JP2017148514A - Apparatuses using stretchable electronics for medical applications - Google Patents

Apparatuses using stretchable electronics for medical applications Download PDF

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JP2017148514A
JP2017148514A JP2017043690A JP2017043690A JP2017148514A JP 2017148514 A JP2017148514 A JP 2017148514A JP 2017043690 A JP2017043690 A JP 2017043690A JP 2017043690 A JP2017043690 A JP 2017043690A JP 2017148514 A JP2017148514 A JP 2017148514A
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Prior art keywords
circuit
array
substrate
devices
extensible
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
ガファリ、ルーズベ
Ghaffari Roozbeh
コールセン、ギルマン
Callsen Gilman
グラフ、バーゼル デ
De Graff Bassel
グラフ、バーゼル デ
ジェイ. アローラ、ウィリアム
J Arora William
ジェイ. アローラ、ウィリアム
シュラトゥカ、ベンジャミン
Schlatka Benjamin
クズネツォフ、ユージン
Kuznetsov Eugene
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エムシー10 インコーポレイテッドMc10,Inc.
Mc10 Inc
エムシー10 インコーポレイテッドMc10,Inc.
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Priority to US12156808P priority Critical
Priority to US12154108P priority
Priority to US61/121,541 priority
Priority to US61/121,568 priority
Priority to US61/140,169 priority
Priority to US14016908P priority
Priority to US12/575,008 priority
Priority to US12/575,008 priority patent/US9289132B2/en
Priority to US12/616,922 priority
Priority to US12/616,922 priority patent/US8389862B2/en
Application filed by エムシー10 インコーポレイテッドMc10,Inc., Mc10 Inc, エムシー10 インコーポレイテッドMc10,Inc. filed Critical エムシー10 インコーポレイテッドMc10,Inc.
Publication of JP2017148514A publication Critical patent/JP2017148514A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0059Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence
    • A61B5/0082Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence adapted for particular medical purposes
    • A61B5/0084Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence adapted for particular medical purposes for introduction into the body, e.g. by catheters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61B5/0048Detecting, measuring or recording by applying mechanical forces or stimuli
    • A61B5/0057Detecting, measuring or recording by applying mechanical forces or stimuli by applying motion other than vibrations, e.g. rolling, rubbing, applying a torque, tribometry
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    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/021Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
    • A61B5/0215Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels by means inserted into the body
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    • A61B5/036Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure; Measuring pressure in body tissues or organs by means introduced into body tracts
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    • A61B5/6802Sensor mounted on worn items
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    • A61B5/6867Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive specially adapted to be attached or implanted in a specific body part
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    • A61B1/04Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor combined with photographic or television appliances
    • A61B1/041Capsule endoscopes for imaging
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61B2562/12Manufacturing methods specially adapted for producing sensors for in-vivo measurements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
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    • A61B2562/16Details of sensor housings or probes; Details of structural supports for sensors
    • A61B2562/164Details of sensor housings or probes; Details of structural supports for sensors the sensor is mounted in or on a conformable substrate or carrier
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/45For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth
    • A61B5/4514Cartilage
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/95Instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts
    • A61F2/958Inflatable balloons for placing stents or stent-grafts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0001Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants
    • A61F2250/0002Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants for data transfer
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/33Controlling, regulating or measuring
    • A61M2205/3327Measuring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/10Balloon catheters

Abstract

An apparatus for using extensible electronic components for medical applications is provided. An apparatus includes an inflatable substrate and circuit elements disposed on the substrate, the circuit element comprising an array of active devices and maintaining functionality during expansion of the substrate. The array is configured and includes a circuit element including a sensing device that detects data indicating a parameter related to the tissue, and a processing facility in electronic communication with the circuit element that receives the data indicating the parameter related to the tissue And a processing facility that is in electronic communication with the processing facility, wherein the processing facility is configured to generate output data associated with the organization and cause the output facility to generate output data. [Selection] Figure 1

Description

  This application includes the following US provisional application, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety: serial number 61 / 121,568 entitled "Endoscope Device" filed December 11, 2008, Serial number 61 / 121,541 entitled “Nerve Bundle Prosthesis” filed on December 11, 2008 and serial number named “Body Tissue Screener” filed on December 23, 2008. Insist on the benefits of 61 / 140,169. Further, this application is a co-pending US non-provisional patent application serial number 12/616 entitled “Extremely Stretchable Electronics” filed on November 12, 2009, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , No. 922, and claims its benefits. Non-provisional patent application serial number 12 / 616,922 is a US provisional application number 61 entitled “Extremely Stretchable Interconnects” filed on November 12, 2008, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. / 113,622 is a continuation-in-part application and claims its benefits. Similarly, non-provisional patent application Serial No. 12 / 616,922 is filed on October 7, 2009, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. And is a continuation-in-part of the co-pending US non-provisional application number 12 / 575,008 and claims its benefits. Non-provisional application no. 12 / 575,008 is a US provisional application number entitled “Catheter Ballon Sensor and Imaging Arrays” filed on Oct. 7, 2008, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. No. 61 / 103,361, and US Provisional Application No. 61/113, entitled “Catheter Balloon with Sensor and Imaging Arrays” filed on Nov. 10, 2008, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , 007 to claim priority.

  The present invention relates to a system, apparatus utilizing an expandable or extensible integrated circuit element and sensor array on an expandable, flexible or extensible substrate within or on a medical device. , And related to methods.

  High quality medical detection and imaging data has become important in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including conditions related to the digestive system, conditions related to the cardiovascular system, damage to the nervous system, cancer, and the like. It was. Current sensing and therapy devices suffer from various drawbacks due to the lack of sophistication associated with sensing, imaging, and therapy functions. One of these drawbacks is that such devices cannot achieve direct or conformal contact with the body part being measured or treated. The inability of such devices to achieve direct or conformal contact may be due in part to the rigid nature of the device and associated circuit elements. This stiffness can change shape and size, as will be readily apparent, and human tissue and devices that can be soft, flexible, curved, and / or irregularly shaped Prevent conformation and / or direct contact. As such, this stiffness impairs the accuracy of the measurement and the effectiveness of the procedure. As such, devices, systems, and methods that use flexible and / or extensible systems are desirable.

Examples of areas that can accept such flexible and / or extensible procedures include endoscopy, vascular examination and treatment, neurological treatment and examination, and tissue screening.
As an example, endoscopic imaging of the digestive (GI) tract is essential for effective diagnosis and treatment of various GI diseases including inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, cancer detection. Elaborately, endoscopic imaging capsules may provide certain advantages over conventional endoscopes for a variety of reasons. That is, the endoscope imaging capsule can image a region along the GI tract with minimal patient discomfort and inaccessible with a conventional endoscope. All components are encapsulated within an elliptical body whose volume must be small enough to be swallowed and ingested. Thus, there are additional benefits to minimizing the volume of these ingestible capsules. There are also various features including power storage and imaging quality that can be significantly improved when the spatial layout of the components in the capsule is optimized. Furthermore, optical imagers in current endoscope capsules generally have a planar geometry, and the imager is aligned with the optical center of the lens. This geometry is subject to inherent limitations such as aberrations, peripheral distortions, and illumination non-uniformities. Stretchable and / or flexible circuit elements may alleviate some of the drawbacks described above with respect to capsule endoscopes and conventional endoscopic devices.

  Spinal cord and other complex brain or nerve damage is a major cause of disability, death, and distress, and to date there are a few effective treatments. As an example, the complexity of the spinal cord, consisting of thousands of nerve fibers and both substantia nigra and gray matter, makes surgical repair extremely difficult with a high degree of further irreversible damage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on reducing scarring and inducing regeneration with drugs or stem cells. Biotechnological solutions have also gained some interest. Experiments have been conducted on electrical sensing and stimulation of the ascending and descending bundles and have demonstrated that electrical impulses can be used to provide a level of functionality. Separately, there are devices in clinical use that perform electrical stimulation of nerves in and near the spine to treat chronic pain, but these devices are intended to restore nerve function. Not. Combining the benefits of these existing devices may not make enough progress towards dramatically improving spinal therapy due to some of the limitations described above. Thus, a need for devices, systems, and methods that are dynamically configurable and conformal that provide increased functionality to damaged nerves while minimizing the risk of further damage. Exists.

  Another example where the benefits of flexible and / or stretchable devices are required include tissue screening. While tissue screening tools are particularly important for early detection, assessment, and subsequent treatment of cancer, clinical diagnostic methods such as mammography and ultrasound imaging are expensive and require skilled personnel. Thus, approximately 2/3 of the cancer is first detected by palpation (ie, tactile sense when touched) self-examination. Palpation is a qualitative technique taught to women as a preclinical test for breast cancer, for example, performed at home. It is well known that cancerous tissue undergoes significant changes in mechanical properties relative to healthy tissue. Local lesions in breast cancer tissue are more than twice as stiff. Breast self-examination has facilitated early detection of sclerotic lesions that indicate tumor growth, but the qualitative nature of these studies is to confirm quantitative data that is important to the clinician or for a specified period of time. Make it difficult to analyze trends. Self-examination techniques typically involve manual detection of the location, size, shape, and density of the lesion by having the fingertip conformal around the lesion, thus quantifying the inherent mechanical properties of the tissue A device that can achieve conformal contact with the target tissue, which can be realized and recorded, has a significant impact on the way breast cancer screening is currently performed at home and in the clinical setting with the aid of mammography and ultrasound. It can affect.

  Finally, detection and treatment of cardiovascular conditions will significantly benefit from sensing devices, techniques, and techniques that improve the quality of data generated by the methods. Currently, these sensing technique devices and methods are severely limited by the inability to achieve intimate, direct, and / or conformal contact with a region of interest. Thus, collecting data related to tissue electrical, chemical, and other physical activities or conditions is compromised.

  Stretchable and / or flexible electronic devices can alleviate or overcome many of the disadvantages described above. Such techniques can be applied to the above areas, or any area of physiological sensing, medical detection, or medical diagnosis that will be improved by increased contact with the sensing or treatment device.

  Disclosed herein are methods, systems, and devices that use extensible and / or flexible circuit elements for physiological sensing, detection of health-related parameters, and delivery of therapeutic measures. In certain embodiments, the circuit elements are disposed on a stretchable, flexible, expandable, and / or inflatable substrate. In certain embodiments, the circuit elements comprise electronic devices (which may be active devices), which are in active electronic communication with each other as active devices and generate outputs and cause these outputs to be displayed on output equipment. , May be programmed or configured to deliver therapeutic measures, generate data regarding physiological parameters, and / or to determine health-related conditions. Embodiments of the invention may include a storage facility in communication with the processing facility. The processing facility may cause data generated by the active device and / or output data to be stored in the storage facility and may generate output data associated with the stored data. . The processing facility may cause data generated by the active device and / or output data to be aggregated and may generate output data associated with the aggregated data.

  In certain embodiments, the methods and systems herein may comprise a neuroprosthesis device. Thus, in aspects of the invention, methods, devices, and systems are substrates, on which an array of recording electrodes, at least a portion of the array of recording electrodes is electrically connected to a plurality of neural sources. Sometimes a substrate on which an array of recording electrodes that receives signals from a plurality of neural sources and a circuit element that may include an array of stimulation electrodes is disposed, and a processing facility in electronic communication with the array of electrodes. And a processing facility configured to receive a signal from the recording electrode and to determine a pattern of the stimulation signal provided by the stimulation electrode.

  In the aspects described above and other embodiments, the electrical connection may be a physical contact. Further, in certain embodiments, the apparatus may include a multiplexer configured to match the signal from the neural source and cause the stimulation electrode to dispatch the corresponding signal to the second plurality of nerves. The device may include a user interface that adjusts a pattern of stimulation signals that may be dynamically configurable.

In certain embodiments, the substrate is an inflatable body that may be a disc or a balloon.
In the aspect described above, the processing facility is further configured to generate data related to the electrical conductivity of the neural source. The processing facility may be in electronic communication with the output facility and may cause the output facility to generate a map based on data related to the electrical conductivity of the nerve source.

  In the aspects described above and in other embodiments, the circuit element may be coated with a thin layer of polymer. The circuit element may be extensible up to 300%. The electrodes may be arranged separately from each other. The circuit element may comprise an extensible electrical interconnect that may electrically connect the electrodes.

  In certain embodiments, the circuit element may comprise a sensor including a temperature sensor, a contact sensor, a photodetector, an ultrasonic emitter and receiver, a pressure sensor, or the like.

  In this aspect, described in connection with the neuroprosthesis and with respect to other embodiments disclosed herein, the substrate may include a reservoir in communication with the surface of the substrate, and the circuit element is contained within the reservoir. The valve that serves to release the drug may be configured to open and the circuit element may cause the valve to release the drug in a controlled manner.

In other embodiments, the methods and systems herein may comprise an inflatable device for sensing tissue.
Thus, according to another aspect of the present invention, the method and system includes an apparatus, the apparatus being an inflatable substrate on which circuit elements remain functional even when the substrate is inflated. And an inflatable substrate that may include an array of active devices including sensing devices that detect data indicative of tissue-related parameters, and a processing facility in electronic communication with the circuit elements. A processing facility that receives data indicating parameters related to the organization, and an output facility that is in electronic communication with the processing facility, the processing facility generates and outputs output data associated with the organization. The facility may be configured to generate output data.

  In the above-described aspects and other embodiments for sensing tissue, the processing facility may receive data generated by the sensing device and generate an image of the tissue. In certain embodiments, the sensing device is configured as an active matrix that may be activated by a circuit element that includes at least one of an amplifier and a logic circuit. In addition, the device may include a multiplexer that may be placed at the base of a catheter guidewire coupled to a substrate, which may be a balloon.

In certain embodiments, the processing facility may be in a circuit element. In other embodiments, it may be remote from the circuit elements.
In this aspect described above with respect to sensing tissue parameters, the output data associated with the tissue may be a map that includes a map of tissue electrical activity. The output data may include data related to temperature non-uniformity present in the arterial plaque. Further, the output data may include a plaque type indication.

  In the above-described aspects and other embodiments, the circuit element may comprise a treatment facility configured to ablate tissue. The circuit element may comprise a light emitting electronic component. The circuit element may comprise an array of photodetectors in communication with the processing facility, and the processing facility may be configured to generate an image of the tissue and cause the output facility to output a high resolution image. . When the circuit element is delivered by a catheter having a guide wire, the guide wire may include a light source (which may be an optical fiber) that provides light to the photodetector.

In certain embodiments, the target tissue may include any of the pulmonary veins, the heart septum, the heart arterial surface, and the heart ventricular surface.
In another aspect of the invention, methods and systems include methods for detecting parameters associated with lumens within an individual's body. The method includes inserting an uninflated balloon catheter into a lumen, the balloon catheter having an expandable balloon having an expandable circuit element attached thereto, the expandable circuit element including a sensing device. Providing, moving the sensing device into a target region within the lumen, and inflating the balloon to bring the sensing device into conformal contact with the surface of the target region within the lumen.

  With respect to the embodiments described above and other embodiments disclosed herein, the present invention is a sensing device that, when the sensing device is in conformal contact with a target region, provides data indicating parameters of the target region. A sensing device for generating may be provided. As with other embodiments, the generated data may be used to generate any of the image of the target area and the map of the target area, the map indicating the electrical activity of the target area Data may be included.

  In another aspect of the invention, methods and systems include methods for detecting parameters associated with lumens within an individual's body. The method includes inserting an uninflated balloon catheter into the lumen, the balloon catheter having an expandable balloon having an expandable circuit element attached thereto, the expandable circuit element being a sensing device. A step of moving the sensing device into the target region within the lumen, and inflating the balloon to bring the sensing device into conformal contact with the surface of the target region within the lumen.

  In yet another aspect of the invention, methods and systems include methods for detecting tissue parameters. The method includes bringing an array of active sensing devices comprising extensible circuitry into conformal contact with tissue, generating data with the sensing device, and determining parameters from the generated data. sell.

The methods and systems herein may comprise a tissue screening device.
Thus, in yet another aspect of the present invention, the method and system includes a tissue screening device, the tissue screening device comprising a stretchable circuit element comprising an array of active devices on which an area of interest can be secured. And a processing facility in electronic communication with the array of active devices and an output facility in electronic communication with the processing equipment, the processing equipment being generated by the array of active devices It is programmed to generate output data based on the processed data and display the output data on the output facility.

In this aspect, the substrate may be inflatable, as in other aspects. The substrate may be secured to the brassiere.
In certain embodiments, the sensor device includes a pressure sensor, and the pressure sensor may include an on-off switch coupled to the pressure sensor to indicate whether the pressure sensor has been activated.

  In the tissue screening embodiment and the other embodiments described above, the processing facility may receive data generated by the ultrasound emitter and receiver and may generate an image of the tissue.

In certain embodiments of the present invention, the output data comprises a contour map of the target area.
In certain aspects of the invention, methods and systems include methods for testing for cancerous or suspicious tissue, the methods of testing a wearable device that conforms to a target area on a subject's body. The wearable device comprises an array of extensible pressure sensors, a manual force applied to the wearable device sufficient to activate the array of pressure sensors, data from the pressure sensor And characterization of tissue in the region of interest based on the received data. Further in this aspect, the method and system includes instructing the subject to apply a manual force. In this aspect, the wearable device may be inflatable. In this aspect, the wearable device may be secured to the brassiere. In certain embodiments, the wearable device may be a sheet.

The methods and systems herein may comprise an endoscopic device.
Thus, in another aspect of the present invention, a method and system includes an endoscopic device, the endoscopic device being a housing that includes a focal plane array that generates visual data on and within the housing. A housing in which circuit elements may be mounted, a transmission facility in electronic communication with the circuit elements and configured to wirelessly transmit visual data, and an output facility for receiving and displaying visual data.

  In this aspect, the housing may be a capsule. The circuit element, transmission facility, and output facility may be mounted within the capsule. In this aspect, the housing may be disposed at the distal end of the endoscopic device. In this aspect, the circuit element further comprises light emitting electronic components. In this aspect, the circuit element may be configured to illuminate a selected portion of the light emitting electronic component. The circuit element may be secured to the outer surface of the housing, or the circuit element may be secured to the inner surface of the housing.

  Further, in embodiments related to the endoscope and other embodiments herein, the circuit element is capable of generating any data of data related to enzyme activity and data related to chemical activity. A device may be included.

  In this and other embodiments herein, the circuit element comprises a sensing device and a processing facility that receives data from the sensing device, wherein the processing facility is in electronic communication with the output facility. The processing facility may cause the output facility to display information related to the data generated by the sensing device.

Further, in this and other aspects, the endoscopic device includes a processing facility within the circuit element. Furthermore, in this aspect, the endoscopic device includes a processing facility remote from the circuit elements.
In this aspect, the visual data is an image. In this aspect, the visual data may be a map.

The methods and systems herein may comprise a dynamically configurable sheet of electronic devices.
Thus, in another aspect of the present invention, a method and system includes an electronic device configurable sheet, the electronic device configurable sheet containing an array of electronic devices in electronic communication with each other. Polling the array of electronic devices to determine a first set of information associated with the identification and location of each electronic device in the array, and a substantially planar substrate on which the functional circuit elements may be disposed The processing facility is configured to adjust the operation of the array based on information associated with a second set of information associated with the identification and location of each electronic device in the array. The In this aspect, the second set of information is received after the circuit element is reshaped, and the reshaping may be effected by cutting the circuit element.

