JP2017512900A - How to fuse workpieces - Google Patents

How to fuse workpieces Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP2017512900A
JP2017512900A JP2016557110A JP2016557110A JP2017512900A JP 2017512900 A JP2017512900 A JP 2017512900A JP 2016557110 A JP2016557110 A JP 2016557110A JP 2016557110 A JP2016557110 A JP 2016557110A JP 2017512900 A JP2017512900 A JP 2017512900A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
high energy
energy beam
direction
workpiece
deflection
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2016557110A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
ヨハン バックルンド
ヨハン バックルンド
トマス ロック
トマス ロック
Original Assignee
ア−カム アーベー
ア−カム アーベー
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201461974304P priority Critical
Priority to US61/974,304 priority
Priority to US14/636,607 priority patent/US20150283613A1/en
Priority to US14/636,607 priority
Application filed by ア−カム アーベー, ア−カム アーベー filed Critical ア−カム アーベー
Priority to PCT/EP2015/054626 priority patent/WO2015150014A1/en
Publication of JP2017512900A publication Critical patent/JP2017512900A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0013Positioning or observing workpieces, e.g. with respect to the impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing electronbeams
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0046Welding
    • B23K15/0086Welding welding for purposes other than joining, e.g. built-up welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/02Control circuits therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/064Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by means of optical elements, e.g. lenses, mirrors or prisms
    • B23K26/0643Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by means of optical elements, e.g. lenses, mirrors or prisms comprising mirrors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/064Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by means of optical elements, e.g. lenses, mirrors or prisms
    • B23K26/0648Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by means of optical elements, e.g. lenses, mirrors or prisms comprising lenses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/073Shaping the laser spot
    • B23K26/0732Shaping the laser spot into a rectangular shape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/073Shaping the laser spot
    • B23K26/0736Shaping the laser spot into an oval shape, e.g. elliptic shape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/073Shaping the laser spot
    • B23K26/0738Shaping the laser spot into a linear shape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/34Laser welding for purposes other than joining
    • B23K26/342Build-up welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/70Auxiliary operations or equipment
    • B23K26/702Auxiliary equipment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B1/00Producing shaped prefabricated articles from the material
    • B28B1/001Rapid manufacturing of 3D objects by additive depositing, agglomerating or laminating of material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B17/00Details of, or accessories for, apparatus for shaping the material; Auxiliary measures taken in connection with such shaping
    • B28B17/0063Control arrangements
    • B28B17/0081Process control
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/141Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials
    • B29C64/153Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials using layers of powder being selectively joined, e.g. by selective laser sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/30Auxiliary operations or equipment
    • B29C64/386Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y50/00Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing
    • B33Y50/02Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing for controlling or regulating additive manufacturing processes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/09Beam shaping, e.g. changing the cross-sectional area, not otherwise provided for
    • G02B27/0911Anamorphotic systems
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • B22F2003/1057Apparatus components, details or accessories for control or data processing, e.g. algorithms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2105/00Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped
    • B29K2105/25Solid
    • B29K2105/251Particles, powder or granules
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency by increasing the energy efficiency of the process
    • Y02P10/29Additive manufacturing
    • Y02P10/295Additive manufacturing of metals

Abstract

Various embodiments of the present invention are methods for welding a workpiece (660), wherein a first weld is created at a first location on a workpiece by a high energy beam (605); Deflecting the beam with at least one deflecting lens (640) to create a second weld at a second location on the workpiece; and at least one focusing lens (630) with the high energy beam on the workpiece. And focusing the high energy beam on the workpiece with at least one astigmatism lens (620) so that the shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam, And shaping so as to be longer than the direction perpendicular to the direction of deflection of the high energy beam. On. The invention also relates to the use of an astigmatism lens and a method of forming a three-dimensional article. [Selection] Figure 6

Description

  Various embodiments of the present invention relate to methods of welding workpieces and methods of forming three-dimensional articles.

  Free-form fabrication or additive manufacturing (additional manufacturing technology) is a method of forming a three-dimensional article by continuous fusion of selected portions of a powder layer applied to a work table. A method and apparatus according to this technique is disclosed in Patent Document 1.

  Such an apparatus comprises: a worktable on which a three-dimensional article is formed; a powder dispenser arranged to deposit a thin layer of powder on the worktable to form a powder bed; A light gun for supplying energy to cause powder fusion, and an element for controlling the light emitted from the light gun over the entire powder bed for forming a cross section of a three-dimensional article by fusing parts of the powder bed. And a control computer in which information about a continuous cross section of the three-dimensional article is stored. Three-dimensional articles are formed by continuous fusion of continuously formed cross-sections of powder layers that are successively deposited by a powder dispenser.

  There is always a need to reduce or minimize the time for fusing powder materials in additive manufacturing or when welding pieces. One way to increase efficiency and speed in welding in AM or in general is to increase the energy beam power while simultaneously increasing the energy beam deflection speed. Thereby, the power applied per unit surface area is kept constant but can be distributed more quickly over the surfaces to be fused or welded. However, this only works until a predetermined output and deflection speed of the energy beam is reached. If the power is increased beyond a predetermined value, the deflection rate will be too high, so that the heat from the energy beam will not have enough time to penetrate the material to be fused or welded. If the output becomes too high, and thus the deflection speed of the energy beam becomes too fast, the surface temperature becomes too high and the material to be fused or welded will instead evaporate.

  There is a need in the art to exceed predetermined power and deflection rates in welding without evaporating the material to be fused or welded.

US Patent Application Publication No. 2009/0152771

  With this background, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method of welding or additive manufacturing with improved efficiency. The above objective is accomplished by the features according to the claims contained herein.

  Various embodiments provide a method of welding workpieces. The method includes creating a first weld with a high energy beam at a first location on the workpiece and generating a high energy beam at a second location on the workpiece with at least one deflection lens. Deflecting to create two welds, focusing the high energy beam on the workpiece by at least one focusing lens, and the shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is the shape of the high energy beam. Shaping the high energy beam on the workpiece with at least one astigmatism lens such that the high energy beam is longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam; And in the parallel direction and the perpendicular direction of the high-energy beam The ratio of the kicking length varies as a function of the output of said high energy beam on the workpiece.

  The advantage of the present invention is that the beam power can be increased significantly or very greatly as the astigmatism and scanning speed are increased while the powder is fused to a sufficient depth while preventing evaporation due to excessive temperatures. Or the pieces can be welded. This can also result in a reduction in build time. Another advantage of the present invention is that the fusion accuracy or melt width perpendicular to the scan direction can be kept constant regardless of the beam power and scan speed used.

  In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the high energy beam is a laser beam or an electron beam. At least a non-limiting advantage of this embodiment is that the present invention does not depend on the energy beam source used.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction may also be a function of the position of the high energy beam on the workpiece. Can be changed. At least a non-limiting advantage of this embodiment is that the beam spot stretching can be made not only beam power dependent but also dependent on the pattern to be fused.

  According to another aspect of the present invention, an astigmatism lens in additive manufacturing for forming a three-dimensional article by continuous fusion of at least one layer of a powder bed provided on a worktable with a high energy beam. Usage is provided, wherein the portion corresponds to a continuous cross section of a three-dimensional article, and the astigmatism lens is configured to cause the size of the high energy beam on the layer of the powder bed to be Can be used to be longer than in the direction perpendicular to the deflection direction, and the ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction to the direction perpendicular to the direction of the output of the high energy beam on the workpiece. It changes as a function.

  At least a non-limiting advantage of this embodiment is that the use of an astigmatism lens makes its original shape because the beam spot shape is distorted between the energy beam source and the target surface introduced into the lens system. It can be expanded from normal usage, which is modified to return to. According to the present invention, the astigmatism lens system can be an actual lens system in the case of a laser beam and an electric coil system in the case of an electron beam, and the beam size can be adjusted in a direction parallel to the deflection direction. The beam can be shaped to be stretched and used in a direction parallel to the scanning direction to give a longer beam shape compared to a direction perpendicular to the scanning direction. The extent of the stretching varies at least as a function of the energy beam output.

  In yet another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of forming a three-dimensional article by sequentially depositing individual layers of powder material that fuse to form a three-dimensional article, said method comprising: Providing at least one high energy beam source for emitting a high energy beam for at least one of heating or fusing the powder material, and deflecting the high energy beam over the powder material Providing a deflection source for providing a focusing lens for focusing the high energy beam on the powder material; and a shape of the high energy beam on the powder layer is the high energy beam. In a direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high-energy beam so as to be longer than a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. Shaping a high energy beam on the powder layer using at least one astigmatism lens, wherein the ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel and perpendicular directions is , Varying as a function of the power of the high energy beam on the workpiece.

  A non-limiting advantage of the various embodiments of the present invention is that the output can be increased significantly or very significantly, the larger the output, the greater the astigmatism and the faster the scanning speed. This also results in reduced build time for the additively manufactured part. Another advantage of the present invention is that the fusion accuracy or melt width perpendicular to the scan direction can be kept constant regardless of the power used and the scan speed, which is additively produced by the present invention. It also means that accuracy is not affected when shortening the construction time of the part.

  In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the high energy beam is a laser beam or an electron beam. At least a non-limiting advantage of this embodiment is that it does not depend on the energy beam source used by the present invention.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel and vertical directions is also a function of the position of the high energy beam on the workpiece. Also changes. At least a non-limiting advantage of this embodiment is that the stretching of the beam spot not only depends on the beam output, but also on the fused pattern.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the average spot size in the direction perpendicular to the scanning direction on the workpiece for the entire scan length, the entire cross-section and / or the entire three-dimensional article is the workpiece. It is smaller than the average spot size in the direction parallel to the upper scanning direction. At least a non-limiting advantage of this embodiment is to select for which part of the structure the average spot size in the direction parallel to the scanning direction is longer than the average spot size in the direction perpendicular to the scanning direction. Be able to.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, any of the described methods can be implemented at least in part through the execution of one or more computer processors.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus is provided for forming a three-dimensional article by successively depositing individual layers of powder material that fuse to form a three-dimensional article. Is done. The apparatus includes at least one high energy beam source for emitting a high energy beam for at least one of heating or fusing the powder material, and a high energy beam on the powder material. A deflection source for deflecting; a focusing lens for focusing the high energy beam on the powder material; at least one astigmatism lens; and a high energy beam on the powder layer on the powder layer. The at least one non-energy beam is shaped so that the shape of the high energy beam is longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. At least one controller configured to control a point aberration lens, the high energy The direction parallel to the ratio of the length of said perpendicular direction of the beam changes as a function of the output of said high energy beam on the workpiece.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, an apparatus for welding workpieces is provided. The apparatus includes, in certain embodiments, a high energy beam configured to create a first weld at a first location on the workpiece, and a high energy beam at a second location on the workpiece. At least one deflecting lens configured to deflect the high energy beam so as to make a second weld, and at least one focusing lens configured to focus the high energy beam onto the workpiece. And at least one astigmatism lens and the high energy beam on the workpiece, the at least one astigmatism lens causes the shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece to be deflected in the high energy beam. Longer than in the direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. At least one controller configured to shape, wherein a ratio of lengths of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction is a ratio of the output of the high energy beam on the workpiece. And at least one controller that varies as a function.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a computer program product for forming a three-dimensional article by sequentially depositing individual layers of powder material that fuse to form the article. The The computer program product comprises at least one non-transitory computer readable storage medium having computer readable program code portions stored therein. The computer-readable program code portion is configured to provide at least one high energy beam source for emitting a high energy beam for at least one of heating or melting the powder material. A feasible part, a workable part configured to provide a deflection source for deflecting a high energy beam onto the powder material, and a focusing lens for focusing the high energy beam onto the powder material A viable portion configured to provide a high energy beam on the powder layer and at least one astigmatism lens so that the shape of the high energy beam on the powder layer is In a direction parallel to the deflection direction, the high energy beam is perpendicular to the deflection direction. A feasible portion configured to shape the length of the high energy beam so that the ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction to the vertical direction is the high energy on the workpiece. It varies as a function of the beam output.

