JP2018110521A - Inductive power transmission system and method - Google Patents

Inductive power transmission system and method Download PDF

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JP2018110521A
JP2018110521A JP2018025910A JP2018025910A JP2018110521A JP 2018110521 A JP2018110521 A JP 2018110521A JP 2018025910 A JP2018025910 A JP 2018025910A JP 2018025910 A JP2018025910 A JP 2018025910A JP 2018110521 A JP2018110521 A JP 2018110521A
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ipt
pad
primary
secondary
system
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コビック,グラント,アンソニー
Grant Anthony Covic
ボーイズ,ジョン,タルボット
Talbot Boys John
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オークランド ユニサービシズ リミテッドAuckland Uniservices Limited
Auckland Uniservices Ltd
オークランド ユニサービシズ リミテッドAuckland Uniservices Limited
コビック,グラント,アンソニーCOVIC,Grant,Anthony
Grant Anthony Covic
ボーイズ,ジョン,タルボットBOYS,John,Talbot
Talbot Boys John
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Priority to JP2018025910A priority Critical patent/JP2018110521A/en
Publication of JP2018110521A publication Critical patent/JP2018110521A/en
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Abstract

An object of the present invention is to detect the presence of foreign matter in a magnetic field created by an IPT primary pad, or the presence of foreign matter on or near an IPT primary pad.
A foreign matter detection device for an IPT system (400) includes control means (10) adapted to detect the presence of foreign matter on or near the IPT primary pad (401) of the system. The control means (10) uses the IPT primary pad and / or the IPT secondary pad (402) for foreign object detection.
[Selection] Figure 4

Description

  The present invention relates to a foreign matter detection system and method in an inductive power transfer (IPT) system, and the arrangement or relative position detection of a magnetic transmission structure in an IPT system. The present invention also relates to improving the safety of the IPT system, for example, mitigating the risk of fire from a high power IPT system for charging an electric vehicle at high speed.

  In the development of pure electric vehicles (i.e., vehicles that run on electricity as opposed to hybrid vehicles), there are many problems that must be solved in order for electric vehicles to be widely accepted. One of the main problems is the inconvenience and safety concerns associated with charging vehicle batteries.

  Inductive power transfer (IPT) provides a useful alternative to conventional charging. An IPT system is described in US Pat. No. 5,293,308.

  Another advantage is that by using IPT, the user does not have to manually connect the cable to the battery. In a preferred embodiment, it may be sufficient to park the vehicle on an IPT charging pad embedded in (or located on) a road or parking lot for charging.

  In the development of electric vehicle dielectric charging that uses transmitter pads installed on the road surface to couple the magnetic flux to the pads under the vehicle, a related problem exists on various pads installed on the ground. Heating of miscellaneous objects. One of the disadvantages of the inherent convenience of the IPT system is that before the user parks the vehicle on the pad and begins charging, the IPT pad may have a foreign object (decreasing efficiency or risking operation of the IPT system). There is no prospect of confirming that there is no object, such as a metallic object) or dust.

  One solution to this problem is to provide a sophisticated electronic foreign object detection (FOD) system, but such a system must operate under harsh conditions and be extremely sensitive. In addition, road side pads and vehicle side pads may be manufactured by different tissues and using different technologies and different circuit structures, which further increases complexity.

  In some examples, even very small objects, such as thin foils, cigarettes, chewing gum packages, etc., can cause safety problems if they are on the IPT pad during charging. Small metallized paper pieces can ignite depending on the charging conditions. Combustion of the piece of paper itself is not serious, but if there are other flammable substances in the immediate vicinity, such as dead leaves under the vehicle, the flammable substance may also ignite, and the situation will become serious immediately. There is a possibility of development.

  Large objects (eg, aluminum cans) themselves do not ignite, but can have very high heat, and when the vehicle leaves the charging pad, children can pick up hot objects and thereby be injured. is there. If it is a very large object, charging itself may be stopped.

  Throughout this specification, “IPT” means “inductive power transmission”. “IPT pad” means a coil or coils for use as part of an IPT system to create or extract energy from a magnetic field for energy transfer. The magnetic structure includes a pad or other arrangement of conductive elements (eg, tracks or coils of an IPT system) that are used to transmit energy through the use of a magnetic field in the IPT system. The term “primary” refers to a magnetic structure that is energized to create a magnetic field, and the term “secondary” refers to a magnetic structure in which current is induced by a magnetic field from a primary or transmitting structure. Point to. Thus, “primary pad” and “transmitter pad” refer to a pad structure that is energized to create a magnetic field, and “secondary pad” in which current is induced by the magnetic field from the primary structure. Refers to the pad structure.

  All prior patent specifications referred to herein by application number or publication number are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. However, references to prior art in this specification do not approve or suggest in any way that prior art forms part of general knowledge well known in any country and should not be construed as such. Absent.

  It is an object of the present invention to provide an IPT system or apparatus or method for use with an IPT system that overcomes or ameliorates current problems with current IPT systems or at least provides useful options.

  In addition, or another object is to overcome or improve current problems with current IPT systems, or at least provide a useful option, the presence of foreign matter in the magnetic field created by the IPT primary pad, or on the IPT primary pad. Another object is to provide a method or apparatus for detecting the presence of foreign matter in the vicinity of an IPT primary pad.

  A further or another object of the present invention is to provide a method or apparatus for detecting the relative position or alignment between the primary and secondary magnetic structures of an IPT system.

  Further or another object of the present invention is a system and system for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT pad that overcomes or ameliorates current problems with current IPT systems or methods, or at least provides a useful option. Is to provide a method.

  Other objects of the present invention will become apparent from the following description, given by way of example only.

