wave mode with an operating frequency at 31.153 GHz, which is 50 MHz above the cutoff frequency. Provide a figure. As before, the cutoff frequency in the illustration of FIG. 25P can be higher or lower depending on the dimensions of conductor 2543 and dielectric material 2544.

  A non-TM wave mode, such as a hybrid EH wave mode, is an azimuthal field that is orthogonal to the radial low field component and the longitudinal z-field component and tangentially surrounds the periphery of the transmission medium 2542 in a clockwise and / or counterclockwise direction. Ingredients can be included. Like the z field component, the phi field (azimuth) component on the outer surface of the dielectric 2544 can also cause a large propagation loss when the thin film 2545 of water is present. The plot of FIG. 25P shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low field component, the phi field component, and the z field component at the time of the peak as a function of the radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium 2542. Although the field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, the z-field and phi-field components of the electric field each start from the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and through the position that would be occupied by the water film 2545, It has a very small field strength relative to the magnitude of the radial field. Therefore, the electromagnetic wave having the EH11 wave mode is larger than the wave mode having the longitudinal z-field component and the phi-field component that are much larger at the position corresponding to the water film due to the accumulation of water on the outer surface of the dielectric layer. Receives much less attenuation.

  FIG. 25Q shows the electric field radial low-field component, longitudinal z-field component, and azimuthal phi-field of the higher-order hybrid wave mode, in particular the EH12 wave mode with an operating frequency at 61.5 GHz above the cut-off frequency of 50 MHz. Provide a diagram of the electric field plot of the component. As before, the cutoff frequency can be higher or lower depending on the dimensions of the conductor 2543 and the dielectric material 2544. In particular, the plot shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low, phi, and z field components at the peak time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium. Although the field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, the z-field and phi-field components of the electric field each start from the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and through the position that would be occupied by the water film 2545, It has a very small field strength relative to the magnitude of the radial field. Thus, an electromagnetic wave having an EH12 wave mode is due to the accumulation of water on the outer surface of the dielectric layer, compared to a wave mode having a much larger longitudinal z-field component and phi-field component at a position corresponding to the water film. Receives much less attenuation.

  FIG. 25R shows an electric field plot of the radial low-field component, longitudinal z-field component, and azimuthal phi-field component of the electric field of the hybrid wave mode, particularly the HE22 wave mode having an operating frequency at 36.281 GHz, which is 50 MHz above the cutoff frequency. Provide a figure. As before, the cutoff frequency can be higher or lower depending on the dimensions of the conductor 2543 and the dielectric material 2544. In particular, the plot shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low, phi, and z field components at the peak time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium. Although the field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, the z-field and phi-field components of the electric field each start from the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and through the position that would be occupied by the water film 2545, It has a small field strength relative to the magnitude of the radial field. Therefore, the electromagnetic wave showing the EH22 wave mode is caused by the accumulation of water on the outer surface of the dielectric layer than the wave mode having a much larger longitudinal z-field component and phi-field component at the position corresponding to the water film. Receives much less attenuation.

  FIG. 25S shows the radial low-field component, longitudinal z-field component, and azimuthal phi-field of the electric field of the higher-order hybrid wave mode, particularly the HE23 wave mode having an operating frequency at 64.425 GHz, which is 50 MHz above the cutoff frequency. Provide a diagram of the electric field plot of the component. As before, the cutoff frequency can be higher or lower depending on the dimensions of the conductor 2543 and the dielectric material 2544. In particular, the plot shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low, phi, and z field components at the peak time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the transmission medium. Although the field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, the z-field and phi-field components of the electric field each start from the outer surface of the dielectric material 2544 and through the position that would be occupied by the water film 2545, It has a small field strength relative to the magnitude of the radial field. Therefore, the electromagnetic wave exhibiting the HE23 wave mode is caused by the accumulation of water on the outer surface of the dielectric layer, compared to the wave mode having a much larger longitudinal z-field component and phi-field component at the position corresponding to the water film. Receives much less attenuation.

  Based on the observation of the electric field plots of FIGS. 25M and 25O, the electromagnetic wave having the TM0m wave mode, where m> 0, is much larger in the longitudinal z-field component at the position corresponding to the water film and / or Or it can be said that it receives less propagation loss than a wave mode having a phi field component. Similarly, based on observations of the electric field plots of FIGS. 25P and 25Q, an electromagnetic wave having an EH1m wave mode, where m> 0, is a much larger longitudinal z-field at a position corresponding to the water film. It can be said that it suffers less propagation loss than a wave mode with components and / or phi field components. Further, based on the observation of the electric field plots of FIG. 25R and FIG. 25S, the electromagnetic wave having the HE2m wave mode, where m> 1, is a much larger longitudinal z-field component at the position corresponding to the water film. And / or can be said to experience less propagation loss than a wave mode with a phi field component.

  25A-25D and / or other illustrations of the present disclosure (eg, FIGS. 7-14, 18N-18W, 22A-22B, and other drawings) described and shown in this disclosure. A waveguide transmitter is placed on a transmission medium having an outer surface composed of, for example, a dielectric material (eg, insulator, oxide, or other material having dielectric properties), for example, a TM0m wave mode or an EH1m wave mode (where , M> 0), HE2m wave mode (where m> 1), or if there is a z-field component (and azimuthal field component in the proximal region on the outer surface of the transmission medium where a water film may be present. It is further noted that can be configured to generate or induce electromagnetic waves having any other type of wave mode that exhibits a low field strength in the azimuthal field component. Because certain wave modes have an electric field structure that is less susceptible to propagation loss near the outer surface of the transmission medium, the waveguide transmitters of the present disclosure can be placed on the outer surface of the transmission medium, either alone or in combination when appropriate. Furthermore, when propagating through a substance such as a liquid (for example, water generated by moisture and / or rain), it can be configured to generate an electromagnetic wave having the above-described wave mode characteristics that reduce propagation loss. It should further be noted that in certain embodiments, the transmission medium used for the propagation of one or more of the wave modes may be composed solely of dielectric material.

  Referring again to the TM01 wave mode of FIG. 25K, it should also be noted that region 2549 in enlarged view 2548 shows an electric field vector that exhibits the behavior of an eddy (eg, a circular or spiral-like pattern). Although the particular electric field vector in region 2549 will appear to have a longitudinal field component located within water film 2545, such a vector has a very low field strength and region 2547 (region 2549). Even when compared to higher intensity radial field components located within (not including). Nevertheless, a small number of electric field vectors having a non-zero longitudinal component in region 2549 may be a contributing factor for the small attenuation described above with respect to the wet transmission medium 2542 of FIG. 25L. The adverse effect of the electric field vector in the small eddy region 2549 of FIG. 25K has a much higher field strength and a substantial number of electric fields having a large longitudinal component in the TM00 gobo wave mode region 2547 of FIG. 25E within the water film 2545. Much less than the negative effects caused by vectors. As mentioned above, the electric field vector in region 2547 of TM00 gobo wave mode propagates much higher at frequencies above 6 GHz, as shown by the wet transmission medium 2542 of FIGS. 25F, 25G, 25I, and 25J. Loss (as much as 200 dB / M attenuation) is produced, but this is not the case with the TM01 wave mode.

  Note also that the electric field diagrams of FIGS. 25E and 25K are not static in time and space. That is, when an electromagnetic wave propagates in space along the transmission medium in the longitudinal direction, the electric field associated with the electromagnetic wave changes when viewed at the static position of the transmission medium as time progresses. Thus, the electric field plots shown in FIG. 25H, FIG. 25I, FIG. 25M, and FIG. The electric field plot is not static, but the z-field component (and the azimuth field component in the TM0m wave mode and EH1m wave mode (where m> 0) and HE2m wave mode (where m> 1) are The average field strength of the azimuthal field component (if present) is much lower than the average field strength exhibited by the z-field component of the TM00 gobo wave mode above 6 GHz. Therefore, TM0m wave mode, EH1m wave mode (where m> 0) and HE2m wave mode (where m> 1) are more than TM00 gobo wave mode in the frequency range exceeding 6 GHz when water film 2545 is present. Also suffer from much lower propagation losses.

  It should be further noted that the electric field of the TM00 gobo wave mode is substantially different from the TM0m wave mode and the EH1m wave mode (where m> 0) and the HE2m wave mode (where m> 1). For example, consider the electric fields in the TM00 gobo wave mode and the TM01 wave mode shown in the cross-sectional view of the transmission medium 2542 shown in FIG. 25T. The TM00 gobo wave mode exhibits a radial electric field that extends away from the conductor with high field strength throughout the dielectric. This behavior is illustrated in region 2550 of FIG. 25E at some point in time and space of transmission medium 2542. In contrast, the TM01 wave mode extends away from the conductor, substantially reducing the field strength at the middle of the dielectric, reversing the polarity toward the outer surface of the dielectric, and increasing the field strength. Shows the electric field. This behavior is shown in region 2551 of FIG. 25K at some point in time and space of transmission medium 2542.

  In the TM00 gobo wave mode, if the cross-sectional slice shown in FIG. 25T remains the same over time, the electric field in region 2550 ′ (of FIG. 25E) will eventually reach the cross-sectional slice that reduces the field strength, When the electric field at 2550 ″ reaches the cross-sectional slice, the polarity is suddenly reversed. In contrast, in TM01 wave mode, the electric field in region 2551 ′ (of FIG. 25K) eventually reaches a cross-sectional slice that becomes longitudinal (ie, points out of the drawing of FIG. 25T), thereby The electric field shown in FIG. 25T is generated and the TM01 wave mode appears to disappear, and then when the electric field in region 2551 ″ reaches the cross-sectional slice, it reverses in polarity from that shown in FIG. 25T.

  The electromagnetic wave modes described in FIGS. 25E-25T and other sections of the present disclosure can be transmitted on the outer surface alone or in whole or in part in a combination of multiple wave modes, or are described in this disclosure. It will be appreciated that the transmission medium can be embedded within any one of the transmission media (eg, FIGS. 18A-18L). These electromagnetic wave modes can be converted into wireless signals by any of the antennas described in this disclosure (eg, FIGS. 18M, 19A-19F, 20A-20F), or wireless signals received by the antennas. It should further be noted that the signal may be converted back to one or more electromagnetic wave modes that propagate along one of the transmission media. The methods and systems described in this disclosure can also be applied to these electromagnetic wave modes for transmission, reception, or processing of these electromagnetic wave modes, or for adaptation or modification of these electromagnetic wave modes. Any waveguide transmitter (or adaptation thereof) transmits one or more electromagnetic waves having a target field structure or target wave mode that indicates the spatial alignment of the electric field to reduce propagation loss and / or signal interference Note further that it can be configured to be directed or generated on a medium. The waveguide device of FIG. 25U provides a non-limiting illustration of the adaptation of the waveguide transmitter of the present disclosure.

  Referring now to FIG. 25U, a diagram of an example non-limiting embodiment of a waveguide device 2522 in accordance with various aspects described herein is shown. The waveguide device 2522 is similar to the waveguide device 2522 shown in FIG. 25C and has a small number of matches. In the illustration of FIG. 25U, waveguide device 2522 is coupled to a transmission medium 2542 that includes a conductor 2543 and an insulating layer 2543 that together form an insulated conductor such as that shown in the drawings of FIGS. 25E and 25K. Although not shown, the waveguide device 2522 can be constructed in two halves, the two halves being connected together at one longitudinal end using one or more mechanical hinges. In order to place the waveguide device 2522 on the transmission medium 2542, a longitudinal edge can be opened at the opposite end of one or more hinges. Once deployed, the waveguide device 2522 can be secured to the transmission medium 2542 using one or more latches at the longitudinal edge opposite the one or more hinges. Other embodiments for coupling the waveguide device 2522 to the transmission medium 2542 can also be used and are therefore contemplated by the present disclosure.