  In yet another exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a computer program product for welding workpieces is provided. The computer program product comprises at least one non-transitory computer readable storage medium having computer readable program code portions stored therein. The computer readable program code portion includes an executable portion configured to produce a first weld with a high energy beam at a first location on the workpiece, and deflecting the high energy beam with at least one deflecting lens. A feasible portion configured to make a second weld at a second position on the workpiece, and configured to focus a high energy beam on the workpiece by at least one focusing lens. The viable portion and the high energy beam on the workpiece by at least one astigmatism lens so that the shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam, Longer than in the direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam A feasible portion configured to shape, wherein a ratio of the lengths of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the perpendicular direction is a ratio of the output of the high energy beam on the workpiece. It changes as a function.

  Having described the invention in general terms, reference is now made to the accompanying drawings, which are not necessarily drawn to scale.

2 shows a schematic graph of beam output as a function of scan speed. Figure 2 shows a top view of the additive manufacturing process and an enlarged view of the beam spot structure. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a freeform fabrication or additive manufacturing apparatus that can implement the method of the present invention. 1 shows a beam spot structure according to the prior art. 1 shows an exemplary embodiment of a beam spot structure according to the present invention. 1 shows one of three different beam spot structures for different beam outputs. 1 shows one of three different beam spot structures for different beam outputs. 1 shows one of three different beam spot structures for different beam outputs. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment for achieving an appropriate beam spot shape in a laser beam based system. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment for achieving an appropriate beam spot shape in an electron beam based system. 1 shows a schematic flowchart of a method according to the invention. FIG. 12 is a block diagram of an example system 1020 in accordance with various embodiments. 2 is a schematic block diagram of a server 1200 according to various embodiments. FIG. FIG. 12 is a schematic block diagram of an exemplary mobile device 1300 in accordance with various embodiments.

  Various embodiments of the invention will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which some, but not all, of the invention are shown. Indeed, embodiments of the invention may be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will satisfy applicable legal requirements. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly known and understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. The term “or” is used herein to mean both alternative and connected unless specifically stated otherwise. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout.

  To further facilitate the understanding of the present invention, a number of terms are defined below. Terms defined herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the areas relevant to the present invention. Terms such as “a”, “an”, and “the” are not intended to refer to only a single entity, but specific examples may be used for illustration. Includes general classes. Although terminology is used herein to describe particular embodiments of the invention, their use is not intended to limit the invention except as described in the claims. Absent.

  As used herein, the terms “three-dimensional structure” and the like refer to a three-dimensional structure of interest (eg, a structural material or a plurality) intended to be used for a particular purpose. Of structural materials). Such a structure can be designed using, for example, a three-dimensional CAD system.

  The term “electron beam” as used herein refers to any charged particle beam in various embodiments. Examples of the charged particle beam source include an electron gun and a linear accelerator.

  FIG. 3 shows a freeform fabrication or additive manufacturing apparatus 300 that can implement the method of the present invention. The apparatus 300 includes an electron gun 302, two powder hoppers 306 and 307, a start plate 316, a build tank 312, a powder distributor 310, a build platform 314, a beam management optical system 305, and a vacuum chamber 320.

  The vacuum chamber 320 can maintain a vacuum environment using a vacuum system, which can include a turbomolecular pump, a scroll pump, an ion pump, and one or more valves, which are known to those skilled in the art. Are well known and need no further explanation in this regard. The vacuum system is controlled by the control unit 340.

The electron gun 302 generates an electron beam that is used to melt or fuse the powder material 318 provided on the start plate 316. The electron gun 302 can be provided inside or connected to the vacuum chamber 320. The control unit 340 can be used to control and manage the electron beam emitted from the electron beam gun 302. The beam management optics can comprise at least one focusing coil, at least one deflection coil, and at least one astigmatism coil, which can be electrically connected to the control unit 340. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the electron gun can generate a focusable electron beam with an acceleration voltage of about 60 kV and a beam power in the range of 0-10 kW. The pressure in the vacuum chamber can range from 1 × 10 −3 to 1 × 10 −6 mBar when building a three-dimensional article by fusing each powder layer with an energy beam.

  One or more laser beams for melting powder material or welding pieces in accordance with the present invention using one or more laser beam sources instead of using one or more electron beam sources Can be generated.

  The powder hoppers 306, 307 comprise powder material that is fed onto the start plate 316 in the build tank 312. The powder material can be, for example, a pure metal or a metal alloy, such as titanium, a titanium alloy, aluminum, an aluminum alloy, stainless steel, a Co—Cr—W alloy, or the like. Instead of using two powder hoppers, one powder hopper can be used. In another exemplary embodiment, another known type of powder feeder and / or powder storage device may be used.

  The powder distributor 310 is arranged to deposit a thin layer of powder material on the start plate 316. During the work cycle, the build platform 314 will be sequentially lowered with respect to an electron beam based or laser beam based light gun after each layer of powder material is added. In order to allow this movement, the build platform 314 is arranged to be movable in the vertical direction, ie, the direction indicated by the arrow P, in one embodiment of the invention. This means that the build platform 314 starts from an initial position where the required thickness of the first powder material layer is deposited on the start plate 316. The build platform is then lowered in connection with the deposition of a new powder material layer for the formation of a new cross section of the three-dimensional article. The means for lowering the build platform 314 can be, for example, by a servo engine equipped with gears, adjustment screws, and the like.

  A three-dimensional article formed by continuous fusion of portions of a powder bed, which corresponds to a continuous cross section of the three-dimensional article, includes a step for providing a model of the three-dimensional article. The model can be generated via a CAD (Computer Aided Design) tool.

  The first powder layer can be provided on the worktable 316 by distributing the powder uniformly on the worktable by several methods. One way to distribute the powder is to collect the material falling from the hoppers 306, 307 by a rake system. The rake is moved on the build tank, thereby distributing the powder on the starting plate. The distance between the lower part of the rake and the upper part of the starting plate or the previous powder layer determines the thickness of the powder distributed on the starting plate. The thickness of the powder layer can be easily adjusted by adjusting the height of the build platform 314.

  An energy beam is directed onto the worktable 316 to fuse the first powder layer at a selected location to form a first cross section of the three-dimensional article. The energy beam can be an electron beam or a laser beam. The beam is directed onto the work table 316 according to instructions given by the control unit 340. In the control unit are stored instructions regarding how to control the beam gun for each layer of the three-dimensional article.

  After the first layer is complete, i.e., after the fusion of the powder material to create the first layer of the three-dimensional article is complete, a second powder layer is provided on the worktable 316. The second powder layer is preferably distributed in the same manner as the previous layer. A powder distributor in the form of a single rake system, ie one rake that captures powder falling from both the left powder hopper 306 and the right powder hopper 307, can change the design of such a rake. .

  After distributing the second powder layer on the worktable 316, an energy beam is directed onto the worktable and the second powder layer is fused at a selected location to form a second cross section of the three-dimensional article. To do. The fused portion in the second layer can be bonded to the fused portion of the first layer. The fused portion of the first layer and the second layer can be melted not only by melting the powder in the top layer, but also by remelting at least a portion of the thickness of the layer immediately below the top layer.

  FIG. 1 shows a schematic graph 175 of beam power as a function of scan speed. For beam powers below a predetermined value, an essentially circular beam spot can be used to fuse the powder material or to weld the pieces together. If the beam power increases beyond a predetermined value, thereby increasing the scan speed beyond a predetermined value, the material will begin to boil instead of melting. The cause of this boiling of the material is that the deflection or scanning speed of the energy beam is too fast and the heat from the energy beam does not have enough time to penetrate the material to be fused or welded. If the power of the energy beam is too high, and thus the deflection speed is too fast, the surface temperature will be too high and the material to be fused or welded will instead evaporate.

  The present invention solves this problem by stretching the spot, i.e., by extending the spot dimension parallel to the scanning direction and essentially keeping the dimension perpendicular to the scanning direction. In FIG. 1, basically circular spots can be used for beam powers and scanning speeds less than P1 and S1, respectively. For beam powers and scanning speeds exceeding P1 and S1, respectively, the beam spot is stretched parallel to the scanning direction. By stretching the beam spot parallel to the scanning direction, the output in the beam is distributed over a larger area, so that the surface temperature can be lowered. Because of this beam power distribution over a larger area, the heat from the beam spot has sufficient time to penetrate into the material, thereby minimizing the energy radiated from the melting pool. This minimizes material boiling or evaporation. By stretching the beam spot parallel to the scanning direction, a larger beam output can be used to maintain the fusion or welding resolution compared to when a circular spot is used. The stretched beam spot can travel the target scanning path so that the longer dimension of the beam spot travels the beam path, i.e. perpendicular to the scanning direction, regardless of the direction of the target beam path. The dimension is smaller than the dimension parallel to the scanning direction.

  FIG. 2 shows a top view of the additive manufacturing process and an enlarged view 200 of the beam spot structure. In FIG. 2, a cross section 270 of the three-dimensional article is constructed by melting the powder material inside the build chamber 290 with the energy beam 210. The energy beam 210 melts the material according to predetermined instructions stored in the control unit. In FIG. 2, the scanning direction is indicated by an arrow 240. In order to build a cross section of a three-dimensional article, a number of scan lines 250 have already been provided on the powder material. One scan line 220 is provided on the powder material, and the enlarged view 200 of the beam spot 230 shows the actual length L parallel to the scan direction 240 of the beam spot 230 as H of the beam spot 230 perpendicular to the scan direction. It indicates that it is larger than the specified size.

  FIG. 4A shows a beam spot shape when a beam output lower than a predetermined value is used. In FIG. 4A, the horizontal size L1 parallel to the scanning direction of the beam spot is basically equal to the vertical size H1 perpendicular to the scanning direction of the beam spot.

  FIG. 4B shows a beam spot shape when a beam output higher than the predetermined value is used. In FIG. 4B, the horizontal size L2 parallel to the scanning direction of the beam spot is significantly larger than the vertical size H1 perpendicular to the scanning direction of the beam spot. As can be seen, the vertical size H1 perpendicular to the scanning direction of the beam spot is the same in FIGS. 4A and 4B. Any scanning direction, that is, not only the horizontal scanning direction shown in the figure but also any scanning direction can be used. The beam spot size for a beam output larger than a predetermined value can be made larger for a given scanning direction in a direction parallel to the scanning direction than in a direction perpendicular to the scanning direction.

  5A-5C illustrate three different beam spot structures for three different beam outputs. The first beam spot 510 of FIG. 5A has a first beam output. The second beam spot 520 of FIG. 5B has a second beam output that is higher than the first beam output. The third beam spot 530 of FIG. 5C has a third beam output that is higher than the second beam output. The first length L3 of the first beam spot 510 is shorter than the second length L4 of the second beam spot 520, which is shorter than the third length L5 of the third beam spot 530. The first, second and third beam spots all have the same size H1 perpendicular to the scanning direction. 5A-5C, the beam spot shape is shown to be elliptical. However, any stretched shape of the beam spot, e.g. a rectangular or polygon stretched in the scanning direction compared to a size perpendicular to the scanning direction, or any other suitable mathematical function Can be used.

  FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of beam management optics in a laser beam based system. A laser beam 605 is emitted from a laser beam source 610. Before reaching the target surface 660, which can be a powder layer in a layer-based additive manufacturing process or a solid piece just before being welded, the laser beam 605 is directed into an astigmatism lens system 620, a focusing lens system 630, a deflection It passes through a lens system 640 and an optional reflective surface 650. The control unit 680 can control the laser beam source 610 and the lens systems 620, 630, 640. The focusing lens system 630 can comprise one or more lenses that can be rotatable and / or tiltable and / or translatable (movable along the optical axis) relative to the optical axis. The focusing lens system 630 can generate a predetermined beam spot size on the target surface 660. The lenses in the focusing lens system 630 can be fully or partially transparent. The deflection lens system 640 can include one or more lenses that can be rotatable and / or tiltable and / or translatable (movable along the optical axis) relative to the optical axis. The deflection lens system 640 can place the beam spot at any predetermined location within a given limit defined by the maximum deflection of the beam spot at the target surface 660.

  Astigmatic lens system 620 can comprise one or more lenses that can be rotatable and / or tiltable and / or translatable (movable along the optical axis) relative to the optical axis. . When the beam is deflected, a specific aberration depending on the degree of deflection is introduced into the beam spot. The beam may be slightly distorted depending on the degree of deflection, which can be compensated by the astigmatism lens system 620. In accordance with the present invention, not only can the beam spot be compensated for distortions that can be introduced by other lens systems, but the astigmatism lens system 620 can also stretch the beam spot in a direction parallel to the direction of beam deflection. The shape of the beam spot can be intentionally distorted. The degree of distortion in the direction parallel to the deflection direction can depend at least on the beam output of the energy beam. In one exemplary embodiment, the shape of the beam spot is stretched parallel to the deflection direction as a linear function of the beam output above a predetermined beam output. In another exemplary embodiment, the shape of the beam spot is stretched parallel to the deflection direction as a polynomial function of beam output above a predetermined beam output.

  FIG. 7 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of beam management optics in an electron beam based system. An electron beam 750 is emitted from an electron beam source 710. Prior to reaching the target surface 760, which can be a powder layer in a layer-based additive manufacturing process or a solid piece just before being welded, the electron beam 750 is converted into an astigmatism lens system 720, a focusing lens system 730, A deflection lens system 740 can be passed. The control unit 680 can control the electron beam source and the beam shaping optical system. The focusing lens system 730 can comprise one or more focusing coils. The focusing lens system 730 can generate a predetermined beam spot size on the target surface 760.

  The deflection lens system 740 can comprise one or more deflection coils. The deflection lens system 740 can place the beam spot at any predetermined location within a given limit defined by the maximum deflection of the beam spot at the target surface 760.

  Astigmatism lens system 720 may comprise one or more astigmatism coils. When the beam is deflected, a specific aberration depending on the degree of deflection is introduced into the beam spot. The beam may be slightly distorted depending on the degree of deflection, which can be compensated by the astigmatism lens system 720. In accordance with the present invention, not only is the beam spot compensated for distortion that may be introduced by other lens systems, but the astigmatism lens system 720 also stretches the beam spot in a direction parallel to the direction of beam deflection. The shape of the beam spot can be intentionally distorted. The degree of distortion in the direction parallel to the deflection direction can depend at least on the beam output of the energy beam. In an exemplary embodiment, the shape of the beam spot can be stretched parallel to the deflection direction as a linear function of the beam output above a predetermined beam output. In another exemplary embodiment, the shape of the beam spot can be stretched parallel to the deflection direction as a polynomial function of beam output above a predetermined beam output. In an exemplary embodiment, multiple astigmatism lenses can be used to generate any orientation of the stretched beam at any location on the workpiece.

  In laser beam based systems and electron beam based systems, stretching parallel to the deflection direction can depend not only on the output of the energy beam but also on the position of the target surface. More specifically, the stretching of the energy beam can depend on the actual fusion or welding position of the energy beam spot on the target surface in addition to the energy beam output. In the additive manufacturing process, the stretching can be due to the actual position of the energy beam spot relative to the pattern to be fused, i.e., more stretched compared to the start and stop positions of the scan line in the middle part of the scan length. A beam spot can be used. When melting a contour, the stretching can be changed during the contour melting depending on the contour derivation and the distance to the contour derivation. In one exemplary embodiment, the beam spot stretching, power and scan speed on the workpiece can be selected to optimize build time.

  FIG. 8 shows a schematic flow chart of the method according to the invention for welding workpieces or for fusing powder materials according to a predetermined scheme for building a three-dimensional article layer by layer. In a first step, indicated at 810, a first weld is made by a high energy beam at a first location on the workpiece or powder surface. In a second step, indicated at 820, the high energy beam is deflected by at least one deflecting lens to create a second weld at a second location on the workpiece or powder surface. In a third step, indicated at 830, the high energy beam is focused onto the workpiece by at least one focusing lens. In a fourth step, indicated at 840, the high energy beam is caused by at least one astigmatism lens on the workpiece or powder surface so that the shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. In the direction perpendicular to the direction of deflection of the high energy beam, where the ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel and vertical directions is the length of the energy beam on the workpiece. Varies as a function of output. Increasing the power of the beam spot on the workpiece will require a higher scanning speed of the beam spot on the workpiece.

  The ratio of the length in the parallel direction and the length in the vertical direction to the deflection direction of the energy beam can be one of the group of 5, 10, 15 or 20. In an exemplary embodiment, the lengths in the parallel and vertical directions are for beam powers below a predetermined value that will fuse at a given weld or fusion width without causing evaporation of the material. Essentially the same because the speed and power of the beam spot on the workpiece do not cause evaporation of the workpiece material.

  In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the average spot size in the direction perpendicular to the scan direction on the workpiece, for the entire scan length, for the entire cross-section and / or for the entire three-dimensional article, is in the scan direction on the workpiece. Smaller than average spot size in parallel direction.

  Fusion or welding with stretched beam spots can have the effect of using higher beam spot power and higher beam scanning speed. The stretched beam spot can reduce the surface temperature for a given scan speed compared to a circular spot having the same power and a diameter equal to the smaller dimension of the stretched beam spot. The stretched beam spot may allow a higher scanning speed that maintains the resolution in the direction perpendicular to the scanning direction compared to a circular spot having a diameter equal to the smaller dimension of the stretched beam spot. it can. The stretched beam spot can allow heat to penetrate into the material instead of evaporation of the material that can occur in the case of a circular spot. The stretched beam spot can reduce the production time of an additively manufactured three-dimensional article compared to a circular spot having the same power and a diameter equal to the smaller dimension of the stretched beam spot.

  In another aspect of the invention, when executed on a computer, a method of forming at least one three-dimensional article by continuous fusion of portions of a powder bed that are portions corresponding to successive sections of the three-dimensional article. Providing a model of at least one three-dimensional article, applying a first powder layer on the worktable, and applying a first energy beam from a first energy beam source to the worktable. Upwardly, fusing the first powder layer at a first selected location with a corresponding model to form a first cross-section of the three-dimensional article, wherein the first energy beam is Forming a first cross-section configured to fuse at least a first region of the first cross-section with two or more parallel scan lines in the direction of: The distance between two adjacent scan lines of two or more parallel scan lines used to fuse the layers is a function of the length of at least one of the two adjacent scan lines A program element configured and arranged to implement a method is provided. The program element can be installed in a computer readable storage medium. The computer readable storage medium may be any control unit described elsewhere herein, or another separate and separate control unit. Program elements that can comprise a computer readable storage medium and computer readable program code portions embodied therein can further be included in a non-transitory computer program product. Further details regarding these features and configurations will now be given below.

  As mentioned above, various embodiments of the invention can be implemented by various means including non-transitory computer program products. Computer program products include applications, programs, program modules, scripts, source code, program code, object code, byte code, compiled code, interpreted code, machine code, executable instructions, etc. A non-transitory computer readable storage medium storing executable instructions, instructions for execution, program code, etc. used interchangeably in the documentation. Such non-transitory computer readable storage media include any computer readable media (including volatile and non-volatile media).

  In one embodiment, the non-volatile computer readable storage medium includes a floppy disk, a flexible disk, a hard disk, a solid-state storage (SSS) (eg, a solid state drive (SSD), a solid state drive). A card (SSC: solid state card), a solid state module (SSM), an enterprise flash drive, magnetic tape, or any other non-transitory magnetic medium. Non-volatile computer readable storage media may further include punch cards, paper tape, optical mark sheets (or any other physical medium having a hole or other optically recognizable pattern of marks), compact disk read-only memory ( CD-ROM: compact disc read only memory, rewritable compact disc (CD-RW: compact disc compact disc-rewritable), digital versatile disc (DVD: digital versatile disc), Blu-ray disc (BD: Blu-ray (BD) Disc), any other non-transitory optical media, and the like. Such non-volatile computer readable storage media further include read-only memory (ROM), programmable read-only memory (PROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). : Erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory (eg, serial, NAND, NOR, etc.), multimedia memory card (MC: multimedia memory card), secu Digital (SD: secure digital) memory card, smart media card, compact flash (CF: CompactFlash) card, such as a memory stick can be mentioned. Further, non-volatile computer-readable storage media include conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM), phase-change random access memory (PRAM), ferroelectric random access memory (PRAM). FeRAM (ferroelectric random-access memory), non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), random random access memory (MRAM), resistance random access memory (MRAM) Memory (RRAM), silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon memory (SONOS: Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon), floating junction gate random access memory (FJG RAM: floating junction) gate random access memory), milliped memory, race track memory, and the like.

  In one embodiment, the volatile computer-readable storage medium includes a random access memory (RAM), a dynamic random access memory (DRAM), and a static random access memory (SRAM). First page mode dynamic random access memory (FPM DRAM: extended data-out dynamic random access memory), extended data output dynamic random access memory (EDO DRAM: extended data-out dynamic random access memory) Dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), dynamic random access memory (DDR SDRAM), dynamic random access DRAM (DDR2) double data rate type synchronous dynamic random access memory (DDR3 SDRAM: double data rate type) free synchronous dynamic access memory (RAMD): Random dynamic random access memory (RDRAM), twin transistor RAM (TRAM: Zero-transistor RAM), zero-transistor RAM (TRAM) RAM: Zero-capacitor), Rambus in-line memory module (RIMM), Dual in-line memory module (DIMM), Single in-line memory module (SIMM) A single in-line memory module (Video RAM), a video random access memory (VRAM), a cache memory (including various levels), a flash memory, a register memory, and the like. When embodiments are described as using computer readable storage media, it should be appreciated that other types of computer readable storage media may be used in place of or in addition to the computer readable storage media described above.

  It should be appreciated that the various embodiments of the invention may also be implemented as methods, apparatuses, systems, computing devices, computing entities, etc., as described elsewhere herein. Thus, embodiments of the invention may take the form of an apparatus, system, computing device, computing entity, etc. that executes instructions stored on a computer-readable storage medium to perform a particular step or operation. However, embodiments of the present invention can also take fully hardware embodiments to perform specific steps or operations.

  Various embodiments are described below with reference to block diagrams and flowchart illustrations of apparatuses, methods, systems, and computer program products. Each block in the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations can each be implemented in part by computer program instructions, for example, as logical steps or operations performed on a processor in a computing system. These computer program instructions are loaded into a computer, such as a dedicated computer or other programmable data processing device, and the instructions executed on the computer or other programmable data processing device are within the block or blocks of the flowchart. Specially configured machines can be created that perform specified functions.