  According to one aspect, a foreign object detection device for an IPT system is provided, the device comprising control means adapted to detect the presence of foreign material on or near the IPT primary pad of the system.

  Preferably, the control means uses an IPT primary pad and / or an IPT secondary pad for foreign object detection.

  Preferably, the control means is adapted to detect when the IPT secondary pad is in a charging position relative to the IPT primary pad.

  Preferably, the control means is adapted to selectively reduce the power transmitted by the system upon detection of a foreign object.

Preferably, the control means is at least
Determine the expected power transmission rate,
Determine the actual power transmission rate,
Foreign objects are detected by comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate.

  Preferably, the apparatus determines whether the actual power transfer rate is below the expected power transfer rate by more than a predetermined amount.

  Preferably, the apparatus includes means for measuring the relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.

  Preferably, the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure the electrical properties of the IPT primary and secondary pads.

  Preferably, the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure the lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads by the phase and amount of short circuit current.

  Preferably, the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure a lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the apparatus includes means for measuring the distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and secondary pads.

  Preferably, the apparatus includes communication means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and secondary pad to the control means.

In a further aspect, a method for operating an IPT system to detect the presence of a foreign object is provided, the method comprising:
Determining the expected power transmission rate; and
Determining the actual power transmission rate; and
Comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate.

  Preferably, the method includes determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.

  Preferably, the method includes measuring a relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.

  Preferably, measuring the relative position includes measuring electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and secondary pads.

  Preferably, measuring the relative position includes measuring a lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of the short circuit current.

  Preferably, measuring the relative position includes measuring a lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of measuring the distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to a control means.

  In another aspect, a foreign object detection device for an IPT system is provided that determines the VAR current according to the relative position between the IPT primary and the IPT secondary pad, and the actual at the IPT primary pad. Control means adapted to measure the VAR current to determine if there is a foreign object on or near the IPT primary pad.

  Preferably, the control means includes position detection means for detecting a relative position of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the position detecting means measures the electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads and detects the position of one pad relative to the other.

  Preferably, the position detecting means measures the lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of the short circuit current.

  Preferably, the position detecting means measures the lateral offset by the voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the position detecting means measures the distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.

  Preferably, the apparatus includes means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary and secondary pads to the control means.

In another aspect, a method for operating an IPT system to detect the presence of a foreign object is provided, the method comprising:
Determining a VAR current according to a relative position between the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad;
Measuring actual VAR current in the IPT primary pad to determine if there is a foreign object on or in the vicinity of the IPT primary pad.

  The method preferably includes measuring the relative position of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad of the system.

  Preferably, the step of measuring the relative position includes the step of measuring the electrical characteristics of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to detect the position of one pad relative to the other.

  Preferably, the step of measuring relative position includes measuring the lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads by the phase and amount of short circuit current.

  Preferably, the step of measuring relative position includes the step of measuring lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of measuring the distance between the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to a control means.

  In another aspect, an apparatus is provided for detecting a relative position between a primary magnetic structure and a secondary magnetic structure of an IPT system, the apparatus measuring electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and IPT secondary magnetic structures; Position detecting means adapted to detect the position of one pad relative to the other.

  Preferably, the position detecting means measures the lateral offset of the primary and secondary structures according to the phase and amount of the short circuit current.

  Preferably, the position detecting means measures the lateral offset by the voltage (s) induced in the IPT secondary structure.

  Preferably, the position detection means measures the distance between the IPT primary and secondary structures by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary structures.

  In another aspect, a method is provided for detecting a relative position between a primary magnetic structure and a secondary magnetic structure of an IPT system, the method measuring electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and IPT secondary magnetic structures; Detecting the position of one pad relative to the other.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of measuring the lateral offset of the primary and secondary structures according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.

  Preferably, the method includes measuring a lateral offset by voltage (s) induced in the IPT secondary structure.

  Preferably, the method includes measuring the distance between the IPT primary and secondary structures by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary structures.

In another aspect,
Control means;
Air flow means,
An IPT system is provided in which the control means selectively manipulates the air flow to create an air flow that flows over the surface of the IPT primary pad of the system.

  Preferably, the control means includes the step of operating the air flow means as part of the fire mitigation method.

  Preferably, the control means is adapted to detect the time when the IPT secondary pad is in the power transfer position relative to the IPT primary pad.

  Preferably, the control means is adapted to selectively reduce the power transmitted by the system as part of a fire mitigation method.

  Preferably, the control means is adapted to determine if there are foreign objects on or near the IPT primary pad.

Preferably, the control means is at least
Determine the expected power transmission rate,
Determine the actual power transmission rate,
Foreign objects are detected by comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate.

  Preferably, the control means determines whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.

  Preferably, the system includes means for measuring the relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.

  Preferably, the means for measuring relative position measures the electrical properties of the IPT primary and secondary pads.

  Preferably, the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure the lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads by the phase and amount of short circuit current.

  Preferably, the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure a lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the system further comprises means for measuring the distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.

  Preferably, the system further comprises communication means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads to the control means.

In another aspect,
Determining the time that the IPT secondary pad is in a charging position relative to the IPT primary pad of the system;
Operating an air flow means for producing an air flow flowing over the surface of the IPT primary pad.

  Preferably, the method includes operating the air flow means as part of a fire mitigation method.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of operating the air flow means prior to initiating charging.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of reducing the power transmitted by the system as part of a fire mitigation method.

  Preferably, the method includes detecting whether there is a foreign object on or near the IPT system primary pad.

Preferably, the method comprises at least
Determining the expected power transmission rate; and
Determining the actual power transmission rate; and
Comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate, including the step of detecting foreign matter.