  The chamber 2525 of the waveguide device 2522 of FIG. 25U includes a dielectric material 2544 '. The dielectric material 2544 ′ in the chamber 2525 can have a dielectric constant similar to that of the dielectric layer 2544 of the insulated conductor. Further, a disk 2525 'having a central hole 2525 "can be used to divide the chamber 2525 into two halves for electromagnetic wave transmission or reception. The disc 2525 'can be constructed of a material (eg, carbon, metal, or other reflective material) that does not allow electromagnetic waves to travel between the halves of the chamber 2525. The MMIC 2524 'can be placed within the dielectric material 2544' of the chamber 2525 as shown in FIG. 25U. Further, the MMIC 2524 ′ can be located near the outer surface of the dielectric layer 2543 of the transmission medium 2542. FIG. 25U illustrates an MMIC 2524 ′ that includes an antenna 2524B ′ (such as a monopole antenna, dipole antenna, or other antenna) that can be configured to be longitudinally aligned with the outer surface of the dielectric layer 2543 of the transmission medium 2542. An enlarged view 2524A ′ is shown. The antenna 2524B 'can be configured to radiate a signal having a longitudinal electric field directed east or west, as briefly discussed. It will be appreciated that other antenna structures capable of radiating signals having a longitudinal electric field may be used in place of the dipole antenna 2524B 'of FIG. 25U.

  Although two MMICs 2524 'are shown in each half of chamber 2525 of waveguide device 2522, it will be appreciated that more MMICs may be used. For example, FIG. 18W shows a cross section of a cable (such as transmission medium 2542) surrounded by a waveguide device having eight MMICs located at locations: north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest. The figure is shown. The two MMICs 2524 'shown in FIG. 25U can be viewed as MMICs 2524' located in the north and south positions shown in FIG. 18W for illustrative purposes. The waveguide device 2522 of FIG. 25U can further be configured with MMIC 2524 'in the west and east positions, as shown in FIG. 18W. In addition, the waveguide device 2522 of FIG. 25U can be further configured with MMICs in northwest, northeast, southwest, and southeast locations, as shown in FIG. 18W. Therefore, the waveguide device 2522 can be configured with more MMICs than the two MMICs shown in FIG. 25U.

  With this in mind, attention is now directed to FIGS. 25V, 25W, and 25X, which are non-limiting examples of wave modes and electromagnetic field plots according to various aspects described herein. An embodiment is shown. FIG. 25V shows the electric field in TM01 wave mode. The electric field is shown in a cross-sectional view (top) and a longitudinal cross-sectional view (bottom) of a coaxial cable having a central conductor with an outer conductor shield separated by an insulator. FIG. 25W shows the electric field in TM11 wave mode. The electric field is also shown in a cross-sectional view and a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable having a central conductor with an outer conductor shield separated by an insulator. FIG. 25X further shows the electric field in TM21 wave mode. The electric field is shown in a cross-sectional view and a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable having a central conductor with an outer conductor shield separated by an insulator.

  As shown in the cross-sectional view, the TM01 wave mode has a circularly symmetric electric field (ie, an electric field having the same orientation and intensity at different azimuthal angles), while the TM11 and TM21 waves shown in FIGS. 25W and 25X, respectively. The cross-sectional view of the mode has a non-circular symmetric electric field (ie, electric fields having different orientations and intensities at different azimuthal angles). The cross section of TM11 and TM21 wave modes has a non-circular symmetric electric field, but the electric field in the longitudinal cross section of TM01, TM11 and TM21 wave modes is the longitudinal direction where the electric field structure of TM11 wave mode points in the opposite longitudinal direction. It is substantially the same except that it has a directional electric field above and below the conductor, while the longitudinal electric fields above and below the conductor in TM01 and TM21 wave modes point to the same longitudinal direction.

  The longitudinal cross-sectional views of the coaxial cable of FIGS. 25V, 25W, and 25X can be said to have a similar structural arrangement to the longitudinal cross-sectional view of the waveguide device 2522 in the region 2506 'shown in FIG. 25U. In particular, in FIGS. 25V, 25W, and 25X, the coaxial cable has a central conductor and shield separated by an insulator, while region 2506 ′ of waveguide device 2522 includes central conductor 2543, chamber 2525. It has a dielectric layer 2544 covered with a dielectric material 2544 ′ and shielded by the reflective inner surface 2523 of the waveguide device 2522. The coaxial configuration in region 2506 ′ of waveguide device 2522 continues to the tapered region 2506 ″ of waveguide device 2522. Similarly, the coaxial configuration follows regions 2508 and 2510 of waveguide device 2522, but no dielectric material 2544 ′ other than dielectric layer 2544 of transmission medium 2542 is present in these regions. In the outer region 2512, the transmission medium 2542 is exposed to the environment (eg, air) so that the coaxial configuration no longer exists.

  As described above, the electric field structure of the TM01 wave mode is circularly symmetric in the cross-sectional view of the coaxial cable shown in FIG. 25V. For purposes of illustration, assume that the waveguide device 2522 of FIG. 25U has four MMICs located at north, south, west, and east locations, as shown in FIG. 18W. In this configuration, along with an understanding of the vertical and horizontal electric field structure of the TM01 wave mode shown in FIG. 25V, the four MMICs 2524 ′ of the waveguide device 2522 in FIG. Can be configured to. This can be achieved by configuring the north, south, east, and west MMICs 2524 'to transmit wireless signals having the same phase (polarity). The wireless signals generated by the four MMICs 2524 ′ are coupled through the overlap of the electric fields in the dielectric material 2544 ′ and dielectric layer 2544 of the chamber 2525 (because both dielectric materials have similar dielectric constants) and these dielectrics A TM01 electromagnetic wave 2502 'is formed having the electric field structure shown in the vertical and horizontal views of FIG. 25V coupled to the material.

  Accordingly, the electromagnetic wave 2502 ′ having the TM01 wave mode propagates toward the tapered structure 2522B of the waveguide device 2522, thereby becoming an electromagnetic wave 2504 ′ embedded in the dielectric layer 2544 of the transmission medium 2542 ′ in the region 2508. . In the tapered horn section 2522D, the electromagnetic wave 2504 'having the TM01 wave mode expands in the region 2510 and finally exits the waveguide device 2522 without changing the TM01 wave mode.

  In another embodiment, the waveguide device 2522 can be configured to deliver a TM11 wave mode having a vertical polarity in the region 2506 '. This is because the signal source emits a first wireless signal having a phase (polarity) opposite to the phase (polarity) of the second wireless signal emitted from the same signal source by the south MMIC 2524 ′. This can be accomplished by configuring the MMIC 2524 'in position. These wireless signals are coupled through each electric field overlap and TM11 wave mode (vertical) having the electric field structure shown in the longitudinal and transverse cross sections shown in FIG. 25W, coupled to dielectric materials 2544 ′ and 2544. An electromagnetic wave having a polarization) is formed. Similarly, waveguide device 2522 can be configured to deliver a TM11 wave mode with horizontal polarity in region 2506 '. This configures MMIC 2524 'in the east position to emit a first wireless signal having a phase (polarity) opposite to that of the second wireless signal emitted by West MMIC 2524'. Can be achieved.

  These wireless signals are coupled through the overlap of each electric field, and dielectric materials 2544 ′ and 2544 having the electric field structure shown in the longitudinal and cross-sectional views shown in FIG. 25W (but with horizontal polarization). To form an electromagnetic wave having a TM11 wave mode (horizontal polarization). Because TM11 wave modes with horizontal and vertical polarization are orthogonal (ie, the dot product of the corresponding electric field vector between any pair of these wave modes at each point in space and time produces a combined zero) The waveguide device 2522 can be configured to transmit these wave modes simultaneously without interference, thereby enabling wave mode division multiplexing. Note further that the TM01 wave mode is also orthogonal to the TM11 and TM21 wave modes.

  While the electromagnetic wave 2502 ′ or 2504 ′ having the TM11 wave mode propagates in the region 2506 ′, 2506 ″, 2508, and 2510 within the region of the inner surface 2523 of the waveguide device 2522, the TM11 wave mode remains unchanged. . However, when an electromagnetic wave 2504 ′ having a TM11 wave mode exits the region 2512 of the waveguide device 2522, the inner surface 2523 no longer exists and the TM11 wave mode is a hybrid wave mode, particularly an EH11 wave mode (vertical polarization, horizontal polarization). Or both when two electromagnetic waves are transmitted in region 2506 ′.

  In still other embodiments, the waveguide device 2522 can be configured to deliver a TM21 wave mode in the region 2506 '. This is because the MMIC 2524 in the north position emits a first wireless signal from the same signal source that has the same phase (polarity) as the second wireless signal generated from the signal source by the south MMIC 2524 ′. Can be achieved by constructing '. At the same time, the MMIC 2524 ′ in the west position is configured to emit a third wireless signal in phase with the fourth wireless signal emitted from the same signal source by the MMIC 2524 ′ disposed in the east position from the same signal source. . However, the north and south MMICs 2524 'generate first and second wireless signals of opposite polarities to the polarities of the third and fourth wireless signals generated by the west and east MMICs 2524'. Four wireless signals with alternating polarities are coupled through dielectrics 2544 ′ and 2544 having electric field structures shown in the longitudinal and cross-sectional views shown in FIG. , An electromagnetic wave having a TM21 wave mode is formed. Upon exiting the waveguide device 2522, the electromagnetic wave 2504 'enters a hybrid wave mode such as, for example, a HE21 wave mode, an EH21 wave mode, or a hybrid wave mode having a different radiation mode (eg, HE2m or EH2m, where m> 1). Can be converted.

  FIGS. 25U-25X illustrate several embodiments that utilize the waveguide device 2522 of FIG. 25U to deliver TM01, EH11, and other hybrid wave modes. With an understanding of the electric field structure of other wave modes (eg, TM12, TM22, etc.) propagating on the coaxial cable, the MMIC 2524 ′ can cause an electric field attenuation of the electromagnetic wave propagating along the outer surface of the transmission medium 2542. Other wave modes that have low-intensity z-field and phi-field components in the electric field structure near the outer surface of the transmission medium 2542 that are useful in reducing propagation losses due to water, droplets, or other materials such as materials. For example, EH12, HE22, etc.) can be further configured to be transmitted by other methods.

  FIG. 25Y shows a flowchart of an example, non-limiting embodiment of a method 2560 for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic waves. The method 2560 may be used to transmit or receive substantially orthogonal wave modes, such as shown in FIG. 25Z, and / or the waveguide device 2522 of FIGS. 25A-25D and / or the diagrams of the present disclosure (eg, FIGS. 18N-18W, 22A, 22B, and other drawings) and can be applied to other waveguide systems or transmitters described and shown. FIG. 25Z shows three cross-sectional views of the insulated conductor through which the TM00 fundamental wave mode, the HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization, and the HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization propagate. The electric field structure shown in FIG. 25Z can change over time and is therefore an exemplary representation at a particular point in time or snapshot. The wave modes shown in FIG. 25Z are orthogonal to each other. That is, the dot product of the corresponding electric field vector between any pair of wave modes at each point in space and time produces a combined zero. Due to this characteristic, TM00 wave mode, HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization, and HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization can simultaneously propagate along the surface of the same transmission medium in the same frequency band without signal interference. it can.

  With this in mind, the method 2560 may begin at step 2562, where the waveguide system of the present disclosure is a source (eg, a base station, a waveguide system as described in the present disclosure). Can be configured to receive a communication signal from a wireless signal transmitted by a mobile or stationary device to another antenna (or another communication source). The communication signal is, for example, a communication modulated according to a specific signaling protocol (eg, LTE, 5G, DOCSIS, DSL, etc.) operating in the original frequency band (eg, 900 MHz, 1.9 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, etc.) It can be a signal, baseband signal, analog signal, other signal, or any combination thereof. In step 2564, the waveguide system converts the plurality of electromagnetic waves according to the communication signal by up-converting (or in some cases, down-converting) such communication signals to one or more operating frequencies of the plurality of electromagnetic waves. It can be configured to be generated or transmitted on a transmission medium. The transmission medium can be an insulated conductor as shown in FIG. 25AA, or a non-insulated conductor that oxidizes (or other chemical reaction based on environmental exposure) upon exposure to the environment, as shown in FIGS. 25AB and 25AC. It can be. In other embodiments, the transmission medium can be a dielectric material, such as the dielectric core shown in FIG. 18A.