  These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable memory that may direct a computer or other programmable data processing device to function in a particular manner, resulting in a flowchart block or blocks. The instructions stored in the computer readable memory including the computer readable instructions for performing the functions specified in the blocks of the product produce the article of manufacture. The computer program instructions are also loaded onto a computer or other programmable data processing device to generate a computer-implemented process such that a series of operational steps are performed on the computer or other programmable data processing device. As a result, instructions executed on a computer or other programmable device result in operations for performing the functions specified in the block or blocks of the flowchart.

  Accordingly, the blocks in the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations support various combinations for performing specific functions, combinations of operations for performing specific functions and program instructions for performing specific functions. . In addition, each block in the block diagram and flowchart explanatory diagram, and combinations of blocks in the block diagram and flowchart explanatory diagram are computer systems based on dedicated hardware that executes specific functions or operations, or dedicated hardware and a computer. It can be implemented by a combination of instructions.

  FIG. 9 is a block diagram of an exemplary system 1020 that can be used with various embodiments of the invention. In at least the illustrated embodiment, the system 1020 includes one or more central computing devices 1110, one or more distributed computing devices 1120, and one or more distributed handheld or mobile devices 1300. Which are all configured to communicate with the central server 1200 (or control unit) via one or more networks 1130. Although FIG. 9 illustrates various system entities as separate independent entities, various embodiments are not limited to this particular architecture.

  In accordance with various embodiments of the present invention, one or more networks 1130 may be connected to a number of second generation (2G), 2.5G, third generation (3G), and / or fourth generation (4G) mobiles. Communication according to one or more of communication protocols and the like may be supported. More specifically, one or more networks 1130 may support communication over 2G wireless communication protocols IS-136 (TDMA), GSM, and IS-95 (CDMA). Further, for example, one or more networks 1130 can support communication over 2.5G wireless communication protocol GPRS, Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), and the like. Further, for example, one or more networks 1130 can be configured to support a universal mobile telephone system (UMTS) that utilizes a 3G wireless communication protocol, such as Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) radio access technology. Communication via a Telephone System) network can be supported. Some narrowband AMPS (NAMPS), as well as TACS network (s) are also used with dual or higher mode mobile stations (eg, digital / analog or TDMA / CDMA / analog phones). Similarly, benefits can be obtained from embodiments of the present invention. As yet another example, each of the components of the system 1020 may be a technology such as, for example, radio frequency (RF), Bluetooth, infrared (IrDA), or wired or wireless personal area network (PAN). Many personal or wireless networks, including: Personal Area Network (LAN), Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), etc. Either can be configured to communicate with each other.

  Although device (s) 1110-1300 are depicted in FIG. 9 as communicating with each other over the same network 1130, these devices can communicate over multiple separate networks as well.

  In accordance with one embodiment, in addition to receiving data from server 1200, distributed devices 1110, 1120, and / or 1300 can be further configured to collect and send data on their own. In various embodiments, the devices 1110, 1120, and / or 1300 may include one or more input units or devices, such as a keypad, touchpad, barcode scanner, radio frequency identification (RFID). Data can be received via a reader, an interface card (eg, a modem, etc.) or a receiver. Devices 1110, 1120, and / or 1300 can further store data in one or more volatile or non-volatile memory modules, and via one or more output units or devices, For example, the data can be output by displaying the data to a user operating the device or by sending the data over, for example, one or more networks 1130.

  In various embodiments, server 1200 provides various systems according to various embodiments in accordance with the present invention to implement one or more functions, including the functions more specifically shown and described herein. Including. However, it should be understood that the server 1200 may include a variety of alternative devices for performing one or more similar functions without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. For example, as may be desirable for a particular application, at least a portion of server 1200, in certain embodiments, distributed device (s) 1110, 1120, and / or handheld or mobile device (s) Multiple) 1300. As described in more detail below, in at least one embodiment, the handheld or mobile device (s) 1300 can include one or more mobile applications 1330, all of which are also described below. Can be configured to provide a user interface for communication with the server 1200.

  FIG. 10A is a schematic diagram of a server 1200 according to various embodiments. Server 1200 includes a processor 1230 that communicates with other elements within the server via a system interface or bus 1235. In addition, server 1200 includes a display / input device 1250 that receives and displays data. This display / input device 1250 can be, for example, a keyboard or pointing device used in combination with a monitor. Server 1200 further includes memory 1220, which preferably includes both read only memory (ROM) 1226 and random access memory (RAM) 1222. Server ROM 1226 is used to store a basic input / output system (BIOS) that includes basic routines that help to transfer information between elements within server 1200. Various ROM and RAM configurations have already been described herein.

  In addition, server 1200 may include at least one storage device or program storage device 1210, such as a hard disk, for storing information on various computer readable media, such as a hard disk, a removable magnetic disk, or a CD-ROM disk. Includes a drive, floppy disk drive, CD ROM drive, or optical disk drive. As those skilled in the art will appreciate, each of these storage devices 1210 is connected to the system bus 1235 by a suitable interface. The storage devices 1210 and their associated computer readable media provide a non-volatile storage device for a personal computer. As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the computer readable media described above can be replaced with any other type of computer readable media known in the art. Such media include, for example, magnetic cassettes, flash memory cards, digital video disks, and Bernoulli cartridges.

  Although not shown, according to one embodiment, storage device 1210 and / or memory of server 1200 is a data storage device that can store history and / or current distribution data that server 1200 can access and distribution status. Functions can be further provided. In this regard, the storage device 1210 may comprise one or more databases. The term “database” refers to a structured collection of records or data stored within a computer system, eg, via a relational database, hierarchical database, or network database, and thus interpreted in a limited manner. Should not be done.

  For example, a number of program modules (eg, exemplary modules 1400-1700) with one or more computer-readable program code portions executable by processor 1230 are stored by various storage devices 1210 and in RAM 1222. can do. Such program modules can also include an operating system 1280. In these and other embodiments, various modules 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 control certain aspects of the operation of server 1200 with the aid of processor 1230 and operating system 1280. It should be understood that in still other embodiments, one or more additional and / or alternative modules may be provided without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

  In various embodiments, program modules 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 are executed by server 1200, one or more graphical user interfaces that are all accessible and / or transmittable to various users of system 1020. , Configured to generate reports, instructions, and / or notifications / alerts. In certain embodiments, the user interface, reports, instructions, and / or notifications / alerts are accessible via one or more networks 1130 that may include the Internet or other suitable communication network as described above. can do.

  In various embodiments, one or more modules 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 may alternatively and / or additionally (eg, doubly) one or more devices 1110, 1120, And / or can be stored locally at 1300 and executed by one or more of the same processors. In accordance with various embodiments, modules 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 can be combined into one or more databases that can consist of one or more separate linked and / or networked databases. Data can be sent, data can be received from it, and the data contained in it can be used.

  In addition, a network interface 1260 is disposed within the server 1200 for interfacing and communicating with one or more other elements of the network 1130. One skilled in the art will recognize that one or more components of the server 1200 can be located geographically remote from other server components. Further, one or more components of server 1200 can be combined and / or additional components can be included in the server to perform the functions described herein.

  While the above describes a single processor 1230, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, the server 1200 operates to cooperate with the functions described herein. Multiple processors can be provided. In addition to memory 1220, processor 1230 can also be connected to at least one interface or other means for displaying, transmitting and / or receiving data, content, and the like. In this regard, the interface (s) refers to at least one communication interface or other means for transmitting and / or receiving data, content, etc., and a display and / or user as will be described in more detail below. At least one user interface can be included that can include an input interface. The user input interface can then include any of a number of devices that allow the entity to receive data from the user, such as a keypad, touch display, joystick or other input device.

  Furthermore, although reference is made to “server” 1200, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, embodiments of the present invention are not limited to traditionally defined server architectures. Further, the system of embodiments of the present invention is not limited to a single server, or similar network entity, or mainframe computer system. Other similar architectures that include one or more network entities that operate in concert with each other to provide the functionality described herein also do not depart from the spirit and scope of the embodiments of the present invention. Can be used. Also, for example, a mesh network of two or more personal computers (PCs), similar electronic devices, or handheld portable devices that cooperate with each other to provide the functionality described herein in connection with server 1200 Similarly, it can be used without departing from the spirit and scope of the embodiments of the invention.

  According to various embodiments, many individual steps of the process may or may not be performed using the computer system and / or server described herein. The degree of can vary as may be desirable and / or beneficial for one or more specific applications.

  FIG. 10B provides a schematic diagram of an exemplary mobile device 1300 that can be used with various embodiments of the invention. The mobile device 1300 can be operated by various parties. As shown in FIG. 10B, mobile device 1300 provides signals to and from antenna 1312, transmitter 1304 (eg, radio), receiver 1306 (eg, radio), and transmitter 1304, respectively. A processing element 1308 may be included.

  Signals provided to transmitter 1304 and received from receiver 1306 are signals in accordance with appropriate wireless system air interface standards for communicating with various entities, eg, server 1200, distributed devices 1110, 1120, etc., respectively. Communication data can be included. In this regard, the mobile device 1300 can operate with one or more air interface standards, communication protocols, modulation types, and access types. More specifically, mobile device 1300 can operate according to any of a number of wireless communication standards and protocols. In one specific embodiment, the mobile device 1300 can include multiple wireless communication standards and protocols such as GPRS, UMTS, CDMA2000, 1xRTT, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, LTE, E-UTRAN, EVDO, HSPA, HSDPA, Wi- It can operate according to Fi, WiMAX, UWB, IR protocol, Bluetooth protocol, USB protocol, and / or any other wireless protocol.

  Through these communication standards and protocols, the mobile device 1300 can, according to various embodiments, unstructured supplementary service data (USSD), short message service (SMS), multimedia messaging. Services (MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service), Dual Tone Multi-Frequency Signaling (DTMF), and / or Subscriber Identity Module Dialer (SIM subscriber: Modular Identity etc.) It can communicate with a variety of other entities. The mobile device 1300 can also download changes, add-ons, and updates to, for example, its firmware, software (eg, including executable instructions, applications, program modules), and operating system.

  According to one embodiment, the mobile device 1300 can include a location determination device and / or functionality. For example, the mobile device 1300 can include a GPS module adapted to obtain, for example, latitude, longitude, altitude, geocode, course, and / or velocity data. In one embodiment, the GPS module obtains data, also known as ephemeris data, by identifying a predetermined number of satellites taking into account their relative positions.

The mobile device 1300 can also include a user interface (which can include a display 1316 coupled to the processing element 1308) and / or a user input interface (coupled to the processing element 1308 (308)). The user input interface may be any of a number of devices that allow the mobile device 1300 to receive data, such as a keypad 1318 (hard or soft), a touch display, a voice or motion interface, or other input device. Can be provided. In embodiments that include a keypad 1318, the keypad can include regular numbers (0-9) and associated keys (#, * ), as well as other keys used to operate the mobile device 1300. A set of keys that can be activated to yield a full set of alphabet keys or a full set of alphanumeric keys. In addition to providing input, the user input interface can be used to activate or deactivate certain functions such as, for example, a screen saver and / or sleep mode.

  Mobile device 1300 can also include volatile storage or memory 1322 and / or non-volatile storage or memory 1324, which can be internal and / or removable. For example, the non-volatile memory can be ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, flash memory, MMC, SD memory card, memory stick, CBRAM, PRAM, FeRAM, RRAM, SONOS, racetrack memory, and the like. Volatile memory can be RAM, DRAM, SRAM, FPM DRAM, EDO DRAM, SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, RDRAM, RIMM, DIMM, SIMM, VRAM, cache memory, register memory, and the like. Volatile and non-volatile storage devices or memories are databases, database instances, database mapping systems, data, applications, programs, program modules, scripts, source code, object code, byte code for implementing the functions of the mobile device 1300. Compiled code, interpreted code, machine code, executable instructions, etc. can be stored.