  Preferably, the method includes determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.

  Preferably, the method includes measuring a relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.

  Preferably, the method includes measuring electrical properties of the IPT primary and secondary pads and measuring relative positions.

  Preferably, the method of measuring relative position includes measuring the lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads by the phase and amount of short circuit current.

  Preferably, the method of measuring relative position includes measuring a lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of measuring the distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to a control means.

  In another aspect, a system is provided for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT primary pad comprising an IPT system according to any one of the foregoing.

  In another aspect, a method is provided for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT primary pad, including the step of creating air flow over the top surface of the primary pad.

  Preferably, the method includes creating an air flow that flows over substantially the entire top surface of the IPT primary pad.

  Preferably, the air flow flows over the top surface of the IPT charging pad under the influence of boundary effects.

  Preferably, the boundary effect is a Coanda effect.

  Preferably, the air flow is configured as a substantially wide and thin layer.

  Preferably, the method includes flowing the air flow over the top surface under the influence of boundary effects before reaching the top surface of the primary pad.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of using the charging pad as a boundary effect second surface.

  In another aspect, a foreign object detection device for an IPT system is provided that includes infrared detection means for determining whether a foreign object on or near the IPT primary pad has a temperature that exceeds a predetermined maximum temperature. .

In another aspect,
An IPT transmitting coil;
An IPT receiving coil;
Control means, and in use, the control means
Determining the expected power transmission rate between the IPT transmitter coil and the IPT receiver coil;
Determine the actual power transmission rate,
An IPT charging system is provided that implements a fire mitigation method if the actual power transfer rate is below the expected power transfer rate by more than a predetermined amount.

  Preferably, the fire mitigation method includes a step of reducing the power transmission rate.

  Preferably, the fire mitigation method includes operating means for creating an air flow on the IPT charging pad.

  Preferably, the system comprises communication means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT transmitter coil and the IPT receiver coil to the control means.

According to another aspect, a method for detecting the presence of a foreign object in a magnetic field created by an IPT transmitter coil comprises:
i) calculating an expected power transfer rate between the IPT transmitter coil and the IPT receiver coil for a predetermined power input to the IPT transmitter coil;
ii) manipulating the IPT transmitter coil at the predetermined power input;
iii) measuring the actual power transfer rate for the IPT receiver coil.

  Preferably, the method includes detecting a relative arrangement between the IPT transmitter coil and the IPT receiver coil.

  Preferably, the method includes determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below a predetermined amount below the expected power transmission rate.

According to another aspect, a method for operating an IPT charging system comprises:
i) calculating an expected power transmission rate between the IPT transmitter coil and the IPT receiver coil for a predetermined power input to the IPT transmitter coil;
ii) manipulating the IPT transmitter coil at the predetermined power input;
iii) measuring the actual power transfer rate for the IPT receiver coil;
iv) determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below a predetermined amount below the expected power transmission rate;
v) implementing a fire mitigation method when the actual power transmission rate is below a predetermined amount above the expected power transmission rate.

  Preferably, the method includes detecting a relative arrangement between the IPT transmitter coils.

  Preferably, the fire mitigation method includes operating means for creating an air flow on the IPT charging pad.

  Preferably, the fire mitigation method includes the step of reducing the power input to the IPT transmitter coil.

  According to a further aspect, a system for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT charging pad includes means for creating an air flow on the top surface of the IPT charging pad.

  Preferably, the means for generating air flow generates air flow that flows over substantially the entire top surface of the IPT charging pad.

  Preferably, the means for generating the air flow generates an air flow that flows over the top surface of the IPT charging pad under the influence of boundary effects.

  Preferably, the boundary effect is a Coanda effect.

  Preferably, the air flow is configured as a substantially wide and thin layer.

  Preferably, the system comprises control means for determining when the means for producing air flow is operated.

  Preferably, the control means includes timer means.

  Preferably, the control means monitors the power transmitted by the IPT pad and the power received by the magnetically coupled IPT receiver pad, and contains a foreign object in the magnetic field generated by the charging pad. Means for determining that there is.

  Preferably, the control means includes infrared detection means for determining whether or not the foreign matter on the IPT charging pad has a temperature exceeding a predetermined maximum temperature.

  Preferably, said means for generating air flow comprises an elongated conduit provided with at least one discharge means provided on one side thereof.

  Preferably, the discharge means comprises an elongated cut.

  Alternatively, the discharge means includes a plurality of discharge openings.

  Preferably, the discharge openings are substantially arranged.

  Preferably, the means for generating air flow comprises a surface through which the air flow flows under the influence of boundary effects.

  Preferably, the boundary effect is a Coanda effect.

  Preferably, the surface has a trailing edge that induces turbulence into the air flow.

  Preferably, the surface is spaced from the IPT charging pad.

  In a further aspect, a method is provided for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT charging pad, including the step of creating air flow over the top surface of the IPT charging pad.

  Preferably, the method includes creating an air flow that flows over substantially the entire top surface of the IPT charging pad.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of creating an air flow that flows over the top surface of the IPT charging pad under the influence of boundary effects.

  Preferably, the boundary effect is a Coanda effect.

  Preferably, the method includes the step of configuring the air flow as a substantially broad, thin layer.

  Preferably, the method includes flowing the air flow over a surface under the influence of boundary effects before the air flow reaches the top surface of the IPT charging pad.

  The present invention also broadly includes any combination or all of the parts, elements and functions, individually or collectively, referred to or shown in the specification of this application, two or more of the parts, elements or functions described above. Where a particular completeness having equivalents known in the art to which this invention pertains is referred to herein, the known equivalents are individually described. As such, it is considered to be incorporated herein.