  In certain embodiments, the array of electronic devices is configured such that when the sheet is at least one of in partial electrical contact with the target tissue and / or in partial conformal contact. A sensor device that generates data may also be included.

  The present invention will become more fully apparent from the following description and appended claims and the accompanying drawings. These figures are understood to show only exemplary embodiments of the invention, and therefore these figures are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. It will be readily appreciated that the components of the invention generally described and illustrated in the figures herein can be arranged and designed in a variety of different configurations. Nevertheless, the invention will be described and explained with additional specificity and detail through the use of the accompanying drawings in which:

1 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a buckled interconnection. FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a stretchable electronic component configuration using a semiconductor, where islands are mounted on an elastomeric substrate by stretchable interconnects. FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary extensible interconnect. FIG. 5 shows a raised extensible interconnect using an expandable elastomeric substrate. FIG. 3 shows a controlled adhesion method on an elastomeric stamp. FIG. 3 shows an embodiment of the present invention with an extensible circuit element attached to a deflating balloon catheter. (A) is an enlarged view of a circuit element. FIG. 3 shows an embodiment of the present invention with an expandable circuit element attached to an inflated balloon catheter. FIG. 3 is a side view of a balloon with a PDMS layer wrapped around the surface of the balloon. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing a catheter, the surface of a balloon, and a thin PDMS layer attached to the balloon. FIG. 5 shows a process for attaching an extensible circuit element to the surface of a catheter balloon. FIG. 5 shows a process for attaching an extensible circuit element to the surface of a catheter balloon. FIG. 5 shows a process for attaching an extensible circuit element to the surface of a catheter balloon. FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment of a pressure sensor utilized in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a three-lumen catheter according to an embodiment of the present invention. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a multiplexer according to an embodiment of the present invention. 1 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention including a neuroprosthesis. FIG. FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram for one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3 illustrates a process for operating an array of electronic devices according to one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment of the present invention that includes a neuroprosthesis. FIG. 6 illustrates one embodiment of the present invention having a reservoir for holding and delivering a therapeutic drug with a valve controlled by circuitry for delivering the therapeutic drug. FIG. 5 illustrates a process for assembling curved circuit elements according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates a process for attaching a curvilinear circuit element array to an endoscopic device, according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates a process for attaching a curvilinear circuit element array to an endoscopic device, according to one embodiment of the present invention. It is a figure which shows one Embodiment of the endoscopic device of this invention. 1 illustrates a tissue screening device according to one embodiment of the present invention. FIG.

  Detailed embodiments of the present invention are disclosed herein. However, it is understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary of the invention that may be embodied in various forms. Accordingly, the specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be construed as limiting, but merely as a basis for the claims and substantially any suitable To be used as a representative basis for teaching those skilled in the art to use the present invention in various ways with the structures detailed in. Furthermore, the terms and phrases used herein are not intended to be limiting, but rather are intended to provide an understandable description of the invention.

  The terms “a” or “an” as used herein are defined as one or more. The term “another” as used herein is defined as at least a second or more. The terms “including” and / or “having” as used herein are defined as comprising (ie, open transition). As used herein, the terms “coupled” or “operatively coupled” are not necessarily directly and not necessarily mechanically or physically connected, but connected. Is defined as “Electronic communication” is a state in which data can be transmitted or otherwise transmitted through a physical connection, a wireless connection, or a combination thereof.

  As described herein, the present invention comprises devices, systems, and methods that utilize flexible and / or extensible electronics on a flexible, expandable, or expandable surface. In the context of the present invention, the term “stretchable” and its stems and derivatives, when used to modify a circuit element or component of the present invention, are longer or longer without tearing or breaking. Represents circuit elements and / or components of the present invention that have soft or elastic properties that can be widened and are adapted to stretchable, expandable, or expandable surfaces, respectively stretched, expanded, or Components that are configured to maintain functionality when applied to other expandable, expandable, or expandable surfaces (whether the components themselves are individually extensible as described above) Also includes circuit elements having (whether or not). The term “expandable” and its stem and derivatives are meant to have the above-mentioned meaning when used to modify a circuit element or component of the present invention. As such, “stretch” and “expand” and all derivatives thereof may be used interchangeably when referring to the present invention. The term “flexible” and its stem and derivatives, when used to modify a circuit element or component of the present invention, and / or a circuit element of the present invention that can be bent without breaking and / or Or a component that represents a component and that is configured to maintain functionality when applied to a flexible surface that bends or otherwise bends (the component itself is individually as described above). It is also meant to encompass circuit elements having (whether flexible or not). In certain embodiments, the lower limit of “stretchable” results in a material strain greater than 0.5% without crushing, and the upper limit is 100,000% stretch without degradation of electrical performance. Paraphrased as a possible structure. “Bendable” and its stems and derivatives, when used to modify a circuit element or component of the present invention, may be curvilinear or shaped (at least in part) at an angle. Represents a circuit element or component of the present invention that can be, and sometimes can be used interchangeably with "flexible" herein.

  FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of the present invention. Further descriptions of each of the components of FIG. 1 are included throughout this specification. Circuit element 1000S is attached to substrate 200, secured, or otherwise secured. In certain embodiments, the substrate 200 is extensible and / or expandable as described herein. Thus, the substrate 200 can be made from a plastic material or from an elastomeric material or a combination thereof. “Plastic” refers to any synthetic material, naturally occurring material, or a combination of materials that are typically molded or molded upon heating and can be cured to the desired shape. The term “elastomer” refers to a naturally occurring or synthetic material, as well as a polymeric material that can stretch or deform and return to its original shape without substantial permanent deformation. Such elastomers can withstand substantial elastic deformation. Examples of elastomers used in the substrate material include polymeric organosilicon compounds (commonly referred to as “silicones”) including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

  Other materials suitable for the substrate include polyimide, photopatternable silicone, SU8 polymer, PDS polydustrene, parylene and its derivatives and copolymers thereof (parylene-N), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). ), Polyurethane (PTG Elastane (registered trademark), Dow Pellethane (registered trademark)), polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, polymer composite (PTG Purisil Al (registered trademark), PTG Bionate (registered trademark), PTG Carbosil), silicone / Siloxane (RTV 615 (registered trademark), Sylgard 184 (registered trademark)), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon (registered trademark)), polyamic acid, polyacrylic Includes methyl acid, stainless steel, titanium and its alloys, platinum and its alloys, and gold. In certain embodiments, the substrate is an extensible or flexible biocompatible material having properties that allow some devices to remain in the body 2000 for a period of time without being removed. Made from.

  Some of the materials mentioned above, in particular parylene and its derivatives and copolymers thereof (parylene-N), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyurethane (PTG Elastane®, Dow Pellethane®) ), Polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, polymer composite (PTG Purisil Al®, PTG Bionate®, PTG Carbosil), silicone / siloxane (RTV 615®, Sylgard 184®) , Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon®), polyamic acid, polymethyl acrylate, stainless steel, titanium and its alloys, platinum and its alloys, and gold It is sexuality. The coating for the substrate to increase its biocompatibility may comprise PTFE, polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, and poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid).

  It may be understood that the materials disclosed herein for substrate 200 apply to any of the embodiments disclosed herein that require a substrate. A material has its properties including a degree of stiffness, a degree of flexibility, a degree of elasticity, or a property related to the modulus of elasticity of the material, including Young's modulus, tensile modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and / or It should also be noted that it may be selected based on its biodegradability.

  The substrate 200 may be any number of shapes or configurations that are contemplated. In certain embodiments, the substrate 200 is substantially planar, and in some embodiments is configured to be in the form of a sheet or strip. However, it should be noted that such a planar configuration of the substrate 200 can be any number of geometries. Other embodiments of planar substrates including substrates such as tapes or having a sheet configuration will be described below. A flexible and / or extensible substrate 200 having a substantially planar configuration in a sheet or other manner is configured to be folded, rolled up, bundled, wound, or otherwise received. May be. In certain embodiments, the substrate 200 thus configured is folded, rolled up, bundled, and collapsed (such as in an umbrella-like configuration) during delivery in a narrow passage in the subject's body 2000. , Wrapped, or otherwise accommodated, and then deployed, such as unfolded in place for deployment. As a non-limiting example, the folded substrate 200 with the sensing device 1100 is delivered through a catheter and then to the target tissue such as the surface of the heart or the inner surface of a lumen such as a pulmonary vein. Is spread out when it is desired to touch. In certain embodiments, the substrate 200 may also be formed in concave and convex shapes such as lenses. Such convex and concave substrates can be made of materials suitable for contact with the eye, such as contact lenses, or for implantation into the eye, such as a retina or corneal implant.

  The substrate 200 may also be three dimensional. The three-dimensional substrate 200 can have any number of shapes. Such a three-dimensional substrate may be solid or substantially solid. In certain embodiments, the three-dimensional substrate is flexible, flexible, extensible, such as foam or flexible / extensible, while still comprising a uniform or substantially uniform material throughout its form. A spherical, oval, cylindrical, disk-like or other three-dimensional object made of a functional polymer. In certain embodiments, the three-dimensional substrate 200 may be made from several types of materials. In the presently preferred embodiment for the three-dimensional substrate 200, the substrate is an inflatable body (also referred to herein as an elastomeric vessel). This type of inflatable body, such as a balloon or the like, may be extensible. However, in other embodiments, the expandable body expands without stretching. In certain embodiments, the expansion can be accomplished with a gas or liquid. In some embodiments, expansion with viscous fluids is preferred, but it will be apparent that various gases, fluids, or gels may be used for such expansion. Embodiments comprising balloon-like and disc-like inflatable substrates are discussed in further detail below. The system for achieving expansion discussed with respect to these embodiments applies to all inflatable substrate embodiments herein.

  In embodiments where the substrate 200 is extensible, the circuit element 1000S is configured in an applicable manner as described herein to be extensible and / or to accommodate such stretching of the substrate 200. . Similarly, in embodiments where the substrate 200 is flexible but not necessarily extensible, the circuit element 1000S is described herein to be flexible and / or to accommodate such deflection of the substrate 200. Consists of applicable methods described in the book. Circuit element 1000S may be applied and / or configured using the applicable techniques described below, including the techniques described with respect to the exemplary embodiments.

  As noted above, the present invention may use one or more flexible and / or extensible electronic component technologies. Traditionally, electronic devices have been manufactured on rigid structures such as integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, flexible printed circuit boards, and printed circuit boards. Integrated circuits, also called ICs, microcircuits, microchips, silicon chips, or simple chips are traditionally manufactured on a thin substrate of semiconductor material, mainly due to the high temperatures required in the process of depositing inorganic semiconductors. Limited to rigid substrates. Hybrid integrated circuits and printed circuit boards have been the main method for integrating multiple ICs, such as by placing the ICs on ceramic, epoxy resin, or other hard and non-conductive surfaces. These interconnect surfaces have traditionally been rigid to ensure that electrical interconnect methods, such as solder joints to the board and metal traces across the board, do not break or break when bent. It was. In addition, the IC itself may break when bent. As such, the electronics art has been largely constrained by rigid electronic device structures, but this time may require at least one of the flexibility and extensibility required by the embodiments disclosed herein. There is a tendency to restrict the application of electronic technology. For example, a high level of detection can be achieved by allowing an electronic device, such as a sensor device, to be in intimate or direct contact with the tissue of interest. The rigid devices described above have prevented such direct contact. The embodiments described below achieve such direct contact (sometimes described as “conformal contact”).

  Advances in flexible and bendable electronic technologies, for example, include the use of organic and inorganic semiconductors together on flexible plastic substrates, as well as flexible electronics that enable other technologies described herein. Brought about the application of technology. In addition, applications that require extensibility in electronic devices by placing ICs on flexible substrates, methods of extensible electrical interconnection, and other techniques described herein. An extensible electronic device technology has been introduced. In the present invention, the electronic device must be rigid and flat, such as an application in which the electronic device needs to have flexibility, flexibility, expandability, extensibility, or the like. In applications that need to operate in a configuration, one or more of these techniques with flexibility, flexibility, extensibility, and similar properties may be utilized.

  Depending on the embodiment, the circuit of the present invention may be fabricated in part or in whole using the techniques and methods described below. In addition, the following description regarding the various methods for implement | achieving an extensible and / or flexible electronic component is not intended to limit, and includes appropriate variations and / or modifications within the scope of those skilled in the art. . As such, this application refers to the following US patents and patent applications, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. US Pat. No. 7,557,367 entitled “Stretchable Semiconductor Elements and Stretchable Electrical Circuits” issued on July 7, 2009, “the '367 patent” US Patent No. 7, entitled “Stretchable Form of Single Crystal Silicon for High Performance Electronics on Rubber Substrates,” issued April 29, 2009, No. 521,292 “'292 patent”, filed September 6, 2007, “Controlled Buckling Structures in Semiconductor Interconnects and Nanomembranes for Stretchable Electronics” US published patent application No. 20080157235 ("'235 application") ), A US patent application filed March 5, 2009 entitled “Stretchable and Foldable Electronics” with serial number 12 / 398,811 (“'811 application”) )), U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20040192082 (“'082 Application”), entitled “Stretchable and Elastic Interconnects”, filed March 28, 2003, November 21, 2006. US Published Patent Application No. 20070134849 (“'849 Application”) entitled “Method For Embedding Dies” filed on the same day, “Extendable Connector and Network” filed on September 12, 2007 U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20080064125 ('125 Application) entitled “Expandable Connectors and Networks” ), US Provisional Patent Application “Extensible Electronic Components” (“'262 Application”) having serial number 61 / 240,262, filed on Sep. 7, 2009, on Nov. 12, 2009 Filed US patent application entitled “Extremely Stretchable Electronics” with serial number 12 / 616,922 (“'922 application”), December 9, 2008 US Provisional Patent Application (“'904 Application”) having serial number 61 / 120,904 entitled “Transfer Printing”, filed December 1, 2004, “Methods and US Published Patent Application No. 20060286488, 200 entitled Devices for Fabricating Three-Dimensional Nanoscale Structures US Pat. No. 7,195,733 entitled “Composite Patterning Devices for Soft Lithography” issued on March 27, 2006, “Pattern Transfer” filed on June 9, 2006 US Published Patent Application No. 20090199960 entitled “Printing by Kinetic Control of Adhesion to an Elastomeric Stamp”, “Printable Semiconductor Structures and US Published Patent Application No. 20070302089 entitled “Related Methods of Making and Assembling”, “Release Strategies for Making Transferable Semiconductor Structures,” filed on September 20, 2007. Devices and Device Components (movable semiconductor structures U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20080108171 entitled "Devices and Device Components" and "Devices and Methods for Pattern Generation by Ink Lithography" filed on Feb. 16, 2007. U.S. Published Patent Application No. 20080055581 entitled “Apparatus and Method for Pattern Generation According to US Pat.

  “Electronic device” is used broadly herein to encompass integrated circuit (s) with various functions. In certain embodiments, the electronic device may be a device laid out in a device island arrangement as described herein with respect to the exemplary embodiments. The device may be the following, or the function of the device may include: Integrated circuit, processor, controller, microprocessor, diode, capacitor, power storage element, antenna, ASIC, sensor, amplifier, A / D and D / A converter, related differential amplifier, buffer, light collector, Transducers including electromechanical transducers, piezoelectric actuators, light emitting electronic components including LEDs, logic, memory, clock, and transistors including active matrix switching transistors, and combinations thereof. The objectives and advantages of using standard ICs (in certain embodiments, CMOS, single crystal silicon) are already generally mass-produced by well-known processes and are far superior to those produced by passive means It is to provide and use high quality, high performance and high performance circuit components that provide a range of functions and data generation. Components or devices within an electronic device include the components described herein and described above. The component is one or more of any of the electronic devices described above and / or contacts a photodiode, LED, TUFT, electrode, semiconductor, other light collection / detection component, transistor, device component. Capable contact pads, thin film devices, circuit elements, control elements, microprocessors, interconnects, contact pads, capacitors, resistors, inductors, memory elements, power storage elements, antennas, logic elements, buffers, and / or others Passive or active components. The device component may be connected to one or more contact pads as known in the art, such as by metal deposition, wire bonding, application of solid or conductive paste, and the like.

  A component whose current cannot be controlled by another electrical signal is called a passive device. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and diodes are all considered passive devices.

  In the context of the present invention, an active device is any type of circuit component that has the ability to electrically control the flow of electrons. Active devices include, but are not limited to, vacuum tubes, transistors, amplifiers, logic gates, integrated circuits, silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs), alternating current triodes (TRIACs).

“Ultrathin” refers to a thin geometry device that exhibits flexibility.
“Functional layer” refers to a device layer that provides a function to a device. For example, the functional layer may be a thin film such as a semiconductor layer. Alternatively, the functional layer may include a plurality of layers such as a plurality of semiconductor layers separated by a support layer. The functional layer may comprise a plurality of patterned elements such as interconnects extending between device receiving pads.

Semiconductor materials that can be used to make the circuit can include amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, single crystal silicon, conductive oxides, carbon nanotubes, and organic materials.
In an embodiment of the invention, a semiconductor is printed on a flexible plastic substrate to create a flexible macroelectronic component, a microelectronic component, and / or a nanoelectronic component. Those bendable thin film electronic components provided on plastic can exhibit a field effect similar to or better than the thin film electronic components produced by conventional high temperature processing methods. In addition, these flexible semiconductors on plastic structures can provide bendable electronic components that are compatible with high throughput processing that is efficient even at low temperatures over a wide area of the flexible substrate, such as room temperature processing on plastic substrates. This technology is a dry transfer contact printing that can assemble thin film electronic components that can be bent by depositing a wide variety of high quality semiconductors such as single crystal silicon ribbons, GaAs, INP wires, and carbon nanotubes on plastic substrates. Techniques can be provided. This high-performance printed circuit provided on a flexible substrate realizes an electronic structure with a wide range of applications. The '367 patent and related disclosures illustrate examples of procedures for producing bendable thin film electronic components in this manner (see, eg, FIG. 26A of the' 367 patent).

  In addition to being able to manufacture semiconductor structures on plastic, it has been demonstrated that metal / semiconductor electronic components can be formed on plastic substrates with printable wire arrays such as GaAs microwires. Similarly, other high quality semiconductor materials have been shown to be transferred onto plastic substrates including silicon nanowires, microribbons, platelets and the like. In addition, transfer printing techniques using elastic stamps can also be used. The '367 patent describes an electronic component that uses an array of single wires (in this case GaAs wires) with an epitaxial channel layer on a flexible plastic substrate and integrated holmic contacts. The main procedure for manufacturing is illustrated (see FIG. 41 of the '367 patent). In one example, a semi-insulating GaAs wafer may provide a raw material for producing microwires. Each wire may have a plurality of ohmic stripes separated by gaps that define the channel length of the final electronic component. A van der Waals bond is formed by bringing a planar elastic stamp of PDMS into contact with the wire. This interaction allows all wires from the wafer to the surface of the PDMS to be removed when the stamp coating is returned. The PDMS stamp with the wire is then placed in contact with the uncured plastic sheet. When the PDMS stamp is peeled off after curing, the wire is embedded in the surface of the plastic substrate with the exposed ohmic stripe. Further processing on the plastic substrate can define the electrodes that connect the ohmic stripes to form the source, drain, and gate electrodes of the electronic component. The final arrangement is mechanically flexible due to the flexibility of the plastic substrate and the wire.