  Mobile device 1300 can also include one or more cameras 1326 and mobile applications 1330. The camera 1326 can be configured as an additional and / or alternative data collection mechanism according to various embodiments, thereby reading and storing one or more items by the mobile device 1300 via the camera. And / or can be transmitted. The mobile application 1330 can further provide a mechanism through which various tasks can be performed with the mobile device 1300. Various configurations that may be desirable for one or more users of the mobile device 1300 and the overall system 1020 may be provided.

The invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, but many modifications are possible within the scope of the appended claims. Such modifications include, for example, using a different energy beam source other than the illustrated electron beam, such as a laser beam. Other materials other than metal powders, such as, for example, conductive polymer and conductive ceramic powders can be used as non-limiting examples. Indeed, one of ordinary skill in the art, using the information contained in the foregoing sentence, will use substantially the same functionality to achieve substantially the same results, although not literally described various embodiments of the present invention. May be modified in a manner that is encompassed by the appended claims. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed, and that modifications and other embodiments are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims. I want. Although specific terms are used herein, they are used in a general and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation.

Claims (30)

  1. A method of welding workpieces,
    Creating a first weld with a high energy beam at a first position on the workpiece;
    Deflecting the high energy beam with at least one deflecting lens to create a second weld on a second position on the workpiece;
    Focusing the high energy beam on the workpiece by at least one focusing lens;
    The shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is longer on the workpiece in a direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. Shaping the high energy beam with at least one astigmatism lens;
    Including
    The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on the workpiece.
    Method.
  2.   The method of claim 1, wherein the high energy beam is at least one of an electron beam or a laser beam.
  3.   3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the deflection source is at least one of a tiltable mirror or tiltable lens.
  4.   3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the deflection source is a deflection coil.
  5.   The method according to claim 1, wherein the workpiece is a powder material layer in an additive manufacturing process.
  6.   6. The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction further varies as a function of the position of the high energy beam on the workpiece. The method according to item.
  7.   The method according to claim 1, wherein the high energy beam is at least five times longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction.
  8.   The method according to claim 1, wherein the high energy beam is at least 10 times longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction.
  9.   The average spot size on the workpiece in the direction perpendicular to the scanning direction is smaller than the average spot size on the workpiece in the direction parallel to the scanning direction for the entire scanning length, the entire cross section and / or the entire three-dimensional article. The method of any one of Claims 1-8.
  10.   10. One or more of the steps of deflecting, focusing and shaping the high energy beam are performed through execution of one or more computer processors. The method according to claim 1.
  11. A method of using an astigmatism lens in additive manufacturing to form a three-dimensional article by continuous fusion with a high energy beam of a portion of at least one layer of a powder bed provided on a worktable, comprising: The portion corresponds to a continuous cross section of the three-dimensional article;
    Using the astigmatism lens to increase the size of the high energy beam on the layer of the powder bed in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction. ,
    The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on a workpiece;
    Method.
  12. A method of forming a three-dimensional article by successively depositing individual layers of powder material that fuse to form the three-dimensional article, comprising:
    Providing at least one high energy beam source for emitting a high energy beam for at least one of heating or fusing the powder material;
    Providing a deflection source for deflecting the high energy beam on the powder material;
    Providing a focusing lens for focusing the high energy beam on the powder material;
    The shape of the high energy beam on the powder layer is longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. Shaping a high energy beam with at least one astigmatism lens;
    Including
    The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on a workpiece;
    Method.
  13.   The method of claim 12, wherein the high energy beam is at least one of an electron beam or a laser beam.
  14.   14. A method according to claim 12 or 13, wherein the deflection source is at least one of a tiltable mirror or tiltable lens.
  15.   14. A method according to claim 12 or 13, wherein the deflection source is a deflection coil.
  16.   16. The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the perpendicular direction further varies as a function of the position of the high energy beam on the workpiece. The method according to item.
  17.   The method according to any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein the high-energy beam is at least five times longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction.
  18.   The method according to any one of claims 12 to 16, wherein the high energy beam is at least 10 times longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction.
  19.   The average spot size on the workpiece in the direction perpendicular to the scanning direction is smaller than the average spot size on the workpiece in the direction parallel to the scanning direction for the entire scanning length, the entire cross section and / or the entire three-dimensional article. The method according to any one of claims 12 to 18.
  20. Receiving and storing the model of the at least one three-dimensional article in one or more memory storage areas;
    Shaping at least the high energy beam is performed through execution of one or more computer processors;
    20. A method according to any one of claims 12-19.
  21. An apparatus for forming a three-dimensional article by successively depositing individual layers of powder material that fuse to form the three-dimensional article,
    At least one high energy beam source for emitting a high energy beam for one of heating or fusing said powder material;
    A deflection source for deflecting the high energy beam onto the powder material;
    A focusing lens for focusing the high energy beam on the powder material;
    At least one astigmatism lens;
    On the powder layer, the shape of the high energy beam on the powder layer is longer in the direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam than in the direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. At least one controller configured to control the at least one astigmatism lens to shape the high energy beam;
    With
    The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on a workpiece;
    apparatus.
  22.   The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the high energy beam is at least one of an electron beam or a laser beam.
  23.   23. An apparatus according to claim 21 or 22, wherein the deflection source is at least one of a tiltable mirror or tiltable lens or a deflection coil.
  24.   24. The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction is further changed as a function of the position of the high energy beam on the workpiece. The device according to item.
  25.   25. Apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 24, wherein the high energy beam is at least 5 times longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction.
  26.   25. Apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 24, wherein the high energy beam is at least 10 times longer in a direction parallel to the deflection direction than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction.
  27.   The average spot size on the workpiece in the direction perpendicular to the scanning direction for the entire scanning length, the entire cross section and / or the entire three-dimensional article is greater than the average spot size on the workpiece in the direction parallel to the scanning direction. 27. Apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 26, which is small.
  28. An apparatus for welding workpieces,
    A high energy beam configured to make a first weld at a first location on the workpiece;
    At least one deflecting lens configured to deflect the high energy beam such that the high energy beam creates a second weld at a second location on the workpiece;
    At least one focusing lens configured to focus the high energy beam onto the workpiece;
    At least one astigmatism lens;
    The shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is longer on the workpiece in a direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. At least one controller configured to shape the high energy beam with the at least one astigmatism lens;
    The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on the workpiece.
    At least one controller;
    A device comprising:
  29. Computer program product for forming a three-dimensional article by successively depositing individual layers of powder material that fuse to form the three-dimensional article, the computer-readable program code stored therein Comprising at least one non-transitory computer readable storage medium having a portion, wherein the computer readable program code portion comprises:
    A workable portion configured to provide at least one high energy beam source for emitting a high energy beam for at least one of heating or fusing said powder material;
    A workable portion configured to provide a deflection source for deflecting the high energy beam onto the powder material;
    A workable portion configured to provide a focusing lens for focusing the high energy beam onto the powder material;
    The high energy beam on the powder layer is applied to the high energy beam by at least one astigmatism lens so that the shape of the high energy beam on the powder layer is parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. A feasible portion configured to be shaped to be longer than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction;
    With
    The ratio of the length of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on a workpiece;
    Computer program product.
  30. A computer program product for welding workpieces, comprising at least one non-transitory computer readable storage medium having computer readable program code portions stored therein, the computer readable program code portions comprising:
    A workable portion configured to create a first weld with a high energy beam at a first position on the workpiece;
    A workable portion configured to deflect the high energy beam by at least one deflecting lens to create a second weld at a second position on the workpiece;
    A workable portion configured to focus the high energy beam onto the workpiece by at least one focusing lens;
    The high energy beam on the workpiece is caused to be in a direction parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam by at least one astigmatism lens so that the shape of the high energy beam on the workpiece is parallel to the deflection direction of the high energy beam. A feasible portion configured to be shaped to be longer than in a direction perpendicular to the deflection direction of
    With
    A ratio of lengths of the high energy beam in the parallel direction and the vertical direction varies as a function of the output of the high energy beam on the workpiece;
    Computer program product.
JP2016557110A 2014-04-02 2015-03-05 How to fuse workpieces Pending JP2017512900A (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201461974304P true 2014-04-02 2014-04-02
US61/974,304 2014-04-02
US14/636,607 US20150283613A1 (en) 2014-04-02 2015-03-03 Method for fusing a workpiece
US14/636,607 2015-03-03
PCT/EP2015/054626 WO2015150014A1 (en) 2014-04-02 2015-03-05 Method for fusing a workpiece

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2017512900A true JP2017512900A (en) 2017-05-25

Family

ID=54208925

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2016557110A Pending JP2017512900A (en) 2014-04-02 2015-03-05 How to fuse workpieces