  According to a further aspect, an IPT charging system and / or method of operating an IPT charging system is provided substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying drawings.

  In accordance with further aspects of the present invention, a system and / or method for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT charging pad is provided substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying drawings. Is done.

  Further aspects of the invention that should be considered in all its novel aspects will become apparent from the following description given by way of illustration of possible embodiments of the invention.

  Throughout the specification and claims, terms such as “include” and “include” are in contrast to exclusive or exhaustive meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Should be interpreted in a comprehensive sense, that is, in the sense of "including but not limited to".

1 is a schematic side view of a system of the present invention showing a cross section of an elongated conduit. FIG. It is a schematic front view of the elongate conduit tube and discharge port of FIG. FIG. 2 is a schematic front view of the system of FIG. 1 where foreign matter is heated by the IPT charging pad. It is a figure which shows the structure of the charging system using the fixed frequency LCL converter (added an insulation transformer) which sends the known electric current 11 to a primary pad. It is a general | schematic flowchart which shows operation of embodiment of this invention.

  In accordance with the present invention, foreign matter can be detected using the primary and / or secondary pad (s) of the IPT system. Also, the relative position or arrangement of the magnetic structure of the IPT system can be determined.

  The present invention also provides one of the problems associated with foreign matter on the IPT charging pad identified above when layered air with sufficient velocity can be blown onto the top surface of the IPT charging pad attached to the road surface. It will be appreciated that part or substantially all may be alleviated or substantially resolved.

The correct shape, direction and speed of air flow can perform the following functions:
1. Wipe out small metallized pieces before ignition.
2. Other small, potentially flammable debris, such as dead leaves or paper pieces, are wiped out, thereby removing the small flammable fuel.
3. Large objects that are not swept away can be cooled by the air flow so that the temperature rise is maintained at an acceptable limit and does not cause a disaster.

  Very large objects cannot be wiped out. However, an object that is not movable or that cannot be at least sufficiently cooled by the air flow may be large enough to be detected in the power flow to the pickup coil. When such an object is detected, power transfer through the IPT pad can be adjusted or stopped as needed.

  Referring initially to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, a system for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT charging pad according to one embodiment of the present invention is generally referenced by arrow 100. FIG.

  The system 100 includes means for creating an air flow, including impeller means 1, in fluid connection with the elongated conduit 2. The conduit 2 has at least one outlet 3 provided on the side surface thereof. The outlets 3 are preferably elongated cuts, as shown in FIGS. 1-3, but in other embodiments, the plurality of outlets are adjacent to each other to approximate the shape with the cuts, and They may be provided on a straight line.

  In a particularly preferred embodiment, the conduit 2 defines a flow surface 4 immediately downstream of the outlet 3. In the configuration of the discharge port 3 and the flow surface 4, the air flow F from the discharge port 3 preferably flows on the flow surface 4 under the influence of the boundary effect, which is usually the Coanda effect. The flow surface 4 has a warped outer shape.

  The trailing edge 5 of the flow surface 4 preferably defines an angle θ that is sufficiently small that the air flow F is separated from the trailing edge 5 and becomes turbulent.

  The airflow F from the trailing edge 5 follows a substantially straight path and contacts the upper surface 6 of the IPT charging pad 7. However, since the air flow moves between the trailing edge 5 and the upper surface 6, the outside air around the air flow is accelerated and coupled to the air flow, thus increasing the mass of the moving air. However, the average flow velocity is reduced.

  Those skilled in the art are shown with the pad 7 protruding from the ground, but may be mounted substantially flush with the ground or below the ground.

  The angle at which the airflow F strikes the upper surface 6 is selected so that the air flow remains in contact with the upper surface 6 under the influence of the boundary effect, which is usually the Coanda effect. The approach angle is preferably between 10 ° and 70 °, more preferably between 30 ° and 60 °, and most preferably about 45 °. Applicants must ensure that the flow remains in contact with the top surface of the pad under the influence of the Coanda effect and minimize the distance so that the outlet 3 is always placed in front of the pad 7. 45 ° was chosen as the best compromise between the two.

  The air flow F preferably moves substantially over the entire top surface 6. The speed of the air flow at the outlet 3 is selected such that the average speed of the air flow flowing over the upper surface is at least 5 m / s, more preferably at least 10 m / s. Applicants believe that air speeds in this range are suitable for removing small foreign objects such as flakes, paper pieces, metalized plastics and leaves from the pad 7 and for sufficiently cooling large objects such as aluminum cans. I discovered that.

  The turbulence of the airflow F on the pad 7 is useful for improving the heat transfer coefficient between air and any large object and for cooling them.

  In contrast to an air flow system using an axial fan without a duct, the air flow generating means can be configured to have a relatively thin shape, so that the IPT pad 7 and the receiving IPT pad ( (Not shown) can be relatively easily placed and installed in a space between the vehicle and the underside of the vehicle.

  The system is robust and robust because all moving parts (eg impeller and motor) can be provided in a suitable housing 8. In a preferred embodiment, the impeller 1 may be mounted away from the outlet 3.