In certain embodiments, and in general, the extensible electronic component may incorporate electrodes such as those connected to a multiplexing chip and a data acquisition system. For example, such electrode systems may be integrated into medical applications such as catheters for neurological or cardiac monitoring and stimulation. In certain examples, the electrodes may be made, designed, transferred, and coated. In some embodiments, the fabrication is performed using a SI wafer, a spin coat of an adhesion layer (eg, HMDS adhesion layer), a spin coat patterned with a shadow mask (eg, PMMA) in oxygen RIE, etc., a spin coat of polyimide, PECVD SiO 2 deposition, spin coating of 1813 resist, photolithography patterning, metal deposition (eg, Ti, Pt, Au, and the like, or combinations of the above), gold etchant, lift-off in hot acetone, RIE etching, etc. May be utilized and / or included. In this embodiment, the fabrication step may be completed by creating the electrode on the Si wafer. In certain embodiments, the Si wafer is then immersed in a hot acetone bath, such as at 100 ° C. for about 1 hour, so that the PI post maintains the electrodes secured to the surface of the Si wafer while the adhesive layer is May be released. In certain embodiments, the electrodes may be designed in multiple shapes and distributed in multiple distribution patterns. The electrode may comprise an electronic component, a multiplex processing electronic component, an interface electronic component, a communication facility, an interface including any of the facilities / elements described with respect to FIG. 1 and / or any of the exemplary embodiments herein. It may be interconnected to connections and the like. In certain embodiments, the electrodes may be transferred from a Si wafer to a transfer stamp, such as a PDMS stamp, and the material of the transfer stamp may be fully cured, partially cured, and so on May be processed. For example, a partially cured PDMS sheet may be about 350 nm and the PDMS is spin coated at 300 rpm for 60 seconds and cured at 65 ° C. for 25 minutes and used to lift off the electrodes from the PDMS sheet It was done. Further, the electrode may be coated, for example, the electrode is sandwiched between the supporting PDMS layer and the second PDMS layer while at least one of the PDMS layers is partially cured.

  In certain embodiments, the extensible electronic component configuration is a flex PCB, such as a flex print, for connection to electrodes and / or devices, and for connection to interface electronics, such as a data acquisition system (DAQ). Design elements, flip chip configurations (such as bonded on the PCB), and the like may be incorporated. For example, the flex PCB may be bonded to the electrode by an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) connection, and the solder bond may connect the flex PCB to the data acquisition system by a conductive wire. In certain embodiments, the electrodes may be connected on the surface by using a partially cured elastomer (eg, PDMS) as an adhesive.

  In certain embodiments, the extensible electronic component may be formed on a sheet of extensible electronic component, such as for monitoring nerve signal activity via an extensible electrode system described below. In certain embodiments, the extensible sheet may be thin, for example about 100 μm. Optionally, amplification and multiplexing processes may be performed without substantially heating the contact area, such as by microfluidic cooling.

  In certain embodiments, a sheet having an array of electronic devices with electrodes may be cut into various shapes to maintain functionality, such as through a communication electrode island that determines the shape of the electrode sheet. The electrodes may be laid out in a device island arrangement (as described herein) and include active circuit elements, which are connected to processing facilities (as described herein) within the circuit elements and other such islands. Designed to communicate with each other via extensible interconnects in the island so that their identification and location can be determined in real time. Thus, if one island produces a defect, the island can still send the adjusted and multiplexed data from the remaining array. Such functionality allows such arrays to be cut and shaped based on the size constraints of the application. The sheet, and thus the circuit element, may be cut laterally, the circuit element polling the remaining electrodes and / or devices, which remains, and which correspondingly corrects the calibration. Will be determined. Examples of extensible electronic component sheets that include this function include electrode geometries such as a 20 × 20 array of 1 mm pitch platinum electrodes for a total area of 20 mm × 20 mm, electrode impedance such as 5 kilohms at 1 kHz (adjustable), Configuration with flexible sheet having total thickness of 50 μm and coated polyimide etc. Sampling rate such as 2 kHz / channel, voltage dynamic range such as +/− 6 mV, −2.5 to 5 V having dc rejection, etc. Dc voltage offset range, voltage noise such as 0.002mV, maximum signal-to-noise ratio such as 3000, IEC standards, etc., typically leakage current such as 0.3μA, maximum 10μA, operating power such as less than 2mW / Channel (adjustable), power, ground, low impedance ground, A number of interface wires for data wires, and the like, voltage gains such as 150, mechanical bend radii such as 1 mm, local heating capability such as heating local tissue up to 1 ° C., 2 weeks, etc. Biocompatible measurement period, active electronic components such as differential amplifiers, multiplexers (eg, 1000 transistors / channel), 16-bit A / D converter using 500 kHz sampling rate, less than 2 μV noise, data login, and real-time screen It may include a data acquisition system having a display or the like, safety conformance to IEC 10601 and the like, and the like.

  In embodiments of the present invention, for a number of applications, mechanical flexibility can represent an important property of a device, for example on a plastic substrate. Micro / nanowires with integrated ohmic contacts provide a unique type of material for high performance devices that can be fabricated directly on a wide variety of device substrates. Alternatively, other materials can be used to connect electrical components together, such as electrically and / or mechanically connected by thin polymer bridges with or without metal interconnect lines.

  In some embodiments, a coating layer may be utilized. The covering layer may indicate a coating of the device, that is, a part of the device. In some embodiments, the covering layer may have a non-uniform and / or spatially varying modulus. The cover layer may provide mechanical protection, device isolation, and the like. These layers can have significant advantages over stretchable electronic components. For example, low modulus PDMS structures can significantly extend the range of extensibility (described in detail in the '811 application). The cover layer can then also be used as a passivation for protection or electrical isolation on top of the device. In some embodiments, the integration of high performance electronic components may be allowed through the use of a low elastic tensile isolation layer. These devices may have a coating layer to provide mechanical protection and environmental protection. The use of a coating layer can have a significant effect at high tensile strengths. A low modulus coating material can provide maximum flexibility and therefore maximum extensibility. As mentioned in the '811 application, the low elasticity blend of PDMS can extend the range of extensibility from at least 60%. The covering layer also relieves tensile forces and stresses on the electronic device, such as a functional layer of the device that is vulnerable to failure due to tension. Depending on the embodiment, materials having different elastic moduli may be laminated. In some embodiments, these layers can be polymers, elastomers, and the like. In some embodiments, the coating may be utilized to create a biocompatible contact surface between implanted extensible electronic systems, such as a silk coating of an electronic device that contacts tissue.

  Returning to the flexible and extensible electronic component technology that can be utilized in the present invention, a semiconductor buckled corrugated ribbon such as GaAs or silicon may be fabricated as part of an electronic component on an elastomeric substrate. It was shown that. Semiconductor ribbons with submicron range thickness and distinct “wavy” and / or “buckled” geometries have been demonstrated. The resulting structure on or embedded in the surface of the elastomeric substrate has been shown to exhibit reversible extensibility and compressibility for strains greater than 10%. By integrating ohmic contacts on these structured GaAs ribbons, high performance extensible electronic devices are achieved. The '292 patent shows the steps of making a stretchable GaAs ribbon on an elastomeric substrate made of PDMS, the ribbon being produced from a high quality bulk wafer of GaAs with multiple epitaxial layers (see FIG. 22). ). The wafer with the released GaAs ribbon contacts the surface of the PDMS before stretching with the ribbon aligned along the stretching direction. By peeling the PDMS from the base wafer, all ribbons are transferred to the surface of the PDMS. By mitigating pre-strain in the PDMS, a large buckling / corrugated structure is formed along the ribbon. Ribbon geometry may depend on pre-strain applied to the stamp, interaction between the PDMS and the ribbon, and the bending stiffness of the ribbon. In certain embodiments, buckling and waves may be included along their length within a single ribbon, eg, due to thickness variations associated with the device structure. In practical applications, it may be useful to coat ribbons and devices so as to maintain their extensibility. Semiconductor ribbons on elastomeric substrates may be used to make high performance electronic devices, buckled corrugated ribbons of semiconductor multilayer stacks, and devices that exhibit significant compressibility / extension. In certain embodiments, the present invention may utilize a fabrication process that produces an array of devices that utilize a semiconductor ribbon, such as an array of CMOS inverters having extensible waveform interconnects. Similarly, top layer coating strategies may be used to isolate circuit elements from distortion and thereby avoid cracking.

  In certain embodiments, a neutral mechanical plane (NMP) within the multi-layer stack may define a position where the strain is zero. For example, the various layers may include a support layer, a functional layer, a neutral machine surface conditioning layer, a coating layer having a resulting neutral machine surface (eg, consistent with a functional layer), and the like. In certain embodiments, the functional layer may include a flexible or elastic device region and a rigid island region. In certain embodiments, NMP may be implemented in any application of the extensible electronic component utilized in the present invention.

  In certain embodiments, semiconductor ribbons (also microribbons, nanoribbons, and the like) are used to implement electrical interconnections between integrated circuit elements, electrical / electronic components, and even electrical / electronic. It may be used for mechanical support as part of the system. Thus, the semiconductor ribbon is an electronic component as an array of interconnected ribbons that form a flexible and / or extensible electronic component on a flexible substrate in the construction / fabrication of a flexible and extensible electronic component. Alternatively, it may be utilized in a variety of ways, such as used for an interconnect portion of an assembly that provides flexible and / or extensible electronic components. For example, nanoribbons may be used to form a flexible array of electronic components on a plastic substrate. The array may represent an array of electrode-electronic component cells where nanoribbons are prefabricated and then attached and interconnected through metallization and coating layers. Note that the final structure of this configuration may be similar to an electronic device array fabricated directly on plastic as described herein, but the semiconductor ribbon allows for high electronic component integration density. In addition, this configuration may include a coating layer and fabrication steps that can isolate the structure from the humid environment. This example is not meant to limit the use of the semiconductor ribbon in any way, as the semiconductor ribbon may be used in a variety of applications related to flexibility and extensibility. For example, to improve the flexibility and / or extensibility of circuit elements, the cells of this array may instead be connected by wires, bent interconnects, and mounted on an elastomeric substrate.

  Corrugated semiconductor interconnects are just one form of a broader class of flexible and extensible interconnects, sometimes referred to as “bent” interconnects (in some cases) and the material is a ribbon , Bands, wires, traces, and similar shapes of semiconductors, metals, or other conductive materials. A bent configuration may refer to a structure having a curved shape that results from applying force, such as having one or more folded regions. These bent interconnects can be in a variety of ways, and in embodiments such that the interconnect material is placed on a pre-distorted elastomeric substrate and a bent configuration is created when strain is released. It may be formed. In certain embodiments, the pre-strain may be pre-stretched or pre-compressed, and may be provided, for example, uniaxial, biaxial, or triaxial, and may be provided uniformly or non-uniformly. The corrugated pattern may be formed along a pre-distorted corrugated pattern, may form a “pop-up” bridge, and is mounted on an elastomer or transferred to another structure. It may also be used with other electrical components. Alternatively, instead of creating a “pop-up” or buckled component by applying force or strain to the elastomeric substrate, an extensible and flexible interconnect can be made by applying a component material to the receiving surface. Good. The bent configuration may be constructed by creating a corrugated interconnect pattern with electronic component components, such as from a microwire that is transferred onto a substrate, or on an elastomeric substrate.

  The semiconductor nanoribbons described herein may utilize a method of forming a corrugated “bent” interconnect through forming a bent interconnect on a pre-strained elastomeric substrate, and this technique includes a plurality of May be applied to different materials. Another general class of corrugated interconnects may utilize controlled buckling of the interconnect material. In this case, the adhesive material may be applied in a selected pattern such that there are adhesive regions that remain in physical contact with the substrate (after deformation) and other regions that do not maintain physical contact. The pre-distorted substrate is removed from the wafer substrate, and loosening of the substrate causes the unconstrained interconnect to buckle (“pop up”) in the unbonded (or weakly bonded) region. Thus, the buckled interconnect provides the structure with extensibility without breaking electrical contact between the components, thereby providing flexibility and / or extensibility. FIG. 2 shows a schematic diagram showing a buckled interconnection 204S between two components 202S and 208S.

  In certain embodiments, any, all, or combination of each of the interconnect schemes described herein, such as attaching a bent interconnect to a flexible substrate, such as a plastic or elastomer substrate, is an electronic component. It may be applied to make the support structure more flexible or flexible. However, these bent interconnect structures may provide a substantially more expansible or extensible configuration in another general class of extensible electronic structures, with rigid semiconductor islands mounted on elastomeric substrates And interconnected by one of a plurality of bent interconnect technologies. This technique is presented herein and also in the '262 application, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. This configuration also uses the neutral machine plane design described herein to reduce strain on rigid components encapsulated in the system. These component devices may be thinned to a thickness corresponding to the desired application, or may be incorporated exactly as the device was obtained. The device may then be electronically interconnected and coated to protect the device from the environment and increase flexibility and extensibility.

  In certain embodiments, the first step in the process of making the extensible and flexible electronic components described herein includes obtaining the required electronic devices and components for the functional layer and the conductive material. Including. The electronic component is then thinned by using a backside polishing process (if necessary). Many processes are available that can obtain wafers of less than 50 micrometers. Dicing the chip by plasma etching prior to the polishing process allows for further thickness reduction and can deliver a chip with a thickness of less than 20 micrometers. In the case of thinning, a special tape is usually placed over the part to be processed of the chip. The bottom of the chip is then thinned using both mechanical and / or chemical means. After thinning, the chip may be transferred to a receiving substrate, which may be a flat surface on which extensible interconnects can be made. FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary process, starting with creating a flexible substrate 302S on a carrier 308S coated with a sacrificial layer 304S (FIG. 3A) and placing the device 310S on the flexible substrate. (FIG. 3B) Further, a planarization step is performed to bring the upper surface of the receiving substrate to the same height as the die surface (FIG. 3C). The interconnect fabrication process is as follows. Devices 310S deposited on the receiving substrate are interconnected by interconnects 312S that bond bond pads from one device to another (FIG. 3D). In certain embodiments, these interconnects 312S may vary from 10 micrometers to 10 centimeters. The polymer coating layer 314S may then be used to coat the entire array of interconnected electronic devices and components (FIG. 3E). The interconnected electronic device is then released from the substrate by etching away the sacrificial material with a solvent. The device can then undergo the decompression process at any time. The device is transferred from a rigid carrier substrate to an elastomer substrate such as PDMS. Immediately prior to transfer to the new substrate, the array is pretreated so that the device / component island preferentially adheres to the surface, leaving the coated interconnects free to move perpendicular to the receiving substrate. Is done.

  In certain embodiments, the interconnect system is a straight metal wire that connects two or more bond pads. In this case, the electronic component array is transferred to a pre-distorted elastomer substrate. This relaxation of the substrate causes the interconnect to be displaced perpendicular to the substrate, thus creating outward buckling. This buckling allows the system to stretch.

  In another embodiment, the interconnect is a conductive metal serpentine pattern. These types of interconnected arrays need not be deposited on a pre-distorted elastomer substrate. The extensibility of the system is made possible by the convoluted shape of the interconnect.

  Stretch / flexible circuitry uses techniques that include, but are not limited to, organic material deposition in combination with conventional photolithography techniques, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, ink jet printing, or patterning techniques. , Plastics, elastomers, or other materials. Semiconductor materials that may be used to make the circuit may include amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, single crystal silicon, conductive oxides, carbon nanotubes, and organic materials. In certain embodiments, the interconnect may be formed of a conductive film, stripe, pattern, and the like, such as on an elastomer or plastic material, the film being seated as described herein. It may be made to bend, deform, stretch, etc. In certain embodiments, the interconnect may be made of multiple films, such as on or embedded in a flexible and / or extensible substrate or plastic.

  In certain embodiments, device island 402S interconnect may utilize a highly extensible interconnect 404S, such as the various configurations disclosed in FIG. 4 and disclosed in the '922 application. . The geometry and dimensions of the interconnect 404S make the interconnect 404S extremely flexible. Each interconnect 404S is patterned and etched to have similar sized width and thickness dimensions in its structural form (such as their ratio or inverse ratio not exceeding a multiple of about 10), and preferably May be the same size. In certain embodiments, the interconnects may be formed in a cow-plowed manner to efficiently provide long bars 408S and short bars 410S. This unique geometry has an efficient form of wire, thus minimizing the stress generated in the interconnect when subsequently stretched, and an interconnect having one dimension that greatly exceeds the other two dimensions It behaves very differently from form factors (eg plates). The plate-type structure mainly releases stress only around a single axis by buckling and withstands only a small amount of shear stress before cracking. The present invention can relieve stress, including shear stress and any other stress, around all three axes. Further, the interconnect may be formed from a rigid material, which helps to prevent the wire-like form from becoming entangled or tangled when stretched and then recompressed to an unstretched state. Can have resilience. Another advantage of the cow plowing geometry is that the cow plowing geometry minimizes the initial separation distance between islands. In certain embodiments, the interconnect may be formed monolithically (ie, from the same semiconductor material as the device island) or may be formed from another material.

  In another embodiment, the elastomeric substrate may comprise two layers separated by a height 512S as shown in FIG. The upper “contact” layer contacts device island 502S, which is interconnected 504S using one of the interconnect schemes described herein. Further, the bottom layer may be a rippled 514S or “wave” layer that includes a square wave molded into the substrate 508S during elastomer fabrication. These waveforms allow further stretching, and the extent of stretching can depend on the amplitude 510S and wavelength of the wave pattern molded in the elastomer.

  In certain embodiments, the device island may be any prefabricated integrated circuit (IC) that may be mounted on, within, between, etc. a flexible and / or extensible substrate. For example, additional elastomer layers may be added over the structure, as shown in FIG. 5, to cover the structure for protection, increased strength, increased flexibility, and the like. Electrical contact to the implantable electrical component may be provided, such as through the elastomeric layer (s) from the second electrical interconnect layer before and after the embedded layer. For example, the IC may be encapsulated within a flexible material, and the interconnect is made accessible as described in the '849 application (see, eg, FIG. 1 of the' 849 application). In this example, the embedded IC is made by first placing the IC on a carrier, such as a rigid carrier, and the IC is thinned (thinned before being mounted on the carrier, or IC that is thinned while on the carrier). The second step may include coating the IC with any adhesive, elastomer, or other insulating material that can be flowed over the IC. The third step may be the process of reaching the electrical contacts of the IC, such as by laser drilling or other methods known in the art. The fourth step may be a process of flowing an electrical conductor through the opening, thereby establishing electrical access to the electrical connection of the IC. Finally, the IC thus housed can be released from the carrier. Now, the structure can be easily embedded in a flexible substrate while maintaining electrical connectivity. In certain embodiments, the structure can be a flexible structure due to the thinness of the IC, the elastic properties of the surrounding structure, the elastic configuration of the extended electrical contacts, and the like.

