JP2018043282A - Structural member in which metal component is welded to steel plate and method for manufacturing the same - Google Patents

Structural member in which metal component is welded to steel plate and method for manufacturing the same Download PDF

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JP2018043282A
JP2018043282A JP2016181260A JP2016181260A JP2018043282A JP 2018043282 A JP2018043282 A JP 2018043282A JP 2016181260 A JP2016181260 A JP 2016181260A JP 2016181260 A JP2016181260 A JP 2016181260A JP 2018043282 A JP2018043282 A JP 2018043282A
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steel plate
oxide layer
region
nut
steel sheet
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JP6672116B2 (en
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朋紀 柳川
Tomonori Yanagawa
朋紀 柳川
智伸 三浦
Tomonobu Miura
智伸 三浦
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Toyoda Iron Works Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K11/00Resistance welding; Severing by resistance heating
    • B23K11/16Resistance welding; Severing by resistance heating taking account of the properties of the material to be welded
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K11/00Resistance welding; Severing by resistance heating
    • B23K11/14Projection welding

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  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Resistance Welding (AREA)

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve distribution of electric current passing through projections at the time of projection-welding, and to obtain a good welding result.SOLUTION: A method for manufacturing a structural member in which metal components such as nuts and bolts are welded to a steel plate includes: removing an oxide layer in a first region of a first surface of a steel plate using a steel plate having an oxide layer on a first surface and a second surface and a metal component having projections; bringing the projections of the metal component into contact with a second region of the second surface of the steel plate without removing the oxide layer of the second region of the second surface corresponding to the first region; and backing the metal component and the first region of the first surface of the steel plate with electrodes, respectively, and projection-welding the metal component to the steel plate.SELECTED DRAWING: Figure 7

Description

本発明は金属部品が鋼板に溶接された構造部材とこれを製造する方法に関する。   The present invention relates to a structural member in which a metal part is welded to a steel plate and a method for manufacturing the structural member.

自動車の車体フレームなどの構造体やその補強部材を構成する構造部材には、鋼板にナットやボルトなどの金属製締結部材を一体的に溶接することにより製造されるものがある。締結部材の溶接には通常プロジェクション溶接法が用いられる。プロジェクション溶接法は抵抗溶接法の一種であり、締結部材に突起を設けて鋼板との接点を狭めることにより電流を狭い経路に集中させ、小電流でも効率的に発熱量が得られるものである。   Some structural members constituting a structural body such as a body frame of an automobile and its reinforcing member are manufactured by integrally welding a metal fastening member such as a nut or a bolt to a steel plate. A projection welding method is usually used for welding the fastening member. The projection welding method is a kind of resistance welding method, in which a current is concentrated in a narrow path by providing a projection on a fastening member and narrowing a contact point with a steel plate, and a heat generation amount can be efficiently obtained even with a small current.

一般に素材の溶接性とは、良好に溶接を行うことのできる接合面の能力をいう。したがって、例えば締結部品を溶接したい鋼板の表面に酸化層が存在すると、締結部品に対する鋼板の溶接性が悪くなることがある。特開昭61−189881号公報には、鋼板にボルト用の穴を開けるための穿孔パンチの周囲に目立てパンチを配置することにより、穿孔パンチで鋼板に穴を開けると同時に穴の周囲の黒皮(スケール)と呼ばれる酸化層を除去することができるようにした装置が開示されている。鋼板の酸化層が除去された面にはナットが溶接される。特許5948579号公報には、鋼板表面にナット溶接部位を選定し、溶接前に鋼板表面のナット溶接部位の酸化層やその下のめっき層を除去する方法が開示されている。   In general, the weldability of a material refers to the ability of the joint surface to allow good welding. Therefore, for example, if an oxide layer is present on the surface of the steel sheet to which the fastening part is to be welded, the weldability of the steel sheet to the fastening part may deteriorate. Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 61-188981 discloses that a sharp punch is arranged around a perforation punch for making a hole for a bolt in a steel plate so that a hole is made in the steel plate by the perforation punch and at the same time a black skin around the hole An apparatus capable of removing an oxide layer called (scale) is disclosed. A nut is welded to the surface of the steel plate from which the oxide layer has been removed. Japanese Patent No. 5948579 discloses a method of selecting a nut welded portion on the surface of a steel plate and removing an oxide layer and a plating layer below the nut welded portion on the surface of the steel plate before welding.

特許5948579号公報Japanese Patent No. 5948579 特開昭61−189881号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 61-188981

上記の文献に開示されている技術はいずれもナットを溶接する面の表面状態のみを考慮している。本発明者は、プロジェクション溶接法を用いる場合にはナットを溶接する面とは反対側の表面状態が溶接の結果に大きく影響することを見出した。一般に鋼板の表面の酸化層は均一ではなく、酸化物が一部欠落した箇所も存在する。このような鋼板の表面に電極の表面を当てて溶接するとき、鋼板と電極の接触面を横切って流れる電流は選択的に抵抗の小さい接点を通るため、鋼板内を通る電流の経路にはばらつきが生じる。各突起に対する経路の電気抵抗に偏りがあると、電流が大きすぎたり小さすぎたりした突起では鋼板への溶接が不完全あるいは不良になる可能性がある。本発明の目的はこのようなプロジェクション溶接時の突起を通る電流の分布を改善し良好な溶接結果を得ることにある。   All of the techniques disclosed in the above documents consider only the surface state of the surface on which the nut is welded. The present inventor has found that when the projection welding method is used, the surface state opposite to the surface on which the nut is welded greatly affects the welding result. In general, the oxide layer on the surface of the steel sheet is not uniform, and there is a portion where the oxide is partially lost. When welding with the surface of the electrode against the surface of such a steel plate, the current flowing across the contact surface between the steel plate and the electrode selectively passes through a contact with low resistance, so the current path through the steel plate varies. Occurs. If there is a bias in the electrical resistance of the path with respect to each protrusion, there is a possibility that welding to the steel sheet will be incomplete or defective with protrusions having a current that is too large or too small. An object of the present invention is to improve the current distribution through the projections during projection welding and to obtain a good welding result.