  To avoid interference, in step 2564, the waveguide system converts the first electromagnetic wave using the TM00 wave mode, the second electromagnetic wave using the HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization, and the vertical polarization. It can be configured to simultaneously transmit a third electromagnetic wave using the HE11 wave mode with-see FIG. 25Z. Since the first, second, and third electromagnetic waves are orthogonal (ie, do not interfere), they can be transmitted in the same frequency band without interference or with a small amount of acceptable interference. Transmitting a combination of three orthogonal electromagnetic wave modes in the same frequency band contributes to a form of wave mode division multiplexing that provides a means of increasing the information bandwidth by a factor of three. By combining the principle of frequency division multiplexing with wave mode division multiplexing, the bandwidth is TM00 in a second frequency band that does not overlap the first frequency band of the first, second, and third orthogonal electromagnetic waves. The fourth electromagnetic wave is transmitted using the wave mode, the fifth electromagnetic wave is transmitted using the HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization, and the sixth electromagnetic wave is transmitted using the HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization. This can be further increased by configuring the waveguide system to deliver. In addition or alternatively, it will be appreciated that wave mode division multiplexing and other types of multiplexing may be used together without departing from the example embodiments.

  To illustrate this point, consider that each of the three orthogonal electromagnetic waves in the first frequency band supports a transmission bandwidth of 1 GHz. It is further considered that each of the three orthogonal electromagnetic waves in the second frequency band also supports a transmission bandwidth of 1 GHz. Using three wave modes operating in two frequency bands, an electromagnetic surface wave using these wave modes allows an information bandwidth of 6 GHz for transmission of communication signals. If more frequency bands are used, the bandwidth can be further increased.

  Here, it is assumed that a transmission medium in the form of an insulated conductor (see FIG. 25A) is used for surface wave transmission. Consider further that the transmission medium has a dielectric layer (eg, a conductor having a radius of 4 mm and an insulating layer having a thickness of 4 mm) having a thickness proportional to the conductor radius. With this type of transmission medium, the waveguide system can be configured to choose from several options for transmitting electromagnetic waves. For example, the waveguide system transmits first to third electromagnetic waves in step 2564 using wave mode division multiplexing in a first frequency band (eg, 1 GHz) and a second frequency band (eg, 2.1 GHz) using wave mode division multiplexing to transmit third and fourth electromagnetic waves, and using wave mode division multiplexing in a third frequency band (eg, 3.2 GHz) The ninth electromagnetic wave can be transmitted, and so on. Assuming that each electromagnetic wave supports a bandwidth of 1 GHz, the first to ninth electromagnetic waves can collectively support a bandwidth of 9 GHz.

  Instead of or simultaneously with transmitting an electromagnetic wave having an orthogonal wave mode in step 2564, the waveguide system is configured to transmit one or more high frequency electromagnetic waves (eg, millimeter waves) over the insulated conductor in step 2564. can do. In one embodiment, the one or more high frequency electromagnetic waves are, as described above, such as TM0m wave mode and EH1m wave mode (where m> 0) or HE2m wave mode (where m> 1), According to one or a plurality of corresponding wave modes that are not easily affected by the water film, it is possible to configure frequency bands that do not overlap. In other embodiments, the waveguide system may instead be susceptible to water, but nevertheless exhibits a longitudinal and / or orientation that exhibits low propagation loss when the transmission medium is dry. It can be configured to transmit one or more high-frequency electromagnetic waves in non-overlapping frequency bands according to one or more corresponding wave modes having an angular field near the surface of the transmission medium. Thus, a waveguide system can be configured to transmit several combinations of wave modes over an insulated conductor (and a dielectric-only transmission medium such as a dielectric core) when the insulated conductor is dry. .

  Here, it is assumed that a transmission medium in the form of a non-insulated conductor (see FIGS. 25AB and 25AC) is used for surface wave transmission. Further consider that non-insulated conductors or bare conductors are exposed to an environment subject to various levels of moisture and / or rain (and atmospheric gases such as air and oxygen). Non-insulated conductors such as overhead power lines and other non-insulated wires are often made of aluminum, sometimes reinforced with steel. Aluminum can react spontaneously with water and / or air to form aluminum oxide. The aluminum oxide layer can be a thin layer (eg, nano to micrometer thick). The aluminum oxide layer has dielectric properties and can therefore function as a dielectric layer. Therefore, the non-insulated conductor is not limited to the TM00 wave mode, but at least partially based on the thickness of the oxide layer, such as a HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization and a HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization at high frequencies. Other wave modes can also propagate. Therefore, a non-insulated conductor having a dielectric layer formed in an environment such as an oxide layer can be used for transmission of electromagnetic waves using wave mode division multiplexing and frequency division multiplexing. Other electromagnetic waves having wave modes (with or without cutoff frequency) that can propagate over the oxide layer are also contemplated by the present disclosure and can be applied to the embodiments described in this disclosure.

  In one embodiment, the term “dielectric layer formed in the environment” refers to a non-insulated conductor exposed to an environment that is not artificially created in a laboratory or other controlled setting (eg, on a utility pole or other A bare conductor exposed to air, moisture, rain, etc. in an exposed environment. In other embodiments, the dielectric layer formed in the environment provides a non-insulated conductor in a controlled environment (eg, controlled humidity or other gaseous material) that forms a dielectric layer on the outer surface of the non-insulated conductor. It can be formed in a controlled setting such as a manufacturing facility to be exposed. In yet another alternative embodiment, the non-insulated conductor promotes a chemical reaction with the natural environment or other material / compound available in an artificially created laboratory or controlled setting, thereby The particular material / compound (eg, reactant) that produces the dielectric layer formed in the environment can also be “doped”.

  Wave mode division multiplexing and frequency division multiplexing can prove useful in mitigating obstacles such as water accumulation on the outer surface of the transmission medium. To determine whether obstruction mitigation is necessary, the waveguide system can be configured to determine, at step 2566, whether an obstruction is present on the transmission medium. A film of water (or water droplets) that collects on the outer surface of a transmission medium due to rainfall, condensation, and / or excessive moisture can be a form of an obstacle that can cause loss of propagation of electromagnetic waves if not alleviated. . Transmission medium junctions or other objects coupled to the outer surface of the transmission medium can also function as obstacles.

  Obstacles can be detected by a source waveguide system that transmits electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium and measures reflected electromagnetic waves based on these transmissions. Alternatively or in combination, the source waveguide system receives electromagnetic waves transmitted by the source waveguide system and receives communication signals (wireless or electromagnetic waves) from the receiving waveguide system that performs quality measurements on the electromagnetic waves. By receiving, an obstacle can be detected. In step 2566, if an obstacle is detected, the waveguide system may be configured to identify options for updating, modifying, or otherwise changing the electromagnetic waves being transmitted.

  For example, in the case of an insulated conductor, the waveguide system has a frequency band starting at 30 GHz with a large bandwidth (eg, 10 GHz) when the insulated conductor, such as shown in FIG. 25N, is dry at step 2564. It is assumed that a higher-order wave mode such as TM01 wave mode has been sent. The diagram in FIG. 25N is based on a simulation that does not take into account all possible environmental conditions or characteristics of a particular insulated conductor. Thus, the TM01 wave mode may have a lower bandwidth than shown. However, for illustration purposes, a 10 GHz bandwidth is assumed for electromagnetic waves having the TM01 wave mode.

  In this disclosure, the TM01 wave mode is described above as having a desired electric field alignment that is not close to the outer surface in the longitudinal direction and azimuth, but nevertheless if a water film (or water droplet) accumulates on the insulated conductor. , May experience some signal attenuation, thereby reducing the operating bandwidth. This attenuation is shown in FIG. 25N, which shows that an electromagnetic wave having a TM01 wave mode with a bandwidth of about 10 GHz (30-40 GHz) on a dry insulated conductor is about 1 GHz (when the insulated conductor is wet). It shows a drop to a bandwidth of 30 GHz to 31 GHz. In order to reduce bandwidth loss, the waveguide system may be configured to transmit electromagnetic waves at much lower frequencies (eg, less than 6 GHz) using wave mode division multiplexing and frequency division multiplexing. it can.

  For example, the waveguide system includes a first set of electromagnetic waves, particularly a first electromagnetic wave having a TM00 wave mode, each electromagnetic wave having a center frequency of 1 GHz, a second electromagnetic wave having a HE11 wave mode having a horizontal polarization, And a third electromagnetic wave having a HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization. Assuming that a frequency band of 500 MHz to 1.5 GHz can be used for transmission of communication signals, each electromagnetic wave can provide a bandwidth of 1 GHz, and can collectively provide a system bandwidth of 3 GHz.

  The waveguide system has a second set of electromagnetic waves, in particular, each electromagnetic wave has a center frequency of 2.1 GHz, a fourth electromagnetic wave having a TM00 wave mode, a fifth electromagnetic wave having a HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization, And a sixth electromagnetic wave having a HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization. Assuming a frequency band of 1.6 GHz to 2.6 GHz and a protection band of 100 MHz between the first set of electromagnetic waves and the second set of electromagnetic waves, each electromagnetic wave can provide a bandwidth of 1 GHz. Together, it can provide an additional bandwidth of 3 GHz, which can now provide a system bandwidth of up to 6 GHz.

  A waveguide system comprising a third set of electromagnetic waves, in particular, each electromagnetic wave having a center frequency of 3.2 GHz, a seventh electromagnetic wave having a TM00 wave mode, an eighth electromagnetic wave having a HE11 wave mode having a horizontal polarization; And further consider to be configured to transmit a ninth electromagnetic wave having a HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization. Assuming a frequency band of 2.7 GHz to 3.7 GHz, a protection band of 100 MHz between the second set of electromagnetic waves and the third set of electromagnetic waves, each electromagnetic wave can provide a bandwidth of 1 GHz. Together, it can provide an additional bandwidth of 3 GHz, which can now provide a system bandwidth of up to 9 GHz.

  The combination of TM01 wave mode and three sets of electromagnetic waves configured for wave mode division multiplexing and frequency division multiplexing provides a total system bandwidth of 10 GHz, so that high frequency electromagnetic waves with TM01 wave mode are It restores the 10 GHz bandwidth previously available when propagating over a dry insulated conductor. FIG. 25AD shows a process for performing TM01 wave mode mitigation to receive an obstacle such as a water film detected in step 2566. FIG. 25AD is combined with low frequency TM00 and HE11 wave modes constructed from a dry insulated conductor supporting high bandwidth TM01 wave mode according to wave mode division multiplexing (WMDM) and frequency division multiplexing (FDM) schemes. Thus, a transition to a wet insulated conductor supporting the low bandwidth TM01 wave mode to recover system bandwidth loss is shown.

  Now consider a non-insulated conductor where the waveguide system has sent a TM00 wave mode having a frequency band starting at 10 GHz with a large bandwidth (eg, 10 GHz) in step 2564. Here, it is assumed that the transmission medium propagating in the 10 GHz TM00 wave mode is exposed to an obstacle such as water. As described above, the high frequency TM00 wave mode on an insulated conductor undergoes a significant amount of signal attenuation when a water film (or water droplet) accumulates on the outer surface of the insulated conductor (eg, 45 dB / M − diagram at 10 GHz). 25J). Similar attenuation exists in the 10 GHz (or higher) TM00 wave mode propagating on “non-insulated” conductors. However, a non-insulated conductor (eg, aluminum) exposed to the environment can have an oxide layer formed on the outer surface, and the oxide layer has a wave mode other than TM00 (eg, HE11 wave mode). It can function as a supporting dielectric layer. Note further that at low frequencies, the TM00 wave mode propagating over the insulated conductor exhibits much lower attenuation (eg, 0.62 dB / M at 4 GHz—see FIG. 25J). The TM00 wave mode operating below 6 GHz similarly exhibits low propagation loss on non-insulated conductors. Therefore, to reduce bandwidth loss, the waveguide system has an electromagnetic wave having a TM00 wave mode at a low frequency (eg, 6 GHz or less) and an HE11 wave mode configured for WMDM and FDM at a high frequency. Can be configured to be sent out.