  It should be noted that many of the extensible electronic component techniques utilize a transfer printing process using, for example, a PDMS stamp. In certain embodiments, the present invention may include a method for dynamically controlling surface adhesion of transfer printing, as described herein and disclosed in the '904 application. Transfer printing stamps have many uses, one of which is to pick up a thin film of material (“target”) from one surface (“initial surface”) and transfer the thin film to another surface (“final”). Depositing on the surface ")". The pickup presses the transfer printing stamp in contact with the target, applies some pressure to create a van der Waals bond between the stamp and the target, peels the stamp with the target, and then another surface and It may be accomplished by placing the stamp with the target in contact, applying pressure, and peeling the stamp without the target so that the target remains on the final surface. If the final surface has a higher adhesive strength with the target than the transfer stamp, the target remains on the final surface when the transfer stamp is peeled off. Alternatively, the rate at which the transfer stamp is peeled can be adjusted to change the ratio of the target to stamp and target to final surface adhesion. The present invention describes a novel method of depositing a target by changing the surface adhesion of the transfer stamp after the target has been picked up. This may be done while the stamp with the target is in contact with the final surface. In certain embodiments, adhesion control is performed within the transfer stamp such that water or other fluid is pumped from the stamp to the surface of the stamp, thereby changing surface adhesion from sticky to non-sticky. This can be done by introducing a microfluidic channel.

  In certain embodiments, the present invention allows a fluid (liquid or gas) to be pumped onto the surface of the stamp to wet or chemically functionalize the surface, thus changing the surface adhesion of the stamp surface. Transfer printing may be accomplished by using a transfer printing stamp formed with microfluidic channels. The transfer printing stamp may be made from any material including, but not limited to, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and its derivatives. In one non-limiting embodiment, the stamp is a cuboid-shaped PDMS piece having dimensions in the range of about 1 micrometer to 1 meter. In this example, the rectangular parallelepiped is 1 cm × 1 cm × 0.5 cm (length, width, thickness). One 1 cm × 1 cm surface of a rectangular parallelepiped is designed as a stamping surface. By using a photolithographic mask or stencil mask, a pattern of vertical holes (channels) is etched from the stamping surface to the opposing surface of the stamp. This may be done using oxygen reactive ion etching. These holes are microfluidic channels and may be about 0.1-10 micrometers in diameter. The holes may be separated by about 1-50 micrometers. Another piece of PDMS may be formed into a reservoir shape (eg, 1 cm × 1 cm × 0.5 cm with a small cuboid (approximately 0.8 cm × 0.8 cm × 0.3 cm) cut out from one surface) Rectangular). This shape may be formed by pouring PDMS into the mold, curing the PDMS, and removing the PDMS from the mold. This further PDMS piece may then be placed in contact with the first piece of PDMS and bonded together so that the two pieces form the shape shown in step A of FIG. May be performed by ultraviolet ozone exposure or oxygen plasma exposure). Thereafter, one or more holes may be drilled in the top of the reservoir so that a fluid pipe is provided to pump water into the stamp. In another non-limiting embodiment, the stamp is constructed as described above, except that the first piece of PDMS is formed by molding to have a microfluidic channel. PDMS molding is a well-known technique. First, a mold is created that is a reversal of the desired shape. In this case it is an array of vertical bars on the bottom with four walls. The mold is then filled with PDMA by pouring PDMS, allowing the PDMS to cure (which can be hot), after which the PDMS is removed. In another non-limiting embodiment, the stamping surface is also patterned with an array of shallow etched surface channels. In certain embodiments, these channels are approximately 100-10000 nm wide and may be etched by 100-10000 nm in PDMS. These channels may form a linear array or a checkerboard grid. The purpose of the channel is to distribute liquid around the surface of the stamp from a vertical microfluidic channel. In addition, these channels allow air that must be displaced to extrude liquid onto the surface of the stamp. Examples of liquids that may be used include, but are not limited to, water (which will wet the surface of the stamp and reduce its adhesion). In the case of a gas fluid, these surface channels may not be necessary. Examples of gases that can reduce the surface adhesion of PDMS are dimethyldichlorosilane (DDMS), perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS), perfluorodecyltris (dimethylamino) silane (PF10TAS), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and the like It is a thing.

  In certain embodiments, the stamp may be operated as shown in FIG. First, the stamp is pressed in contact with the substrate having the target material or device to be picked up (FIG. 6A). The target material is picked up by van der Waals forces between itself and the stamp, as is well known (FIGS. 6B, 6C). The target material is placed in contact with the final substrate and pressed in contact (FIG. 6D). A fluid (eg, water) is pumped to the stamp surface to reduce adhesion (FIG. 6E). The stamp may be left in this state for as long as necessary to completely wet the stamp surface with water. Finally, the stamp is removed while the target material remains on the final substrate (FIG. 6F). 6A to 6F, the following names are given for the sake of clarity. Fluid inlet 601S, PDMS stamp 602S, fluid distribution reservoir 603S, microfluidic channel 604S to stamp surface, adhesive stamp surface 605S, picked up and transfer printed device 606S, initial substrate 607S, final substrate 608S, water 609S press fit. Thus, water reaches the end of the microfluidic channel to modify the surface adhesion of the transfer stamp and release the device. Note that any surface channels on the stamp surface are not shown in the figure, and the figure is not drawn to scale.

  Another exemplary configuration that allows for extensible circuit elements is described in the '125 application for expandable interconnects. (See FIG. 3 of the '125 application). The electrical component may be considered as one of a plurality of interconnect nodes, the interconnect expanding / extending as the underlying flexible substrate expands. In certain embodiments, flexible and extensible electronic components may be implemented in a variety of ways, including configurations including substrates, electrical components, electrical interconnects, and the like, and their development. And may include electrical, mechanical, and chemical processes during packaging.

  As fully discussed herein, CMOS devices offer a variety of sophisticated functions including sensing, imaging, processing, logic, amplifiers, buffers, A / D converters, memories, clocks, and active matrix switching transistors. provide. The extensible / flexible circuit element electronic device or “device island” of the present invention may be a device and as such is capable of performing the functions described herein or portions thereof.

In certain embodiments, devices and device islands are understood to be “active” as described above.
In certain embodiments, the electronic devices are optionally laid out in a device island arrangement, as described herein. As such, the functionality described herein with respect to circuit element 1000S, and thus electronic device, may reside in the electronic device itself, may be distributed across the array of electronic devices and / or electronic components, or other electronic devices. And / or other device components, each electronic device (or a combination of electronic devices and device components) having distinct or complementary functions that are distinct or additional functions that will be apparent from this disclosure It may be achieved by electronic communication and coordination with electronic devices and / or device components. In certain embodiments, such electronic communications can be wireless. Thus, the device may comprise a converter, transmitter or receiver capable of such wireless transmission.

  Returning to FIG. 1, this figure schematically illustrates the function of the circuit element 1000S (and therefore an electronic device, a device component, or a combination thereof). Elements 1100-1700, including electronic devices, device components, or combinations thereof, and their sub-elements and components may be present in circuit element 1000S individually or in any combination where applicable. Several combinations will be discussed below. However, the following discussion only illustrates exemplary embodiments of the invention and therefore should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention. It will be readily appreciated that the elements of the circuit element 1000S generally described herein can be arranged and designed in a variety of configurations. Nevertheless, the present invention will be described with additional specificity and detail.

  The circuit element 1000S includes thermal parameters such as temperature and infrared; optical parameters; electrochemical and biochemical parameters such as pH, enzyme activity, blood components including blood gas and blood glucose, ion concentration, protein concentration; resistance, conduction Sensors that detect various parameters of the subject's body, including electrical parameters such as rate, impedance, EKG, EEG, and EMG; sound, pressure, touch, and surface properties, or other morphological features of the body 1100 (also referred to as “sensor device”). Therefore, in order to achieve the detection of the parameters described above, the sensor is a thermistor, thermocouple, silicon bandgap temperature sensor, thin film resistance temperature device, LED emitter, photosensor including photodetector, electrode, piezoelectric sensor, ultrasonic Ultrasound including an emitter and a receiver, ion sensitive field effect transistors, and microneedles may be included. Exemplary embodiments using one or more of the sensors or detecting and / or measuring one or more of the parameters are discussed below.

  The separation distance between sensors (eg, sensor device islands) is any distance that can be manufactured, and the effective range is 10 μm to 10000 μm, but is not limited thereto. In certain embodiments, sensor 1100 may be considered a sensor circuit. Individual sensors may be coupled to differential amplifiers and / or buffers and / or analog-to-digital converters. The resulting sensor circuit may be formed on the same or different device as the sensor itself. The circuit may be laid out in an active matrix fashion so that readings from multiple sensors 1100 can be switched into and processed by one or a few amplifier / logic circuits. The signal from the array of sensors 1100 is multiplexed using techniques described in International Patent Application Publication No. WO 2009/114689 filed March 12, 2009, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It can be processed using techniques. Multiplexer component circuit elements may be located on or within circuit element 1000S on substrate 200, or in locations that avoid interference with device operation, such as the base of a catheter guide wire (embodiments where the substrate is a catheter balloon). , But other regions that avoid operational interference will also be apparent).

  The circuit element 1000S includes a processing facility 1200 (alternatively referred to herein as "processor", "processing", and terminology immediately below), and the processing facility 1200 is stored therein. Or a signal processor, digital processor, embedded processor, microcontroller, microprocessor, ASIC, or the like that may facilitate the execution of program code or program instructions accessible thereto or directly May be included. Further, the processing facility 1200 may allow execution of multiple programs, threads, and codes. The threads may be executed simultaneously to increase the performance of the processing facility 1200 and to facilitate simultaneous operation of applications. As implementation methods, the methods, program code, program instructions, and the like described herein may be implemented in one or more threads. A thread may create other threads, and those threads can have assigned priorities associated with them. That is, the processing facility 1200 may execute these threads based on priority or any other order based on instructions provided in the program code. Processing facility 1200 (and / or generally circuit element 1000S) may include or be in electronic communication with the memory storing methods, code, instructions, and programs described herein and elsewhere. May be. Processing facility 1200 may access, through an interface, storage media that may store methods, code, and instructions that implement the methods and functions described herein and elsewhere. The processing facility 1200 is in or in electronic communication with other elements of the circuit element 1000S that includes the electronic devices and / or device components. The off-board processing facility 1200A includes all the functions described above. However, the off-board processing facility 1200A is physically separated from the circuit element 1000S, but is in electronic communication with the circuit element 1000S.

  Data collection facility 1300 (and off-board data collection facility 1300A) provides data generated by circuit element 1000S and elements of circuit element 1000S, including imaging facility 1600 (discussed below) and treatment facility 1700 (discussed below). Each is configured to collect and store independently or together. Data transmission facility 1500 includes means for transmitting (RF and / or wired) sensor information to processing facility 1200 or offboard processing facility 1200A. The elements 1100 to 1700 are each configured to be in electronic communication with each other, and need not necessarily communicate through the data transmission facility 1500. In certain embodiments, circuit element 1000S and / or data transmission facility 1500 is in electronic communication with output facility 300, which in certain embodiments is in electronic communication with processing facility 1200A or a separate processing facility. It can be in a state. It should be understood that various outputs described herein, such as a visual map based on the sensed parameters, are output from the output facility 300.

  The circuit element 1000S is provided with a conductive pad by a physical connection including the method described above, and at a location accessible on the circuit element 1000S or in a place that avoids interference with the operation of the device. It may be connected to external / separate devices and systems by connecting conductive conductive film (ACF) connectors, or otherwise in electronic communication with it. Similarly, circuit element 1000S and / or associated device 1010S comprises a converter, transmitter, transceiver, or receiver that is capable of wireless transmission and thus wireless communication with external / separate devices and systems. May be. Further, the circuit element 1000S island may be made to implement optical data communication along a waveguide as described below.

  The power supply 400 comprises a PV cell using a waveguide and made in a stretch / flexible format in addition to the rest of the circuit elements, in any number of ways, including an external optical supply. Power can be supplied to the element 1000S. Alternatively, a thin film battery may be used to drive the circuit element 1000S, allowing the device to remain in the body and communicate with the operator. Alternatively, the RF communication circuitry on the apparatus is not only used to facilitate wireless communication between devices in circuit elements and / or external / separate systems, but also receives RF power driving the circuitry. May be. By using such an approach, the need for an external electrical interface can be eliminated.

  Circuit element 1000S includes a treatment facility 1700 that includes various elements that provide the desired treatment in certain embodiments of the invention. In certain embodiments, the circuit element can include a heat or light activated drug delivery polymer that, when activated, can release a chemical agent, such as an anti-inflammatory drug, to a local site within the body. Thus, in certain embodiments, light emitting electronic components (such as LEDs) can be utilized to activate the drug delivery polymer. Other treatments may be performed / provided by circuit element 1000S, such as a circuit element configured to deliver ablation therapy to heart tissue during deployment. Other exemplary embodiments of treatment facility 1700 will be described herein. These exemplary configurations and methods for a treatment facility should not be considered limiting in scope and therefore apply specifically and exclusively to the specific exemplary embodiments described. Rather, it should be considered as applicable to all embodiments utilizing a treatment facility 1700.

  In certain embodiments of the present invention, the circuit element 1000S includes an imaging circuit element 1600. The imaging circuitry 1600 comprises a packed array of active pixel sensors in certain embodiments. Each pixel in the array may include a photodetector, a pn junction blocking diode, an active amplifier, and an analog-to-digital converter formed of a single piece of single crystal silicon (50 μm × 50 μm; 1.2 μm thick). Good. In certain embodiments, the imaging circuit element 1600 may be coated with a polymer layer, such as PDMS, to prevent damage induced by contact stress. The imaging circuit element 1600 comprises an array of photodetectors on a substrate 200 positioned very close to a target site in a subject's body 2000, and a lens-based focus due to the proximity of the photodetectors to tissue. High spatial resolution imaging can be provided without the need for adjustment. The imaging circuit element 1600 comprises a light source that comprises or is connected to an optical fiber or LED for providing illumination to a photodetector for imaging a target tissue.

  As such, the configurations, designs, and techniques described above allow circuit elements to directly contact and possibly conform to tissue within the body. Such conformal contact with tissue enhances the capabilities of the medical devices, methods, and systems disclosed herein.

  Exemplary configurations for circuit element 1000S include sensor facility 1100, processing facilities 1200 and 1200A, output facility 300, and treatment facility 1700, and methods, configurations, and fabrication techniques are described below and in the discussion below. , Reference 1000B (and then 1000N, 1000T, and 1000E). However, it is understood that any embodiment of the circuit elements described herein (and thus electronic devices, components, and other functional elements) applies to any embodiment of the exemplary embodiments. Should. The exemplary configurations and techniques should not be considered limiting in scope. It will be readily appreciated that the circuit element elements, configurations, and fabrication techniques of the present invention as generally described herein can be utilized, arranged, or otherwise implemented in a variety of different ways. I will. Similarly, and for the sake of clarity, circuit element configurations and functional elements and fabrication techniques that describe this embodiment (and all exemplary embodiments) described herein are disclosed herein. To each or any embodiment, and therefore should not be considered to apply specifically and exclusively to the particular exemplary embodiment described.

  FIG. 7 illustrates one embodiment of the present invention, where the circuit element 1000B is extensible, and in this embodiment is on an expandable / extensible substrate 200B that is an inflatable body. In some embodiments (such as the embodiment shown in FIG. 7), the inflatable body is a balloon on catheter 220B. The balloon and catheter are collectively referred to as a “balloon catheter” 210B, a type of catheter having an inflatable balloon at its tip, and for various medical procedures such as to enlarge a narrow opening or passage in the body. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that they are used during the catheterization procedure. Once deployed, the deflated balloon catheter 210B is inflated to perform the necessary procedure and deflated again for removal.

  FIG. 7 shows a balloon catheter 210B in a relaxed or deflated state that is inserted into a lumen 2010B, which in this embodiment is an artery. FIG. 7 also shows an arterial plaque 2020B formed on the inner wall of the artery 2010B. The extensible electronic circuit element 1000B is constructed in the manner described above with reference to various embodiments of the extensible circuit element 1000B and is attached to the surface of the substrate, ie, the expandable body 200B, according to the applicable techniques described above. In certain embodiments, circuit element 1000B utilizes complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  FIG. 7A shows a detailed view of the circuit element 1000B while the device is in a contracted or unexpanded state. As described above, the circuit element 1000B of the present invention comprises at least one device shown in FIGS. 7 and 7A as a separate device 1010B. As described above, in certain embodiments, the electronic device is in electronic communication with at least one other device 1010B. In certain embodiments, the devices are arranged in a “device island” arrangement as described herein, and the functions described for elements 1100-1700 of FIG. 1, the following exemplary embodiments, or portions thereof It is possible on its own to implement the functions of the circuit elements described herein, including As such, in certain embodiments, these functions of device 1010B (or any such electronic device herein) can be integrated circuits, physical (eg, temperature, pH, light, radiation, etc.) sensors, biological And / or chemical sensors, amplifiers, A / D and D / A converters, light collectors, electromechanical converters, piezoelectric actuators, light emitting electronic components including LEDs, and combinations thereof.

  In certain embodiments, device 1010B is a separate and separate “device island” in order to adapt device 1010B, which may be rigid, to the requirements of expandable and extensible substrate 200B, such as catheter balloon 210B. ”And are made to be electrically interconnected to an extensible interconnect 1020B or an interconnect configured to accommodate an expandable or extensible surface. As with all elements of circuit element 1000B, interconnect 1020B can be made in accordance with the techniques described herein, and as such is shown and described with reference to this exemplary embodiment. It may be configured differently.

  In this exemplary embodiment, it can be seen that interconnect 1020B is flexible and therefore adaptable to the expansion caused by inflation of balloon 210B. Therefore, the entire circuit element 1000B is expandable or extensible. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 7A, interconnect 1020B is buckled or not coplanar when substrate 200B is in a contracted state. When expanded (as shown in FIG. 8), the interconnect 1020B becomes coplanar or does not buckle, adapting to the increased distance between the devices 1010B due to expansion. Such buckling non-coplanar interconnects as well as circuit elements with similar characteristics are described and applied elsewhere in this specification.

  As described above, in certain embodiments, electronic communication between devices and / or between remote devices (eg, external) may be wireless. Thus, the circuit element 1000B and / or associated device 1010B may comprise a converter, transmitter, or receiver capable of such wireless transmission.

  The particular method of making these circuit elements depends on the particular characteristics of the circuit elements, including the characteristics of the particular class of circuits desired to be incorporated into the device, as well as the characteristics of the devices, interconnects, etc. Including, but not limited to, methods of making disclosed with respect to specific embodiments. An exemplary embodiment of the invention, a non-limiting example of a complete fabrication step of a catheter balloon equipped with a temperature sensor, is described in the following section. The embodiments described below refer to an inflatable system (especially a catheter balloon), but this principle of operation is that, as described above with respect to FIG. It should be noted that one skilled in the art will appreciate that the situation is scalable but not expandable, or that the substrate may be applied to an expandable but not necessarily extensible situation.