本発明のひとつの態様としての方法は、ナットやボルト等の金属部品が鋼板に溶接された構造部材を製造する方法であって、第一面と第二面に酸化層を有する鋼板と、突起を有する金属部品とを用い、鋼板の第一面の第一領域の酸化層を除去し、この第一領域に対応する第二面の第二領域の酸化層を除去せず、金属部品の突起を鋼板の第二面の第二領域に接触させ、金属部品と鋼板の第一面の第一領域とにそれぞれ電極を当てて金属部品を鋼板にプロジェクション溶接する。   A method as one aspect of the present invention is a method of manufacturing a structural member in which metal parts such as nuts and bolts are welded to a steel plate, the steel plate having an oxide layer on the first surface and the second surface, and a protrusion The metal part having the first surface of the steel plate is removed, and the oxide layer of the second surface of the second surface corresponding to the first region is not removed. Is brought into contact with the second region of the second surface of the steel sheet, and electrodes are applied to the metal part and the first region of the first surface of the steel sheet, respectively, and the metal part is projection welded to the steel sheet.

ひとつの実施例として、金属部品の突起を鋼板の第二面に接触させることによって、この第二面の酸化層が突起の接触した箇所で少なくとも部分的に破壊されるようにする。   As one embodiment, the protrusion of the metal part is brought into contact with the second surface of the steel sheet so that the oxide layer on the second surface is at least partially broken at the position where the protrusion contacts.

ひとつの実施例として、鋼板を熱間プレスにより成形する工程を含め、第一面と第二面の酸化層がこの熱間プレスの際に形成されたものとする。   As one example, it is assumed that an oxide layer on the first surface and the second surface is formed during the hot pressing, including a step of forming a steel sheet by hot pressing.

ひとつの実施例として、第一面の第一領域の酸化層は、グラインダ研磨、ショットブラストを含む機械的方法で局所的に除去してもよい。   As an example, the oxide layer in the first region of the first surface may be locally removed by a mechanical method including grinder polishing and shot blasting.

ひとつの実施例として、鋼板をめっき鋼板とし、酸化層がめっき材料の酸化物を含んだものとする。めっき鋼板は亜鉛あるいは亜鉛系合金の層を含んだ亜鉛めっき鋼板としてもよい。   As one example, the steel plate is a plated steel plate, and the oxide layer includes an oxide of a plating material. The plated steel sheet may be a galvanized steel sheet including a layer of zinc or a zinc-based alloy.

本発明によればプロジェクション溶接時の突起を通る電流の分布を改善し良好な溶接結果を得ることができる。   According to the present invention, it is possible to improve the distribution of current passing through the projections during projection welding and obtain a good welding result.

典型的な突起付きナットの正面断面図。Front sectional drawing of a typical nut with a protrusion. 溶接装置に配置された鋼板とナットの正面断面図。Front sectional drawing of the steel plate and nut which are arrange | positioned at the welding apparatus. 抵抗の小さい接点がナットの軸から遠くに位置し電流経路が長くなった場合を示す図。The figure which shows the case where a contact with small resistance is located far from the axis of the nut and the current path becomes long. 抵抗の小さい接点が突起の直下に存在し電流経路が最も短い場合の電流経路を示す図。The figure which shows a current path | route in case a contact with small resistance exists directly under protrusion, and a current path is the shortest. 抵抗の小さい接点がナットの軸寄りに位置し電流経路が長くなった場合を示す図。The figure which shows the case where a contact with small resistance is located near the axis of the nut and the current path becomes long. 二つの突起をそれぞれ通る電流経路の長さが異なる場合を示す図。The figure which shows the case where the length of the electric current path which each passes along two protrusions differs. 二つの突起をそれぞれ通る電流経路の長さが等しい場合を示す図。The figure which shows the case where the length of the electric current path which each passes along two protrusions is equal. 溶接装置に配置された鋼板とボルトの正面断面図。Front sectional drawing of the steel plate and bolt arrange | positioned at a welding apparatus. 押し込み剥離試験を説明する正面断面図。Front sectional drawing explaining an indentation peeling test. ナットが剥離したときの押し込み荷重をプロットした図。The figure which plotted the indentation load when a nut peeled. 複数の剥離試験をしたときの荷重のばらつきをプロットした図。The figure which plotted the dispersion | variation in the load at the time of performing a several peeling test.

以下、図面を参照しながら本発明の各種実施例について説明する。本願はナットやボルト等の金属部品を鋼板に溶接する方法に関するものである。あるいは金属部品が鋼板に溶接された構造部材とそれを製造する方法に関するものである。構造部材は例えば、自動車の車体など、乗り物のフレームの構成部材とすることができる。自動車車体の場合、本願で開示する方法は例えば、自動車のドアピラーのヒンジリインフォースにドアヒンジを取り付けるためのナット10を溶接するために用いることができる。   Various embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. The present application relates to a method of welding metal parts such as nuts and bolts to a steel plate. Or it is related with the structural member by which the metal component was welded to the steel plate, and the method of manufacturing it. The structural member can be, for example, a structural member of a vehicle frame such as a car body. In the case of an automobile body, the method disclosed herein can be used, for example, to weld a nut 10 for attaching a door hinge to a hinge reinforcement of an automobile door pillar.

