JP2016126122A - Hologram display device - Google Patents

Hologram display device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2016126122A
JP2016126122A JP2014266090A JP2014266090A JP2016126122A JP 2016126122 A JP2016126122 A JP 2016126122A JP 2014266090 A JP2014266090 A JP 2014266090A JP 2014266090 A JP2014266090 A JP 2014266090A JP 2016126122 A JP2016126122 A JP 2016126122A
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optical system
display device
viewing zone
hologram display
hologram
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JP2014266090A
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JP6637654B2 (en
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康博 高木
Yasuhiro Takagi
康博 高木
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国立大学法人東京農工大学
Tokyo Univ Of Agriculture & Technology
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Abstract

A conventional hologram display device has a viewing zone angle of about 15 degrees and a narrow viewing zone. A hologram display device includes a spatial light modulator that receives laser light and modulates the laser light based on reproduction wavefront information of the hologram, and an enlargement that expands the modulated light modulated by the spatial light modulator to form an image. An optical system and a scanning optical system disposed on the imaging surface on which the modulated light is imaged, and the magnifying optical system forms an image of the modulated light emitted from each point on the spatial light modulator, The modulated light beams overlap each other in a predetermined region to form a three-dimensionally closed viewing zone, and the scanning optical system changes the viewing zone over time. [Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a hologram display device.

  As a hologram display technique, a technique for displaying interference fringes using a spatial light modulator (SLM) is known. In this case, the width of the viewing zone angle is approximately inversely proportional to the pixel pitch of the SLM that is the display device. Therefore, in order to widen the viewing zone angle, it is necessary to reduce the pixel pitch of the SLM. The screen size to be displayed is proportional to the SLM resolution (N × M). Therefore, in order to increase the screen size, it is necessary to increase the resolution of the SLM.

  In the hologram display device, a pixel pitch of visible light wavelength order (1 μm order) is required to display interference fringes. For example, to realize a screen size of 40 inches and a viewing zone angle of 30 degrees (when the wavelength of reference light, object light, and illumination light for reproduction is 600 nm), an SLM having a pixel pitch of 1.2 μm and a resolution of 764000 × 430000 Is required. However, since the above-described ultra-high-definition SLM does not exist, it is necessary to use a plurality of SLMs in order to realize it, and it is difficult to put it to practical use as it is.

In order to solve the above problem, a screen scanning type hologram display device has been proposed. In the hologram display device, the modulated light from the SLM is reduced in the horizontal direction using the anamorphic optical system, and is enlarged in the vertical direction and projected onto the display screen. Thus, by reducing in the horizontal direction, the apparent pixel pitch in the horizontal direction is reduced and the viewing zone angle in the horizontal direction is widened. Then, the modulated light projected on the display screen is scanned in the horizontal direction on the display screen to increase the screen size and the horizontal viewing area (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
[Patent Document 1] JP 2010-8822 A

  In the conventional hologram display device, the viewing zone angle is about 15 degrees, and the viewing zone is small.

  A hologram display device according to an aspect of the present invention includes a spatial light modulator that enters laser light and modulates the laser light based on reproduction wavefront information of the hologram, and expands the modulated light modulated by the spatial light modulator to form an image. And a scanning optical system disposed on an imaging surface on which modulated light is imaged. The magnifying optical system images modulated light emitted from each point on the spatial light modulator. Later, the respective light beams of the modulated light are overlapped with each other in a predetermined region to form a three-dimensionally closed viewing zone, and the scanning optical system changes the viewing zone with time.

  The summary of the invention does not enumerate all the features of the present invention. In addition, a sub-combination of these feature groups can also be an invention.

It is a block diagram of the hologram display apparatus which concerns on 1st Embodiment. It is an optical path figure of the optical system of the hologram display apparatus which concerns on 1st Embodiment. It is a figure explaining the difference of the observable area | region on the display screen in a prior art example, and the observable area | region on the display screen in 1st Embodiment. It is a block diagram of the hologram display apparatus which concerns on 2nd Embodiment. It is the photograph of the reproduced image obtained by the hologram display apparatus as one Example of this invention.

  Hereinafter, the present invention will be described through embodiments of the invention, but the following embodiments do not limit the invention according to the claims. In addition, not all the combinations of features described in the embodiments are essential for the solving means of the invention.