  In embodiments herein including, but not limited to, embodiments described herein for balloon catheters, nerve bundle prostheses, endoscopes, and tissue screening, temperature sensors and associated differential amplifiers, buffers, An array of devices that may include A / D converters, logic, memory, clocks, and active matrix switching transistors is laid out in a “device island” arrangement. The device island can be 50 μm × 50 μm square, most of which contains a single conventional sensor circuit, eg, one temperature sensor connected to a buffer that is itself connected to an amplifier. A temperature sensor, which may be resistive, diode based, etc., provides a signal reflecting temperature (or temperature change), as described in more detail below, and the remaining sensor circuitry is for subsequent processing. Adjust the signal.

  In embodiments herein including, but not limited to, embodiments described herein for balloon catheters, nerve bundle prostheses, endoscopes, and tissue screening, the device includes an active matrix switch and an analog temperature signal. Contains A / D converters that convert to digital form, some devices can read digital signals and process them (eg, to assign a value to a sensed temperature or temperature change) Accommodates various logic circuit elements. These circuits may output temperature readings to another module, or may output data or store data in on-board memory cells.

In embodiments herein, including, but not limited to, embodiments described herein for balloon catheters, nerve bundle prostheses, endoscopes, and tissue screening, the circuit element is between any two device islands. Thus, it is preferably arranged and designed such that only one, but no more than about 100 electrical interconnections are required. In certain embodiments, the circuit elements are then SOI wafers (although it should be understood that standard wafers can be used) using standard CMOS fabrication techniques (1.2 μm thick top Si, 1 μm thick buried oxide), and the silicon space between each island is etched away to separate each island. The circuit is protected by a polyimide passivation layer, after which a short HF etch step is applied to partially undercut the island. After the passivation layer has been removed, a thin film of SiO 2 is deposited and patterned (100 nm thickness) by PECVD or other deposition technique in combination with lift-off means, so that the area around each device island is about 5 μm. The oxide layer covers most of the space between devices (a / k / a device islands). Another polyimide layer is spin coated and patterned into an interconnect shape. In general, one interconnect may extend from the center of one device to the center of another device. Alternatively, the two interconnects may extend from each corner of the device to two different device corners. Alternatively, one interconnect may extend from the center of one island edge to the center of another island edge. The interconnect bridge may be about 25 μm wide and may accommodate multiple electrical lines. The polyimide partially fills where the device island is undercut. That is, it helps stabilize the island and prevent its migration in a later release process. Vias are etched into the PI layer, allowing the metal wires that are patterned in the next step to contact the circuit and connect one island to another. (This step can be repeated to form a further set of wires that are placed over the first set). Another PI layer is spin coated (covering the wire and everything else). The PI (both layers) is then isolated by etching with a deposited SiO 2 hardmask in O 2 RIE. The PI located on the outside of the device and the bridge, as well as the PI cover area meant to be electrically interfaced from the outside and a small area leading to the underlying oxide are etched. Etched holes may be formed as needed and then transferred through the silicon or metal layer by wet and / or dry etching. The underlying buried oxide is etched away using an HF etchant to free the device, and the device is for a first polyimide passivation layer that contacts the handle wafer near the perimeter around the device. , Remain attached to the handle substrate.

  If the HF etch is not sufficiently controllable and leaks under the PI insulation layer, thereby eroding the CMOS device, a short argon sputtering may remove any native oxide prior to the first PI passivation. This is done to remove, followed by amorphous silicon sputtering, followed by PI passivation and the rest of the process. After rinsing, the device is exposed to air drying.

  In connection with some embodiments, after drying, the device is picked up by a PDMS stamp, and in this particular exemplary embodiment, the surface of a substrate that is an inflatable body, such as catheter balloon 210B, or a thin PDMS. Transfer printed onto the surface of the expandable body coated with a layer or a separate thin PDMS layer (which may later be wrapped around the expandable body). FIG. 9A shows a side view of a balloon with a PDMS layer 230B wrapped around the surface of the balloon. FIG. 9B is a cross-sectional view showing catheter 220B, the surface of balloon 210B, and a thin PDMS layer 230B applied to the balloon.

  It is also possible for a thin PDMS mold (in an embodiment including an inflatable body) to be made in the shape of a half of an (inflated) balloon, which is stretched flat and circuited into the PDMS mold in a planar state. Can be transferred and then released to return rapidly to a semi-balloon shape. This half-balloon can be easily attached to the actual balloon and may be further glued. If the circuit is outside the balloon, the bridge (herein interconnect and physical) when the device is compressed or the expandable / expandable body is otherwise relaxed or contracted. It should be noted that (also referred to as electrical connection) protrudes outward or buckles. The bridge 1020B should not bend at all in the expanded state and / or be coplanar with the surface of the substrate 200B, so that it can accommodate significant compressive stresses by buckling in the contracted state.

  As another example, this process is repeated with a mold that is made in a deflated state of the balloon and stretched above the plane to be significantly expanded, and the circuit is significantly transferred after the circuit is transferred and the mold is released. It may be made to compress. In this case, after transfer to the actual balloon, the circuit is sufficiently compressed so that when the actual balloon is fully expanded, the bridge is nearly flat or is fully stretched and hardly buckles. Should be.

  In embodiments where the circuit element 1000B is transferred directly to the balloon, the PDMS stamp is thin (to a thickness of about 100-500 μm), so that it is flexible enough to conform to the shape of the balloon. Should be made.

  In embodiments where the circuit element 1000B is first transferred to a separate thin PDMS layer, the PDMS layer may be on a rigid substrate so that transfer can be easily performed. The PDMS layer can then be peeled from the substrate and wrapped around the balloon 210B in an inflated or deflated state, depending on whether the circuit element 1000B has been transferred using pre-strain. It may be desirable to make circuit elements with a 1D array rather than a 2D array. In this method, the thin PDMS layer is a long and narrow ribbon that can be easily wrapped around the balloon 210B to cover the entire surface of the balloon 210B.

  In certain embodiments, to attach the circuit elements, balloon 210B can be rolled directly along a planar array of circuit elements 1000B on PDMS carrier substrate 204B shown in FIG. 10A. The balloon can then be deflated and / or reinflated. Shrinkage can buckle the circuit element interconnects, as shown in FIG. 10C, and assume the contractile force imposed by the contraction, while expansion occurs in the interconnects (as shown in FIG. 10B). A) substantially coplanar with the substrate. This principle has been applied to the expandable, extensible, and flexible embodiments herein. Furthermore, it should be understood that the aforementioned stamping method applied to a balloon catheter can be applied to stamp electronic circuit elements in all of the embodiments described herein.

  In certain embodiments, the circuit element is in another layer of PDMS, or in PDMS liquid followed by a top layer of solid PDMS for fluid coating (while in certain embodiments while in compression). It may be coated.

  In embodiments where the circuit element faces outward on the balloon, it may be electrically connected externally at a conductive pad to be designed to be located at the base of the balloon. An anisotropic conductive film (ACF) connector may be used to connect to the conductive pad by pressing the film onto the pad and heating. The film is so thin and flexible that it can then be gradually reduced along the length of the catheter.

  In embodiments where the circuit element is coated or facing inward, wet chemical or dry chemical etching may be used to first remove some of the coating polymer on the conductive pad, or to physically It may be electrically connected externally by mechanical removal such as, but not limited to, drilling. At this point, the ACF may be incorporated. As another example, the extensible circuit element may be electrically connected to the ACF prior to the transfer or coating process.

  As noted above, some embodiments use a catheter tube as a waveguide and include PV cells made in an extensible form in addition to the remaining circuit elements to optically power the circuit from the outside. It may be possible to supply. In addition, LED islands may be created for optical data communication along the catheter waveguide. As another example, a thin film battery may be used to power the circuit elements. As another example, an RF communication circuit on the device may be used to communicate wirelessly outside the body and can accept an RF power source to power the circuit.

  In certain embodiments, the substrate is a polymer, such as polyimide or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The single crystal semiconductor itself may be produced on a silicon on insulator (SOI) carrier wafer according to a circuit design that implements the desired function. An interconnect system (described herein) may also be created during this step to join smaller device islands. The processed single crystal device is removed from the SOI wafer (eg, by etching) and then elastomer stamped for transfer printing (by the method described herein) onto the desired flexible polymer substrate. Arranged in contact. In certain embodiments, circuit element 1000B is transferred onto a stretchable substrate that may be pre-stretched prior to transfer. In certain embodiments, the extensible substrate serves as a catheter balloon 210B and can be adapted to the shape of the balloon inflated by the mold. The balloon polymer can be stretched over its relaxed or natural large strain (greater than 300%) without causing damage to the circuit element 1000B. As described herein, circuit elements can be coated with a thin layer of additional polymer to provide additional protection from cracks or local contact stress.

In the apparatus of the present invention, including but not limited to the exemplary embodiment of the balloon catheter described herein, the substrate (in this embodiment, the catheter balloon 210B) is covered with an extensible circuit element 1000B having an array of devices 210B. And can be inserted into a lumen 2010B of the patient's body. The device may include a temperature sensor. The temperature sensor may be, for example, a silicon bandgap temperature sensor composed of a silicon diode. The forward voltage of these silicon diodes can sense temperature changes. As another example, a platinum thin film resistance temperature device (RTD) is available that measures temperature based on temperature-induced changes in an electrical resistance circuit or thermocouple circuit that senses temperature changes between different thermoelectric materials. For thermal resistors, the normalized resistance change (R) and the temperature coefficient (α) of the resistor are ΔR / R = αT with respect to the temperature change (T).
Is related by

  Platinum (500 Å) and chromium adhesion layers (150 Å) can be patterned and deposited on SOI wafers using e-beam thermal evaporation to define individual RTD sensors. RTD sensors can be integrated with CMOS-based amplifiers, transducers, computational logic elements, and A / D circuitry on the same device island as described above.

  When circuit element 1000B is transferred onto an inflatable body (balloon catheter 210B in this embodiment), using a mechanical bending stage that can unstablely apply multi-directional tensile or compressive strains, Alternatively, tensile and fatigue tests can be performed by applying repeated expansion and contraction duty cycles. The mechanical bending stage can operate in parallel with an electrical probing terminal (Agilent, 5155C) coupled to the circuit semiconductor. In an embodiment, combined cycling of heating and cooling tests may be performed to evaluate the performance of circuit elements. The circuit can be heated at 160 ° C. for 5 minutes and subsequently cooled before and after each electrical measurement.

  In this exemplary embodiment and other embodiments where it is desirable to protect the circuit element from external damage, a thin coating layer of polymer can be applied to the circuit element, as described above and herein. In accordance with other applicable coating methods described, including applying circuit elements to the inflatable body and then applying it to the surface of the inflatable body. This coating polymer layer may be very thin (<100 μm) and photocurable to allow selective curing in areas where direct contact with the sensor is not required. As such, regions of the device that do not require direct or conformal contact with the target tissue may be exposed. Such selective coating is described below, but any technique for selective coating described herein may be applied. It should be noted that all methods of selective coating apply to any embodiment disclosed herein.

  In some embodiments, the RTD temperature sensor may be preferentially exposed for direct contact during photocuring. There are several polymers that can be used for preferential photocuring of the coating layer, such as, but not limited to, polyethylene glycol (PEG) combined with 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone photoinitiator Is mentioned. The photocurable PEG coating cures when exposed to ultraviolet light. A photomask designed using AUTOCAD can be printed to allow selective curing of the surface of the expandable body. These masks can be inserted as filters into a UV light source stage to which a broad excitation UV filter is connected. Exposure with the aligned mask allows polymerization in strategic areas of the inflatable body. Visual alignment during polymerization is achieved using a CCD camera.

  In certain embodiments, the substrate (in certain embodiments, an inflatable body, such as a catheter balloon 210B) is equipped with an array of devices 1010B comprising sensors, such as temperature sensors, and when the inflatable body is inflated, the lumen The temperature sensor can be deployed to be positioned in direct or conformal contact with the surface of the plaque.

  An important advantage realized in this embodiment and in other embodiments having the flexible and / or extensible circuit elements described herein is the circuit element (and thus the device such as its sensor). Not only in direct contact with the subject's surface or tissue (in this case, luminal plaque and internal surface), but also achieve conformal contact with the surface or tissue contour and / or surface features To achieve improved performance.

  In some embodiments, the separation distance between sensors can be any manufacturable distance, and the effective range can be, but is not limited to, 10 μm to 10000 μm. Individual sensors may be coupled to differential amplifiers and / or buffers and / or analog to digital converters. These circuits can be formed on the same or different devices other than the temperature sensor. The circuit may be arranged in an active matrix manner so that readings from multiple temperature sensors can be switched to and processed by one or several amplifier / logic circuits. . These sensor arrays record input signals that are then routed from the balloon surface to the guidewire and processor using metal electrodes placed near the junction between the balloon surface and the catheter tube. It is possible to be As another example, a gold metal wire may be used to attach the balloon circuit element to the surface of the catheter guide wire using a wire bonder. Signals from the array of sensors are processed using multiplexing techniques including those described in WO 2009/114689, filed Mar. 12, 2009, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Can be done. The circuit elements of the multiplexer component at the base of the catheter guidewire can facilitate this type of data analysis / processing.

  These multiplex processing techniques disclosed herein allow a circuit element (or operator) to select which active device should be utilized or what pattern of active devices should function. Enable. The processing facility is configured to generate a user interface on the output facility for the operator to make the selection or adjustment. In some cases, the identification or pattern of the active device utilized is such that the device is in electrical contact, conformal contact (or how much electrical contact is in contact with the target tissue, or How much conformal contact is present). As such, all embodiments herein provide a useful amount of data even when all electronic devices are not in full contact with a target area on tissue, but are in partial contact. Can be generated.

  The device operator uses optical guidance during x-ray angiography to deploy the balloon catheter when the guidewire reaches the plaque site area. The deformable and extensible nature of the catheter balloon allows temperature measurements at multiple contact points on non-uniform surface contours, such as the surface contours of arterial lumens and deposited plaques (shown as 2020B in FIGS. 7 and 7A) To. (The conformal nature of circuit elements allows such capabilities). When deployed, the processing facility described herein processes the transmitted data and generates a spatial temperature map of the plaque in the lumen. This data can be used by the operator of the device to detect the presence of temperature non-uniformities along the plaque and to determine the type of plaque. Once the plaque type is established and the surface contour is characterized, the balloon catheter can be deflated and removed.

  In another embodiment of the invention, the extensible circuit element 1000B comprises a pressure sensor array. Such sensor arrays are silicon based, may utilize piezoresistive or capacitive sensing, or may be polymer based or optical based. In certain embodiments, the pressure sensor has an operating range and size suitable for the application, can accept the application described herein, and is resistant to the stretching forces that will be experienced. Should.

FIG. 10D shows one exemplary pressure / contact sensor that can be utilized in any of the embodiments described herein that require a pressure sensor or a contact sensor. The pressure sensor comprises a flexible and suspended diaphragm 600 made of a flexible material such as a thin film of single crystal silicon, polysilicon, and / or silicon nitride. Diaphragm 600 can be suspended directly above a base layer of doped silicon composed of a metal electrode layer taken from the SOI wafer. The polysilicon diaphragm layer can be formed as a suspended layer by first depositing a SiO 2 layer on the silicon electrode 610. Thereafter, may be polysilicon is deposited on the SiO 2 layer, then the SiO 2 layer can be selectively etched. This etching step allows the formation of a suspended flexible polysilicon structure. In order to produce a diaphragm with controlled thickness, the exact etch rate using HF must be used. This diaphragm with a known thickness (2-10 μm thickness), material modulus and surface area and the underlying silicon electrode together form a parallel plate capacitor. The capacitance of the sensor depends on the distance between the upper polysilicon layer and the underlying silicon electrode. Capacitance recording correlates diaphragm deflection (caused by force P) with changes in capacitance.

  In an embodiment of the invention, the extensible circuit element includes an array of contact sensors. The contact sensor is designed to provide an on / off electrical resistance change as a function of pressure, and an electrical signal indicating that the sensor is in contact with, for example, the arterial wall when the applied pressure exceeds a predetermined threshold. Provide a signal. An example of a method of forming a contact sensor is to make a simple mechanical electrical switch that has one conductor mechanically pressed onto the other conductor. The lower conductor placed on the surface balloon is composed of discontinuous metal wires at one or more locations to form an open circuit. Covered around this open circuit is a diaphragm formed from PDMS. PDMS may be molded into the shape of a diaphragm or etched. The top wall of the diaphragm is coated with a metal conductor by standard means such as photolithography patterning, electrochemical etching, etching, oblique deposition. The diaphragm is aligned and bonded to the balloon surface. The diaphragm is designed to bend downward and allow the upper conductor to contact and short circuit with the lower discontinuous conductor when a certain pressure is applied. This is done by controlling the diaphragm geometry (height and width) and material. In yet another non-limiting example, the diaphragm may be made with MEMS technology, such as a silicon dioxide sacrificial layer with a polysilicon bridge on top.

  In an embodiment of the present invention, each pressure sensor may be connected to a reference sensor unit having the same electrical characteristics except that the pressure sensitivity is significantly low in order to measure relative pressure. The difference in the pressure measurement between the sensor and the reference unit allows correction for a number of parasitic effects. The reference unit can be created by leaving a passivation layer on the top surface of the polysilicon electrode. By having the reference unit together with the pressure sensor unit, the differential pressure can be recorded. When deployed, such sensor arrays generate data that can be used by circuit elements to determine, among other things, the presence and mechanical properties of tissue (eg, the presence and properties of arterial lumens and plaque therein). can do. In embodiments where the substrate is a balloon, such data can also be used to estimate the diameter and lumen of the balloon, at which point feedback is provided to the device operator to terminate balloon inflation. To do. This type of sensing may be combined with a temperature sensor array to provide a complete assessment of the mechanical and thermal properties of the tissue during a single deployment attempt.

  In certain embodiments, the data generated by such pressure sensing also enables the generation of a tactile image map of the surface contour of a substance such as an arterial plaque. Further, this type of mechanical imaging in balloon catheter embodiments may indicate whether the stent has been successfully deployed when the balloon is inflated.

  In an embodiment of the invention including a treatment facility 1700, the plaque type is first determined using data generated by the temperature sensor, and immediately thereafter the drug delivery polymer and circuit elements embedded in the balloon polymer are active. To provide local cooling and / or release of chemical agents, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, to local sites on the plaque where inflammation is present. In certain embodiments, the treatment facility 1700 includes light emitting electronic components (such as LEDs) and can be utilized to activate the drug delivery polymer.