  Referring again to FIG. 25Y, assume that the waveguide system detects, in step 2566, an obstacle such as water on the uninsulated state exposed in the environment. The waveguide system can be configured to mitigate obstacles by transmitting a first electromagnetic wave configured using a TM00 wave mode having a center frequency of 2.75 GHz. Assuming that a frequency band of 500 MHz to 5.5 GHz is available for transmission of communication signals, electromagnetic waves can provide a system bandwidth of 5 GHz.

  FIG. 25AF provides an electric field plot diagram of the HE11 wave mode at 200 GHz on a bare conductor with a thin aluminum oxide layer (4 μm). The plot shows the magnitude of the field strength of the low, phi, and z field components at the peak time as a function of radial distance away from the center of the bare conductor. The field strength was calculated based on the absence of water, but the z-field and phi-field components of the electric field begin at the outer surface of the oxide layer and are occupied by the water film, as shown in FIG. 25AF. Through the position, it can have a very small field strength relative to the magnitude of the radial row field.

  Assuming an oxide or other dielectric layer that is comparable in size to the plot in FIG. The second electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization and the third electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization can be transmitted. Assuming further that each electromagnetic wave is respectively configured according to a HE vertical polarization wave mode and a HE horizontal polarization wave mode having a 2.5 GHz bandwidth, these waves collectively provide an additional bandwidth of 5 GHz. By combining the low frequency TM00 wave mode with the high frequency HE wave mode, the system bandwidth can be recovered to 10 GHz. It will be appreciated that HE wave modes at other center frequencies and bandwidths may be possible depending on the thickness of the oxide layer, the characteristics of the non-insulated conductors, and / or other environmental factors.

  FIG. 25AE shows a process for performing mitigation of the high frequency TM00 wave mode that receives an obstacle such as a water film detected in step 2566. FIG. 25AD shows the loss of system bandwidth by combining a low frequency TM00 wave mode with a high frequency HE11 wave mode configured according to the WMDM and FDM schemes from a dry non-insulated conductor supporting the high bandwidth TM00 wave mode. The transition to a damp, non-insulated conductor that recovers.

  It will be appreciated that the above mitigation techniques are non-limiting. For example, the center frequency described above can vary between systems. Furthermore, the original wave mode that was used before the obstacle was detected can be different from the above example. For example, in the case of an insulated conductor, the EH11 wave mode can be used alone or in combination with the TM01 wave mode. It will also be appreciated that WMDM and FDM techniques may be used to transmit electromagnetic waves at any time, not only when an obstacle is detected in step 2566. It is further understood that other wave modes that can support WMDM and / or FDM techniques can be applied and / or combined with the embodiments described in this disclosure and are therefore contemplated by this disclosure. The

  Referring again to FIG. 25Y, once the mitigation scheme using WMDM and / or FDM has been determined according to the above example, the waveguide system can either A mitigation scheme intended to be used for updating multiple electromagnetic waves can be configured to notify one or more other waveguide systems. Notifications can be transmitted wirelessly to one or more other waveguide systems utilizing an antenna if signal degradation in the electromagnetic waves is too severe. If signal attenuation is acceptable, the notification can be sent via the affected electromagnetic wave. In other embodiments, the waveguide system can be configured to skip step 2568 and perform the mitigation scheme in step 2570 using WMDM and / or FDM without notification. This embodiment can be applied, for example, when other receiving waveguide systems know in advance what type of mitigation scheme is used, or the receiving waveguide system may use signal detection techniques. Is configured to discover mitigation schemes. When a mitigation scheme using WMDM and / or FDM is initiated in step 2570, the waveguide system continues to use the updated configuration of electromagnetic waves in steps 2562 and 2564 as described above for the received communication signal. Can be processed.

  In step 2566, the waveguide system can monitor whether there are still obstacles. This determination can be made by sending a test signal (eg, an electromagnetic surface wave in the original wave mode) to another waveguide system, waiting for a test result from the waveguide system and / or sending if the situation improves. Can be performed by using other obstacle detection techniques such as a signal reflection test based on the generated test signal. If it is determined that the obstruction has been removed (eg, the transmission medium is dry), the waveguide system proceeds to step 2572 and a signal update is performed in step 2568 using WMDM and / or FDM as a mitigation technique. Can be determined. Next, the waveguide system informs the receiving waveguide system that it intends to recover transmission to the original wave mode at step 2568 or is configured to bypass this step and proceed to step 2570. In step 2570, it is assumed that the transmission to the original wave mode is recovered and the receiving waveguide system knows the original wave mode and the corresponding transmission parameters, or otherwise detects this change. can do.

  The waveguide system can also be configured to receive electromagnetic waves configured for WMDM and / or FDM. For example, an electromagnetic wave having a high bandwidth (eg, 10 GHz) TM01 wave mode is propagating on an insulated conductor as shown in FIG. 25AD, and the electromagnetic wave is generated by the source waveguide system. In step 2582, the receive waveguide system can be configured to process a single electromagnetic wave having the TM01 wave mode under normal conditions. However, consider that the source waveguide system transitions to transmitting electromagnetic waves using WMDM and FDM with the TM01 wave mode using low bandwidth on insulated conductors as described above in FIG. 25AD. In this case, the receiving waveguide system needs to process a plurality of electromagnetic waves having different wave modes. In particular, the receiving waveguide system processes each of the first through ninth electromagnetic waves using WMDM and FDM in step 2582 and selectively uses the TM01 wave mode as shown in FIG. 25AD. Configured to process.

  When one or more electromagnetic waves are received in step 2582, the receive waveguide is signal processed by the source waveguide system in step 2564 (and / or step 2570, if updated) using signal processing techniques. The communication signal transmitted by the generated electromagnetic wave can be acquired. In step 2586, the receiving waveguide system may also determine whether the source waveguide system has updated the transmission scheme. Updates can be detected from data provided in the electromagnetic waves transmitted by the source waveguide system or from wireless signals transmitted by the source waveguide system. If there is no update, the receiving waveguide system can continue to receive and process electromagnetic waves in steps 2582 and 2584 as described above. However, if an update is detected at step 2586, the receive waveguide system proceeds to step 2588 and coordinates the update with the source waveguide system, and then updates the electromagnetic wave at steps 2582 and 2584 as described above. Can be received and processed.

  It will be appreciated that the method 2560 can be used in any communication scheme, including simplex and duplex communications between waveguide systems. Thus, a source waveguide system that performs updates to transmit electromagnetic waves according to other wave modes then causes the receiving waveguide system to perform similar steps that return electromagnetic wave transmission. The above embodiments related to method 2560 of FIG. 25Y and the embodiments shown in FIGS. 25Z-25AE are performed on the outer surface of a transmission medium (eg, an insulated conductor, a non-insulated conductor, or any transmission medium having a dielectric outer layer). It will also be appreciated that it can be combined, in whole or in part, with other embodiments of the present disclosure to mitigate propagation losses caused by obstacles in the vicinity thereof. Obstacles are placed on or near the liquid (eg, water), solid objects (eg, ice, snow, joints, tree branches, etc.) placed on the outer surface of the transmission medium, or the outer surface of the transmission medium. Can be any other object.

  For simplicity of explanation, each process is shown and described as a series of blocks in FIG. 25Y, but the claimed subject matter is not limited by the order of the blocks, and some blocks are described herein. It should be understood and appreciated that it may be executed in a different order than shown and described in FIG. Moreover, not all of the illustrated blocks may be required to implement the methods described herein.

  Referring now to FIG. 25AG and FIG. 25AH, a block diagram illustrating a non-limiting embodiment of an example of transmitting an orthogonal wave mode according to method 2560 of FIG. 25Y is shown. FIG. 25AG shows an embodiment in which the TM00 wave mode, the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization, and the HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization are transmitted simultaneously, as shown at some point in FIG. 25Z. In one embodiment, these orthogonal wave modes are guided with eight MMICs shown in FIG. 18 arranged in symmetrical positions (eg, north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, and northwest). It can be transmitted using a waveguide transmitter. These eight MMICs can be configured in the waveguide transmitter of FIG. 18R (or FIG. 18T). Further, the waveguide transmitter comprises a tapered dielectric wound around a cylindrical sleeve 2523A and a transmission medium (eg, an insulated conductor, a non-insulated conductor, or other cable having a dielectric layer such as a dielectric core). be able to. A waveguide transmitter housing assembly (not shown) is configured to include a mechanism (eg, a hinge) that allows the longitudinal opening of the waveguide transmitter to be positioned and latched around the transmission medium. be able to.

  With these configurations in mind, the waveguide transmitter can include three transmitters (TX1, TX2, and TX3) coupled to MMICs having various coordinate positions (see FIGS. 25AG and 18W). ). The interconnection of the transmitters (TX1, TX2, and TX3) and the MMIC can be implemented using a common printed circuit board or other suitable interconnection technology. The first transmitter (TX1) can be configured to transmit TM00 wave mode, and the second transmitter (TX2) can be configured to transmit HE11 vertically polarized wave mode. The third transmitter (TX3) can be configured to transmit the HE11 horizontally polarized wave mode.

  The first signal port (shown as “SP1”) of the first transmitter (TX1) can be coupled in parallel to each of the eight MMICs. A second signal port (shown as “SP2”) of the first transmitter (TX1) can be coupled to a conductive sleeve 2523A disposed on the transmission medium by a waveguide transmitter as described above. The first transmitter (TX1) may be configured to receive the first group of communication signals described in step 2562 of FIG. 25Y. The first group of communication signals is frequency shifted from the original frequency by the first transmitter (TX1) in order to place the communication signals in order on the first electromagnetic wave channel configured according to the TM00 wave mode. (If necessary) The eight MMICs coupled to the first transmitter (TX1) have the first group of communication signals at the same center frequency (eg, 1 GHz for the first electromagnetic wave, as described in connection with FIG. 25AD). ) Can be configured to up-convert (or down-convert). All eight MMICs have a synchronous reference oscillator that can be phase locked using various synchronization techniques.

  Eight MMICs receive signals from the first signal port of the first transmitter (TX1) based on the criteria provided by the second signal port, so that the eight MMICs thereby have the same polarity Receive a signal. Thus, when these signals are up-converted (or down-converted) and processed for transmission by the eight MMICs, each one or more antennas of each of the eight MMICs simultaneously transmits signals having the same polarity electric field. Radiate. Collectively, MMICs that are in opposite positions (eg, North MMIC and South MMIC) will have an electric field structure that is aligned towards or away from the transmission medium, so that at a particular point in time. An outward field structure like the TM00 wave mode shown in FIG. 25Z is generated. It will be appreciated that at other times, the field structure shown in FIG. 25Z radiates inward due to the constant oscillatory nature of the signals emitted by the eight MMICs. By symmetrically radiating an electric field having the same polarity, opposing collections of MMICs can propagate on a transmission medium having a dielectric layer and transmit a first group of communication signals to a receiving waveguide system. This contributes to the induction of the first electromagnetic wave having the wave mode.