  System 100 preferably includes control means 10. In a preferred embodiment, the control means controls the impeller 1 so as not to operate continuously and in a normal state. In some embodiments, the control means 10 includes a timer, and the impeller 1 may be executed for a predetermined period at time intervals. Additionally or alternatively, the control means 10 may be provided with one or more sensor means 11 for detecting the presence of a foreign object indicating that an air flow F may be necessary and / or sensor means. 11 may be communicated. In one embodiment, the sensor means 11 may comprise a passive infrared (PIR) sensor 12 that can detect infrared radiation 13 that is characteristic of an object 14 that is heated above a minimum or threshold temperature. In another embodiment (not shown), the control means may comprise sensor means for detecting changes to the magnetic field generated by the pad 7 indicating that there is an object in the field. In yet another embodiment, the sensor means may be the temperature of the upper surface 6 of the pad 7 or the air adjacent to the pad (or any material that covers the pad, such as, for example, the road surface. Reference to the top or top surface of 7 may include means for monitoring the top or top surface of the material covering the pad, if desired. This is useful in recognizing heated foreign matter, but can also be used to operate impeller 1 when the temperature of pad 7 rises above a predetermined maximum temperature, regardless of the presence of foreign matter. Thus, the system may also provide the additional benefit of improving the efficiency of the IPT pad by cooling the pad. However, the shape, velocity, direction and turbulence of the air flow preferably does not cool the pad itself, but separates the object from the pad and / or cools the object on the pad Selected to achieve purpose.

  The control means 10 can check the presence or absence of foreign matter on the IPT pad 7.

  In a preferred embodiment, the location of the secondary receiver (position relative to the primary or transmitter pad), size, shape and tuning, as well as the power that can be transmitted from the primary side and used on the secondary side, is determined by the control means 10 And / or known to the control means 10. In some embodiments, this information is transmitted between the transmitting charging circuit and the vehicle / receiving charging circuit via communication means (not shown). The communication system is an essential feature of many IPT charging protocols.

  In one embodiment, a parallel tuned charging system is used. A short circuit can be applied to the secondary or receiver pad to support pad-to-pad array detection and power detection (while for a series tuning system, an open circuit should be applied). A short circuit applied to one or more secondary coils represents an unloaded condition.

  An alternative means by which system loss can be determined and used to help detect foreign objects during power transmission is (which eliminates the need to interrupt power transmission for detection) between the secondary and primary pads. Sharing information related to power transmission over the communication channel. As mentioned above, this information sharing is a static charge where the secondary needs to communicate the demand from the vehicle battery system to the primary in order to help adjust the charging system for maximum efficiency. Important in application. The secondary electronics uses the current and voltage measurements at the output of the tuning circuit on the secondary and / or the output of the electronics coupled to the battery load to provide accurate received power supplied to the vehicle battery. Can be determined. This information can be shared with the primary electronic device to help determine the loss. On the primary side, the actual power can be measured using measurements from the mains and / or inverter bridge current measurements to establish the power supplied. The difference between the power supplied from the primary and the power received at the secondary can be calculated and used to determine the loss. Loss outside the acceptable range causes abnormal conditions. This loss calculation can be performed continuously so that when a foreign object moves between the pads, a step change in loss due to the foreign object being pinched can be detected quickly.

  To help determine the expected level of loss, it is useful to establish the relative positions of the secondary and primary pads and to know their size and topology. For example, while the former (the relative position of the pad) can be determined in one embodiment using the method described below, this information can be communicated between the primary and secondary systems or RFID tags It can be transmitted via.

  To determine the relative position of the transmitter and receiver pads, measure both the amount and phase of the current in one or more of the secondary (receiver) coils and determine where the receiver pads are related to the primary. Can be used to determine. For power extraction, in the case of a pad with multiple secondary coils (with two generally planar coils arranged side by side and a central orthogonal “Q” coil that overlaps adjacently DDQ pads as described in PCT / NZ2011 / 000153, or pads or bipolar pads as described in WO2011 / 016737 and PCT / NZ2011 / 000154 having two generally planar, overlapping coils separated from each other Measurement of the phase and amount of the short circuit current in the individual power coils provides enough information to determine the relative lateral offset from the centrally arranged position in the X and Y directions. And comparing the amount of current in the primary pad and the amount of current in the secondary coil is a result of a change in coupling degree. Help identify the height and the gap definitive. To achieve this, a current sensor is added after tuning (before commutation) of each receiving coil. In the case of a DDQ receiver, one coil measures the “horizontal” magnetic flux and the other measures the “vertical” magnetic flux component. Therefore, when laterally displaced, the amount changes, and when the receiver is positioned on either the left or right side of the transmitter coil, a relative shift with a phase of about 180 ° occurs (actual The shift varies slightly based on detuning level and coil quality). The relative phase shift between the outputs of the two receiver coils occurs regardless of whether the primary pad on the ground is an annular or polarized structure, or another magnetic structure such as a track, for example. . Along with this, the amount of received voltage coupled to the coil drops to zero at the position defined for the primary structure. As an example, at the central location, if the primary is a polarization structure, the voltage is not coupled to the Q coil, and if the primary is a ring structure, the voltage is not coupled to the DD coil. As the receiver moves laterally, the coupled voltage increases in one coil and decreases in the other coil, and this change helps determine the lateral position, while on the other hand, between the receiving coils Changes in phase help determine which side the receiver has been moved to. Similar results can be achieved by using a current sensor located at the output of the bipolar pad used as the receiving structure.

  For example, when the secondary structure is attached under a vehicle that is about to reach a stop position, if the secondary structure moves in the Y direction, the relative position in the y direction (the movement direction of the vehicle) can be determined. . Under these conditions, the amount of voltage and short circuit current coupled by the coil of the structure increases when the receiver is shut down (a common condition when the vehicle is about to reach home). As the vehicle passes through the central position, this combined voltage decreases.

  In the case of a secondary system with only one coil (as seen in the annular pad system described in WO2008 / 140333), in order to assist with placement and stopping in the manner described above, further removed from the secondary A search coil can be placed around the pad.