《鋼板》
用いる鋼板は何らかの材料で表面を覆っためっき鋼板としてもよい。めっき鋼板は亜鉛めっき鋼板としてもよい。亜鉛めっき鋼板は表面に亜鉛あるいは亜鉛系合金の層が形成されている。亜鉛めっき鋼板は後述する熱間プレスなどにより表面が酸化すると亜鉛酸化物を含む薄い酸化物の層が生じる。一方でめっきを施さない生の鋼板は表面が酸化すると酸化鉄を含む酸化層が生じる。一般に酸化亜鉛は酸化鉄と比較して硬度が小さいため、亜鉛めっき鋼板を用いたほうが熱間プレスの間に鋼板から剥がれ落ちても成形型を傷つけるおそれが少なく有利である。また、酸化亜鉛は酸化鉄よりも電気抵抗が小さいため、亜鉛めっき鋼板を用いたほうが抵抗溶接を行う場合に余計な部分の酸化層を剥がす必要がないという点でも有利である。亜鉛めっき鋼板は、合金化溶融亜鉛めっき鋼板(GA)、非合金化溶融亜鉛めっき鋼板(GI)、電気亜鉛めっき鋼板(EG)など、任意の種類のものを用いても良い。
"steel sheet"
The steel plate used may be a plated steel plate whose surface is covered with some material. The plated steel plate may be a galvanized steel plate. A zinc or zinc alloy layer is formed on the surface of the galvanized steel sheet. When the surface of a galvanized steel sheet is oxidized by hot pressing described later, a thin oxide layer containing zinc oxide is generated. On the other hand, when the surface of a raw steel plate not plated is oxidized, an oxide layer containing iron oxide is generated. In general, since zinc oxide has a lower hardness than iron oxide, the use of a galvanized steel sheet is advantageous because it reduces the risk of damaging the forming die even if it peels off from the steel sheet during hot pressing. In addition, since zinc oxide has a lower electrical resistance than iron oxide, it is advantageous to use a galvanized steel sheet in that it is not necessary to remove an extra oxide layer when performing resistance welding. The galvanized steel sheet may be of any type such as an alloyed hot dip galvanized steel sheet (GA), a non-alloyed hot dip galvanized steel sheet (GI), or an electrogalvanized steel sheet (EG).

《酸化層の形成》
実施例によっては、溶接の前に、鋼板を熱間プレス(ホットスタンプともいう)により目的の構造部材の形状に加工する工程を行う。熱間プレスでは鋼板を通常900度程度かそれ以上の高温にさらして軟化させてから、型の間に挟んで加圧する。したがって、この熱間プレスにより鋼板の表面は周囲の空気と反応して酸化し、酸化層が形成される。熱間プレスは製品の寸法精度や焼き入れ強度の面で冷間プレスよりも有利である。しかしながら、本願で開示する方法は熱間プレス以外の熱処理を施すことによって表面に酸化層が生じた鋼板に対しても適用できる。
<Oxide layer formation>
Depending on the embodiment, a process of processing the steel sheet into the shape of the target structural member by hot pressing (also referred to as hot stamping) is performed before welding. In hot pressing, a steel sheet is usually softened by being exposed to a high temperature of about 900 ° C. or higher, and then pressed between molds. Therefore, the surface of the steel sheet reacts with the surrounding air and is oxidized by this hot pressing, and an oxide layer is formed. Hot pressing is more advantageous than cold pressing in terms of product dimensional accuracy and quenching strength. However, the method disclosed in the present application can also be applied to a steel sheet having an oxide layer formed on the surface by performing a heat treatment other than hot pressing.

《酸化層の除去》
本願で開示する方法では、鋼板の片側の表面の酸化層を少なくとも一部除去する工程を行う。しかし、従来の方法とは異なり、ナット10等の金属部品を溶接するほうの面32(「ナット側」と呼ぶ)とは反対側の面34(「電極側」と呼ぶ)の酸化層42を除去する(図7参照)。(なお図2、8、9では酸化層の図示を省略している。)この電極側の酸化層42はナットを溶接する領域のちょうど反対側の対応する領域にある部分だけを剥がせば十分である。例えば、図7に示すように溶接の際に用いる電極52の接触面56が当たる領域34aの酸化層42を剥がせばよい。あるいは、図示しないが、突起を含めたナットの大きさに対応する領域だけ酸化層を剥がしてもよい。目的によっては片面(電極側)の全体の酸化層を剥がしても良い。一方、第一領域34aの反対側のナット側表面32の対応する第二領域32aの酸化層は除去しないようにする。この第二領域は後に説明するように溶接工程においてナットの突起を接触させる領域となる。
<Removal of oxide layer>
In the method disclosed in the present application, a step of removing at least a portion of the oxide layer on one surface of the steel sheet is performed. However, unlike the conventional method, the oxide layer 42 on the surface 34 (referred to as the “electrode side”) opposite to the surface 32 (referred to as the “nut side”) on which the metal part such as the nut 10 is welded is formed. Remove (see FIG. 7). (Note that the oxide layer is not shown in FIGS. 2, 8, and 9.) It is sufficient that the oxide layer 42 on the electrode side is peeled off only in the corresponding region on the opposite side of the region where the nut is welded. It is. For example, as shown in FIG. 7, the oxide layer 42 in the region 34a where the contact surface 56 of the electrode 52 used for welding hits may be peeled off. Alternatively, although not shown, the oxide layer may be peeled only in a region corresponding to the size of the nut including the protrusion. Depending on the purpose, the entire oxide layer on one side (electrode side) may be peeled off. On the other hand, the corresponding oxide layer in the second region 32a of the nut-side surface 32 opposite to the first region 34a is not removed. As will be described later, this second region is a region where the projection of the nut is brought into contact in the welding process.