  Referring now to the second transmitter (TX2) in FIG. 25AG, this transmitter has a first signal port (SP1) coupled to the MMIC located at the north, northeast, and northwest locations. However, the second signal port (SP2) of the second transmitter (TX2) is coupled to MMICs located at the south, southeast, and southwest locations (see FIG. 18W). The second transmitter (TX2) receives a second group of communication signals described in step 2562 of FIG. 25Y that is different from the first group of communication signals received by the first transmitter (TX1). Can be configured to. The second group of communication signals is transmitted by the second transmitter (TX2) in order to place the communication signals in order on the second electromagnetic wave channel configured according to the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization. Can be frequency shifted from frequency (if necessary). The six MMICs coupled to the second transmitter (TX2) receive the second communication signal at the same center frequency used for the TM00 wave mode (ie, 1 GHz as described in connection with FIG. 25AD). Can be configured to up-convert (or down-convert) groups. Since the TM00 wave mode is orthogonal to the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization, it can share the same center frequency in overlapping frequency bands without interference.

  Referring again to FIG. 25AG, the first signal port (SP1) of the second transmitter (TX2) generates a signal having a polarity opposite to that of the signal of the second signal port (SP2). As a result, the electric field alignment of the signal generated by one or more antennas of the north MMIC is of the opposite polarity to the electric field alignment of the signal generated by one or more antennas of the south MMIC become. Thus, the North MMIC and South MMIC electric fields have electric field structures that are vertically aligned in the same direction, so that at a particular point in time, such as the HE11 wave mode with the vertical polarity shown in FIG. 25Z. Generate field structure. It will be appreciated that at other times, the HE11 wave mode has a south field structure due to the constant oscillating nature of the signals emitted by the north and south MMICs. Similarly, based on the opposite polarity of the signals supplied by the first and second signal ports to the northeast MMIC and the southeast MMIC, respectively, these MMICs have the vertical polarity shown in FIG. 25Z at a particular point in time. The curved electric field structure shown on the east side of the HE11 wave mode is generated. Also, based on the opposite polarity of the signals supplied to the northwest MMIC and the southwest MMIC, these MMICs, at a particular point in time, are curved field structures shown on the west side of the HE11 wave mode with the vertical polarity shown in FIG. 25Z. Is generated.

  A collection of signals with a field structure aligned in direction by radiating electric fields of opposite polarity with opposite MMICs (north, northeast, and northwest and south, southeast, and southwest) is shown in FIG. 25Z. This contributes to the induction of the second electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization. The second electromagnetic wave propagates along the “same” transmission medium as described above for the first transmitter (TX1). Given the orthogonality of the TM00 wave mode and the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarity, ideally there is no interference between the first electromagnetic wave and the second electromagnetic wave. Thus, the first and second electromagnetic waves having overlapping frequency bands that propagate along the same transmission medium can cause the first and second groups of communication signals to be in the same (or other) receiving waveguide system without problems. Can communicate.

  Referring now to the third transmitter (TX3) in FIG. 25AG, this transmitter has a first signal port (SP1) coupled to the MMIC located at the east, northeast, and southeast locations. However, the second signal port (SP2) of the third transmitter (TX3) is coupled to MMICs located at the west, northwest, and southwest locations (see FIG. 18W). The third transmitter (TX3) is different from the first and second groups of communication signals received by the first transmitter (TX1) and the second transmitter (TX2), respectively, step 2562 of FIG. 25Y. Can be configured to receive the third group of communication signals described in. The third group of communication signals is transmitted by the third transmitter (TX3) to place the communication signals in order on the second electromagnetic wave channel configured according to the HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization. Can be frequency shifted from frequency (if necessary). The six MMICs coupled to the third transmitter (TX3) have the same center frequency as used in the TM00 wave mode and the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization (ie as described in connection with FIG. 25AD). 1 GHz) can be configured to up-convert (or down-convert) a third group of communication signals. Since the TM00 wave mode, the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization, and the HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization are orthogonal, they can share the same center frequency in overlapping frequency bands without interference.

  Referring again to FIG. 25AG, the first signal port (SP1) of the third transmitter (TX3) generates a signal having a polarity opposite to that of the signal of the second signal port (SP2). As a result, the electric field alignment of the signal generated by one or more antennas of the east MMIC is opposite in polarity to the electric field alignment of the signal generated by one or more antennas of the west MMIC. Thus, the electric fields of the east MMIC and west MMIC will have an electric field structure that is horizontally aligned in the same direction, so that at a particular point in time the HE11 wave mode with the horizontal polarization shown in FIG. 25Z. Generate such a west field structure. It will be appreciated that at other times the HE11 wave mode has an east field structure due to the constant oscillatory nature of the signals emitted by the east and west MMICs. Similarly, based on the opposite polarities of the signals supplied by the first and second signal ports to the north-east MMIC and the north-west MMIC, respectively, these MMICs, at a particular point in time, have the horizontal polarization shown in FIG. 25Z. The curved electric field structure shown on the north side of the HE11 wave mode is generated. Also, based on the reverse polarity of the signals supplied to the south-east MMIC and the south-west MMIC, these MMICs, at a particular point in time, are curved electric fields shown on the south side of the HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization shown in FIG. 25Z. Generate a structure.

  A collection of signals having a field structure aligned in direction by radiating electric fields of opposite polarity by opposing MMICs (east, northeast, and southeast and west, northwest, and southwest) is shown in FIG. 25Z. This contributes to the induction of the third electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization. The third electromagnetic wave propagates along the “same” transmission medium as described above for the first transmitter (TX1) and the second transmitter (TX2). Ideally, given the orthogonality of the TM00 wave mode, the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization, and the HE11 wave mode with horizontal polarization, the first electromagnetic wave, the second electromagnetic wave, and the third electromagnetic wave are ideal. There is no interference between them. Thus, the first, second, and third electromagnetic waves having overlapping frequency bands that propagate along the same transmission medium are the same (or other) in the first, second, and third groups of communication signals. It can be transmitted to the receiving waveguide system without problems.

  Due to the orthogonality of the electromagnetic waves described above, the receiving waveguide system has the first electromagnetic wave having the TM00 wave mode, the second electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode having vertical polarization, and the HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization. The third electromagnetic wave can be selectively extracted. After processing each of these electromagnetic waves, the receiving waveguide system can be further configured to obtain first, second, and third groups of communication signals transmitted by these waves. FIG. 25AH shows a block diagram for selectively receiving each of the first, second, and third electromagnetic waves.

  In particular, the first electromagnetic wave having the TM00 wave mode takes the difference between the signal received by all eight MMICs and the signal reference provided by the metal sleeve 2523A, as shown in the block diagram in FIG. 25AI. Thus, the first receiver (RX1) shown in FIG. 25AH can selectively receive. The second electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode with vertical polarization is received by the MMICs located at the north, northeast and northwest positions, as shown in the block diagram in FIG. 25AJ, and the south, southeast , And by taking the difference from the signal received by the MMIC arranged in the southwest position, the second receiver (RX2) shown in FIG. 25AH can selectively receive the signal. As shown in the block diagram in FIG. 25AK, the third electromagnetic wave having the HE11 wave mode having horizontal polarization is transmitted to the signals received by the MMICs located at the east, northeast, and southeast positions, and the west, northwest , And by taking a difference from the signal received by the MMIC arranged in the southwest position, the signal can be selectively received by the third receiver (RX3) shown in FIG. 25AH.

  FIG. 25AL shows a simplified functional block diagram of the MMIC. The MMIC, for example, according to the configuration shown in FIG. 25AG, transmits one of the communication signals supplied by one of the signal ports (SP1 or SP2) of the transmitter (TX1, TX2, or TX3) to the desired center frequency. A mixer coupled to a reference (TX) oscillator that shifts to can be utilized. For example, in the case of TX1, the communication signal from SP1 is supplied to the transmission path of each MMIC (ie, NE, NW, SE, SW, N, S, E, and W). In the case of TX2, the communication signal from SP1 is supplied to another transmission path of three MMICs (ie, N, E, and NW). Note that the transmission path used by MMIC N, E, and W for the communication signal supplied by SP1 of TX2 is different from the transmission path used by MMIC for the communication signal supplied by SP1 of TX1. . Similarly, the communication signal from SP2 of TX2 is supplied to another transmission path of the other three MMICs (ie, S, SE, and SW). Again, the transmission path used by MMIC S, SE, and SW for the communication signal supplied by SP2 of TX2 is the transmission used by MMIC for the communication signal from SP1 of TX1 and SP1 of TX2. Different from the route. Finally, in the case of TX3, the communication signal from SP1 is supplied to yet another transmission path of three MMICs (ie, E, NE, and SE). Note that the transmission paths used for MMIC E, NE, and SE for communication signals from TX3 SP1 are by MMIC for communication signals supplied by TX1 SP1, TX2 SP1, and TX2 SP2. Different from the transmission path used. Similarly, the communication signal from SP3 of TX3 is supplied to another transmission path of the other three MMICs (ie, W, NW, and SW). Again, the transmission paths used by the MMIC W, NW, and SW for the communication signals supplied by the TX3 SP2 are the communication signals from the TX1 SP1, TX2 SP1, TX2 SP2, and TX3 SP1. This is different from the transmission path used by the MMIC.

  When the communication signal is frequency shifted by the mixer shown in the transmission path, the frequency shifted signal generated by the mixer can be filtered by a band path filter that removes spurious signals. Thus, the output of the bandpass filter can be provided to a power amplifier that is coupled to the antenna by a duplexer that radiates the signal as described above. A duplexer can be used to separate the transmission path from the reception path. The diagram of FIG. 25AL is intentionally oversimplified to facilitate illustration.

  It is understood that other components (not shown) are contemplated by this disclosure, such as impedance matching circuits, phase-locked loops, or other suitable components that improve the accuracy and efficiency of the transmit path (and receive path). Like. Furthermore, although each MMIC can implement a single antenna, other designs with multiple antennas can be used as well. To achieve two or more orthogonal wave modes (eg, TM00 wave mode, HE11 vertical wave mode, and HE11 horizontal wave mode described above) having overlapping frequency bands, the transmission path is set to N using the same reference oscillator. It will be further understood that this can be repeated. N may represent an integer related to the number of MMICs used to generate each wave mode. For example, in FIG. 25AG, MMIC NE is used three times, so MMIC NE has three transmission paths (N = 3), MMIC NW is used three times, and therefore MMIC NW has three transmission paths. (N = 3), MMIC N is used twice, so MMIC N has two transmission paths (N = 2), and so on. When frequency division multiplexing is used to generate the same wave mode in other frequency bands (see FIGS. 25AD and 25AE), the transmission path uses different reference oscillators centered on other frequency bands. It can be repeated further.

  In the reception path shown in FIG. 25AL, the N signals supplied by the N antennas through the duplexers of the respective transmission paths in the MMIC can be filtered by the corresponding N band path filters. The filter provides the output to N low noise amplifiers. Thus, the N low noise amplifiers supply signals to N mixers to generate N intermediate frequency received signals. As before, N represents the number of times the MMIC is used to receive wireless signals in different wave modes. For example, in FIG. 25AH, MMIC NE is used three times, so MMIC NE has three receive paths (N = 3), MMIC N is used twice, and therefore MMIC N has two receive paths. (N = 2), and so on.

  Referring again to FIG. 25AL, the Y received signals (or reference from metal sleeve 2523A of FIG. 25D) supplied by a particular MMIC receive path to reconstruct the wave mode signal are shown in FIG. Subtracted from the X received signals supplied by other MMICs based on the configuration shown in 25AK. For example, the TM00 signal is reconstructed by supplying the received signals of all MMICs (NE, NW, SE, SW, N, S, E, W) to the plus port of the summer (ie, the X signal) On the other hand, the reference signal from the metal sleeve 2523A of FIG. 25D is supplied to the minus port of the summer (ie, Y signal) —see FIG. 25AI. The difference between the X signal and the Y signal becomes the TM00 signal. To reconstruct the HE11 vertical signal, the MMIC N, NE, and NW received signals are fed to the plus port of the summer (ie, the X signal), while the MMIC S, SE, and SW received signals are , Supplied to the negative port of the summer (ie, Y signal)-see FIG. 25AJ. The difference between the X signal and the Y signal is the HE11 vertical signal. Finally, to reconstruct the HE11 horizontal signal, the MMIC E, NE, and SE received signals are fed into the plus port of the summer (ie, the X signal), while the MMIC W, NW, and SW The received signal is supplied to the minus port of the summer (ie, Y signal)-see FIG. 25AK. The difference between the X signal and the Y signal becomes the HE11 horizontal signal. Since there are three wave mode signals to be reconstructed, the block diagram of the summer with X and Y signals is repeated three times.