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (6) US20150283613A1 (en)
EP (1) EP3126088A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2017512900A (en)
CN (2) CN106457391B (en)
WO (1) WO2015150014A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (43)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2231352B1 (en) 2008-01-03 2013-10-16 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for producing three-dimensional objects
JP5555769B2 (en) 2009-07-15 2014-07-23 アーカム・アーベー Method and apparatus for making a three-dimensional object
WO2011034985A1 (en) 2009-09-17 2011-03-24 Sciaky, Inc. Electron beam layer manufacturing
EP2555902B1 (en) 2010-03-31 2018-04-25 Sciaky Inc. Raster methodology for electron beam layer manufacturing using closed loop control
EP2797730B1 (en) 2011-12-28 2016-08-03 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for detecting defects in freeform fabrication
CN104066536B (en) 2011-12-28 2016-12-14 阿卡姆股份公司 For the method manufacturing porous three-dimensional article
WO2014071968A1 (en) 2012-11-06 2014-05-15 Arcam Ab Powder pre-processing for additive manufacturing
CN104853901B (en) 2012-12-17 2018-06-05 阿卡姆股份公司 Added material manufacturing method and equipment
WO2014095208A1 (en) 2012-12-17 2014-06-26 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
US9550207B2 (en) 2013-04-18 2017-01-24 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
US9676031B2 (en) 2013-04-23 2017-06-13 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for forming a three-dimensional article
US9415443B2 (en) 2013-05-23 2016-08-16 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
US9468973B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2016-10-18 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
JP2015038237A (en) * 2013-08-19 2015-02-26 独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所 Laminated molding, powder laminate molding apparatus, and powder laminate molding method
US9505057B2 (en) 2013-09-06 2016-11-29 Arcam Ab Powder distribution in additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US9676033B2 (en) 2013-09-20 2017-06-13 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US9802253B2 (en) 2013-12-16 2017-10-31 Arcam Ab Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US10130993B2 (en) 2013-12-18 2018-11-20 Arcam Ab Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US10434572B2 (en) 2013-12-19 2019-10-08 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US9789563B2 (en) 2013-12-20 2017-10-17 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US9789541B2 (en) 2014-03-07 2017-10-17 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US20150283613A1 (en) 2014-04-02 2015-10-08 Arcam Ab Method for fusing a workpiece
CA2952633C (en) 2014-06-20 2018-03-06 Velo3D, Inc. Apparatuses, systems and methods for three-dimensional printing
US9341467B2 (en) 2014-08-20 2016-05-17 Arcam Ab Energy beam position verification
WO2016103493A1 (en) * 2014-12-26 2016-06-30 技術研究組合次世代3D積層造形技術総合開発機構 Three-dimensional printing device, three-dimensional printing device control method, and control program
US9406483B1 (en) 2015-01-21 2016-08-02 Arcam Ab Method and device for characterizing an electron beam using an X-ray detector with a patterned aperture resolver and patterned aperture modulator
US10449606B2 (en) * 2015-06-19 2019-10-22 General Electric Company Additive manufacturing apparatus and method for large components
US20170120335A1 (en) * 2015-10-30 2017-05-04 Seurat Technologies, Inc. Variable Print Chamber Walls For Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
JP2018535121A (en) 2015-11-06 2018-11-29 ヴェロ・スリー・ディー・インコーポレイテッド Proficient 3D printing
WO2017091505A1 (en) * 2015-11-23 2017-06-01 Nlight, Inc. Fine-scale temporal control for laser material processing
US10183330B2 (en) 2015-12-10 2019-01-22 Vel03D, Inc. Skillful three-dimensional printing
US20170239719A1 (en) 2016-02-18 2017-08-24 Velo3D, Inc. Accurate three-dimensional printing
EP3243634A4 (en) * 2016-03-25 2018-06-20 Technology Research Association for Future Additive Manufacturing Three-dimensional additive fabrication device, method for controlling three-dimensional additive fabrication device, and program for controlling three-dimensional additive fabrication device
EP3263316B1 (en) 2016-06-29 2019-02-13 VELO3D, Inc. Three-dimensional printing and three-dimensional printers
US10394223B2 (en) * 2016-08-29 2019-08-27 Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Llc Device for controlling additive manufacturing machinery
US10394222B2 (en) * 2016-08-29 2019-08-27 Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Llc Device for controlling additive manufacturing machinery
WO2018106586A1 (en) * 2016-12-06 2018-06-14 Velo3D, Inc. Optics, detectors, and three-dimensional printing
US20180250745A1 (en) 2017-03-02 2018-09-06 Velo3D, Inc. Three-dimensional printing of three-dimensional objects
US20180281283A1 (en) 2017-03-28 2018-10-04 Velo3D, Inc. Material manipulation in three-dimensional printing
DE102017114033A1 (en) 2017-06-23 2018-12-27 Precitec Gmbh & Co. Kg Device and method for distance measurement for a laser processing system, and laser processing system
CN107931898A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-04-20 成都科力夫科技有限公司 Cutting robot control system based on UWB technology
US10272525B1 (en) 2017-12-27 2019-04-30 Velo3D, Inc. Three-dimensional printing systems and methods of their use
US10144176B1 (en) 2018-01-15 2018-12-04 Velo3D, Inc. Three-dimensional printing systems and methods of their use

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5595670A (en) * 1995-04-17 1997-01-21 The Twentyfirst Century Corporation Method of high speed high power welding
JP2009072789A (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-04-09 Hamamatsu Photonics Kk Laser machining apparatus