  In certain embodiments, the circuit element comprises an imaging circuit element (referred to as 1600 in connection with FIG. 1). The imaging circuit element comprises a packed array of active pixel sensors. Each pixel in the array may include a photodetector, a pn junction blocking diode, an active amplifier, and an analog-to-digital converter formed of a single piece of single crystal silicon (50 μm × 50 μm; 1.2 μm thick). Good. In embodiments relating to inflatable bodies such as catheter balloons, all circuit elements may be covered with a polymer layer such as PDMS to prevent damage induced by contact stress of the circuit elements on the inflatable body. . The reason is that there is no need for direct contact between the lumen and the photosensor array. An array of photodetectors on the inflatable body positioned very close to the plaque site in the arterial lumen without the need for lens-based focusing due to the proximity of the photodetector to the lumen, Provides data used by the processing facility to generate a high spatial resolution image. The catheter guidewire may comprise a light source, such as an optical fiber or LED, to provide illumination to the photodetector for imaging plaque and luminal surfaces.

In an embodiment of the present invention, the substrate is covered with an ultrasonic emitter and receiver to generate data used to generate a transverse deep tissue image of plaque and arterial lumen.
In an embodiment of the invention, the substrate is covered with stimulation and recording electrodes that are used to measure plaque conductivity. Because unstable plaque is much less conductive than stable plaque and arterial tissue, this form of sensor array can help determine the plaque type based on the measured conductivity of the plaque. When the inflatable body is deployed, the electrode is positioned in direct and / or conformal contact with the plaque deposit and the conductivity is measured. Again, this device can be combined with other sensor array types embedded within extensible and inflatable bodies to provide multiple sensing and treatment functions in parallel.

  The data collected by the sensor at the plaque site is the baseline established by deploying the same inflatable body (or a second inflatable body on the same catheter) at different locations in the lumen where there is no plaque Can be interpreted in contrast to

  In an embodiment of the present invention, the array of devices includes a temperature detector, a pressure sensor, and a photodetector fabricated together in a flexible and extensible polymer-based balloon catheter substrate. These active device components can be designed using feature resolution of 0.6 μm or less. These active device components may be integrated on a device that is a piece of single crystal silicon (50 μm × 50 μm; 1.2 μm thick). Once the balloon is inserted into the arterial lumen, the device operator navigates the guidewire and guides the balloon to the plaque site. The deployment of the balloon can intermittently stop blood flow. The guidewire is preferably equipped with an optical fiber or LED, and the intimate contact of the imaging array to the lumen eliminates the need for an optical lens array. The reason is that light from the light source passes through the interconnect gap region between the arrays, scatters through the lumen / plaque and reaches the photodetector directly.

  In this embodiment, the pressure sensor array detects when the inflatable body first contacts the plaque and data used to spatially map the entire contact area to ensure good deployment. Is generated. The circuit element continuously records the data generated by the sensor and spatially maps the temperature as a way to detect where inflammation and macrophage deposits are present in the arterial plaque. The operator of the device may examine the data and decide whether to take immediate action with further tests on drug delivery strategy, stent deployment, or plaque. The device operator may also utilize optical imaging to visualize the plaque. In addition to the temperature sensor, having a pressure sensor and an imaging sensor integrated on the balloon allows for the generation of detailed tactile, temperature, and visual maps of the area where the balloon contacts the plaque. This type of distributed mechanical sensing and imaging using an array of pressure sensors and photodetectors ensures that the stent and / or balloon contacts the entire surface of the plaque.

  In certain embodiments, the lumen may be a pulmonary vein. In such an embodiment, circuit element 1000B comprises a device having a sensor that generates data related to electrical activity of the pulmonary veins, which data is then used by the processing facility to indicate the peripheral electrical activity of the pulmonary veins. A map can be generated. In other embodiments, the sensor may include an active electrode. Such embodiments may generate data for mapping electrical activity of the pulmonary veins. Furthermore, embodiments may also include pressure and temperature sensors for uniform sensing on the balloon that are deployed in the pulmonary vein to map electrical activity. Such embodiments described for pulmonary veins may be applied to any lumen. In other embodiments, the sensor may include an active electrode that generates data used to map the electrical activity of the septum, atrial wall or surface, and / or ventricular surface.

  Other embodiments may include active electrodes configured to generate data to map electrical activity while the inflatable body is inflated, allowing simultaneous mapping and ablation. In certain embodiments, ablation may be performed at low temperatures with laser or RF energy.

  In other embodiments, the contact pressure sensor device generates data to be used by the processing device and is a unit area applied to the inflatable body, ie the pulmonary vein hole that can be used for balloon occlusion during mapping and ablation Map the winning force.

  The expandable body herein may be expanded by a fluid at a specified temperature. Data related to the temperature of the fluid may be generated by the circuit element and used to adjust the heat output of the electronic component or calibrate the sensor.

Balloon catheter embodiments may be deployed with stents that may be fitted around the active sensing and imaging area of the balloon.
Embodiments utilizing a catheter may utilize the inventive catheter described herein. FIG. 10E shows three lumens: a guidewire lumen 7002 (accommodating a guidewire), a fluid infusion lumen 7006 (inflating the balloon or controlling the temperature of the electrode or active device on the balloon surface. 1 shows a catheter 7000 with a channel for fluid to be used to) and a circuit element lumen 7004 (which houses the flexible PCB and wiring to be connected to the DAQ). In the assembly of the catheter system, the flexible PCB is wired for connection to the DAQ and is also electrically connected to the stretchable electrode array. This unit is then threaded into the circuit element lumen of the three-lumen extrudate shown, using a wire going to the DAQ that enters first and exits through the proximal end of the catheter for connection to the DAQ.

Although the multiplexer embodiment is described in connection with an exemplary embodiment of a balloon catheter, it should be understood that it applies to other embodiments. FIG. 10F shows a wireless catheter statistical multiplexer that collects 16 (but may be other numbers) asynchronous channels over a single wireless link. In FIG. 10F, I 0 -I 15 are balloon catheter electrodes. Three crosspoint switches are used for multiplex processing. After multiplexing, an X times amplifier is used. The amplified signal is sent to the A / D of the CPU and then wirelessly transmitted. Two wires are required for power and ground (3-5V at 5-7.5 mA).

  Asynchronous ports can be individually configured for speeds up to 57.6 Kbps. Hardware (CTS / Busy high or low) or software (Xon / Xoff even, odd, mark, space, or transparent) flow control is also set per port.

  The wireless catheter statistical multiplexer is a wireless link running at 57.6 Kbps. The multiplexer transmits on a license free ISM or MedRadio band. The link radio module is easily configured using a terminal or PC connected to the network management port or port 1. The range is from 122 to 183 cm (4 to 6 feet) or 305 m (1000 feet) using an optional external repeater (not shown).

  The network management port includes local and remote configuration commands. The Show Configuration command allows the system administrator to observe the configuration settings of both local and remote multiplexers. Network management functions include port and complex loopback, remote or local port capture, sending test messages to individual remote or local ports, setting a multiplexer ID for node identification, and transmission lines or Includes a built-in “data line monitor” that enables monitoring of the receive line. A unique feature of the multiplexer is the cocopy command. This command allows the host site trainer to “copy” any local or remote port to see exactly what the user is typing.

  Such multiplex processing techniques allow circuit elements (or operators) to select which active devices are to be utilized or what patterns of active devices are to function. In some cases, the identification or pattern of the active device utilized may determine whether the device is in electrical contact, conformal contact (or to what extent, or which Degree of conformal contact). As such, all embodiments herein provide a useful amount even when all electronic devices are only in partial contact, rather than in full contact with a target area on tissue. Data can be generated.

  Referring to the original FIG. 1, another embodiment of the present invention is a prosthetic device that can be inserted between a cut end of a nerve bundle with a small opening or a substrate 200 comprising it (some of the following (Referred to as 200N with reference to that embodiment). The external surface of the prosthetic device comprises circuit elements according to the disclosure herein, the circuit elements comprising microelectrodes coupled to amplification and stimulation circuit elements.

  The prosthetic device may be stretched, expanded, or otherwise expanded to conform to the shape of the nerve bundle. This expansion may facilitate the orientation of the microelectrodes strategically positioned on the device to bridge the nerve bundle gap. Further, the circuit element (and treatment facility 1700 in certain embodiments) can be operated using on-board logic components or utilizing an external device connected to the circuit element in the manner described herein. A connection between a plurality of nerves may be selectively generated by manual input from a person. The execution of these actions can occur without electrode movement or further physical interference.

  The benefit of this particular embodiment is that many individual nerves can be electrically reconnected without the need for direct manipulation of the nerve, reducing the risk of severe nerve damage by using minimally invasive means And the ability to subsequently "rewrite" the connection one or more times without further surgical means. In addition, this embodiment has the advantage of adapting each “reconnect” input and output using signal amplification and regulation for specific nerve fiber properties and functions.

  In this embodiment, the circuit elements are made according to the method described above. It should be noted that the device may be laid out in a device “island” arrangement, as in other embodiments described herein. The device is approximately 50 μm × 50 μm square, most of which contains one or more components connected to a buffer and also to an amplifier. Some devices contain active matrix switches and A / D converters, some islands can read and process digital signals, and also output data or store data in memory Contains logic circuitry that can be stored in the cell. The circuit element may also include a device component comprising a metal contact pad. The circuitry on the device is constructed and designed such that only about one, but no more than about 100 electrical interconnections are required between any two device islands or devices.

  In certain embodiments, the substrate comprises an elastomeric vessel (also referred to herein as an “expandable body”). In some embodiments, such a substrate is in the shape of a disc, and the vessel is covered with a flexible and / or extensible circuit as described herein and has a plurality of electrodes. The disc may be deformed to allow it to pass through a small opening in a “contracted” configuration and subsequently deploy in the gap between the severed or damaged nerve bundles. Although expansion with viscous fluids is preferred, it is clear that various gases, fluids, or gels may be used. In accordance with the methods described herein, the flexible and / or extensible circuit element is a miniature electrode that is exposed to allow the miniature electrode to interact with surrounding tissue. It is sealed with. Each electrode can serve as a sensing or stimulation electrode and is connected to a sensing or stimulation amplifier, depending on the device configuration. The signal is routed from the sensing electrode through the signal processing circuitry to the stimulation electrode. In this embodiment, any electrode can serve as a stimulation electrode or a sensing electrode, depending on the dynamic configuration performed at that time. Such electrodes can generate data while in electrical connection and / or in direct physical contact. “Electrical connection” is meant to encompass situations where the electrode is generating data about the target tissue, not necessarily in direct physical contact. “Functional contact” or “sensing contact” also includes situations where the sensing device is generating data about the target tissue, even though not necessarily in direct physical contact. It should be noted that it means to do.

  FIG. 11 illustrates a single nerve pulse path in an exemplary embodiment of the invention. Electrode 1022N is in contact with nerve ending 2030N at a given location on the surface of the device. The electrical activity affects the current or potential of the electrode and is amplified by sense amplifier 1012N and then optionally undergoes further signal conditioning by block 1014N. From there, the electrical signal flows to the multiplexer 1016N. Multiplexer 1016N is configured to correlate the source and destination of the neural signal in the most advantageous way with clinically desirable results. Multiplexer 1016N emits a signal to the appropriate location on the other side of the device, where the signal is again amplified by stimulation amplifier 1013N and finally results in neural activity of nerve ending 2032 via electrode 1024N. FIG. 12 shows a circuit diagram showing multiple channels for the embodiment just described.

  The preferred embodiment includes thousands of such pathways and allows the interconnection of many nerves before and after the nerve gap in a flexible / configurable manner. In particular, it can be changed by changing the dimensions of the present invention during the procedure or at any time thereafter if the connection between the two ends is not established at the time of implantation or at the time of implantation. Among the reasons for changing the routing of neural signals are observations regarding the mapping of various nerves, the effects of patient recovery progress or neuroplasticity, or the relative position of electrodes and tissue during movement or physiological processes. There are changes. One automated means constituting the apparatus is as follows.

  As shown in FIG. 13, by initial deployment, all electrodes and associated amplifiers are set 3010 to be in sensing mode. The electrode then detects 3020 potential data. The electrodes are individually and collectively affected by the activity of the nerves in contact with the electrodes. These data are then amplified and processed (by any applicable processing facility described herein) to determine the presence or degree of electroactivity 3030, which is then determined by the following method. Used to configure the channel. As shown in step 3040, the electrodes in the region with high electrical activity are maintained in a sensing mode. Step 3050 shows that electrodes in a region with less but non-zero activity are switched to stimulation mode. In step 3060, the electrodes in the inactive area are turned off to maintain power and avoid interference. All properties of the electrical signal, including its amplitude and frequency, are optionally utilized by this embodiment to infer the original anatomical function of the neural tissue that the electrode is in contact with.

  In certain embodiments, the circuit element performs a conductivity measurement between the electrodes. These measurements correlate with the electrical activity of the physiological structure and can therefore be used by circuit elements or external processing equipment 1200A to generate a conductivity contour map. In certain embodiments, such maps can be used to improve the configuration of electrodes and multiplexing strategies.

  As described elsewhere herein, the sensors can also include temperature or pH sensors or attitude sensors, and the measurements obtained from those sensors can be used to improve the connection.

  In other embodiments, the device does not simply provide a one-to-one correspondence of electrodes. A given output electrode stimulus may be based on signals from more than one sensor and / or more than one input (sensing) electrode, or many electrode stimuli may be from just one input electrode. Based on the signal.

  After initial configuration, the disclosed invention establishes a wireless control link from outside the body to the device (in the manner described herein) and uses further information to make decisions regarding the best configuration. Then, it can be reconfigured once or multiple times. For example, the clinician communicates with the patient and causes the patient to try to move certain muscles or report whether some emotion is present or absent. As mentioned above, since the substrate is biocompatible, reconfiguration can be performed after a surgical incision has successfully healed, and the connection between nerves without anesthesia or further trauma to the patient, It can be slowly optimized for maximum profit over a period of time. The benefit of the present invention is that these adjustments do not require any physical or surgical manipulation, thus avoiding further risks and pain to the patient. Furthermore, the subsequent configuration can be integrated into a comprehensive rehabilitation program.

  The circuit elements are distributed throughout the substrate, providing a high density of electrodes while allowing the present invention to be implemented in a variety of sizes and shapes that are most advantageous for a particular anatomical site. The flexible / extensible nature of the circuit element allows the circuit element to achieve-and maintain-in close contact with the irregular surface of the severed nerve fiber and must be individually positioned It offers significant advantages over electrode systems that do not require or that the nerve is essentially a plane that is not normally found. In addition to allowing for initial contact without overt surgical placement (impractical for thousands of individual nerves) or a completely flat surface, the present invention provides for a fluid filling device. Nearly uniform pressure is applied to all of the electrodes, so physical movement (such as inflammation or scarring), or contact with many nerves (electrical or physical), over time Have the benefit of maintaining

  FIG. 14 shows a device implanted in the spinal column of a subject with nerve injury. 2036N and 2037N are spinal vertebrae. A cartilage disc 2038N is also shown. An inflatable disc 212N with circuit elements 1000N is shown inserted in the damaged area. When placed in place, the disc 212N is inflated and thus contacts the nerve as described above.

  Other embodiments may include a treatment facility (such as 1700 shown in FIG. 1), and the present invention will also incorporate drug delivery capabilities along the electrode array. FIG. 15 illustrates such an embodiment. The circuit element 1000N including the electrode 1022N is provided on the outer surface of the disc 200N that may or may not be inflatable, for example. A drug reservoir 214N is provided and communicates with the surface of the disc 200N through a channel 216N. At the end of channel 216N is a valve 218, which in certain embodiments is a MEMS valve, connected to and controlled by circuit element 1000N with treatment facility 1700. A refill line 219N is connected to the reservoir, allowing the reservoir 214N to be refilled in certain embodiments. One advantage of this capability is the delivery of drugs that reduce rejection or scar formation at the interface between the tissue and the device. The release of the drug is controlled by the MEMS valve 218N, the area where the previous measurement (such as temperature or conductivity) has shown the potential for maximum benefit as determined by the processing facility 1300 configured as such Can only be sent within. Other embodiments include individual cavities containing the drug and, once consumed, require replacement of the device if further drug treatment is desired.

  In another embodiment of the invention, an electrode on a substantially planar substrate, in certain embodiments an electrode on a sheet comprising extensible and / or flexible electronic components, is a brain, external skin patch Stimulation may be provided to nerve bundles, internal organs, and the like. High density electrodes (such as <1 cm spacing) include amplification and multiplexing capabilities within an array of electrodes by reducing the complexity of the wiring and by including communication equipment in each electrode or group of electrodes. And by similar methods.

  Other embodiments of the invention include endoscopic imaging devices that have improved design efficiency in terms of power and volume. Embodiments of the present invention incorporate conformal and curved electronics components for volume reduction, imaging enhancement, and increased functionality.

  The approach of the embodiments described below is any device that utilizes a conventional tubular and capsule endoscope device and a curved focal plane array of photodetectors as described herein encompassed by a CMOS imager. It will be understood that the above may apply. Such a curved focal plane array can be utilized with any of the embodiments described herein, and all other embodiments described herein, including embodiments related to circuit elements and elements of circuit elements. It should be noted that it is intended to be used as applicable in the endoscope embodiments described below. Curved silicon photosensor arrays have significant advantages over conventional planar arrays. These advantages include a reduction in the number of optical elements, a reduction in aberrations including astigmatism and coma, and an increase in off-axis brightness and sharpness.

  In an embodiment of the invention, the endoscopic device is equipped with a curved array of sensors and / or transducers, for example on its external surface, thereby reducing the required volume of the device. This approach can be used for additional diagnostic, therapeutic, and / or sensing functions (eg, ultrasound, pressure sensing, temperature sensing, pH, chemical sensing, targeted drug delivery, electrocautery, including any of the functions described herein. It is particularly advantageous when reducing the overall size of the endoscopic device and also increasing the acceptable battery size to allow integration of biopsy, laser, and heating). Increasing the power storage of the capsule endoscopic device can result in improved image quality, image compression, transmission rate, number of images captured, and brightness of the illumination generated by the LEDs.

  In an embodiment of the present invention, the capsule endoscope device and its internal circuit elements are both flexible and flexible from any of the materials described for the substrate, including other biocompatible materials apparent to those skilled in the art. And / or made extensible. Such flexible / extensible endoscopic devices can increase the ease of movement along the GI tract and increase the workable volume as well. In other embodiments, the device may have a structure such as a rigid capsule with electronic components conformally fitted to the inner and / or outer shell of the capsule. The exposed surface—the rigid ellipsoidal shell or the flexible or extensible layer—is resistant to the harsh digestive environment that the endoscopic device will encounter, but is vital to the patient's internal anatomy. Made from materials that are compatible and harmless. Other properties of the outer surface biocompatibility are described herein.

  The extensible electronic component of the endoscopic device has been described herein in connection with the discussion of circuit elements in all embodiments. In certain embodiments, the circuit element comprises a sensing and imaging array that monitors body cavities such as the GI tract and features within the lumen. As described above, functionality may reside in the circuit elements that make up a device that may comprise a device island, or vice versa. The islands contain the required circuit elements and are mechanically and electrically interconnected by interconnections as described herein. The interconnect then preferentially absorbs strain and thus releases the channel breaking force from the device island. The interconnect provides a mechanism for the integrated circuit to stretch and flex when force is applied. The device islands and interconnects may be integrated into the endoscopic device casing or capsule shell by transfer printing, as described below. Electronic device encapsulation and system / device interconnect integration may be performed at any of several stages of the process.