  Each of these reconstructed signals is at an intermediate frequency. These intermediate frequency signals are provided to receivers (RX1, RX2, and RX3) that include circuits (eg, DSPs, A / D converters, etc.) that process and selectively obtain communication signals therefrom. Similar to the transmit path, the reference oscillators of the three receive paths can be configured to be synchronized using a phase locked loop technique or other suitable synchronization technique. If frequency division multiplexing is used for the same wave mode in other frequency bands (see FIGS. 25AD and 25AE), the receive path may be further repeated using different reference oscillators centered on the other frequency bands. it can.

  It will be appreciated that other suitable designs that can serve as alternative embodiments to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 25AG-25AL can be used for transmitting and receiving in quadrature mode. For example, there may be fewer or more MMICs than those described above. Slotted transmitters such as those shown in FIGS. 18N-18O, 18Q, 18S, 18U, and 18V can be used instead of or in combination with the MMIC. It is further understood that a greater or lesser number of advanced components can be used with orthogonal wave mode transmission or reception. Accordingly, other suitable designs and / or functional components for orthogonal wave mode transmission and reception are contemplated by the present disclosure.

  With reference now to FIG. 26, a block diagram of a computing environment is depicted in accordance with various aspects set forth herein. In order to provide further context with respect to the various embodiments described herein, FIG. 26 and the following discussion is a suitable computing environment 2600 in which various embodiments of the disclosed embodiments can be implemented. It is intended to provide a concise and general description of. Although embodiments have been described above in the general context of computer-executable instructions that can be executed on one or more computers, those embodiments may be combined with other program modules and / or hardware. Those skilled in the art will recognize that it can be implemented as a combination of hardware and software.

  Generally, program modules include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. In addition, single-processor or multiprocessor computer systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers and personal computers, handheld computing devices, microcomputers, which can each operably couple the method of the present invention to one or more associated devices. One skilled in the art will appreciate that it can be implemented with other computer system configurations, including processor-based or programmable consumer electronics and the like.

  As used herein, processing circuitry processes and responds to processors and other application specific circuits such as application specific integrated circuits, digital logic circuits, state machines, programmable gate arrays, etc. or input signals or data. And other circuits for generating output signals or data. Note that any functions and features described herein in connection with the operation of the processor may be similarly performed by processing circuitry.

  Terms such as “first”, “second”, “third”, etc., when used in the claims, are intended for clarity only, unless otherwise specified by context. Otherwise, it does not indicate or imply any order of time. For example, “first judgment”, “second judgment”, and “third judgment” do not indicate or imply that the first judgment is performed before the second judgment. The reverse is also true.

  The illustrated embodiments of the embodiments herein may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where certain tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.

  A computing device typically includes a variety of media, which can include computer-readable storage media and / or communication media, the two terms of which are different from one another in the specification as follows. used. Computer readable storage media can be any available storage media that can be accessed by a computer and includes both volatile and nonvolatile media, removable and non-removable media. By way of example and not limitation, a computer readable storage medium may be implemented in connection with any method or technique for storing information such as computer readable instructions, program modules, structured data or unstructured data. Can do.

  Computer readable storage media include, but are not limited to, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM), flash memory or other memory technology, compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM), digital versatile disc (DVD) or other optical disk storage device, magnetic cassette, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage device or other magnetic storage device, or can be used to store desired information Other tangible and / or non-transitory media can be included. In this context, the term “tangible” or “non-transitory” as applied herein to a storage device, memory or computer readable medium, as a qualifier, excludes only the temporarily propagated signal itself. It should be understood that it does not relinquish the right to any standard storage device, memory or computer-readable medium, not just the temporary propagation signal itself.

  A computer-readable storage medium may be accessed by one or more local or remote computing devices, for example, via an access request, query, or other data retrieval protocol for various operations relating to information stored by the medium. Can do.

  Communication media typically embodies computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other structured or unstructured data in a modulated data signal, eg, a data signal such as a carrier wave or other transport mechanism, and any Includes information delivery or carrier media. The term “modulated data signal” or signal refers to a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in the signal or signals. By way of example and not limitation, communication media includes wired media such as a wired network or direct connected connection, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared and other wireless media.

  Referring again to FIG. 26, whether signals are transmitted / received via at least a portion of a base station (eg, base station device 1504, macrocell site 1502, or base station 1614) or a central office (eg, central office 1501 or 1611). Or an example environment 2600 that forms at least part of a base station or central office. At least a portion of the example environment 2600 can also be used for the transmitting device 101 or 102. An example environment can include a computer 2602, which includes a processing unit 2604, a system memory 2606, and a system bus 2608. System bus 2608 couples system components to processing unit 2604, including but not limited to system memory 2606. The processing unit 2604 can be any of various commercially available processors. Dual microprocessors and other multiprocessor architectures may also be utilized as the processing unit 2604.

  The system bus 2608 can be further interconnected to a memory bus (with or without a memory controller), a peripheral bus and a local bus using any of a variety of commercially available bus architectures. Can be any of the following bus structures. The system memory 2606 includes a ROM 2610 and a RAM 2612. Basic input / output system (BIOS) can be stored in non-volatile memory such as ROM, erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), EEPROM, etc. BIOS transfers information between elements in computer 2602 during startup Includes basic routines that facilitate The RAM 2612 can also include a high-speed RAM such as a static RAM for caching data.

  Computer 2602 includes an internal hard disk drive (HDD) 2614 (e.g., EIDE, SATA) and a magnetic floppy disk drive (FDD) 2616 (e.g., which can be configured for external use in a suitable chassis (not shown). , For reading or writing to removable diskette 2618) and optical disk drive 2620 (for example, reading from or writing to CD-ROM disk 2622 or other high capacity optical media such as DVD). The hard disk drive 2614, magnetic disk drive 2616, and optical disk drive 2620 can be connected to the system bus 2608 by a hard disk drive interface 2624, a magnetic disk drive interface 2626, and an optical drive interface 2628, respectively. Interface 2624 for implementing external drives includes at least one or both of Universal Serial Bus (USB) and the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) 1394 interface technology. Other external drive connection techniques are within the scope of the embodiments described herein.

  The drive and its associated computer-readable storage medium provide non-volatile storage for data, data structures, computer-executable instructions, and the like. In the case of computer 2602, the drives and storage media support the storage of any data in a suitable digital format. The above description of computer-readable storage media refers to hard disk drives (HDDs), removable magnetic diskettes, and removable optical media such as CDs or DVDs, but can be read by computers such as zip drives, magnetic cassettes, flash memory cards, cartridges, etc. Other types of storage media can also be used in the exemplary operating environment, and any such storage media can include computer-executable instructions for performing the methods described herein. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art.

  A plurality of program modules can be stored in the drive and RAM 2612 including an operating system 2630, one or more application programs 2632, other program modules 2634, and program data 2636. All or part of the operating system, applications, modules and / or data may be cached in RAM 2612. The systems and methods described herein can be implemented utilizing various commercially available operating systems or combinations of operating systems. Examples of application programs 2632 that can be implemented by the processing unit 2604 or that can be executed otherwise include diversity selection decisions performed by the transmitting device 101 or 102.

  A user may enter commands and information into the computer 2602 through one or more wired / wireless input devices, eg, pointing devices such as a keyboard 2638 and a mouse 2640. Other input devices (not shown) may include a microphone, infrared (IR) remote control, joystick, game pad, stylus pen, touch screen, and the like. These input devices and other input devices are often connected to the processing unit 2604 through an input device interface 2642 that can be coupled to the system bus 2608, although parallel ports, IEEE 1394 serial ports, game ports, universal serial ports It can also be connected by other interfaces such as a bus (USB) port, IR interface.

  A monitor 2644 or other type of display device can also be connected to the system bus 2608 via an interface, such as a video adapter 2646. Also, in an alternative embodiment, monitor 2644 may be any display device (e.g., a display) for receiving display information associated with computer 2602 via any communication means, including via the Internet and cloud-based networks. It will be understood that it may be another computer having, a smartphone, a tablet computer, etc. In addition to the monitor 2644, computers typically include other peripheral output devices (not shown) such as speakers, printers and the like.

  Computer 2602 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections via wired and / or wireless communication with one or more remote computers, such as remote computer 2648. Remote computer 2648 may be a workstation, server computer, router, personal computer, portable computer, microprocessor-equipped entertainment device, peer device or other common network node, and typically many or all of the elements described with respect to computer 2602. But only one memory / storage device 2650 is shown for brevity. The logical connections shown include a wired / wireless connection to a local area network (LAN) 2652 and / or a larger network, eg, a wide area network (WAN) 2654. Such LAN and WAN networking environments are common in offices and enterprises, all facilitating enterprise-wide computer networks such as an intranet that can be connected to a global communications network, eg, the Internet.

  When used in a LAN networking environment, the computer 2602 can be connected to the local network 2652 through a wired and / or wireless communication network interface or adapter 2656. The adapter 2656 can facilitate wired or wireless communication with the LAN 2652, and the LAN can also include a wireless AP disposed there for communicating with the wireless adapter 2656.

  When used in a WAN networked environment, the computer 2602 can include a modem 2658, can be connected to a communication server on the WAN 2654, or for establishing communications via the WAN 2654, eg, via the Internet. Have other means. The modem 2658 can be internal or external, and a wired or wireless device and can be connected to the system bus 2608 via the input device interface 2642. In a networked environment, the program modules illustrated with respect to computer 2602 or portions thereof may be stored in remote memory / storage device 2650. It will be appreciated that the network connections shown are examples and other means of establishing a communications link between the computers may be used.

  Computer 2602 can be any wireless device or entity that is operatively arranged in wireless communication, such as a printer, scanner, desktop and / or portable computer, portable data assistant, communication satellite, wirelessly detectable tag Or it can be operable to communicate with any part of a location (eg, kiosk, newsstand, restroom) and telephone. This can include Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) and BLUETOOTH® wireless technology. In this way, the communication can be a defined structure as in a conventional network or simply an ad hoc communication between at least two devices.

  Wi-Fi makes it possible to connect to the Internet wirelessly from a chaise lounge at home, from a bed in a hotel room, or from a conference room at work. Wi-Fi is a wireless technology similar to that used in mobile phones, so that such devices, eg computers, can send and receive data anywhere inside or outside the base station. It becomes like this. Wi-Fi networks use a radio technology called IEEE 802.11 (a, b, g, n, ac, ag, etc.) to provide secure, reliable and high-speed wireless connectivity. A Wi-Fi network can be used to connect computers to each other, to the Internet, and to wired networks (which can use IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet). Because Wi-Fi networks operate, for example, in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz radio bands, or operate with products that include both bands (dual band), the networks are used in many offices. Real world performance similar to a basic 10BaseT wired Ethernet network can be provided.