  FIG. 1 is a configuration diagram of a hologram display device according to the first embodiment. The hologram display device 100 according to this embodiment includes a light source 101, a spatial light modulator 102, a magnifying optical system 103, an SSB filter 108, a scan mirror 110, and a control unit 130. In the following description, along the optical axis OA indicated by the alternate long and short dash line, the spatial light modulator 102 side is the front side or the front side, and the region 111a side where the observer observes the reproduced image is the rear side. Or it is called the back. For example, in the magnifying optical system 103, the side on which the spatial light modulator 102 is disposed is the front side or the front side. In the magnifying optical system 103, the side on which the scan mirror 110 is disposed is the rear side or the rear side.

  The light source 101 emits laser light that is coherent light. As the light source 101, a semiconductor laser or the like is used. The spatial light modulator 102 is an electronic hologram display element that displays a hologram pattern. The light source 101 emits coherent light to the spatial light modulator 102 as illumination light for reproducing a hologram. The spatial light modulator 102 emits modulated light obtained by modulating the intensity or phase of the laser light incident from the light source 101 according to the reproduction wavefront information of the hologram. The reproduction wavefront information is information on a wavefront that forms a reproduction image. The wavefront of the coherent light emitted from the light source 101 is modulated by the hologram pattern displayed on the spatial light modulator 102, and after passing through the SSB filter 108, is converted into the reproduction wavefront.

  The hologram pattern can be actually generated by photographing with an image sensor. Further, the hologram pattern can be generated by computer simulation. The spatial light modulator 102 includes, for example, a spatial light modulator (MEMS-SLM) using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) and a spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) using LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon). Can be used.

  In the hologram display device 100 shown in FIG. 1, a MEMS-SLM is used as an example of the spatial light modulator 102. Since the MEMS-SLM is a reflection type display device, it emits coherent light from the light source 101 from an oblique direction on a tilted minute mirror surface. When transmissive ferroelectric liquid crystal is used, coherent light is irradiated from the back side, and when reflective LCOS-SLM is used, coherent light is irradiated from the directly facing position of the display surface. .

  The control unit 130 mainly controls operations of the light source 101, the spatial light modulator 102, and the scan mirror 110. The control unit 130 includes a CPU 132 and an operation panel 134. In the present embodiment, the operation panel 134 is provided so that the user can operate in the vicinity of the hologram display device 100. However, the operation panel 134 is not limited to this. For example, another terminal device using a wired technology or a wireless technology is used. The operation instruction may be given from the above. The CPU 132 executes display control of the hologram display device 100 according to a hologram pattern to be displayed, an operation timing condition, and the like designated via the operation panel 134. The operation panel 134 is a display device including an input unit such as a touch panel, and accepts input from an operator and displays menu items and the like. In the present embodiment, the control unit 130 functions as a control unit. The control unit 130 controls the hologram pattern displayed on the spatial light modulator 102 and the display timing.

  The magnifying optical system 103 is disposed behind the spatial light modulator 102. The magnifying optical system 103 includes a first lens 104 and a second lens 106. The magnifying optical system 103 magnifies the modulated light emitted from the spatial light modulator 102 and forms an enlarged image on the scan mirror 110. The first lens 104 is disposed behind the spatial light modulator 102 and emits the modulated light incident from the spatial light modulator 102 to the rear. The second lens 106 is disposed behind the first lens 104. The second lens 106 images the modulated light emitted from the first lens 104 on the scan mirror 110.

  The SSB filter 108 is disposed between the first lens 104 and the second lens 106. More specifically, the SSB filter 108 is disposed on the rear focal plane of the first lens 104, that is, the Fourier plane. The SSB filter 108 removes zero-order light and a conjugate image that are unnecessary for displaying a spatial hologram image.

  The scan mirror 110 is disposed behind the second lens 106. More specifically, the scan mirror 110 is disposed on an image plane on which modulated light is imaged by the magnifying optical system 103. As the scan mirror 110, for example, a galvanometer mirror can be used. The scan mirror 110 deflects the incident modulated light toward the viewer.

  The scan mirror 110 also functions as a display screen for displaying a reproduced image. The galvanometer mirror can swing a relatively large reflecting surface at a high scanning frequency. In the present embodiment, the scan mirror 110 rotates clockwise and counterclockwise around the rotation axis A, and rotationally scans the incident modulated light around the rotation axis A. In the following description, a plane orthogonal to the rotation axis A of the scan mirror 110 is referred to as a scan plane.