酸化層を除去するには、グラインダ研磨、ショットブラスト、ウォーターブラスト(ウェットブラスト)などの機械的方法、レーザー研磨などの物理的方法、酸処理などの化学的方法など、任意の適切な方法を用いることができる。経済性の観点からは、必要な箇所の酸化層だけを局所的に除去できる方法が好ましい。そのような方法の一つが電動グラインダによる機械的研磨である。グラインダに用いる砥粒は、鋼板の表面の酸化層のみを削ることができ母材をなるべく傷つけないような材料や粒度(グレード)のものを選択するのが望ましい。広範囲の酸化層を除去する必要がある場合には、研削材粒子を噴射して鋼板に当てることにより表層を削るショットブラストやウォーターブラストを用いても良い。   To remove the oxide layer, any appropriate method such as a mechanical method such as grinder polishing, shot blasting, water blasting (wet blasting), a physical method such as laser polishing, or a chemical method such as acid treatment is used. be able to. From the viewpoint of economy, a method capable of locally removing only the oxide layer at a required location is preferable. One such method is mechanical polishing with an electric grinder. As the abrasive grains used in the grinder, it is desirable to select a material or a grain size (grade) that can cut only the oxide layer on the surface of the steel sheet and does not damage the base material as much as possible. When it is necessary to remove a wide range of oxide layer, shot blasting or water blasting may be used in which the abrasive particles are sprayed and applied to the steel sheet to scrape the surface layer.

《金属部品と突起》
図1、2、8について、鋼板30に溶接する金属部品は、典型的にはナット10やボルト110などのねじ14、114の付いた金属製の締結具である。そのような締結具は、ひとつの実施例として自動車のピラーやその補強部材にドアを取り付けるドアヒンジを固定するためのナット10とすることができるが、これに限定しない。また、金属部品はねじ式以外の締結具でもよく、さらには締結具の代わりにヒンジや各種ブラケットなど、固定したい金属部品そのものであってもよい。金属部品をナット10やボルト110とする実施例では、溶接前に鋼板にボルト110の軸を通すための穴36を開けておく必要がある。したがってこの場合、上記の酸化層を除去する工程では穴36の周囲の領域の酸化層を除去することとなる。鋼板30の穴36は上述の熱間プレスの際に開けることも可能である。
《Metal parts and protrusions》
1, 2, and 8, the metal part to be welded to the steel plate 30 is typically a metal fastener having screws 14 and 114 such as a nut 10 and a bolt 110. Such a fastener can be a nut 10 for fixing a door hinge for attaching a door to an automobile pillar or its reinforcing member as one embodiment, but is not limited thereto. Further, the metal part may be a fastener other than a screw type, or may be a metal part itself to be fixed such as a hinge or various brackets instead of the fastener. In the embodiment in which the metal part is the nut 10 or the bolt 110, it is necessary to open a hole 36 for passing the shaft of the bolt 110 through the steel plate before welding. Therefore, in this case, in the step of removing the oxide layer, the oxide layer in the region around the hole 36 is removed. The hole 36 of the steel plate 30 can also be opened during the hot pressing described above.

プロジェクション溶接法で鋼板30に溶接する金属部品は点状の複数の突起20、120を有するものである。しかし金属部品は、線状や環状の突起(突条)を少なくとも一本有する金属部品であってもよい(図示せず)。このような突起20、120は、ナット10の一方の端16や側壁18から、あるいはボルトの頭116の一方の面から、少なくとも軸方向に突出したものである。点状の突起20、120や環状の突条は通常ナット10の穴12やボルト110の軸部112を取り囲むように配置される。例えば図示したような一端16の四隅に点状の突起20を備えた四角ナット10や、一端の六つの隅に一つ置きに(計3個の)突起を設けた六角ナットを用いることができる。点状の突起の形状は角張った形状や半球状など、鋼板との接点を狭めることのできる適切な形状であればいかなるものでもよい。鋼板との接点が狭いほど溶接の際に電流がその接点を通る狭い経路に集中して電流密度が高くなるため、小電流でも効率的に発熱量を得ることができる。   A metal part welded to the steel plate 30 by the projection welding method has a plurality of dot-like projections 20 and 120. However, the metal part may be a metal part having at least one linear or annular protrusion (projection) (not shown). The protrusions 20 and 120 protrude at least in the axial direction from one end 16 and the side wall 18 of the nut 10 or from one surface of the bolt head 116. The point-like protrusions 20 and 120 and the annular protrusion are usually arranged so as to surround the hole 12 of the nut 10 and the shaft portion 112 of the bolt 110. For example, a square nut 10 provided with dot-like protrusions 20 at the four corners of one end 16 as shown in the figure, or a hexagon nut having three (three in total) protrusions at the six corners of one end can be used. . The shape of the dot-like protrusion may be any shape as long as it is an appropriate shape that can narrow the contact point with the steel plate, such as an angular shape or a hemispherical shape. The narrower the contact point with the steel plate, the more current is concentrated in the narrow path passing through the contact point during welding, and the current density becomes higher. Therefore, the amount of heat generated can be obtained efficiently even with a small current.