  FIG. 27 presents an exemplary embodiment 2700 of a mobile network platform 2710 that can implement and utilize one or more aspects of the disclosed subject matter described herein. In one or more embodiments, the mobile network platform 2710 is a base station (eg, base station device 1504, macrocell site 1502, or base station 1614), a central office (eg, central office 1501 or 1611), or disclosed. Signals transmitted and received by the transmitting device 101 or 102 associated with a subject can be generated and received. In general, the wireless network platform 2710 includes both packet switched (PS) traffic (eg, Internet Protocol (IP), Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)) and circuit switched (CS) traffic (eg, voice and data), As well as components that facilitate control generation for networked wireless telecommunications, such as nodes, gateways, interfaces, servers, or heterogeneous platforms. As a non-limiting example, the wireless network platform 2710 can be included in a telecommunications carrier network and can be considered a carrier-side component, as discussed elsewhere herein. Mobile network platform 2710 is received from a legacy network, such as telephone network 2740 (eg, public switched telephone network (PSTN), or public land mobile network (PLMN)), or signaling system # 7 (SS7) network 2770. A CS gateway node 2722 that may have an interface to CS traffic is included. Circuit switched gateway node 2722 may allow and authenticate traffic (eg, voice) originating from such a network. In addition, the CS gateway node 2722 can access mobility data or roaming data generated through the SS7 network 2770, eg, mobility data stored in a visitor location register (VLR) that can reside in the memory 2730. . In addition, CS gateway node 2722 has CS base traffic and signaling and an interface with PS gateway node 2718. As an example, in a 3GPP UMTS network, the CS gateway node 2722 can be implemented at least partially in a gateway GPRS support node (GGSN). It should be understood that the functionality and specific operation of CS gateway node 2722, PS gateway node 2718 and serving node 2716 are provided and determined by the radio technology utilized by mobile network platform 2710 for telecommunications.

  In addition to receiving and processing CS exchange traffic and signaling, PS gateway node 2718 can authorize and authenticate PS-based data sessions with served mobile devices. Data sessions can include traffic or content exchanged with networks external to wireless network platform 2710 such as wide area network (WAN) 2750, enterprise network 2770 and service network 2780, which are local area networks ( LAN) and can interface with the mobile network platform 2710 through the PS gateway node 2718. Note that WAN 2750 and enterprise network 2760 can at least partially implement a service network such as an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Based on the radio technology layer available in the technical resources 2717, the packet switched gateway node 2718 can generate a packet data protocol context when a data session is established and route packetized data. Other data structures that facilitate can also be generated. To that end, in one aspect, the PS gateway node 2718 can employ a tunnel interface (eg, a 3GPP UMTS network (not shown)) that can facilitate packetized communication with a heterogeneous wireless network such as a Wi-Fi network. Tunnel termination gateway (TTG).

  In embodiment 2700, the wireless network platform 2710 also includes a serving node 2716, which can receive various packets of the data stream received through the PS gateway node 2718 based on the available radio technology layers in the technology resource 2717. Transports the converted flow. Note that for technical resources 2717 that rely primarily on CS communications, the server node can deliver traffic without relying on the PS gateway node 2718. For example, the server node may at least partially embody a mobile switching center. As an example, in a 3GPP UMTS network, the serving node 2716 can be implemented in a serving GPRS support node (SGSN).

  For wireless technologies that utilize packetized communication, a server 2714 within the wireless network platform 2710 generates multiple disparate packetized data streams or flows and manages such flows (eg, scheduling). Many applications that can be queued, formatted (...) can be run. Such applications may include add-on mechanisms for standard services provided by the wireless network platform 2710 (eg, provisioning, billing, customer support ...). A data stream (eg, a voice call or content that is part of a data session) can be conveyed to the PS gateway node 2718 for authorization / authentication and initiation of the data session and then to the serving node 2716 for communication. Can be transported. In addition to application servers, server 2714 can include a utility server, which can at least partially implement provisioning servers, operations and maintenance servers, certificate authorities and firewalls, and other security mechanisms. Security servers etc. can be included. In one aspect, the security server protects communications served through the wireless network platform 2710 and, in addition to the authorization and authentication procedures that can be defined by the CS gateway node 2722 and the PS gateway node 2718, network operation and data integrity. Secure. In addition, a provisioning server can provision services from an external network, such as a network operated by a heterogeneous service provider, such as a service from a WAN 2750 or global positioning system (GPS) network (not shown). The provisioning server is also associated with a wireless network platform 2710 such as the distributed antenna network shown in FIG. 1 that improves wireless service coverage by providing additional network coverage (eg, deployed and operated by the same service provider). Coverage can also be provisioned through the network. Repeater devices as shown in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 also improve network coverage to improve the subscriber service experience by the UE 2775.

  Note that server 2714 may include one or more processors configured to at least partially provide the functionality of macro network platform 2710. To that end, one or more processors can execute, for example, code instructions stored in memory 2730. It should be understood that the server 2714 can include a content manager 2715 that operates substantially similar to that described above.

  In the exemplary embodiment 2700, the memory 2730 may store information related to the operation of the wireless network platform 2710. Other operational information includes provisioning information for mobile devices served through the wireless platform network 2710, subscriber database; application intelligence, pricing schemes, eg, promotional fees, flat-rate programs, coupon distribution campaigns; heterogeneous radio or wireless, technology Technical specifications etc. consistent with the telecommunication protocol for the operation of the layer can be included. Further, the memory 2730 can store information from at least one of the telephone network 2740, the WAN 2750, the corporate network 2770, or the SS7 network 2760. In one aspect, the memory 2730 can be accessed, for example, as part of a data store component or as a remotely connected memory store.

  In order to provide a context for various aspects of the disclosed subject matter, FIG. 27 and the following discussion provide a concise and general description of a suitable environment in which various aspects of the disclosed subject matter can be implemented. Is intended to be. Although the subject matter has been described above in the general context of computer-executable instructions for computer programs executing on one and / or multiple computers, the disclosed subject matter is implemented in combination with other program modules. Those skilled in the art will recognize that this is possible. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks and / or implement particular abstract data types.

  FIG. 28 shows an exemplary embodiment of a communication device 2800. Communication device 2800 may serve as an exemplary embodiment of devices such as mobile devices and in-building devices referenced by the present disclosure (eg, in FIGS. 15, 16A, and 16B).

  The communication device 2800 includes a wired and / or wireless transceiver 2802 (transceiver 2802 herein), a user interface (UI) 2804, a power supply 2814, a location receiver 2816, a motion sensor 2818, an orientation sensor 2820, and its operation. A controller 2806 for managing can be included. The transceiver 2802 can support short-range or long-range wireless access technologies such as Bluetooth®, ZigBee®, WiFi, DECT, or cellular communication technologies, to name a few (Bluetooth). Trademark) and ZigBee (registered trademark) are trademarks registered by the Bluetooth (registered trademark) Special Interest Group and ZigBee (registered trademark) Alliance, respectively. Cellular technologies can include, for example, CDMA-1X, UMTS / HSDPA, GSM / GPRS, TDMA / EDGE, EV / DO, WiMAX, SDR, LTE, and other next generation wireless communication technologies that are developed. The transceiver 2802 can also be configured to support circuit switched wired access technologies (such as PSTN), packet switched wired access technologies (such as TCP / IP, VoIP, etc.), and combinations thereof.

  The UI 2804 may include a pushable or touch sensitive keypad 2808 having a navigation mechanism such as a roller ball, joystick, mouse, or navigation disk that manipulates the operation of the communication device 2800. The keypad 2808 may be an integral part of the housing assembly of the communication device 2800, or it can be operated by a wired interface (such as a USB cable) or a wireless interface that supports, for example, Bluetooth®. It may be an independent device that is coupled. Keypad 2808 can represent a QWERTY keypad having numeric and / or alphanumeric keys commonly used in telephones. The UI 2804 may further include a display 2810 such as a monochrome or color LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), an OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode), or other suitable display technology that conveys an image to the end user of the communication device 2800. In one embodiment where the display 2810 is touch sensitive, some or all of the keypad 2808 can be presented by the display 2810 with navigation capabilities.

  The display 2810 can also function as a user interface that detects user input using touch screen technology. As a touch screen display, the communication device 2800 can be configured to present a user interface having graphical user interface (GUI) elements that can be selected by a user with a finger touch. The touch screen display 2810 may include capacitive, resistive, or other forms of sensing technology that detects the amount of surface area on which a user's finger is located on a portion of the touch screen display. This detection information can be used to control the operation of GUI elements or other functions of the user interface. Display 2810 may be an integral part of the housing assembly of communication device 2800, or may be an independent device that is communicatively coupled thereto by a wired interface (such as a cable) or a wireless interface.

  The UI 2804 may also include an audio system 2812 that utilizes audio technology to transmit low volume audio (such as audio heard near the human ear) and high volume audio (such as a speakerphone in a hands-free operation). Audio system 2812 can further include a microphone that receives the audible signal of the end user. Audio system 2812 can also be used for speech recognition applications. The UI 2804 may further include an image sensor 2813 such as a charge coupled device (CCD) camera that captures still images or moving images.

  The power supply 2814 uses common power management techniques, such as replaceable and rechargeable batteries, supply regulation techniques, and / or charging system technology to provide energy to the components of the communication device 2800 for long distance or near distance. Distance portable communication can be facilitated. Alternatively or in combination, the charging system can utilize an external power source such as DC power supplied via a physical interface such as a USB port or other suitable tethering technology.

  Location receiver 2816 may utilize location technology, such as an auxiliary GPS enabled Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, to identify the location of communication device 2800 based on signals generated by a group of GPS satellites. The location can be used to facilitate location services such as navigation. The motion sensor 2818 can detect motion of the communication device 2800 in three-dimensional space using motion sensing technology, such as an accelerometer, gyroscope, or other suitable motion sensing technology. Orientation sensor 2820 detects the orientation of communication device 2800 (north, south, west, and east, and a combination of degrees, minutes, or other suitable orientation scales) using orientation sensing technology such as a magnetometer. can do.

  The communication device 2800 uses a transceiver 2802 to detect cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth (registration) using sensing techniques such as reception signal strength indicator (RSSI) and / or use of signal arrival time (TOA) or time of flight (TOF) measurements. Trademark), or proximity to other wireless access points. Controller 2806 may be a microprocessor, digital signal processor (DSP), programmable gate array, application specific integrated circuit, and / or associated storage memory such as flash, ROM, RAM, SRAM, DRAM, or other storage technology. Computational techniques such as a video processor may be utilized to execute computer instructions, control the components of the communication device 2800, and process data provided by the components of the communication device 2800.

  In one or more embodiments of the present disclosure, other components not shown in FIG. 28 may be used. For example, the communication device 2800 can include a slot for adding or removing an identification module, such as a subscriber identity module (SIM) card or a universal integrated circuit card (UICC). The SIM or UICC card can be used for subscriber service identification, program execution, subscriber data storage, and the like.

  As used herein, the terms “store”, “storage”, “data store”, “data storage device”, “database”, and any other information storage component related to the operation and function of the component are referred to as “memory”. Component "refers to an entity embodied in" memory "or a component that includes memory. The memory components described herein can be either volatile memory or non-volatile memory, or can include both volatile and non-volatile memory, but are exemplary and not limiting, It will be appreciated that volatile memory, non-volatile memory, disk storage and memory storage may be included. Further, non-volatile memory can be included in read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable ROM (EEPROM) or flash memory. Volatile memory can include random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of example and not limitation, RAM may be synchronous RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synclink DRAM (SLDRAM) and It can be obtained in many forms such as direct Rambus RAM (DRRAM). Further, the disclosed memory components of the systems or methods herein are intended to include, but are not limited to, these and any other suitable type of memory.

  Further, the disclosed subject matter includes single processor or multiprocessor computer systems, minicomputing devices, mainframe computers, and personal computers, handheld computing devices (eg, PDAs, telephones, smartphones, watches, tablet computers, netbook computers). Note that it can be practiced with other computer system configurations including microprocessor-based or programmable home appliances or industrial electronics. The illustrated aspects may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. However, some, but not all aspects of the present disclosure can be practiced on stand-alone computers. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.