Family Cites Families (225)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2264968A (en) 1938-02-14 1941-12-02 Magnafiux Corp Apparatus for measuring wall thickness
US2323715A (en) 1941-10-17 1943-07-06 Gen Electric Thermal testing apparatus
US3634644A (en) 1968-12-30 1972-01-11 Ogden Eng Corp Method and apparatus for welding together beam components
US3882477A (en) 1973-03-26 1975-05-06 Peter H Mueller Smoke and heat detector incorporating an improved smoke chamber
US3838496A (en) 1973-04-09 1974-10-01 C Kelly Welding apparatus and method
US3906229A (en) 1973-06-12 1975-09-16 Raytheon Co High energy spatially coded image detecting systems
US3908124A (en) 1974-07-01 1975-09-23 Us Energy Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy
US4348576A (en) 1979-01-12 1982-09-07 Steigerwald Strahltechnik Gmbh Position regulation of a charge carrier beam
US4314134A (en) 1979-11-23 1982-02-02 Ford Motor Company Beam position control for electron beam welder
JPS6319590B2 (en) 1980-05-02 1988-04-23 Sumitomo Electric Industries
US4352565A (en) 1981-01-12 1982-10-05 Rowe James M Speckle pattern interferometer
US4541055A (en) 1982-09-01 1985-09-10 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Laser machining system
US4863538A (en) 1986-10-17 1989-09-05 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Method and apparatus for producing parts by selective sintering
US5182170A (en) 1989-09-05 1993-01-26 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Method of producing parts by selective beam interaction of powder with gas phase reactant
US4927992A (en) 1987-03-04 1990-05-22 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Energy beam casting of metal articles
EP0289116A1 (en) 1987-03-04 1988-11-02 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Method and device for casting powdered materials
US4818562A (en) 1987-03-04 1989-04-04 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Casting shapes
DE3736391C1 (en) 1987-10-28 1989-02-16 Du Pont Deutschland A process for coating of previously tackified Oberflaechenbereichen
IL109511A (en) 1987-12-23 1996-10-16 Cubital Ltd Three-dimensional modelling apparatus
US4958431A (en) 1988-03-14 1990-09-25 Westinghouse Electric Corp. More creep resistant turbine rotor, and procedures for repair welding of low alloy ferrous turbine components
US4888490A (en) 1988-05-24 1989-12-19 University Of Southern California Optical proximity apparatus and method using light sources being modulated at different frequencies
US5876550A (en) 1988-10-05 1999-03-02 Helisys, Inc. Laminated object manufacturing apparatus and method
DE3923899A1 (en) 1989-07-19 1991-01-31 Leybold Ag A method for the control of the landing positions of a plurality of electron beams on a molten bath
US5135695A (en) 1989-12-04 1992-08-04 Board Of Regents The University Of Texas System Positioning, focusing and monitoring of gas phase selective beam deposition
US5204055A (en) 1989-12-08 1993-04-20 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Three-dimensional printing techniques
US5118192A (en) 1990-07-11 1992-06-02 Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. System for 3-D inspection of objects
JPH04167989A (en) * 1990-10-31 1992-06-16 Kobe Steel Ltd Two beam laser welding method
JPH04167987A (en) * 1990-10-31 1992-06-16 Kobe Steel Ltd Laser beam welding apparatus
JPH04332537A (en) 1991-05-03 1992-11-19 Horiba Ltd Method for measuring osteosalt
US5252264A (en) 1991-11-08 1993-10-12 Dtm Corporation Apparatus and method for producing parts with multi-directional powder delivery
JP3100209B2 (en) 1991-12-20 2000-10-16 三菱重工業株式会社 Vacuum deposition for deflecting an electron gun apparatus
DE4231489A1 (en) * 1992-09-21 1994-03-24 Kugler Gmbh Feinmechanik & Opt Mirror with a concave surface for producing an intensity distribution - with a non-spherical mirror surface built up of strips set at an angle to one another
US5393482A (en) 1993-10-20 1995-02-28 United Technologies Corporation Method for performing multiple beam laser sintering employing focussed and defocussed laser beams
US5483036A (en) 1993-10-28 1996-01-09 Sandia Corporation Method of automatic measurement and focus of an electron beam and apparatus therefor
DE4400523C2 (en) 1994-01-11 1996-07-11 Eos Electro Optical Syst Method and apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object
US5906863A (en) 1994-08-08 1999-05-25 Lombardi; John Methods for the preparation of reinforced three-dimensional bodies
US5511103A (en) 1994-10-19 1996-04-23 Seiko Instruments Inc. Method of X-ray mapping analysis
US5572431A (en) 1994-10-19 1996-11-05 Bpm Technology, Inc. Apparatus and method for thermal normalization in three-dimensional article manufacturing
DE19511772C2 (en) 1995-03-30 1997-09-04 Eos Electro Optical Syst Apparatus and method for producing a three-dimensional object
US5837960A (en) 1995-08-14 1998-11-17 The Regents Of The University Of California Laser production of articles from powders
DE19606128A1 (en) 1996-02-20 1997-08-21 Eos Electro Optical Syst Apparatus and method for producing a three-dimensional object
US5883357A (en) 1996-03-25 1999-03-16 Case Western Reserve University Selective vacuum gripper
US6046426A (en) 1996-07-08 2000-04-04 Sandia Corporation Method and system for producing complex-shape objects
DE19846478C5 (en) 1998-10-09 2004-10-14 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Laser-sintering machine
DE19853947C1 (en) 1998-11-23 2000-02-24 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Process chamber for selective laser fusing of material powder comprises a raised section in the cover surface above the structure volume, in which a window is arranged for the coupling in of the laser beam
US6162378A (en) 1999-02-25 2000-12-19 3D Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for variably controlling the temperature in a selective deposition modeling environment
FR2790418B1 (en) 1999-03-01 2001-05-11 Optoform Sarl Procedes De Prot Process for rapid prototyping allows the use of pasty materials, and device for its implementation
US6204469B1 (en) * 1999-03-04 2001-03-20 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Laser welding system
US6391251B1 (en) 1999-07-07 2002-05-21 Optomec Design Company Forming structures from CAD solid models
US6811744B2 (en) 1999-07-07 2004-11-02 Optomec Design Company Forming structures from CAD solid models
DE19939616C5 (en) 1999-08-20 2008-05-21 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Device for the generative production of a three-dimensional object
US6537052B1 (en) 1999-08-23 2003-03-25 Richard J. Adler Method and apparatus for high speed electron beam rapid prototyping
DE19952998B4 (en) 1999-11-04 2004-04-15 Ebert, Robby, Dipl.-Phys. Device for the direct production of bodies in the layer structure of pulverulent substances
SE521124C2 (en) 2000-04-27 2003-09-30 Arcam Ab Device and method for producing a three-dimensional product
US6676892B2 (en) 2000-06-01 2004-01-13 Board Of Regents, University Texas System Direct selective laser sintering of metals
SE520565C2 (en) 2000-06-16 2003-07-29 Ivf Industriforskning Och Utve A method and apparatus for the manufacture of articles by FFF
AU7369301A (en) 2000-07-26 2002-02-05 Aeromet Corp Tubular body with deposited features and method of manufacture therefor
US6751516B1 (en) 2000-08-10 2004-06-15 Richardson Technologies, Inc. Method and system for direct writing, editing and transmitting a three dimensional part and imaging systems therefor
DE10047615A1 (en) 2000-09-26 2002-04-25 Generis Gmbh Swap bodies
DE10058748C1 (en) 2000-11-27 2002-07-25 Markus Dirscherl A method for producing a component and device for carrying out the method
US6492651B2 (en) 2001-02-08 2002-12-10 3D Systems, Inc. Surface scanning system for selective deposition modeling
EP1234625A1 (en) 2001-02-21 2002-08-28 Trumpf Werkzeugmaschinen GmbH + Co. KG Process and apparatus for producing a shaped body by selective laser sintering
US6732943B2 (en) 2001-04-05 2004-05-11 Aradigm Corporation Method of generating uniform pores in thin polymer films
US6656410B2 (en) 2001-06-22 2003-12-02 3D Systems, Inc. Recoating system for using high viscosity build materials in solid freeform fabrication
US6419203B1 (en) 2001-07-20 2002-07-16 Chi Hung Dang Vibration isolator with parallelogram mechanism
US7275925B2 (en) 2001-08-30 2007-10-02 Micron Technology, Inc. Apparatus for stereolithographic processing of components and assemblies
DE10157647C5 (en) 2001-11-26 2012-03-08 Cl Schutzrechtsverwaltungs Gmbh Method for producing three-dimensional workpieces in a laser material processing system or a stereolithography system
JP2003241394A (en) 2002-02-21 2003-08-27 Pioneer Electronic Corp Electron beam lithography system
JP3724437B2 (en) 2002-02-25 2005-12-07 松下電工株式会社 Manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus for three-dimensional shaped object
US7008454B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2006-03-07 Biomedical Engineering Trust I Prosthetic knee with removable stop pin for limiting anterior sliding movement of bearing
DE10219984C1 (en) 2002-05-03 2003-08-14 Bego Medical Ag Device for producing freely formed products through a build-up of layers of powder-form material, has powder spread over a lowerable table, and then solidified in layers by a laser energy source
US20050282300A1 (en) 2002-05-29 2005-12-22 Xradia, Inc. Back-end-of-line metallization inspection and metrology microscopy system and method using x-ray fluorescence
US20040012124A1 (en) 2002-07-10 2004-01-22 Xiaochun Li Apparatus and method of fabricating small-scale devices
US6746506B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2004-06-08 Extrude Hone Corporation Blended powder solid-supersolidus liquid phase sintering
DE10235434A1 (en) 2002-08-02 2004-02-12 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Device for producing a three-dimensional object by e.g. selective laser sintering comprises a support and a material-distributing unit which move relative to each other
DE10236697A1 (en) 2002-08-09 2004-02-26 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Method and device for producing a three-dimensional object by means of sintering
US7020539B1 (en) 2002-10-01 2006-03-28 Southern Methodist University System and method for fabricating or repairing a part
US20040084814A1 (en) 2002-10-31 2004-05-06 Boyd Melissa D. Powder removal system for three-dimensional object fabricator
US7537664B2 (en) 2002-11-08 2009-05-26 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Laser-produced porous surface
US20050049751A1 (en) 2002-11-11 2005-03-03 Farnworth Warren M. Machine vision systems for use with programmable material consolidation apparatus and systems
SE524467C2 (en) 2002-12-13 2004-08-10 Arcam Ab Apparatus for producing a three-dimensional product, which device comprises a housing
SE524432C2 (en) 2002-12-19 2004-08-10 Arcam Ab Device and method for producing a three-dimensional product
SE524420C2 (en) 2002-12-19 2004-08-10 Arcam Ab Device and method for producing a three-dimensional product
SE524421C2 (en) 2002-12-19 2004-08-10 Arcam Ab Device and method for producing a three-dimensional product
US6724001B1 (en) 2003-01-08 2004-04-20 International Business Machines Corporation Electron beam lithography apparatus with self actuated vacuum bypass valve
DE112004000302B3 (en) 2003-02-25 2010-08-26 Panasonic Electric Works Co., Ltd., Kadoma-shi Method and device for producing a three-dimensional object
DE20305843U1 (en) 2003-02-26 2003-06-26 Laserinstitut Mittelsachsen E Mechanism for manufacturing miniature or microstructure bodies with at least one support for bodies
DE10310385B4 (en) 2003-03-07 2006-09-21 Daimlerchrysler Ag Method for the production of three-dimensional bodies by means of powder-based layer-building methods
US6815636B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2004-11-09 3D Systems, Inc. Sintering using thermal image feedback
JP2007503342A (en) 2003-05-23 2007-02-22 ズィー コーポレイション Three-dimensional printing apparatus and method
US7435072B2 (en) 2003-06-02 2008-10-14 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Methods and systems for producing an object through solid freeform fabrication
GB0312909D0 (en) 2003-06-05 2003-07-09 Univ Liverpool Apparatus for manufacturing three dimensional items
GB0317387D0 (en) 2003-07-25 2003-08-27 Univ Loughborough Method and apparatus for combining particulate material
CA2436267C (en) 2003-07-30 2010-07-27 Control And Metering Limited Vibrating table assembly for bag filling apparatus
US20050173380A1 (en) 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Carbone Frank L. Directed energy net shape method and apparatus
DE102004009127A1 (en) 2004-02-25 2005-09-15 Bego Medical Ag Method and device for producing products by sintering and / or melting
DE102004009126A1 (en) 2004-02-25 2005-09-22 Bego Medical Ag Method and device for generating control data sets for the production of products by free-form sintering or melting and device for this production
JP4130813B2 (en) 2004-05-26 2008-08-06 松下電工株式会社 Three-dimensional shaped object manufacturing apparatus and light beam irradiation position and processing position correction method thereof
GB0421469D0 (en) 2004-09-27 2004-10-27 Dt Assembly & Test Europ Ltd Apparatus for monitoring engine exhaust
US7521652B2 (en) 2004-12-07 2009-04-21 3D Systems, Inc. Controlled cooling methods and apparatus for laser sintering part-cake
KR20060075922A (en) 2004-12-29 2006-07-04 동부일렉트로닉스 주식회사 X-ray detecting device and apparatus for analysing a sample using the same
US20060147332A1 (en) 2004-12-30 2006-07-06 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Laser-produced porous structure
WO2006091097A2 (en) 2005-01-14 2006-08-31 Cam Implants B.V. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures with a pattern identical to that of e.g. cancellous bone
DE102005014483B4 (en) 2005-03-30 2019-06-27 Realizer Gmbh Device for the production of articles by layering of powdered material
DE102005015870B3 (en) 2005-04-06 2006-10-26 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Device and method for producing a three-dimensional object
DE102005016940B4 (en) 2005-04-12 2007-03-15 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Apparatus and method for applying layers of powdered material to a surface
US7807947B2 (en) 2005-05-09 2010-10-05 3D Systems, Inc. Laser sintering process chamber gas curtain window cleansing in a laser sintering system
EP1879711B1 (en) 2005-05-11 2009-09-23 Arcam Ab Powder application system
JP2006332296A (en) 2005-05-26 2006-12-07 Hitachi High-Technologies Corp Focus correction method in electronic beam applied circuit pattern inspection
US7690909B2 (en) 2005-09-30 2010-04-06 3D Systems, Inc. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing system and method
DE102005056260B4 (en) 2005-11-25 2008-12-18 Prometal Rct Gmbh Method and device for the surface application of flowable material
US7557491B2 (en) 2006-02-09 2009-07-07 Citizen Holdings Co., Ltd. Electronic component package
DE102006014694B3 (en) 2006-03-28 2007-10-31 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Process chamber and method for processing a material with a directed beam of electromagnetic radiation, in particular for a laser sintering device
DE102006023484A1 (en) 2006-05-18 2007-11-22 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Apparatus and method for layering a three-dimensional object from a powdery building material
US20090206065A1 (en) 2006-06-20 2009-08-20 Jean-Pierre Kruth Procedure and apparatus for in-situ monitoring and feedback control of selective laser powder processing
US8187521B2 (en) 2006-07-27 2012-05-29 Arcam Ab Method and device for producing three-dimensional objects
CA2668897C (en) 2006-11-09 2016-10-18 Valspar Sourcing, Inc. Powder compositions and methods of manufacturing articles therefrom
DE102006055052A1 (en) 2006-11-22 2008-05-29 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Apparatus for layering a three-dimensional object
DE102006055078A1 (en) 2006-11-22 2008-06-05 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Apparatus for layering a three-dimensional object
DE102006059851B4 (en) 2006-12-15 2009-07-09 Cl Schutzrechtsverwaltungs Gmbh Method for producing a three-dimensional component
US8691329B2 (en) 2007-01-31 2014-04-08 General Electric Company Laser net shape manufacturing using an adaptive toolpath deposition method
US20080236738A1 (en) 2007-03-30 2008-10-02 Chi-Fung Lo Bonded sputtering target and methods of manufacture
DE102007018126A1 (en) 2007-04-16 2008-10-30 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Production method for high-temperature components and component produced therewith
DE102007018601B4 (en) 2007-04-18 2013-05-23 Cl Schutzrechtsverwaltungs Gmbh Device for producing three-dimensional objects
KR101491678B1 (en) 2007-05-15 2015-02-09 아르켐 에이비 Method and Device for Producing Three-Dimensional Objects
DE102007029052A1 (en) 2007-06-21 2009-01-02 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Method and device for producing a component based on three-dimensional data of the component
GB0712027D0 (en) 2007-06-21 2007-08-01 Materials Solutions Rotating build plate
DE102007029142A1 (en) 2007-06-25 2009-01-02 3D-Micromac Ag Layer application device for electrostatic layer application of a powdery material and apparatus and method for producing a three-dimensional object
JP4916392B2 (en) 2007-06-26 2012-04-11 パナソニック株式会社 Manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus for three-dimensional shaped object
EP2011631B1 (en) 2007-07-04 2012-04-18 Envisiontec GmbH Process and device for producing a three-dimensional object
DE102007056984A1 (en) 2007-11-27 2009-05-28 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Method for producing a three-dimensional object by means of laser sintering
CN101903124A (en) 2007-12-06 2010-12-01 阿卡姆股份公司 Apparatus and method for producing a three-dimensional object
EP2231352B1 (en) 2008-01-03 2013-10-16 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for producing three-dimensional objects
US20090206056A1 (en) 2008-02-14 2009-08-20 Songlin Xu Method and Apparatus for Plasma Process Performance Matching in Multiple Wafer Chambers
DE102008012064B4 (en) 2008-02-29 2015-07-09 Cl Schutzrechtsverwaltungs Gmbh Method and device for producing a hybrid molding produced by a hybrid process and hybrid molding produced by the process
DE202008005417U1 (en) 2008-04-17 2008-07-03 Hochschule Mittweida (Fh) Device for producing objects from powder particles for the safe handling of a quantity of powder particles
EP2281677B1 (en) 2008-04-21 2015-12-23 Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd. Laminate molding device
US20090283501A1 (en) 2008-05-15 2009-11-19 General Electric Company Preheating using a laser beam
EP2337668B1 (en) 2008-10-20 2013-03-20 Technische Universität Wien Method and device for processing light-polymerizable material for building up an object in layers
EP2398611B1 (en) 2009-02-18 2014-04-16 Arcam Ab Apparatus for producing a three-dimensional object
US8452073B2 (en) 2009-04-08 2013-05-28 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Closed-loop process control for electron beam freeform fabrication and deposition processes
ES2663554T3 (en) 2009-04-28 2018-04-13 Bae Systems Plc Additive layer manufacturing method
US8449283B2 (en) 2009-06-12 2013-05-28 Corning Incorporated Dies for forming extrusions with thick and thin walls
FR2948044B1 (en) 2009-07-15 2014-02-14 Phenix Systems Thin-layering device and method of using such a device
JP5555769B2 (en) 2009-07-15 2014-07-23 アーカム・アーベー Method and apparatus for making a three-dimensional object
CN101607311B (en) 2009-07-22 2011-09-14 华中科技大学 Fast forming method of fusion of metal powder of three beams of laser compound scanning
EP2459361B1 (en) 2009-07-29 2019-11-06 Zydex Pty Ltd 3d printing on a rotating cylindrical surface
EP2292357B1 (en) 2009-08-10 2016-04-06 BEGO Bremer Goldschlägerei Wilh.-Herbst GmbH & Co KG Ceramic article and methods for producing such article
CN101635210B (en) 2009-08-24 2011-03-09 西安理工大学 Method for repairing defect in tungsten copper-copper integral electric contact material
EP2289652B1 (en) 2009-08-25 2014-04-16 BEGO Medical GmbH Device and method for generative production
FR2949667B1 (en) 2009-09-09 2011-08-19 Obl Porous structure with a controlled pattern, repeat in space, for the production of surgical implants
WO2011034985A1 (en) 2009-09-17 2011-03-24 Sciaky, Inc. Electron beam layer manufacturing
DE102009043597A1 (en) 2009-09-25 2011-04-07 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for producing a marked object
DE102009053190A1 (en) 2009-11-08 2011-07-28 FIT Fruth Innovative Technologien GmbH, 92331 Apparatus and method for producing a three-dimensional body
US10166316B2 (en) 2009-11-12 2019-01-01 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Controlled randomized porous structures and methods for making same
WO2011059621A1 (en) * 2009-11-13 2011-05-19 Sciaky, Inc. Electron beam layer manufacturing using scanning electron monitored closed loop control
US20130256286A1 (en) * 2009-12-07 2013-10-03 Ipg Microsystems Llc Laser processing using an astigmatic elongated beam spot and using ultrashort pulses and/or longer wavelengths
DE102010011059A1 (en) 2010-03-11 2011-09-15 Global Beam Technologies Ag Method and device for producing a component
US8487534B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2013-07-16 General Electric Company Pierce gun and method of controlling thereof
EP2555902B1 (en) 2010-03-31 2018-04-25 Sciaky Inc. Raster methodology for electron beam layer manufacturing using closed loop control
DE102010020416A1 (en) 2010-05-12 2011-11-17 Eos Gmbh Electro Optical Systems Construction space changing device and a device for producing a three-dimensional object with a construction space changing device
CN201693176U (en) 2010-06-13 2011-01-05 华南理工大学 Quick forming flexible preset metal powder spreading device
DE102010050531A1 (en) 2010-09-08 2012-03-08 Mtu Aero Engines Gmbh Generatively producing portion of component, which is constructed from individual powder layers, comprises heating powder layer locally on melting temperature, forming molten bath, reheating zone downstream to the molten bath
DE102010041284A1 (en) 2010-09-23 2012-03-29 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for selective laser sintering and equipment suitable for this method for selective laser sintering
DE102010049521B3 (en) 2010-10-25 2012-04-12 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Device for generating an electron beam
RU2553796C2 (en) 2011-01-28 2015-06-20 Аркам Аб Production of 3d body
DE102011009624A1 (en) 2011-01-28 2012-08-02 Mtu Aero Engines Gmbh Method and device for process monitoring
US8319181B2 (en) 2011-01-30 2012-11-27 Fei Company System and method for localization of large numbers of fluorescent markers in biological samples
US8568124B2 (en) 2011-04-21 2013-10-29 The Ex One Company Powder spreader
DE102011105045B3 (en) 2011-06-20 2012-06-21 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Producing a component by a layered structure using selective laser melting, comprises for each layer fusing a powdery component material corresponding to a desired geometry of the component, using a laser beam and solidifying by cooling
FR2980380B1 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-03-06 Snecma Strategy for manufacturing a metal piece by selective fusion of a powder
FR2984779B1 (en) 2011-12-23 2015-06-19 Michelin Soc Tech Method and apparatus for realizing three dimensional objects
CN104066536B (en) 2011-12-28 2016-12-14 阿卡姆股份公司 For the method manufacturing porous three-dimensional article
US9079248B2 (en) 2011-12-28 2015-07-14 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for increasing the resolution in additively manufactured three-dimensional articles
EP2797730B1 (en) 2011-12-28 2016-08-03 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for detecting defects in freeform fabrication
TWI472427B (en) 2012-01-20 2015-02-11 財團法人工業技術研究院 Device and method for powder distribution and additive manufacturing method using the same
JP2013171925A (en) 2012-02-20 2013-09-02 Canon Inc Charged particle beam device and article manufacturing method using the same
GB201205591D0 (en) 2012-03-29 2012-05-16 Materials Solutions Apparatus and methods for additive-layer manufacturing of an article
WO2013159811A1 (en) 2012-04-24 2013-10-31 Arcam Ab Safety protection method and apparatus for additive manufacturing device
US9064671B2 (en) 2012-05-09 2015-06-23 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for generating electron beams
WO2013167194A1 (en) 2012-05-11 2013-11-14 Arcam Ab Powder distribution in additive manufacturing
FR2991208B1 (en) 2012-06-01 2014-06-06 Michelin & Cie Machine and process for additive manufacture of powder
WO2014071968A1 (en) 2012-11-06 2014-05-15 Arcam Ab Powder pre-processing for additive manufacturing
WO2014092651A1 (en) 2012-12-16 2014-06-19 Blacksmith Group Pte. Ltd. A 3d printer with a controllable rotary surface and method for 3d printing with controllable rotary surface
CN104853901B (en) 2012-12-17 2018-06-05 阿卡姆股份公司 Added material manufacturing method and equipment
WO2014095208A1 (en) 2012-12-17 2014-06-26 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
JP2014125643A (en) 2012-12-25 2014-07-07 Honda Motor Co Ltd Apparatus for three-dimensional shaping and method for three-dimensional shaping
US9364995B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-06-14 Matterrise, Inc. Three-dimensional printing and scanning system and method
US9550207B2 (en) 2013-04-18 2017-01-24 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
US9676031B2 (en) 2013-04-23 2017-06-13 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for forming a three-dimensional article
US9415443B2 (en) 2013-05-23 2016-08-16 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
DE102013210242A1 (en) 2013-06-03 2014-12-04 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Plant for selective laser melting with rotating relative movement between powder bed and powder distributor
US20140363326A1 (en) 2013-06-10 2014-12-11 Grid Logic Incorporated System and method for additive manufacturing
GB201310762D0 (en) 2013-06-17 2013-07-31 Rolls Royce Plc An additive layer manufacturing method
US9468973B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2016-10-18 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
CN203509463U (en) 2013-07-30 2014-04-02 华南理工大学 Composite manufacturing device with conformal cooling channel injection mold
GB201313840D0 (en) 2013-08-02 2013-09-18 Rolls Royce Plc Method of Manufacturing a Component
JP2015038237A (en) 2013-08-19 2015-02-26 独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所 Laminated molding, powder laminate molding apparatus, and powder laminate molding method
US9505057B2 (en) 2013-09-06 2016-11-29 Arcam Ab Powder distribution in additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US9676033B2 (en) 2013-09-20 2017-06-13 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
TWI624350B (en) 2013-11-08 2018-05-21 財團法人工業技術研究院 Powder shaping method and apparatus thereof
US9802253B2 (en) 2013-12-16 2017-10-31 Arcam Ab Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US10130993B2 (en) 2013-12-18 2018-11-20 Arcam Ab Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US10434572B2 (en) 2013-12-19 2019-10-08 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US9789563B2 (en) 2013-12-20 2017-10-17 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
EP3102389B1 (en) 2014-02-06 2019-08-28 United Technologies Corporation An additive manufacturing system with a multi-laser beam gun and method of operation
US9789541B2 (en) 2014-03-07 2017-10-17 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US9770869B2 (en) 2014-03-18 2017-09-26 Stratasys, Inc. Additive manufacturing with virtual planarization control
JP2015193866A (en) 2014-03-31 2015-11-05 日本電子株式会社 Three-dimensional lamination molding device, three-dimensional lamination molding system and three-dimensional lamination molding method
US20150283613A1 (en) 2014-04-02 2015-10-08 Arcam Ab Method for fusing a workpiece
US9341467B2 (en) 2014-08-20 2016-05-17 Arcam Ab Energy beam position verification
US20160052056A1 (en) 2014-08-22 2016-02-25 Arcam Ab Enhanced electron beam generation
US20160052079A1 (en) 2014-08-22 2016-02-25 Arcam Ab Enhanced additive manufacturing
US20160059314A1 (en) 2014-09-03 2016-03-03 Arcam Ab Method for improved material properties in additive manufacturing
US20160129501A1 (en) 2014-11-06 2016-05-12 Arcam Ab Method for improved powder layer quality in additive manufacturing
US20160167303A1 (en) 2014-12-15 2016-06-16 Arcam Ab Slicing method
US9406483B1 (en) 2015-01-21 2016-08-02 Arcam Ab Method and device for characterizing an electron beam using an X-ray detector with a patterned aperture resolver and patterned aperture modulator
US20160279735A1 (en) 2015-03-27 2016-09-29 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US20160311021A1 (en) 2015-04-21 2016-10-27 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US20170087661A1 (en) 2015-09-24 2017-03-30 Arcam Ab X-ray calibration standard object
US20170106443A1 (en) 2015-10-15 2017-04-20 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for producing a three-dimensional article
US20170136542A1 (en) 2015-11-18 2017-05-18 Arcam Ab Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional articles
US20170259338A1 (en) 2016-03-11 2017-09-14 Arcam Ab Method and apparatus for forming a three-dimensional article
US20170341142A1 (en) 2016-05-24 2017-11-30 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing
US20170348792A1 (en) 2016-06-01 2017-12-07 Arcam Ab Method for additive manufacturing