《プロジェクション溶接》
図2、8について、本願で開示する方法はプロジェクション溶接法による鋼板30へのナット10やボルト110などの金属部品の溶接工程を含む。溶接装置は、例えば、上下に電極50、52を備え、それらの間で二つの溶接対象部材を加圧して保持し、両部材の間に電流を流すことができるように構成されたものである。図2はナット10を溶接する場合の装置の例、図8はボルト110を溶接するための装置の例をそれぞれ示している。ナットを溶接するための装置はナットの位置決めピン54を備えている。ナット10の溶接を行うには、まず鋼板30の(電極側)表面の酸化物を除去した第一領域34aに下側の電極52の表面が当たるように鋼板を溶接装置に配置する。次に鋼板の上側に突起付きナット10を配置し、ナット10が突起20の箇所のみで鋼板30の上面(ナット側表面)に接した状態にする。このとき酸化物を除去した第一領域34aの反対側の表面32の対応する第二領域32a内にナット10のすべての突起20が接触するようにする。次に、上側の電極50をナット10の上端面に当て、ナット10に荷重を加えることでナット10の突起20を下の鋼板30に押し当てる。そして上下の電極50、52間に電圧を加え、鋼板とナット10との間に突起を通して電流を流す。鋼板30と突起20は接点の箇所で溶融して凝固し、両者は接合される(図9参照)。なお、鋼板に接触させるための電極52は平坦な接触面56を備えている。
<Projection welding>
2 and 8, the method disclosed in the present application includes a welding process of metal parts such as the nut 10 and the bolt 110 to the steel plate 30 by a projection welding method. For example, the welding apparatus includes electrodes 50 and 52 on the upper and lower sides, pressurizes and holds two members to be welded therebetween, and allows a current to flow between the two members. . FIG. 2 shows an example of an apparatus for welding the nut 10, and FIG. 8 shows an example of an apparatus for welding the bolt 110. The apparatus for welding the nut includes a nut locating pin 54. In order to weld the nut 10, first, the steel plate is placed in the welding apparatus so that the surface of the lower electrode 52 hits the first region 34 a from which the oxide on the (electrode side) surface of the steel plate 30 has been removed. Next, the nut 10 with the protrusion is disposed on the upper side of the steel plate, and the nut 10 is in contact with the upper surface (the nut side surface) of the steel plate 30 only at the position of the protrusion 20. At this time, all the protrusions 20 of the nut 10 are brought into contact with the corresponding second region 32a of the surface 32 opposite to the first region 34a from which the oxide has been removed. Next, the upper electrode 50 is applied to the upper end surface of the nut 10, and a load is applied to the nut 10 to press the projection 20 of the nut 10 against the lower steel plate 30. A voltage is applied between the upper and lower electrodes 50 and 52, and a current is passed between the steel plate and the nut 10 through the protrusion. The steel plate 30 and the protrusion 20 are melted and solidified at the point of contact, and both are joined (see FIG. 9). In addition, the electrode 52 for making it contact with a steel plate is provided with the flat contact surface 56. FIG.

図3〜7について、溶接前に電極側表面34の酸化層42を除去すると複数の突起に対する電流の偏りが生じにくくなると考えられる。一般に鋼板の表面の酸化層は均一ではなく、場所によって厚みが異なったり、めっき層から浮き上がっていたり、微小なうねりがあったりしている(図示せず)。また、表面には様々な要因により酸化層42が一部欠落した箇所も存在する。このような鋼板30の表面34の酸化層42を除去しないまま表面に電極52の接触面56を当てると、層が薄い箇所や酸化物が存在しない箇所ではその他の場所よりも電気抵抗の小さい接点が形成されるため、溶接時の電流は選択的にそのような抵抗の小さい接点を通る経路に沿って流れることとなる。一個の突起から鋼板30を横切って電極52に至る経路の電気抵抗は基本的にその経路の長さに比例すると考えられるため、経路の抵抗は抵抗の小さな接点が偶然ナットの突起20のちょうど反対側の箇所34bにあるときに最も小さくなり(図4)、そのような接点が突起の反対側の箇所34bから遠く離れるにつれて大きくなる(図3、5)。ナット10に複数の突起20がある場合、各突起20を通る経路の抵抗が大体等しければ溶接結果もほぼ均等になると考えられる(図7)。一方で、各突起20に対する電気抵抗に偏りがあると、電流が大きすぎたり小さすぎたりした突起20では鋼板30に対する溶接が不完全あるいは不良になる可能性がある(図6)。このことはナットに環状の突起がある場合の電流の分布に対しても同様であると考えられる。したがって、電極側表面34において酸化物を除去する第一領域34aは、ナットの突起20のちょうど反対側の箇所34bを含む範囲とすれば、すべての突起について突起から鋼板を横切って電極に至る電流の最短経路を確保することができる。前述のとおり、第一領域は例えば図7に示すように電極52の接触面56が当たる領域34aとすればよい。あるいは、第一領域は突起を含めたナットの大きさに対応する領域(図示せず)としてもよい。なお、複数の突起20の全部や環状の突起の全周にわたって均等な電流分布を得るには鋼板30の電極側表面34の酸化層42を完全に除去できることが望ましいが、当業者には明らかなように、酸化層42は必ずしも完全に除去できなくてもよい。   3 to 7, it is considered that when the oxide layer 42 on the electrode-side surface 34 is removed before welding, current bias is less likely to occur with respect to the plurality of protrusions. In general, the oxide layer on the surface of the steel sheet is not uniform, the thickness varies depending on the location, the surface is lifted from the plating layer, or there is a slight undulation (not shown). In addition, there is a portion on the surface where the oxide layer 42 is partially missing due to various factors. When the contact surface 56 of the electrode 52 is applied to the surface without removing the oxide layer 42 on the surface 34 of the steel plate 30, the contact point having a lower electrical resistance than the other part in the part where the layer is thin or where the oxide is not present. Therefore, the current during welding selectively flows along a path through such a low-resistance contact. Since the electrical resistance of the path from one protrusion to the electrode 52 across the steel plate 30 is considered to be basically proportional to the length of the path, the resistance of the path is the opposite of the protrusion 20 of the nut by chance. It is smallest when in the side location 34b (FIG. 4) and increases as such a contact is further away from the location 34b on the opposite side of the projection (FIGS. 3 and 5). When there are a plurality of protrusions 20 on the nut 10, it is considered that the welding results are substantially equal if the resistance of the path through each protrusion 20 is approximately equal (FIG. 7). On the other hand, if the electric resistance with respect to each protrusion 20 is biased, the protrusion 20 having a current that is too large or too small may cause incomplete or defective welding to the steel plate 30 (FIG. 6). This is considered to be the same for the current distribution when the nut has an annular protrusion. Therefore, if the first region 34a for removing oxide on the electrode-side surface 34 includes a portion 34b on the opposite side of the protrusion 20 of the nut, the current from the protrusion across the steel plate to the electrode for all protrusions The shortest path can be secured. As described above, the first region may be a region 34a where the contact surface 56 of the electrode 52 hits as shown in FIG. Alternatively, the first region may be a region (not shown) corresponding to the size of the nut including the protrusion. It is desirable that the oxide layer 42 on the electrode side surface 34 of the steel plate 30 can be completely removed in order to obtain an even current distribution over the entire circumference of the plurality of projections 20 and the entire circumference of the annular projections, but it will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Thus, the oxide layer 42 may not necessarily be completely removed.