Referring to FIG. 4, an example of IPT system 400 in the form of a charging system using a fixed frequency LCL converter supplying a known current l 1 to the primary pad 401 (add isolation transformer) are shown. The general structure of the system 400 is known, but the control means 10 is not known, as described herein.

When the secondary pad 402 is placed in a short circuit, both the current l 1 in the track and the current in the inverter bridge (H-bridge configuration 403 as shown herein) can be adjusted. Under ideal tuning conditions, the current through the H-bridge is the actual current and represents the load (which is a loss in the system under short-circuit conditions). The change in position and tuning results in additional VAR currents (though these currents should be small) and can be estimated if the secondary relative position to the primary can be determined. In addition, the mains current and voltage can be measured so that the actual wattage and VAR can be determined. As described above, these loss measurements can also be performed directly during power transmission using an active communication channel in order to share information between the primary and secondary.

  Therefore, when the VAR current is determined based on the relative position between the primary and secondary structures, it is possible to determine whether there is a foreign object on or near the IPT primary pad using the actual VAR current in the primary structure.

  When a foreign object that can be heated is placed between the primary and secondary pads, the secondary VA is reduced because some of the magnetic flux prevents the foreign object from exciting eddy currents and losses. This reduces the magnetic flux in the secondary pad so that the amount of short-circuit current is reduced. If the foreign material is large enough, this reduction can be detected. In the worst case, the magnetic flux does not couple the secondary at all (for example, when a metal plate is placed between the charging pads). Losses in the foreign body can also be represented by an increase in the amount of current in the H bridge. Under short-circuit current conditions, this current is very small and should be grasped within the effective range if the secondary position, shape and tuning are known. Therefore, further loss due to foreign matter can be detected.

  In one embodiment, the system may operate as broadly shown in FIG.

  In step 200, the system detects when the vehicle has moved to a charging position and a charging cycle has begun. In step 201, the system calculates an expected power transfer rate to the vehicle using one or more of the methods described above.

  Prior to the start of the charging operation, the impeller operates during a time period for removing foreign matter from the pad (step 203). Thereafter, a charging operation is performed at step 204.

  In step 205, the actual power transmission rate is compared with the expected rate. If this rate is as expected (or at least within a small range, eg, equal to the range of error in the expected transmission rate calculation), the system periodically (eg, under a 1:10 duty cycle) The impeller is operated (step 206), and the power transmission rate is continuously monitored in case an abnormality occurs.

  If the power transfer rate is less than expected but within an acceptable range of expected values (such as indicating that a foreign object is on the pad but is small enough to continue to be cooled by the air flow), the The control means may implement a fire mitigation method (step 207). This may include manipulating the impeller to generate air flow and / or reducing power to the transmitter pad. The control means continues to monitor the power transfer rate between the transmitter and receiver pads.

  The fire mitigation method selected can depend on the amount of power calculated when absorbed by a foreign object. For example, because the power loss is relatively small, the impeller may only be used slightly more frequently than if the impeller was used with virtually no power loss. However, if the calculated power loss is close to the maximum allowable value, the power transfer rate can be reduced and the impeller can be operated frequently or continuously. As a result, the charging operation is relatively slow and inefficient, but a situation where the user returns to the vehicle and notices that no charging is performed is avoided.

  If the power transfer rate is less than expected and out of tolerance (such as when a foreign object is on the pad and indicates that it is too large to continue cooling), the controller stops the charging operation (step 208) A warning or alarm may be activated in some form to indicate to the user that this has occurred. This is the most undesirable result, but in some cases, charging may not continue safely even if the impeller is operated continuously at a low charge rate.

  In some embodiments, the system may also provide input from the sensor (s) if an additional sensor (eg, a temperature or infrared sensor) indicates that the foreign object is being heated above an acceptable temperature. Can receive, implement fire mitigation methods, and stop charging completely. This can occur even if the difference between the actual power transfer rate and the expected power transfer rate is within the calculation error range.

  In another embodiment, an infrared camera or sensor can be used to scan the area between the primary and secondary magnetic structures. In some embodiments, multiple cameras or sensors located at various locations or arranged in an array may be required to provide sufficient information. In the example of a vehicle charging system, the camera or sensor can be mounted under the vehicle. When the camera moves with the vehicle, the camera needs to be very rugged in order to withstand the expected conditions such as stones, water and ice. If the camera or sensor is fixed, it needs to be protected from damage from other vehicles, destructive factors and weather.

  A further advantage of the present invention is that pets such as cats may feel uncomfortable with airflow and stop staying on the IPT charging pad. Even during normal use, the pad may be heated somewhat, or it may be an attractive place for the pad to stay alive. Since the IPT charging pad operates between 20 kHz and 30 kHz, it is relatively easy to produce sound at a charging frequency that can be heard (and uncomfortable) by animals such as cats and dogs, but not by humans. It is possible. This is also useful in keeping the pet away from the pad.

  There may be some flexibility in the location of the components of the system. For example, in a preferred embodiment, the impeller and conduit can be installed so that it can be used anywhere the vehicle is charged. However, in some embodiments, these components may be attached to the ground or a floor near the transmitter pad.

  The control means 10 may be attached near the impeller and the conduit. However, in other embodiments, the control means 10 may be separated from these components. In some embodiments, the control means may be associated with the transmitter coil, while in other embodiments the control means may be attached to a vehicle.

  The foreign matter detection method and apparatus described above can be used completely separate from or independent of any device (eg, an air flow system) for removing the detected foreign matter. Similarly, the relative position or alignment methods and apparatus described above can be used in IPT systems in general, without being limited to foreign object detection and pad-based systems.