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5595670A (en) * 1995-04-17 1997-01-21 The Twentyfirst Century Corporation Method of high speed high power welding
JP2009072789A (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-04-09 Hamamatsu Photonics Kk Laser machining apparatus

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US10058921B2 (en) 2018-08-28
CN106457391A (en) 2017-02-22
US20180345377A1 (en) 2018-12-06
CN110538996A (en) 2019-12-06
US20150283613A1 (en) 2015-10-08
US20180369916A1 (en) 2018-12-27
US20170189964A1 (en) 2017-07-06
US10071423B2 (en) 2018-09-11
WO2015150014A1 (en) 2015-10-08
US20180200796A1 (en) 2018-07-19
US20180200797A1 (en) 2018-07-19
US9950367B2 (en) 2018-04-24
CN106457391B (en) 2019-10-11
EP3126088A1 (en) 2017-02-08

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
KR101820553B1 (en) Method for production of a three-dimensional body
EP1296788B1 (en) Device and arrangement for producing a three-dimensional object
EP1720676B1 (en) Method and device used to produce a set of control data for producing products by free-form sintering and/or melting, in addition to a device for the production thereof
CN104853901B (en) Added material manufacturing method and equipment
Zhai et al. Additive manufacturing: making imagination the major limitation
CN100515618C (en) Arrangement and method for producing a three-dimensional product
CN104023948B (en) For the method and apparatus detecting defect in mouldless shaping
JP4146385B2 (en) Sintering with thermal image feedback
US20170021455A1 (en) Multiple beam additive manufacturing
JP6571638B2 (en) Selective laser solidification apparatus and method
JP5018076B2 (en) Stereolithography apparatus and stereolithography method
US9308583B2 (en) System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing
JP2010505041A (en) Method for manufacturing an amorphous metal product
DE102011087374A1 (en) Process for the production of a molded article by layering of material powder
US20050263933A1 (en) Single side bi-directional feed for laser sintering
CN100515619C (en) Arrangement for production of a three dimensional object
US6694207B2 (en) Selective laser sintering with interleaved fill scan
JP2007030303A (en) Powder sintering lamination molding apparatus
EP2804744B1 (en) Method for increasing the resolution in additively manufactured three-dimensional articles
US20140140882A1 (en) Additive layer manufacturing method and apparatus
JP6435324B2 (en) Method and apparatus for additive manufacturing
JPH08260163A (en) Device for producing parts by selective sintering
US10328685B2 (en) Diode laser fiber array for powder bed fabrication or repair
Smith et al. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support
EP2794151A1 (en) Method and apparatus for producing three-dimensional objects

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
A621 Written request for application examination

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A621

Effective date: 20180123

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20181211

A977 Report on retrieval

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A971007

Effective date: 20181212

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20190220

RD03 Notification of appointment of power of attorney

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A7423

Effective date: 20190327

RD04 Notification of resignation of power of attorney

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A7424

Effective date: 20190329

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20190716

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20191016