《押し込み剥離試験》
図9、10について、板厚1.4mmの亜鉛めっき鋼板と呼び径M8(JIS)の四角ナットとを用いて試験部材を作製し、ナットの溶接強度を試験した。鋼板はいずれも一定の時間をかけて熱間プレスした。熱間プレス後、鋼板は(A)そのままのもの、(B)ナット側表面の酸化層を一部剥がしたもの、(C)電極側表面の酸化層を一部剥がしたもの、(D)両面の酸化層を一部剥がしたものの四種類を用意した。酸化層の剥がしは3M社のロロックメタコンディスク、酸化アルミニウム砥粒、グレードVF(#320相当)を用いて行った。ナット10は図1に示したような四隅にそれぞれ(点状の)突起20を有するものである。図2に示すように一定の荷重を掛けながらナット10の突起20を鋼板に押し当て、様々な電流で一定の時間をかけてナット10を鋼板30に溶接し、複数の試験部材を得た。この各試験部材に対し、図9に示すようにナット側表面を下に向けて鋼板30をスペーサー92で支持し、ナット10の反対側から試験用ボルト90をねじ込み、ボルト90の頭に荷重を徐々に増やしながら付与した。なお、この試験はJIS B1196規格に定められた「押込み剥離試験方法」に準拠している。図10は(A)〜(D)の各グループについて、いくつかの電流値に対してナットが鋼板から剥離したときの負荷荷重をプロットしたものである。
《Indentation peel test》
9 and 10, test members were prepared using a galvanized steel sheet having a thickness of 1.4 mm and a square nut having a nominal diameter M8 (JIS), and the welding strength of the nut was tested. All the steel plates were hot pressed over a certain period of time. After hot pressing, the steel sheet is (A) as it is, (B) a part of the oxide layer on the nut side surface is peeled off, (C) a part of the oxide layer on the electrode side surface is peeled off, (D) both sides Four types were prepared by partially removing the oxide layer. Peeling of the oxide layer was performed using 3M Company's Loroc Metacon disc, aluminum oxide abrasive grains, grade VF (equivalent to # 320). The nut 10 has projections 20 (dots) at the four corners as shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 2, the protrusion 20 of the nut 10 was pressed against the steel sheet while applying a constant load, and the nut 10 was welded to the steel sheet 30 with various currents over a certain period of time to obtain a plurality of test members. As shown in FIG. 9, the steel plate 30 is supported by the spacer 92 with the nut-side surface facing downward, and a test bolt 90 is screwed in from the opposite side of the nut 10 to each test member, and a load is applied to the head of the bolt 90. Granted while gradually increasing. This test complies with the “indentation peeling test method” defined in the JIS B1196 standard. FIG. 10 is a plot of the load applied when the nut peels from the steel plate for several current values for each group of (A) to (D).

良品範囲の条件は鋼板に対するナットの溶接強度とナットのねじ山の品質との両方を考慮して設定する必要がある。ナットの溶接強度は基本的に電流が大きいほど強くなる傾向にある。突起を流れる電流が小さすぎると溶け込み量が不足し接合強度は落ちる。呼び径M8の四角ナットは、3430Nの荷重でも剥離しないことが要求される。一方で、電流が大きすぎるとナットの突起から材料の一部がスパッタと呼ばれる溶融した塊となって飛散するようになる。このスパッタがナットの穴のねじに付着して固まると、組み付け時にボルトをナットにねじ込むことができなくなる。   The conditions for the non-defective range must be set in consideration of both the weld strength of the nut to the steel plate and the quality of the thread of the nut. Nut welding strength basically tends to increase as the current increases. If the current flowing through the protrusion is too small, the amount of penetration will be insufficient and the bonding strength will decrease. The square nut with a nominal diameter of M8 is required not to be peeled even with a load of 3430N. On the other hand, if the current is too large, a part of the material is scattered from the protrusion of the nut as a molten lump called spatter. If this spatter adheres to the screw in the nut hole and hardens, the bolt cannot be screwed into the nut during assembly.