  Throughout the specification and claims, terms such as “comprising” and “comprising” are in contrast to exclusive or exhaustive meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Should be interpreted in a comprehensive sense, that is, in the sense of "including but not limited to".

  In the foregoing description, references have been made to specific components or complete parts of the invention having known equivalents, which equivalents are hereby incorporated by reference as if individually set forth. Is done.

  Although the present invention has been described by way of example and with reference to possible embodiments thereof, it will be understood that modifications or improvements can be made to the present invention without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. Let's do it.

Claims (79)

  1.   A foreign matter detection device for said IPT system, comprising control means adapted to detect the presence of foreign matter on or near the IPT primary pad of the IPT system.
  2.   The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the control means uses the IPT primary pad and / or the IPT secondary pad for the foreign object detection.
  3.   The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the control means is adapted to detect a time when the IPT secondary pad is in a charging position relative to the IPT primary pad.
  4.   4. An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the control means is adapted to selectively reduce power transmitted by the system upon detection of a foreign object.
  5. The control means is at least
    Determine the expected power transmission rate,
    Determine the actual power transmission rate,
    The system according to claim 1, wherein a foreign object is detected by comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate.
  6.   The system of claim 5, further comprising determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.
  7.   7. A system according to any preceding claim, including means for measuring a relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.
  8.   The system of claim 7, wherein the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and secondary pads.
  9.   9. A system according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure a lateral offset of the primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  10.   9. A system according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.
  11.   The system of claim 7, further comprising means for measuring a distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and secondary pads.
  12.   12. A system according to any preceding claim, comprising communication means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and IPT secondary pad to the control means.
  13. Determining the expected power transmission rate; and
    Determining the actual power transmission rate; and
    Comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate, and operating the IPT system to detect the presence of a foreign object.
  14.   The method of claim 13, further comprising determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.
  15.   15. A method according to claim 13 or 14, comprising measuring a relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.
  16.   The method of claim 15, wherein measuring the relative position comprises measuring electrical properties of the IPT primary and secondary pads.
  17.   The method of claim 15 or 16, wherein measuring the relative position comprises measuring a lateral offset of the IPT primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  18.   The method of claim 15 or 16, wherein measuring the relative position comprises measuring the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.
  19.   16. The method of claim 15, further comprising measuring a distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current at the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.
  20.   20. A method according to any of claims 13 to 19, comprising the step of communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and IPT secondary pad to a control means.
  21.   Whether there is a foreign object on or near the IPT primary pad by determining the VAR current according to the relative position between the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad and measuring the actual VAR current at the IPT primary pad. A foreign matter detection device for an IPT system, comprising control means adapted to determine.
  22.   The apparatus according to claim 21, wherein the control means includes position detection means for detecting the relative positions of the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.
  23.   23. The apparatus of claim 22, wherein the position detection means measures electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads and detects the position of one pad relative to the other.
  24.   The apparatus according to claim 22 or 23, wherein the position detecting means measures a lateral offset of the primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of a short circuit current.
  25.   24. Apparatus according to claim 22 or 23, wherein the position sensing means measures the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.
  26.   26. The apparatus according to any of claims 22 to 25, wherein the position detecting means measures the distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.
  27.   27. Apparatus according to any of claims 21 to 26, comprising means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to the control means.
  28. Determining a VAR current according to a relative position between the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad;
    Measuring the actual VAR current in the IPT primary pad to determine if there is a foreign object on or near the IPT primary pad, and a method of operating the IPT system to detect the presence of the foreign object .
  29.   29. The method of claim 28, comprising measuring a relative position of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad of the system.
  30.   30. The method of claim 29, wherein the step of measuring relative position comprises measuring electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads to detect the position of one pad relative to the other.
  31.   30. A method according to claim 28 or 29, wherein the step of measuring relative position comprises measuring a lateral offset of the primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  32.   30. The method of claim 28 or 29, wherein the step of measuring relative position comprises measuring the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.
  33.   33. A method according to any of claims 29 to 32, further comprising measuring the distance between the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.
  34.   34. A method according to any of claims 28 to 33, comprising communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to a control means.
  35.   The primary and secondary magnetic structures of an IPT system comprising position detection means adapted to measure the electrical properties of the IPT primary and IPT secondary magnetic structures and detect the position of one pad relative to the other A device that detects the relative position between.
  36.   36. The apparatus of claim 35, wherein the position sensing means measures a lateral offset of the primary and secondary structures according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  37.   37. An apparatus according to claim 35 or 36, wherein the position detecting means measures the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced in the IPT secondary structure.
  38.   38. Apparatus according to any of claims 35 to 37, wherein the position detection means measures the distance between the IPT primary and secondary structures by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary structures.
  39.   A method for detecting a relative position between the primary magnetic structure and the secondary magnetic structure of an IPT system, the method comprising measuring electrical characteristics of the IPT primary and secondary magnetic structures and detecting the position of one pad relative to the other .