  As with the other embodiments described herein, the circuit elements used in the electronic device may comprise standard IC sensors, transducers, interconnects, and computational / logic elements. In certain embodiments, electronic devices are typically fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer according to a circuit design that implements the desired function. The semiconductor device may be processed on a suitable carrier wafer that provides a top layer of ultra-thin semiconductor supported by an easily removed layer (eg, PMMA). These wafers are used to make flexure / stretch ICs by standard processes, and the specific island and interconnect placement is tailored to the specific application requirements. “Ultrathin” refers to a thin geometry device that exhibits a significant level of bendability. Such devices are typically less than 10 μm thick.

  The above discussion of fabrication of circuit elements applies to endoscope embodiments. However, the following discussion will describe the transfer step for embodiments related to (but not necessarily limited to) an endoscope. In such embodiments, the circuit elements are primarily used to improve the imaging system of the device.

  Imaging with a curved light sensor array (instead of a planar array) is used with lenses, illumination LEDs, batteries, calculators, antennas, and wireless transmitters. Wired telemetry is used for conventional tubular endoscopes. Passive or active matrix focal plane arrays are made using one of the extensible processing techniques described above. The array includes a single crystal silicon photodetector and a current blocking pn junction diode. Images captured using the array are minimally processed by on-board operations and transmitted (wired or wirelessly) to an external receiver for further processing.

  The focal plane array described below can be considered part of any imaging facility described above. Individual photodetectors may be networked by an interconnection system according to the present invention. These devices are found on the islands and are connected by interconnects such as the interconnects described herein. In certain embodiments, the polyimide film supports an area and covers the entire system. As such, such a focal plane array can be incorporated into an endoscopic device.

  FIG. 16 illustrates the process of creating such a focal plane array. The first step is to create the necessary circuit element 1000E, which in this embodiment is a focal plane array, and the generation of a geometrically suitable transfer stamp to facilitate this process. In this embodiment, the circuit element is shown as 1000E (but it is envisioned that this circuit element 1000E may be used in conjunction with or in conjunction with other circuit element embodiments described herein. Should be understood).

  In step 1600A, a suitable stamp (also referred to as a transfer element) molds poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) in the gap between opposing convex and concave lenses having matching radii of curvature (1621E and 1622E, respectively). Produced by curing. The radius of curvature should reflect the optimal parabolic curvature useful for non-coplanar imagers. At step 1600B, the cured and curved transfer element 240E (removal from the lens stamping mechanism not shown) can be stretched using a specially designed mechanism and a specially designed mechanism. Provides an outward radial force (equivalent to an outward force in certain embodiments) along the edge of the stamp to produce a pre-distorted planar geometry transfer element. When the transfer element relaxes, it returns to its initial size. Transfer element 240E should also be sufficiently large in its planar configuration to contact the entire area of the electronic device island on the donor substrate.

  The components of circuit element 1000E in this embodiment are processed electronic devices that are joined by interconnect 1020E. In step 1600C, the circuit element 1000E is brought into contact with the planar transfer element 240E, and the planar transfer element 240E adheres to the circuit element 1000E by a sufficiently strong van der Waals interaction. The transfer element 240E is peeled back, thereby removing the focal plane array, or circuit element 1000E, from the handle wafer 1626 shown at 1600D. After the focal plane array 1000E is removed from the handle wafer, the tension in the stamp is released and both the contact layers, ie the focal plane array and the stamp, assume the initial geometric form of the stamp (shown at 1600E). The focal plane array 1000E is compressed and the array networked interconnect 1020E buckles to accommodate strain. The buckled focal plane array 1000E is then transferred to its final substrate (shown in steps F-H) having a matching radius of curvature and in communication with the battery, antenna, and wireless transmitter via electrical contacts. Become. This transfer occurs by bringing both surfaces into contact and is assisted by the use of a photocurable adhesive. The adhesive provides sufficient attractive force to release the curved array of photodetectors on the imaging system port when the PDMS is removed. The curved focal plane array is then connected to the rest of the imaging electronic component via electrode contact pads on the outer periphery of the array.

  In another embodiment shown in FIG. 16A, an endoscopic device 1680E comprising a power source 300E in the form of a battery, a processing facility 1200E, and a data transmission facility 1500E is shown. Step 1601A shows a convex focal plane array 1000E that is attached to the outer shell of the endoscopic device 1680E, for example, by a geometric transfer stamp 245E. After lifting off the focal plane array from the handle wafer using a pre-distorted planar PDMS (as described in connection with FIG. 16 above), the focal plane array relaxes and has, for example, a light curable adhesive. It can be deposited directly on the distal end of the endoscopic device 1680E with the receiving substrate 246E. After deposition on the endoscopic device 1680E (state shown at 1601B), electrical contacts are made from the array 1000E to the internal circuit elements of the endoscopic device 1680E. At 1601C, all exposed circuit elements can be sealed with a suitable polymer and / or metal layer (eg, parylene, polyurethane, platinum, gold) 247E.

  A microlens array may be required for such an optical array system. However, this requirement may be overridden by appropriate illumination and negligible distance between the optical array and the surface being imaged (eg, near field imaging).

  In yet another embodiment, the focal plane array, which may be referred to as circuit element 1000E, may be conformally wrapped around the endoscopic device so that it points outwardly from the long axis of the device. This is accomplished by completing the same planar extensible processing steps described above and transferring the circuit with a different special polymer stamp. The transfer stamp may take the form of a planar rectangular strip. Each polymer strip is pre-strained by thermal expansion (heating to about 160 ° C.) or by applying non-uniform radial strain. This pre-distorted polymer is then positioned in direct contact with the processed focal plane array. The elastomer is then peeled away to release the array from the handle wafer. The stamp is then relaxed by cooling to room temperature or gradually releasing mechanically induced strain. This strain release causes the elastomer to return to its initial shape and then forces the device islands of the array to pull. In certain embodiments, the interconnect is forced to buckle, and the stretch and bending properties are effective. In certain embodiments, the area to which the array is intended to be attached is pretreated with a light curable adhesive. Alternatively, a PDMS layer may be used to enhance adhesion.

  FIG. 16B details an embodiment of a process for transferring circuit elements to an endoscopic device. Transcription is accomplished by stamping a planar array of device islands and interconnects onto a curved surface such as endoscopic device 1680E. 1602A shows an endoscopic device having a thin PDMS shell or adhesive outer layer 250E. 1602B shows the circuit element 1000E on the carrier substrate 201E. 1602C shows the step of rotating the endoscopic device 1680E about one revolution over the substrate 201E containing a planar array of device islands, and the array of photodetectors and interconnects is viewed in a curvilinear manner as shown in step 1602D. It will preferentially adhere to the surface of the mirror device 1680E.

  In another embodiment, a microlens array may be required for optimal focusing and image quality. However, this requirement may be overridden by proper illumination and a negligible distance between the optical array and the imaged surface. If a microlens array is required, the microlens array may be generated directly as a coating layer for the photodetector array during the stretch process. The microlens array may also be stamped after the endoscopic device is made. This optical array is then coated and electronically integrated with the rest of the endoscopic device in the following manner. An electronic device processed for stretching can be picked up using a pre-distorted planar PDMS stamp. The pre-distorted planar PDMS stamp is then relaxed and brought into contact with the acceptor substrate for transfer printing. This acceptor surface may be the surface of an endoscopic device, which surface is coated with a thin PDMS layer or a separate thin appropriately shaped PDMS layer that may be wrapped around the endoscope later. . If the device faces outward on the endoscopic device substrate, the device may be on another layer of PDMS or on a liquid layer of PDMS followed by a top layer of solid PDMS (while in compression) for fluid coating. A). Other materials / methods may be applied. If the device faces outward on the endoscopic device substrate, the device may be electrically connected externally at a conductive pad that should be designed to be placed in a conventional location. Anisotropic conductive film (ACF) connectors can be used to connect to these conductive pads by pressing and heating the film onto the pads.

  When the device is fully coated or facing inward, the device is part of the coating polymer that covers the conductive pad by wet or dry chemical etching or physico-mechanical removal of material including but not limited to perforations. May be electrically connected to the outside by first removing. At this point, an ACF may be incorporated. Alternatively, the extensible electronic component may be electrically connected to the ACF prior to the transfer or coating process.

  In certain embodiments, the circuit element 1000E may include a flexible LED array on the outer surface of the endoscopic device 1680E, as shown in FIG. Such an array provides the illumination required for optical image capture. A typical process for creating a flexible LED system is as follows.

The LED is made from a quantum well (QW) structure on a GaAs substrate. There is an AlAs sacrificial layer between the GaAs substrate and the QW structure. The QW structure is etched by reactive ion etching (RIE) down to the bottom of the sacrificial layer to form isolated square islands on the edge that may be in the range of, for example, 10-1000 μm. Partial release / undercut of the island by HF etching is performed. Photoresist is spin coated on the substrate and patterned to form squares around the island corners that serve as anchors. A full HF release etch is performed to separate the island from the GaAs bulk substrate. The photoresist anchors prevent the islands from being floated away during the etching, rinsing and drying steps. Elastomeric stamps (eg PDMS) are used to pick up islands and transfer them to another substrate. The transfer may take place in multiple steps, picking up a portion of the GaAs island at a time to geometrically rearrange the GaAs islands. The substrate onto which the islands are transferred for further processing can be a PET (polyethylene plastic) layer on a glass substrate that can be peeled later, a polyimide layer on top of a PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) sacrificial layer, or PDMS It may be a layer or the like. The portions of the LED island are then patterned and wet etched so that the n-type contacts are exposed. This may be done, for example, by a combination of H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O 2 . The upper p-type material is also in electrical contact by not etching the portions of the island. Next, a planarizing layer of polyimide is spin-coated and patterned so that the vias extend under the p-type and n-type contact regions of the device. Thin film wires are deposited and patterned so that the wire to the p-type region extends in one direction and the wire to the n-type region extends in the orthogonal direction. One of the other wires should have a gap so that it does not become a cross-circuit. This gap is bridged by spin coating another planarization layer over the gap and patterning the planarization layer to have vias on either side of the gap, and the metal is planarized to make the connection. A pattern is formed over the layer. Another passivation layer is spun on top, leaving the bridges and islands covered with polymer, but the entire stack is etched so that the intervening areas are completely etched away. This allows the bridge to be flexible. The PMMA sacrificial layer may be undercut or the PET layer may be peeled off and the entire sheet with circuitry may be picked up again by the PDMS stamp and turned over. The back of the lower polyimide or the bottom of the circuit is coated with Cr / SiO 2 and bridge coating is avoided by using shadow mask deposition means. The sample is subjected to UV ozone treatment to provide a dangling bond to SiO 2 to facilitate the formation of a covalent bond with the next substrate to which the circuit is transferred. This final substrate may be PDMS that has been thermally or mechanically pre-distorted so that after transfer, the strain is relaxed, the device approaches, the bridge pops out and buckles to accommodate the strain.

  The stretchable LED array is transferred to the endoscopic device in a manner similar to that of the cylindrical photosensor array. The stretchable LED array is then coated and integrated at the device level according to the methods described herein in connection with the microlens array. FIG. 17 shows an endoscopic device 1680E, where the circuit element 1000E comprises an array of photodetectors and an array of LEDs (shown as individual 1030E). The LED array may utilize the processing facility 1200E in the form of a logic device so that it only illuminates the area of interest during area operation and can be turned off when not in use as a power saving mechanism. The device also includes a data transmission facility that includes an RF antenna 1502 in wireless communication with an external device.

  In another embodiment of the invention, the endoscopic device is equipped with an array of sensors that can be selected from the sensors herein, including the sensors associated with the 1100 discussion. The sensor works with circuit element 1000E to monitor pH, chemical presence, and / or enzyme activity. In certain embodiments, the data collected by this sensor array is processed by a local computing device and transmitted to an external receiver via an RF antenna or wired telemetry for further processing.

  At least some of the sensors in the array may comprise ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) that generate data related to changes in ion concentration. The output signal is typically a voltage and / or current difference that varies with changes in the ion (eg, hydronium) and / or enzyme whose magnitude is sensed.

  Another embodiment of the invention relates to a capsule endoscopic device having a plurality of electronic components that conformally conform to the inner and / or outer walls of the capsule shell to maintain space. The conformal component is created by first performing an extensible process on the suitable materials described herein. The basic components of such endoscopic devices include passive or active matrix focal plane arrays, lenses, illumination LEDs, batteries, and telemetry devices (antennas and wireless transmitters). Optional components include an ultrasonic transducer, a pressure sensor (eg, a silicon-based device that utilizes a piezoresistive or capacitive sensing mechanism, a polymer-based sensor, and / or a light-based sensor that measures physical displacement), temperature Sensors (eg, silicon bandgap temperature sensors, platinum resistance temperature devices), sensors described herein including pH / enzyme / chemical sensors (eg, ISFETs discussed above), target drug delivery components, electrocautery devices, biopsies Devices, lasers, and heating devices may be included. Components that benefit from contact with the GI wall and fluid (eg, chemical sensors, LEDs, optical arrays) are positioned to communicate or optically communicate with the external environment. This may be achieved, for example, by conformally placing the device on the outer surface of the capsule or through the use of electrodes that relay information from the outer region to the interior of the capsule. The remaining components (eg battery, telemetry device) are preferably placed inside the capsule.

  A method for generating extensible focal plane arrays and incorporating them into a desired substrate has been described above. The same method used to process and transfer the focal plane array (extensible processing) may be used for various single crystal silicon based electronic devices (eg, antennas, RF transmitters, ISFETs) The circuit is laid out to accommodate mechanical deformation and stretching (eg, using a CAD tool).

  In embodiments where it is desired to incorporate heterogeneous integrated circuits (non-silicon based devices), slightly different approaches may be used. When generating devices that require heterogeneous integration (eg, LEDs), the circuits are typically generated on different substrates. After the stretch process, the electronic devices are bonded on the same substrate using the stamping method described above. This substrate may be the ultimate goal of the device (product integration) or alternatively an intermediate (ie, a rigid, flexible or extensible material that will later be incorporated into the product) It may be. At this point, the interconnect may be required to keep all of the heterogeneous components in electrical connection. These are provided using soft lithography with precise alignment (<5 μm) or another low impact low temperature (<400 ° C.) processing method. The integrated circuit is then suitably coated and system / device interconnect integration can be performed as described above in connection with the microlens array.

  As noted above, the substrate material used in the embodiments herein may be biocompatible. This is true for substrates that include the outer coating of an endoscopic device. In addition to biocompatibility, any portion of the device housing that is placed between the imager array and the monitored object is preferably transparent. Furthermore, the material in the outer shell of the endoscopic device facilitates easy progression through the GI tract. Examples of suitable biocompatible materials are given above.

  It will be appreciated that the device housing described above may also be a substrate and vice versa. Accordingly, those skilled in the art will appreciate that some discussion relating to the material of the substrate can be applied to the housing in some embodiments.

  It has been described herein in connection with embodiments of the present invention that the substrate can be equipped with circuit elements comprising an array sensor and that the sensor can comprise a pressure sensor. The circuit elements may also include processing capabilities 1200 and 1200A, data collection capabilities 1300, amplifier capabilities 1400, and data transmission capabilities 1500, among other capabilities. Thus, another embodiment will be described that facilitates quantitative examination of tissue based on palpation. In certain embodiments, the device is configured for self-examination. The device is particularly suitable for breast self-examination. However, despite the following disclosure of exemplary embodiments, the devices and methods disclosed in connection with this exemplary embodiment apply to the examination of various tissues and body regions, It will be appreciated that it need not be based solely on palpation.

  Such devices comprise conformal and extensible polymers that are equipped with an array of pressure transducers that maintain motion as the body stretches and bends. The polymer substrate may cover a portion or the entire tissue surface and may be used to measure tissue mechanical stiffness at a plurality of discrete points. A pressure transducer coupled to the processing facility can measure the mechanical stiffness of the tissue in response to a known strain applied to the tissue surface during palpation. As with the other embodiments of the present invention, the electronic device of the circuit element may comprise a multiplexer, a data acquisition circuit, and a microprocessor circuit connected by electronic component wiring to the sensory circuit element covering the polymer substrate. Good. Detection of an abnormally stiff region of tissue begins by first pressing an array of pressure transducers onto a body part, eg, the surface of the breast. In certain embodiments, the device is mounted over the entire surface area of a body part (eg, breast), so that the body part stiffness profile can be mapped with high spatial resolution.

  Embodiments of the present invention determine the presence or spatial extent of abnormally stiff lesions in living tissue, distinguish the relative stiffness of healthy and cancerous tissue, and, where appropriate, rapid and localized To facilitate integrated treatment measures. Because the mechanical properties of breast tissue are inherently non-uniform, the present invention is used regularly over a period of time to accurately map the health of the tissue being examined, thereby providing a structure over time. Allows detection of above anomalies and / or deviations.

  Embodiments of the invention include a wearable polymer membrane equipped with a flexible and extensible electronic sensor and imaging array for measuring material, mechanical properties, and / or optical properties of biological tissue. The present invention utilizes flexible and extensible circuit elements suitable for measuring parameters such as temperature, pressure, and conductivity of living tissue. More specifically, the breast region is one target region for such tissue investigation. The electronic components may be arranged as islands that contain the required circuit elements and are mechanically and electronically interconnected by interconnections. The interconnect then preferentially absorbs strain, thus allowing the sensor array to withstand extreme stretching and conform to the non-uniform shape of living tissue. Device islands and interconnects may be integrated into the device by transfer printing, as described below. Electronic device coating and system / device interconnect integration may be performed at several stages of the process.

  As fully described herein, one or more electronic devices and / or device components described herein (eg, pressure, light, and radiation sensors, biologicals) that are connected to a buffer and also an amplifier. An array of devices that may include chemical and / or chemical sensors, amplifiers, A / D and D / A converters, light collectors, electromechanical transducers, piezoelectric actuators) laid out in a device “island” configuration Is done. The device island is approximately 50 μm × 50 μm square. Some islands contain active matrix switches and A / D converters, some islands can read and process digital signals, and output data or memory data Contains logic circuitry that can be stored in the cell. The circuits on these islands are constructed and designed such that only about one, but no more than about 100 electrical interconnects are required between any two device islands. The circuit elements are made and applied according to the methods described above, including those described for the device island arrangement of the device.

  FIG. 18 shows an embodiment of the invention adapted to a human breast. In an embodiment of the invention, conformal polymer film 200T is in the shape of a single human breast 2040T. Mounted on the membrane 200T is a circuit element 1000T comprising a sensor and / or imaging array, for example based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In certain embodiments, the array (s) 1000T is physically integrated on the surface of a polymer breast-shaped membrane 200T, such as (poly) dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This stamping procedure may be performed by a transfer printing process as defined herein. As described herein, the array 1000T can be made of CMOS devices, which include a variety of subtleties including (but not limited to) pressure sensing, optical imaging, and transdermal drug delivery. Provide sensitive detection, imaging, and treatment functions. The device array 1000T is designed to withstand stretching and bending by using the effective circuit layout and interconnect design described herein.