図10の結果からわかるように、規格の溶接強度を満たすために必要な電流の下限電流Iは、片側の酸化層のみを剥がした鋼板を用いた場合(B)(C)では少し上昇しており、両面を剥がした鋼板の場合(D)はさらに高くなっている。一方で、スパッタによるボルトねじ込みへの影響が生じない電流の上限電流Iは、特に電極側の酸化層を剥がした場合(C)(D)で高くなり、13kAに達している。結果的に、良品を生む電流範囲ΔIは電極側の酸化層のみを剥がした場合(C)に3.5kAと最も広くなっており、これは全く剥がさない場合(A)の1.5kAの2倍以上である。この電流範囲ΔIが広いと、様々な原因で溶接条件がばらついても所望の接合強度とねじ山の品質をもったナット付き構造部材を安定的に得ることができる。 As can be seen from the results of FIG. 10, the lower limit current I 1 of the current required to satisfy the standard welding strength is slightly increased in the case of using the steel plate from which only one side of the oxide layer is peeled (B) and (C). In the case of the steel plate with both sides peeled off, (D) is even higher. On the other hand, the upper limit current I 2 of the current which does not cause the effect of the bolt screwed by sputtering is higher especially in case of peeling off the oxide layer of the electrode side (C) (D), it has reached 13 kA. As a result, the current range ΔI for producing a non-defective product is the widest at 3.5 kA when only the oxide layer on the electrode side is peeled off (C), which is 1.5 kA of 2 at the time of not peeling off at all (A). It is more than double. When the current range ΔI is wide, a nut-equipped structural member having a desired joint strength and thread quality can be stably obtained even if welding conditions vary for various reasons.

顕微鏡を用いた観察により、ナット側の酸化層40を剥がしていない鋼板を用いた場合(A)(C)でも、ナット10の突起を鋼板30の表面32に押し当てることによって、突起20が接触した部位の酸化層40が圧力で部分的に破壊される(削れる、あるいは砕ける)ことがわかった。図3〜7ではナット側のそのような表面状態を誇張して表現している。一方で、ナット側表面32の酸化層40のみを剥がした鋼板の場合(B)に良品範囲の下限電流Iがかなり高くなったのは、酸化層40がないことによりナット10との接点において溶接に必要な電気抵抗が得られなかったためであると考えられる。したがってナット側表面32は電極側表面34とは異なり溶接前に積極的に酸化層40を除去する必要はない。溶接時にナット10の突起20から受けた荷重によって酸化層40が部分的に砕ければ十分に必要な導通を得ることができ、溶接前に敢えて酸化層40を除去するとかえって溶接結果が悪くなりうる。しかし、当業者にとっては当然のことながら、鋼板の一方の面のある箇所と他方の面の別の箇所にそれぞれ本願で開示する方法を用いてナット等の金属部品を溶接したい場合や、ナット側表面においてこの方法とは関係のない目的でナットから離れた特定の箇所の酸化層を除去すべき場合などには、必要な箇所の酸化層を除去することもできる。このことを考慮すると、本発明のひとつの特徴は、電極側表面34の酸化層を除去した第一領域に対応する位置にあるナット側表面32の第二領域の酸化層は積極的には除去しないようにすることにあると言える。例えば、図7に示すように電極52の接触面56が当たる領域の酸化層42を剥がした場合は、それに対応するナット側表面32の領域の酸化層は除去しない。 Even when using a steel plate from which the nut-side oxide layer 40 is not peeled off by observation with a microscope (A) and (C), the projection 20 contacts the surface 32 of the steel plate 30 by pressing the projection of the nut 10 against the surface 32. It was found that the oxidized layer 40 at the part was partially destroyed (scraped or crushed) by pressure. 3 to 7, such a surface state on the nut side is exaggerated. On the other hand, the lower limit current I 1 of the case (B) to the non-defective range of the steel sheet was peeled only oxide layer 40 of the nut side surface 32 becomes considerably high, in contact with the nut 10 by the absence of oxide layer 40 This is probably because the electrical resistance necessary for welding was not obtained. Therefore, unlike the electrode side surface 34, the nut side surface 32 does not need to positively remove the oxide layer 40 before welding. If the oxide layer 40 is partially crushed by the load received from the protrusion 20 of the nut 10 during welding, sufficient conduction can be obtained. If the oxide layer 40 is intentionally removed before welding, the welding result may be worsened. . However, as a matter of course for those skilled in the art, if it is desired to weld a metal part such as a nut to a place on one side of the steel sheet and another place on the other side using the method disclosed in this application, When the oxide layer at a specific location away from the nut is to be removed on the surface for purposes unrelated to this method, the oxide layer at a required location can be removed. Considering this, one feature of the present invention is that the oxide layer in the second region of the nut-side surface 32 at a position corresponding to the first region from which the oxide layer on the electrode-side surface 34 is removed is positively removed. It can be said that it is to avoid. For example, as shown in FIG. 7, when the oxide layer 42 in the region where the contact surface 56 of the electrode 52 contacts is peeled off, the corresponding oxide layer in the region of the nut side surface 32 is not removed.

図11について、良品範囲のばらつきは工程能力指数で評価することができる。工程能力指数とは規格範囲内の製品を作ることのできる工程能力を示す尺度であり、特定の測定値の統計データと規格の限界値(上限値と下限値の一方または両方)から求められる。一般的な目的では工程能力指数が1.33以上あるのが望ましいとされる。   As for FIG. 11, the variation in the non-defective product range can be evaluated by the process capability index. The process capability index is a scale indicating a process capability capable of producing a product within a specification range, and is obtained from statistical data of a specific measurement value and a limit value (one or both of an upper limit value and a lower limit value) of the standard. For general purposes, a process capability index of 1.33 or higher is desirable.