  Some of the embodiments described herein may also utilize artificial intelligence (AI) to facilitate automating one or more features described herein. For example, artificial intelligence can be used in the optional training controller 230 to evaluate and select candidate frequencies, modulation schemes, MIMO modes, and / or waveguide modes to maximize transfer efficiency. Several embodiments (eg, related to automatically identifying acquisition cell sites that provide the greatest value / benefit after being added to an existing communications network) are possible to perform various embodiments to perform AI. Various schemes based on can be used. In addition, a classifier can be used to determine the ranking or priority of each cell site in the acquisition network. The classifier is a function that maps the input attribute vector x = (x1, x2, x3, x4,..., Xn) to the confidence that the input belongs to one class, that is, f (x) = trust. Degree (class). Such classification may be based on probabilistic analysis and / or statistical analysis (e.g., taking into account the usefulness and cost of the analysis) to predict or infer the actions that the user wishes to be performed automatically. Can be used. A support vector machine (SVM) is an example of a classifier that can be used. SVM operates by finding a hypersurface in the space of possible inputs, and the hypersurface attempts to separate the trigger criteria from non-triggered events. Intuitively, this makes the classification accurate to test data that is close to training data but not identical. Other directed and undirected model classification techniques may use, for example, naïve Bayes, Bayesian networks, decision trees, neural networks, fuzzy logic models, and probabilistic classification models that provide independent and distinct patterns. As used herein, classification also encompasses statistical regression that is utilized to develop a priority model.

  As will be readily appreciated, one or more of the embodiments are implicitly trained (eg, by observing UE behavior, receiving operator preferences, historical information, external information). ) As well as a clearly trained classifier (eg, with generic training data). For example, the SVM can be configured through a learning or training phase within a classifier constructor and feature selection module. Thus, using a classifier, but without limitation, any acquisition cell site of the acquisition cell sites will benefit the maximum number of subscribers and / or the acquisition cell site according to predetermined criteria. A plurality of functions can be automatically learned and executed, including determining which of the acquired cell sites will add the minimum value to the existing communication network coverage.

  As used in some situations in this application, in some embodiments the terms “component”, “system”, etc. may be used with computer-related entities or with one or more specific functions. It is intended to refer to or include an entity associated with a particular device, which may be either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software or running software. By way of example, a component can be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a computer-executable instruction, a program, and / or a computer. By way of illustration and not limitation, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component. One or more components may reside within a process and / or thread of execution, and the components may be localized on one computer and / or distributed between two or more computers. is there. In addition, these components can execute from various computer readable media having various data structures stored thereon. A component may interact with other systems via signals, eg, one or more data packets (data from a component interacting with another component in a local system, distributed system, and / or a network such as the Internet). Can communicate via a local and / or remote process in accordance with a signal having data from a component. As another example, a component can be a device having a particular function provided by a mechanical component operated by an electrical circuit or electronic circuit operated by a software or firmware application executed by the processor, and the processor is the device And execute at least part of a software or firmware application. As yet another example, a component can be a device that provides a specific function through an electronic component without the use of mechanical parts, and the electronic component executes software or firmware that at least partially provides the functionality of the electronic component. Therefore, a processor can be included therein. Although various components have been illustrated as separate components, it is possible that multiple components can be implemented as a single component or that a single component can be implemented as multiple components without departing from the exemplary embodiments. It will be understood.

  Moreover, various embodiments employ standard programming and / or engineering techniques to create software, firmware, hardware or any combination thereof to control a computer in order to implement the disclosed subject matter. Can be realized as a method, an apparatus, or a product. As used herein, the term “product” is intended to include any computer readable device or computer program accessible from a computer readable storage / communication medium. For example, computer readable storage media include, but are not limited to, magnetic storage devices (eg, hard disks, floppy disks, magnetic strips), optical disks (eg, compact disks (CDs), digital versatile disks (DVDs)), smart cards and Flash memory devices (eg, cards, sticks, key drives) can be included. Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications may be made to this configuration without departing from the scope or spirit of the various embodiments.

  Further, the terms “example” and “exemplary” are used herein to mean serving as an example or illustration. Any embodiment or design described herein as "example" or "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments or designs. Rather, use of the word example or example is intended to present concepts explicitly. As used in this application, the term “or” is intended to mean an inclusive “or” rather than an exclusive “or”. That is, unless otherwise indicated or apparent in context, “X utilizes A or B” is intended to mean any natural inclusive substitution. That is, if X uses A, X uses B, or X uses both A and B, under any of the above cases, “X uses A or B "Yes" is satisfied. Further, the articles “one (a)” and “an” as used in the present application and the appended claims generally refer to the singular unless otherwise indicated. Unless otherwise apparent from the above, it should be taken to mean “one or more”.

  Further, terms such as “user equipment”, “mobile station”, “mobile subscriber station”, “access terminal”, “terminal”, “handset”, “mobile device” (and / or similar terminology) Term) refers to a wireless device utilized by a subscriber or user of a wireless communication service to receive or carry data, control, voice, video, sound, games or virtually any data or signaling stream. be able to. The above terms are used interchangeably herein and with reference to the associated drawings.

  Further, terms such as “user”, “subscriber”, “customer”, “consumer” and the like are used interchangeably throughout unless a specific difference between the terms is justified in context. Such terms are supported through real human beings, or artificial intelligence (eg, the ability to infer at least based on complex mathematical forms) that can provide simulated vision, speech recognition, etc. It should be understood that it may refer to an automated component.

  As used herein, the term “processor” includes, but is not limited to, a single core processor, a single processor with software multithread execution capability, a multicore processor, a multicore processor with software multithread execution capability, a hardware multi It can refer to virtually any computing processing unit or device, including multi-core processors using threading technology, parallel platforms, and parallel platforms with distributed shared memory. Further, the processor may be an integrated circuit, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), digital signal processor (DSP), field programmable gate array (FPGA), programmable logic controller (PLC), complex programmable logic device (CPLD), discrete gate or It may refer to transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. The processor can utilize nanoscale architectures such as, but not limited to, transistors or switches and gates based on molecules or quantum dots to optimize space utilization of user equipment or improve performance. The processor can also be realized as a combination of computing processing units.

  As used herein, terms such as “data storage device”, “data storage device”, “database”, and virtually any other information storage component related to the operation and function of a component are referred to as “memory It refers to an entity embodied in a “component” or “memory” or a component that includes a memory. It will be appreciated that the memory components or computer-readable storage media described herein can be either volatile memory or nonvolatile memory, or can include both volatile and nonvolatile memory.

  What has been described above includes merely examples of the various embodiments. Of course, to illustrate these examples, not every possible combination of components or methods can be described, and those skilled in the art will be able to make many further combinations and substitutions of this embodiment. I can recognize that. Accordingly, the embodiments disclosed and / or claimed herein are intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. doing. Further, to the extent that the term “including” is used in either the detailed description or in the claims, such terms are used as the transition term in the claims. It is intended to be as comprehensive as sometimes interpreted.

  Further, the flowchart may include a “start” and / or “continue” indication. The “start” and “continue” indications indicate that the presented steps can optionally be incorporated into other routines or otherwise used with other routines. In this context, “start” indicates the beginning of the first step presented and may be preceded by other activities not specifically shown. Further, a “continue” indication indicates that the presented step may be performed multiple times and / or may be taken over by activities not specifically shown. Further, although the flow diagram shows a specific order of steps, other orders are possible as well, provided that the causality principle is maintained.

  Also, as may be used herein, the terms “operably coupled to”, “coupled to”, and / or “coupled” refer to direct coupling between items. And / or indirect coupling between items via one or more intervening items. Such items and intervening items include, but are not limited to, junctions, communication paths, components, circuit elements, circuits, functional blocks, and / or devices. As an example of indirect coupling, the data carried from the first item to the second item is changed by changing the form, nature or format of the information in the signal by one or more intervening items Nonetheless, one or more information elements in the signal are nevertheless conveyed so that the second item can be recognized. In a further example of indirect coupling, as a result of an action and / or reaction in one or more intervening items, an action on the first item can cause a reaction on the second item.

  Although specific embodiments have been shown and described herein, it is to be understood that any configuration that achieves the same or similar purpose may replace the embodiments described or shown by this disclosure. This disclosure is intended to cover any adaptations or variations of various embodiments. Combinations of the above embodiments, and other embodiments not specifically described herein, can be used in the present disclosure. For example, one or more features from one or more embodiments can be combined with one or more features of one or more other embodiments. Features that are positively described in one or more embodiments are described negatively in an embodiment and excluded from the embodiment, with or without replacement with another structural and / or functional feature. Sometimes it is done. The steps or functions described with respect to the embodiments of the present disclosure may be performed in any order. The steps or functions described with respect to the embodiments of the present disclosure may be performed alone or in combination with other steps or functions of the present disclosure, and other implementations not described in the present disclosure. You may perform from form or other steps. Moreover, more or fewer than all of the features described with respect to one embodiment can be utilized.

Claims (10)

  1. Receiving a plurality of communication signals;
    Generating, by a transmitting device, a plurality of wireless signals in accordance with the plurality of communication signals to induce a plurality of electromagnetic waves that are at least partially coupled to a dielectric layer that is environmentally formed on a non-insulated conductor;
    The dielectric layer includes an aluminum oxide layer, and the plurality of electromagnetic waves propagate along the dielectric layer of the non-insulated conductor without requiring an electric feedback path,
    Each electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves transmits at least part of the plurality of communication signals,
    The plurality of electromagnetic waves have a plurality of wave modes including a first hybrid wave mode and a second hybrid wave mode,
    A first electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves has the first hybrid wave mode including a first target polarity;
    A second electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves has the second hybrid wave mode including a second target polarity;
    The first target polarity is substantially orthogonal to the second target polarity;
    The first target polarity and the second target polarity reduce at least interference between the plurality of electromagnetic waves, and a receiving device extracts at least the portion of the plurality of communication signals from each electromagnetic wave of the plurality of electromagnetic waves. Enable the way.
  2.   The method of claim 1, wherein one of the plurality of wave modes includes a fundamental wave mode, and another mode of the plurality of wave modes includes a non-basic wave mode.
  3.   The method of claim 1, wherein the first hybrid wave mode comprises a HE11 wave mode.
  4.   The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of wave modes further comprises a fundamental wave mode.
  5.   The method of claim 4, wherein the fundamental wave mode, the first hybrid wave mode, and the second hybrid wave mode are substantially orthogonal to each other.
  6.   The first portion of the plurality of electromagnetic waves operates in a first frequency band, the second portion of the plurality of electromagnetic waves operates in a second frequency band, and the first frequency band is the first frequency band. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is different from two frequency bands.
  7.   The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of wave modes are substantially orthogonal to each other, thereby facilitating wave mode division multiplexing.
  8.   The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of electromagnetic waves are configured for frequency division multiplexing.
  9. Detecting an obstacle that causes a propagation loss affecting at least one of the plurality of electromagnetic waves;
    The method of claim 1, further comprising adjusting the at least one of the plurality of electromagnetic waves to at least reduce the propagation loss.
  10.   The method of claim 9, wherein the obstacle comprises water.
JP2018519712A 2015-07-14 2016-10-14 Apparatus and method for generating electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium Pending JP2018537021A (en)

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US14/885,463 2015-10-16
US14/885,463 US9722318B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2015-10-16 Method and apparatus for coupling an antenna to a device
US14/965,523 US10033107B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2015-12-10 Method and apparatus for coupling an antenna to a device
US14/965,523 2015-12-10
US15/274,987 US10170840B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2016-09-23 Apparatus and methods for sending or receiving electromagnetic signals
US15/274,987 2016-09-23
US15/293,608 2016-10-14
PCT/US2016/057161 WO2017066654A1 (en) 2015-10-16 2016-10-14 Apparatus and methods for generating electromagnetic waves on a transmission medium
US15/293,819 US10341142B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2016-10-14 Apparatus and methods for generating non-interfering electromagnetic waves on an uninsulated conductor
US15/293,608 US10033108B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2016-10-14 Apparatus and methods for generating an electromagnetic wave having a wave mode that mitigates interference
US15/293,819 2016-10-14
US15/293,929 2016-10-14
US15/293,929 US10320586B2 (en) 2015-07-14 2016-10-14 Apparatus and methods for generating non-interfering electromagnetic waves on an insulated transmission medium

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US9769020B2 (en) * 2014-10-21 2017-09-19 At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P. Method and apparatus for responding to events affecting communications in a communication network
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