In certain embodiments, the tissue screening device may be formed in the form of a brassiere 275T or may be integrated to become a brassiere.
Certain embodiments may include a circuit element / array 1000T comprising an arrayed pressure sensor. Accordingly, the electronic device 1010T can include a pressure sensor. Each pressure sensor island includes a flexible diaphragm that can record a change in capacitance in response to deflection. The pressure sensor can be made of a series of piezoresistive strain gauges and / or conductive polymers. Each electronic device may include an amplifier and an A / D converter to provide local signal processing on each island. The sensor island is coated with a thin (about 100 μm thick) layer of polymer to protect the interconnects and circuit elements. The surface containing the thin layer is positioned to be in direct contact with the breast tissue during the procedure. The surface facing the sensor can be equipped with a further polymer layer (300-500 μm thick) formed as a containment with an air-filling gap. Inflating this air-filled space by a known amount (by a peristaltic pump) facilitates the application of a known strain to the breast tissue. Thus, breast tissue can be pushed down a certain amount across its surface by expanding the air-filled space, and the pressure at each location is recorded by a pressure sensor.

  In another embodiment, each device 1010T includes an on / off switch transistor that is coupled to the pressure sensor and activated when pressure is applied. Using this on / off mechanism, the device determines which sensor was pressed during detection, for example through a graphical user interface on the external device, or a visual area such as a lit area where the sensor was activated or not activated. It can be communicated to the user by means or by an operational tactile indicator. One important advantage of using a sensor array with on-off feedback is that when applying force to the breast by hand, the sensor array alerts the user if no part of the sensor array is depressed. . Thus, the sensor array eliminates the possibility of missing multiple areas of the breast during a manual examination. Thus, in certain embodiments, each electronic device can provide feedback if the pressure sensing mechanism is not properly activated during a breast exam.

  In another embodiment of the invention, the device is secured to the breast using a strap similar to the 275T strap. Thus, in use, the user can wear a device such as a brassiere. In certain embodiments, the device has a port (not shown) for connection to an external processing facility 1200A, shown in FIG. 18 as being present in the laptop computer 1204T. Wireless communication is also possible and is shown in the figure. The external device can provide power and receive data during screening. In certain embodiments, the processing facility 1204T is in electronic communication with the circuit elements and is configured to detect that the brassiere is worn and prompt the user to begin a breast examination. The outer surface of the device facing the breast can be covered with a thin covering layer of the polymer described in the previous embodiment. The space between this outer surface and the surface of the device can be hermetically sealed and filled with air using a peristaltic air pump. Filling this space with air allows a uniform pressure to be applied along the entire surface of the breast, and then provides control over how much strain is applied to the breast.

  In another embodiment of the present invention, the extensible material 200T comprises a circuit element 1000T having an array of ultrasonic transducers (eg, piezoelectric crystals). Each device 1010T includes a receiver that detects acoustic reflections generated by acoustic emitters that emit acoustic waves at megahertz frequencies through the tissue. This embodiment can be combined with other sensors described herein, including pressure sensors, to further locate and image abnormal areas of breast tissue. As with all embodiments herein, the sensor receives data from the sensor, processes the data according to the methods described herein, and outputs the output as described herein. It can be in electronic communication with other equipment, electronic devices, components, and elements of circuit elements, including processing equipment that the device generates.

  Circuit element 1000T may also include an array of infrared emitters and detectors (eg, a bolometer). The infrared wavelength is selected to minimize the ratio of healthy tissue absorption to cancerous tissue absorption. The emitter illuminates the breast and the detector images the radiation. This embodiment can be combined and integrated with any of the sensing concepts described above to increase accuracy.

  Circuit element 1000T may also include an array of stimulation and recording electrodes to generate a spatial map of the electrical impedance of the tissue. The conductivity and dielectric properties of cancerous tissue can differ from that of healthy tissue. In order to detect changes in electrical impedance induced by the presence of local cancerous tissue, a known AC current can be injected into a known location, with the voltage at a number of points defined by the array of recording electrodes. To be recorded. In this embodiment, the polymer covering layer covers everything except the contact area of the electrode. A photopatternable polymer can be used to accomplish this step.

  Electrical impedance scanning provides data that allows a 3D spatial map of complex impedance and dielectric constant over a range of frequencies, and the 3D spatial map predicts the presence of abnormal cancerous cells deep within breast cells Can be used as a detection tool. This embodiment can be combined and integrated with any of the methods and concepts described above to increase accuracy.

Data collected by the array of sensors can be stored for retrieval and / or transmitted to an external system for time-based tracking of tissue health.
In certain embodiments, sensor data from the pressure transducer array 1000T may be amplified at the level of each sensor, converted to digital form, and then sent to a multiplexer. Alternatively, analog circuitry may be included at the level of each device 1010T, and digital processing circuitry may be housed away from the polymer. As data is collected from each point and transmitted to the computer terminal, the user may be prompted with a prompt that the exam is complete. The user may examine the data on his own (as an example) and / or send the data to his doctor for further review.

  Thus, in certain embodiments, the circuit elements of the device receive data from the device and display a graphical or other visual representation of the data associated with the test as output facility (300 in connection with FIG. 1). It is apparent that the device is in electronic communication with a processing facility configured to generate. For example, the tissue map described herein may be generated from all sensor data disclosed herein and presented on an output facility (shown on 1204T). Text data and graphic data associated with data generated by the circuit elements may be presented to the user. The processing facility can process historical data generated by the circuit elements in a variety of ways, including daily, weekly, monthly, or any other useful interval readings, charts, reports, and the like. It may be configured to store, aggregate and present.

  Returning to the physical properties of the device itself, the device may be opaque so that the female breast is not visible. This feature can be achieved by adding an opaque (eg, black) pigment to the elastomer prior to curing. In this embodiment, the array of sensors remains in intimate contact with the breast without having to expose her native breast. Because of the biocompatibility of polymers such as PDMS, this type of device can be conveniently fitted in a regular brassiere.

  In one embodiment of the invention, the electronic components are integrated into an elastomeric material that outlines the breast. This shape can be reproduced in different sizes depending on the intended user's breast size. The process of creating a breast shaped device begins with the creation of a first breast shaped mold. Subsequently, a mold molded into the second reverse mold is made to match the curvature of the first mold. An elastomeric material such as PDMS is poured between the two molds to produce a thin film (less than 2 mm). This layer is cured to produce a solid breast-shaped film of elastomeric material from which the electronic components will be stamped by the transfer printing process described above. To accomplish this printing process, the elastomeric material is stretched in a plane and placed in contact with an electronic component that has already been “stretched”. The electronic component preferentially adheres to the surface of the elastomer by van der Waals forces or by chemical support means. Thereafter, the elastomer with embedded electronic components relaxes and buckles within the electronic component interconnect and becomes stretchable.

  Further coating and device integration may be required. This is done by applying an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) (by hand or on a bond pad designed to be in an easily accessible area on the stretchable electronic component array (eg on its outer periphery). It may be done by connecting) (via electronic automation). The ACF connects the elastomer with embedded electronic components to devices involved in supplying power and relays information on other tasks that require electrical contact.

  According to one or more embodiments, the extensible electronic components are integrated directly onto a structure such as a brassiere. This may be accomplished by coating an article, such as a brassiere, with an elastomeric substrate (eg, PDMS) and attaching the extensible electronic component array described above to an article, such as a newly coated brassiere.

  Some of the methods and systems described in connection with the present invention (hereinafter referred to as “Subject Methods and Systems”) are integrated with electronic circuit elements described herein or electronically. It may be deployed in part or in whole through a machine that executes computer software, program code, and / or instructions on a processor remote from the circuit elements. The several methods and systems will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and none of the following is intended to limit, but rather to supplement, what has already been disclosed.

  The active extensible or flexible circuit elements described herein may be considered the machines necessary to fully or partially deploy the subject methods and systems. Separately located machines may fully or partially deploy the subject method and system. Accordingly, the “machine” referred to herein is applicable to the circuit elements described above, individual processors, individual interface electronics, or combinations thereof.

  The subject method and system invention may be embodied as a machine-implemented method, as a partial or associated system or apparatus of the machine, or as a computer-readable medium executed on one or more machines. It can be implemented as a computer program product. In embodiments, the processor may be part of a server, client, network infrastructure, mobile computing platform, stationary computing platform, or other computing platform. A processor may be any type of computing or processing device capable of executing program instructions, code, binary instructions, and the like. The processor is a signal processor, digital processor, embedded processor, microprocessor or any variation that can directly or indirectly facilitate the execution of program code or program instructions stored therein, such as a coprocessor (arithmetic unit). A coprocessor, a graphic coprocessor, a communication coprocessor, etc.) or the like. In addition, the processor can allow execution of a large number of programs, threads and codes. Threads may be executed concurrently to enhance processor performance and facilitate concurrent application operations. For implementation, the methods, program code, program instructions, etc. described herein may be implemented in one or more threads. A thread may create other threads, which may have priorities assigned in association with them. The processor may execute threads based on priority based on instructions provided in the program code or any other order. A processor, or any machine that utilizes a processor, may comprise a memory that stores methods, code, instructions, and programs as described herein and elsewhere. The processor may access, via an interface, a storage medium that can store methods, code, and instructions as described herein and elsewhere. A storage medium associated with a processor for storing methods, programs, code, program instructions or other types of instructions that may be executed by a computing device or processing device includes, but is not limited to, one or more Examples include CD-ROM, DVD, memory, hard disk, flash drive, RAM, ROM, and cache. None of the contents of this section or the following sections are intended to limit or deny the description of processing equipment described herein and throughout.

  The processor can include one or more cores that can enhance the speed and performance of the multiprocessor. In an embodiment, the process may be similar, combining a dual core processor, a quad core processor, other chip level multiprocessors and two or more independent cores (called dies).

  The subject methods and systems described herein may be implemented by a server, client, firewall, gateway, hub, router, or other such machine that runs computer software on network and / or network hardware. It can be partially or fully deployed. A software program can be associated with a server such as a file server, a print server, a domain server, an Internet server, an intranet server, and other variants such as secondary servers, host servers, distributed servers, and the like. A server can be connected to one or more memories, processors, computer-readable media, storage media, ports (physical and virtual ports), communication devices, and other servers, clients, machines and devices via wired or wireless media An interface that can be accessed can be provided. A method, program or code as described herein and elsewhere may be executed by a server. In addition, other devices necessary to perform the method as described herein may be considered part of the infrastructure associated with the server.

  The server may provide an interface to other devices such as, but not limited to, clients, other servers, printers, database servers, print servers, file servers, communication servers, distributed servers. Further, this coupling and / or connection can facilitate remote execution of the program over a network. Networking some or all of these devices can facilitate parallel processing of programs or methods at one or more locations without departing from the scope of the present invention. Furthermore, any device attached to the server via the interface may comprise at least one storage medium capable of storing at least one of methods, programs, code or instructions. A central repository may provide program instructions that are executed on different devices. In this implementation, the remote repository can serve as a storage medium for program code, instructions, and programs.

  Where the subject method and system are embodied as a software program, the software program may be a file client, a print client, a domain client, an Internet client, an intranet client, and other variations such as a second client, a host client, It is possible to associate with clients that can include distributed clients. A client may include one or more memories, processors, computer-readable media, storage media, ports (physical and virtual ports), communication devices, and other clients, servers, machines, and devices via wired or wireless media An interface that can access the A method, program or code as described herein and elsewhere may be executed by a client. In addition, other devices required to perform the methods as described herein can be considered part of the infrastructure associated with the client.

  A client may provide an interface to other devices such as, but not limited to, servers, other clients, printers, database servers, print servers, file servers, communication servers, distributed servers. Further, this coupling and / or connection can facilitate remote execution of the program over a network. Networking some or all of these devices can facilitate parallel processing of programs or methods at one or more locations without departing from the scope of the present invention. Further, any device attached to the client via the interface may comprise at least one storage medium capable of storing at least one of a method, a program, an application, code or instructions. A central repository may provide program instructions that are executed on different devices. In this implementation, the remote repository can serve as a storage medium for program code, instructions, and programs.

  The subject methods and systems described herein may be partially or fully deployed by a network infrastructure. The network infrastructure includes computing devices, servers, routers, hubs, firewalls, clients, personal computers, communication devices, routing devices, and other active and passive devices, modules and / or components well known in the art, Can include such elements as Computing and / or non-computing devices associated with the network infrastructure may include storage media, such as flash memory, buffers, stacks, RAM, ROM, etc., apart from other components. The processes, methods, program code, instructions described herein and elsewhere may be performed by one or more of the elements of the network infrastructure.

  The methods, program code, and instructions related to the subject methods and systems described herein and elsewhere may be implemented on a cellular network having multiple cells. The cellular network may be either a frequency division multiple access (FDMA) network or a code division multiple access (CDMA) network. A cellular network can include mobile devices, cell sites, base stations, repeaters, antennas, towers, and the like. The cell network may be a GSM, GPRS, 3G, EVDO, mesh, or other type of network.

  The methods, program code, and instructions relating to the subject methods and systems described herein and elsewhere may be implemented in or via a mobile device. Mobile devices include navigation devices, mobile phones, mobile phones, mobile personal digital information processing terminals, laptops, palmtops, netbooks, pagers, electronic book terminals, music players, and the like. These devices, apart from other components, may comprise a storage medium such as flash memory, buffers, RAM, ROM and one or more computing devices. A computing device associated with the mobile device may be adapted to execute program code, methods, and instructions stored thereon. As another example, a mobile device may be configured to execute instructions in cooperation with other devices. The mobile device may communicate with a base station that is connected to the server and configured to execute the program code. Mobile devices can also communicate over peer-to-peer networks, mesh networks, or other communication networks. The program code may be stored in a storage medium associated with the server and executed by a computing device embedded in the server. The base station may comprise a computing device and a storage medium. The storage medium may store program code and instructions that are executed by a computing device associated with the base station.

  Computer software, program code, and / or instructions related to the subject method and system can be stored on and / or accessed by a machine-readable medium, where: Computer parts, devices and recording media that hold digital data used to perform; semiconductor storage devices known as random access memory (RAM); typically mass storage for more permanent storage; For example, in the form of optical disks, magnetic storage devices, such as hard disks, tapes, drums, cards and other types; processor registers, cache memory, volatile memory, non-volatile memory; optical storage devices such as CDs, DVDs; Possible media such as flash memory ( USB stick or key), floppy disk, magnetic tape, paper tape, punch card, stand-alone RAM disk, Zip drive, removable mass storage, offline, etc .; other computer memory, eg dynamic memory, static memory, Read / write storage device, variable storage device, read only type, random access type, sequential access type, location addressable file, addressable file, addressable content, network connection type storage device, storage area network, barcode And magnetic ink.

  The subject methods and systems described herein can transform a physical and / or intangible item from one state to another. The methods and systems described herein can also transform data representing physical and / or intangible items from one state to another.

  The elements described and depicted herein and their functions are presented to the processor as a monolithic software structure, as a stand-alone software module, or as a module that uses external routines, code, services, etc., or combinations thereof. It can be implemented on a machine via a computer-executable medium having such a processor capable of executing stored program instructions, and all such implementations are within the scope of this disclosure. Examples of such machines include, but are not limited to, personal digital information processing terminals, laptops, personal computers, mobile phones, other portable computing devices, medical tools, wired or wireless communication devices , Transducers, chips, calculators, satellites, tablet PCs, electronic books, gadgets, electronic devices, artificial intelligence devices, computing devices, network equipment, servers, routers, and the like. Further, the elements depicted in the flowcharts and block diagrams or other logical components may be implemented on machines capable of executing program instructions. Thus, although the preceding description refers to the functional aspects of the disclosed system, the specific configuration of the software to implement these functional aspects may be explicitly indicated or apparent from the context. Except for the above description, it should not be inferred. Similarly, it should be understood that the various steps specified and described above are variable, and the order of the steps can be adapted to the particular application of the techniques disclosed herein. All such changes and modifications are intended to be within the scope of this disclosure. As such, depictions and / or descriptions of the order of the various steps may require a particular order of execution for the steps, unless required by a particular application, or are explicitly indicated or apparent from the context. It should not be understood as necessary.

  The subject methods and systems, and the steps associated with the methods and systems, can be implemented in hardware, software, or any combination of hardware and software suitable for a particular application. Hardware can include a general purpose computer and / or a dedicated computing device or a particular computing device or a particular aspect or component of a particular computing device. The processing can be implemented with internal and / or external memory in one or more microprocessors, microcontrollers, embedded microcontrollers, programmable digital signal processors or other programmable devices. Processing may additionally or alternatively be embodied as an application specific integrated circuit, programmable gate array, programmable array logic, or other device or combination of devices that can be configured to process electronic signals. Further, it will be appreciated that one or more processes may be implemented as computer-executable code that may be executed on a machine-readable medium.

  The computer-executable code can be stored, translated or interpreted to operate on one of the above devices, a structured programming language such as C, an object-oriented programming language such as C ++, or any other High- or low-level programming languages (including assembly language, hardware description language, and database programming languages and techniques), and various combinations of processors, processor architectures, or combinations of different hardware and software, or programs It can be created using any other machine capable of executing instructions.

Accordingly, in one aspect, the methods described above in connection with the subject systems and methods, and combinations thereof, are executed as computer-executable code that performs the steps when executed on one or more computing devices. It may be embodied. In another aspect,
The method may be embodied as a system that implements the steps and may be distributed throughout the device in various ways, or all functions may be integrated into a dedicated stand-alone device or other hardware. In another aspect, means for performing the steps associated with the processes described above include any of the hardware and / or software described above. All such substitutions and combinations are intended to be within the scope of this disclosure.

Although the invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiments, other embodiments are understood by those skilled in the art and are included in the specification.
All documents referred to herein are hereby incorporated by reference.

Claims (1)

  1. A device,
    An inflatable substrate;
    A circuit element disposed on the substrate, wherein the circuit element comprises an array of active devices, and the circuit element is such that the circuit element maintains functionality upon expansion of the substrate. A circuit element including a stretchable electrical interconnect that electrically interconnects the active devices in the array of active devices, the array of active devices including sensing devices that detect data indicative of tissue related parameters;
    A processing facility in electronic communication with the circuit element for receiving data indicating parameters associated with the organization;
    Comprising the processing equipment and output equipment in electronic communication;
    The processing facility is configured to generate output data associated with the organization and cause the output facility to output the output data;
    apparatus.
JP2017043690A 2008-10-07 2017-03-08 Apparatuses using stretchable electronics for medical applications Pending JP2017148514A (en)

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US12156808P true 2008-12-11 2008-12-11
US12154108P true 2008-12-11 2008-12-11
US61/121,541 2008-12-11
US61/121,568 2008-12-11
US14016908P true 2008-12-23 2008-12-23
US61/140,169 2008-12-23
US12/575,008 2009-10-07
US12/575,008 US9289132B2 (en) 2008-10-07 2009-10-07 Catheter balloon having stretchable integrated circuitry and sensor array
US12/616,922 US8389862B2 (en) 2008-10-07 2009-11-12 Extremely stretchable electronics
US12/616,922 2009-11-12

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