上記の表面状態の異なる四種類の鋼板それぞれについて、良品範囲を代表する一定の電流値で(他の条件は上の試験と同様にして)ナットを溶接し、複数(40個)の試験部材を作製した。これらの各試験部材に対し、押し込み剥離試験を行った。図11は四種類のグループごとにナットが剥離したときの負荷荷重のばらつきをプロットしている。図11の結果からわかるように、少なくとも電極側の酸化層を剥がした場合(C)(D)は工程能力が基準を満たすが、鋼板のナット側表面の酸化層のみを剥がした場合(B)は基準を満たしていない。   For each of the four types of steel sheets having different surface conditions, a nut is welded at a constant current value representative of the non-defective range (other conditions are the same as in the above test), and a plurality of (40) test members are attached. Produced. An indentation peel test was conducted on each of these test members. FIG. 11 plots the variation in load when the nut peels for each of the four types of groups. As can be seen from the results of FIG. 11, when the oxide layer on the electrode side is peeled at least (C) and (D), the process capability meets the criteria, but only the oxide layer on the nut side surface of the steel sheet is peeled off (B) Does not meet the criteria.

以上、様々な具体的な実施例を説明したが、本発明はそれらの実施例に限定されるものではなく、当業者は想定しうる様々な変形、置換、改変をすることが可能である。   Although various specific embodiments have been described above, the present invention is not limited to these embodiments, and various modifications, substitutions, and modifications that can be assumed by those skilled in the art are possible.

10 ナット
20 突起
30 鋼板
32 鋼板のナット側表面
34 鋼板の電極側表面
40 ナット側の酸化層
42 電極側の酸化層
50、52 溶接装置の電極
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Nut 20 Protrusion 30 Steel plate 32 Nut side surface 34 of steel plate Electrode side surface 40 of steel plate Oxide layer 42 on nut side Oxide layer 50, 52 on electrode side Electrode of welding apparatus

Claims (9)

ナットやボルト等の金属部品が鋼板に溶接された構造部材を製造する方法であって、
第一面と第二面に酸化層を有する鋼板と、突起を有する金属部品とを用い、
鋼板の第一面の第一領域の酸化層を除去し、この第一領域に対応する第二面の第二領域の酸化層を除去せず、
金属部品の突起を鋼板の第二面の第二領域に接触させ、金属部品と鋼板の第一面の第一領域とにそれぞれ電極を当てて金属部品を鋼板にプロジェクション溶接する、方法。
A method of manufacturing a structural member in which metal parts such as nuts and bolts are welded to a steel plate,
Using a steel plate having an oxide layer on the first surface and the second surface, and a metal part having a protrusion,
Remove the oxide layer of the first region of the first surface of the steel plate, without removing the oxide layer of the second region of the second surface corresponding to the first region,
A method in which a projection of a metal part is brought into contact with a second region of the second surface of the steel sheet, and electrodes are applied to the metal part and the first region of the first surface of the steel sheet, respectively, and the metal part is projection welded to the steel sheet.
請求項1の方法であって、金属部品の突起を鋼板の第二面に接触させることによって、この第二面の酸化層が突起の接触した箇所で少なくとも部分的に破壊されるようにする方法。   The method according to claim 1, wherein the protrusion of the metal part is brought into contact with the second surface of the steel plate so that the oxide layer of the second surface is at least partially broken at the contact point of the protrusion. . 請求項1または2の方法であって、鋼板を熱間プレスにより成形する工程を含んでおり、第一面と第二面の酸化層がこの熱間プレスの際に形成されたものである方法。   The method according to claim 1 or 2, comprising a step of forming a steel sheet by hot pressing, wherein the oxide layers on the first surface and the second surface are formed during the hot pressing. . 請求項1から3のいずれかの方法であって、第一面の第一領域の酸化層が、グラインダ研磨、ショットブラストを含む機械的方法で局所的に除去される方法。   4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the oxide layer in the first region of the first surface is locally removed by a mechanical method including grinder polishing and shot blasting. 請求項1から4のいずれかの方法であって、鋼板がめっき鋼板であって、酸化層がめっき材料の酸化物を含んだものである方法。   5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the steel plate is a plated steel plate, and the oxide layer contains an oxide of a plating material. 請求項5の方法であって、めっき鋼板が亜鉛あるいは亜鉛系合金の層を含んだ亜鉛めっき鋼板である方法。   6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the plated steel sheet is a galvanized steel sheet including a layer of zinc or a zinc-based alloy. ナットやボルト等の金属部品が鋼板に溶接された構造部材であって、
鋼板の第一面と第二面に酸化層があり、金属部品に突起があって、
鋼板の第一面の第一領域の酸化層が除去されている一方で、この第一領域に対応する第二面の第二領域の酸化層が除去されておらず、
金属部品の突起が鋼板の第二面の第二領域に接触した状態で、金属部品が鋼板にプロジェクション溶接されている、構造部材。
A structural member in which metal parts such as nuts and bolts are welded to a steel plate,
There are oxide layers on the first and second surfaces of the steel sheet, and metal parts have protrusions,
While the oxide layer of the first region of the first surface of the steel sheet has been removed, the oxide layer of the second region of the second surface corresponding to the first region has not been removed,
A structural member in which the metal part is projection welded to the steel sheet in a state where the protrusion of the metal part is in contact with the second region of the second surface of the steel sheet.
請求項7の構造部材であって、鋼板がめっき鋼板であって、酸化層がめっき材料の酸化物を含んだものである構造部材。   The structural member according to claim 7, wherein the steel plate is a plated steel plate, and the oxide layer includes an oxide of a plating material. 請求項8の構造部材であって、めっき鋼板が亜鉛あるいは亜鉛系合金の層を含んだ亜鉛めっき鋼板である構造部材。   The structural member according to claim 8, wherein the plated steel plate is a galvanized steel plate including a layer of zinc or a zinc-based alloy.
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CN110714964B (en) * 2019-10-28 2021-06-11 吉利汽车研究院(宁波)有限公司 Connection structure of projection welding bolt

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