  40.   40. The method of claim 39, comprising measuring a lateral offset of the primary and secondary structures according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  41.   41. The method of claim 39 or 40, comprising measuring the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced in the IPT secondary structure.
  42.   42. A method according to any of claims 39 to 41, comprising measuring the distance between the IPT primary and secondary structures by comparing the amount of current in the IPT primary and IPT secondary structures.
  43. Control means;
    Air flow means,
    An IPT system in which the control means selectively manipulates the air flow to create an air flow that flows over the surface of the IPT primary pad of the system.
  44.   44. The IPT system of claim 43, wherein the control means operates the air flow means as part of a fire mitigation method.
  45.   45. An IPT system according to claim 43 or 44, wherein the control means is adapted to detect the time when the IPT secondary pad is in a power transfer position relative to the IPT primary pad.
  46.   46. An IPT system according to any of claims 43 to 45, wherein the control means is adapted to selectively reduce the power transmitted by the system as part of a fire mitigation method.
  47.   47. An IPT system according to any of claims 43 to 46, wherein the control means is adapted to detect the presence of foreign matter on or near the IPT primary pad.
  48. The control means is at least
    Determine the expected power transmission rate,
    Determine the actual power transfer rate, and
    The IPT system according to claim 47, wherein a foreign object is detected by comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate.
  49.   49. The IPT system of claim 48, further comprising determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.
  50.   50. An IPT system according to any of claims 43 to 49, comprising means for measuring a relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.
  51.   51. The IPT system of claim 50, wherein the means includes means for measuring electrical properties of the IPT primary and secondary pads and measuring relative positions.
  52.   52. The IPT system of claim 50 or 51, wherein the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure a lateral offset of the primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  53.   52. The IPT system of claim 50 or 51, wherein the means for measuring relative position is adapted to measure the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.
  54.   54. The IPT system of any of claims 50-53, further comprising means for measuring a distance between the IPT primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current at the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.
  55.   55. The IPT system according to any of claims 43 to 54, comprising communication means for communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to the control means.
  56. i) determining the time that the IPT secondary pad is in a charging position relative to the IPT primary pad of the system;
    ii) operating an air flow means for producing an air flow flowing over the surface of the IPT primary pad.
  57.   57. The method of claim 56, comprising operating the air flow means as part of a fire mitigation method.
  58.   58. A method according to claim 56 or 57, comprising the step of operating the air flow means prior to the start of charging.
  59.   59. A method according to any of claims 56 to 58, comprising reducing power transmitted by the system as part of a fire mitigation method.
  60.   60. A method according to any of claims 56 to 59, comprising detecting whether there is a foreign object on or near the IPT system primary pad.
  61. The step of detecting a foreign object is at least:
    Determining the expected power transmission rate; and
    Determining the actual power transmission rate; and
    61. The method of claim 60, comprising comparing the expected power transmission rate with the actual power transmission rate.
  62.   64. The method of claim 61, further comprising determining whether the actual power transmission rate is below the expected power transmission rate by a predetermined amount.
  63.   63. A method according to any of claims 56 to 62, comprising measuring a relative position between the IPT primary pad of the system and the IPT secondary pad of the system.
  64.   64. The method of claim 63, comprising measuring electrical properties of the IPT primary and secondary pads and measuring relative positions.
  65.   65. The method of claim 63 or 64, wherein measuring the relative position comprises measuring a lateral offset of the primary and secondary pads according to the phase and amount of short circuit current.
  66.   65. A method according to claim 63 or 64, wherein measuring the relative position comprises measuring the lateral offset by voltage (s) induced at the IPT secondary pad.
  67.   67. A method according to any of claims 63 to 66, further comprising measuring the distance between the primary and secondary pads by comparing the amount of current at the IPT primary and IPT secondary pads.
  68.   68. A method according to any of claims 56 to 67, comprising communicating information about one or both of the IPT primary pad and the IPT secondary pad to a control means.
  69.   56. A system for reducing the risk of fire from an IPT primary pad comprising the IPT system according to any of claims 43 to 55.
  70.   A method of reducing the risk of fire from an IPT primary pad, comprising the step of creating an air flow on the top surface of the primary pad.
  71.   71. The method of claim 70, comprising generating an air flow that flows over substantially the entire top surface of the primary pad.
  72.   72. A method according to claim 70 or 71, wherein the air flow flows over the top surface of the IPT charging pad under the influence of boundary effects.
  73.   73. The method of claim 72, wherein the boundary effect is a Coanda effect.
  74.   74. A method according to any of claims 70 to 73, wherein the air flow is configured as a substantially wide and thin layer.
  75.   75. A method according to any of claims 70 to 74, comprising flowing the air flow over a surface under the influence of boundary effects before reaching the top surface of the primary pad.
  76.   76. The method of claim 75, further comprising using the charging pad as a boundary effect second surface.
  77.   A foreign matter detection device for an IPT system, comprising infrared detecting means for judging whether a foreign matter on or near an IPT primary pad has a temperature exceeding a predetermined maximum temperature.
  78.   A foreign matter detection apparatus or method substantially as described herein with reference to any embodiment shown in the accompanying drawings.
  79.   An apparatus or method for detecting a relative position between a primary magnetic structure and a secondary magnetic structure of an IPT system, substantially as described herein with reference to any embodiment shown in the accompanying drawings.
JP2018025910A 2018-02-16 2018-02-16 Inductive power transmission system and method Pending JP2018110521A (en)

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Citations (4)

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WO2009041058A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2009-04-02 Panasonic Corporation Electronic device, recharger and recharging system
JP2010239690A (en) * 2009-03-30 2010-10-21 Fujitsu Ltd Wireless power supply system and wireless power supply method
JP2011193671A (en) * 2010-03-16 2011-09-29 Toyota Motor Corp Vehicle
JP2012175793A (en) * 2011-02-21 2012-09-10 Saitama Univ Non-contact power supply device for moving body

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009041058A1 (en) * 2007-09-27 2009-04-02 Panasonic Corporation Electronic device, recharger and recharging system
JP2010239690A (en) * 2009-03-30 2010-10-21 Fujitsu Ltd Wireless power supply system and wireless power supply method
JP2011193671A (en) * 2010-03-16 2011-09-29 Toyota Motor Corp Vehicle
JP2012175793A (en) * 2011-02-21 2012-09-10 Saitama Univ Non-contact power supply device for moving body

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