  Each light beam of the modulated light emitted from each point on the spatial light modulator 102 is temporarily imaged on the scan mirror 110 by the magnifying optical system 103. Thereafter, these light beams overlap at a position separated by a distance L at which a reproduced image can be observed relatively large, and form a three-dimensionally closed or localized viewing zone. A region 111a indicates a region that is a cross section of the viewing zone localized at a position separated from the scan mirror 110 by the distance L along the optical axis OA. Regions 111b and 111c are regions that are cross sections of the viewing zone localized at both ends of the scanning range (scanning angle θ) by the scan mirror 110, respectively.

  In the present embodiment, the modulated light emitted from the spatial light modulator 102 is enlarged and imaged on the scan mirror 110 by the magnifying optical system 103. That is, since the apparent pixel pitch on the scan mirror 110 is enlarged, the viewing zone angle is narrowed. However, the hologram display device 100 changes the localized position of the viewing zone with time along the scanning direction SD by rotating the scan mirror 110 about the rotation axis A clockwise and counterclockwise. As a result, the viewing area of the hologram display device 100 is substantially enlarged as indicated by the enlarged area 114.

  In addition, the control unit 130 synchronizes the generation of the hologram pattern and the scanning angle of the scan mirror 110 in order to generate a reproduced image that does not feel uncomfortable according to the observation position. As a specific synchronization method, the scanning angle of the scan mirror 110 may be changed in accordance with the generation of the hologram pattern. Further, a hologram pattern may be generated according to the scanning angle of the scan mirror 110. In the present embodiment, the control unit 130 displays a hologram pattern on the spatial light modulator 102 at a frame rate of 10 kHz, for example, and changes the scanning angle of the scan mirror 110 in synchronization with the display of the hologram pattern. Therefore, even if the observer observes from an arbitrary position on the enlarged region 114, the entire reproduced image formed in the vicinity of the scan mirror 110 can be observed without a sense of incongruity.

  FIG. 2 is an optical path diagram of the optical system of the hologram display device according to the first embodiment. FIG. 2 shows an optical path diagram in which the optical axis OA is not bent by the scan mirror 110 for ease of explanation. In FIG. 2, among the modulated light emitted from each point on the spatial light modulator 102, the modulated lights MLu and MLl emitted from both ends of the spatial light modulator 102 are shown, and the propagation directions thereof are indicated by dotted lines. In addition, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected to the member same as the member shown in FIG. 1, and the overlapping description is abbreviate | omitted.

  The first lens 104 is disposed behind the spatial light modulator 102. As indicated by the modulated light MLu and ML1, the modulated light emitted from the spatial light modulator 102 has a spread angle corresponding to the pixel pitch of the spatial light modulator 102. As shown in FIG. 2, the propagation direction of the modulated light is substantially parallel to the optical axis OA. The first lens 104 emits the modulated lights MLu and MLl incident from the spatial light modulator 102 toward the rear focal position F ′.

  The modulated light MLu and ML1 emitted from the first lens 104 is made to have its zero-order light and conjugate image removed by the SSB filter 108 disposed on the Fourier plane of the first lens 104 and is incident on the second lens 106. The modulated lights MLu and MLl incident on the second lens 106 are once imaged on the surface of the scan mirror 110 by the second lens 106.

  As representatively shown by the modulated light MLu and ML1, the modulated light beams emitted from the respective points on the spatial light modulator 102 pass through the scan mirror 110 and are predetermined planes orthogonal to the optical axis. In the upper region, substantially all overlap each other to form a localized viewing zone 112 which is a three-dimensionally closed viewing zone.

  The region on the predetermined surface is determined at a position where the observer can easily observe the reproduced image. Note that the overlapping positions of the respective light beams of the modulated light beams emitted from the respective points on the scan mirror 110 may differ depending on the image height due to residual aberrations of the magnifying optical system 103. It is only necessary that substantially overlap.

  The size of the region can be reduced to about the size of the pupil considering that the reproduction wavefront of the hologram enters the human eye through the pupil. It is said that the human pupil diameter varies depending on the brightness of the surrounding environment and is 2 to 8 mm on average. Therefore, in the present embodiment, substantial wavefront reproduction can be realized by having a size in which the region includes a circle having a diameter of 2 mm or more.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the localized viewing zone 112 gradually expands from EP1 on the near side with respect to the scan mirror 110, gradually narrows through the region 111a, and reaches EP2 on the far side. Represented as a closed space region. The observer can observe the entire reproduced image formed in the vicinity of the scan mirror 110 as a display screen at least in the localized viewing zone 112.

  FIG. 3 is a diagram for explaining the difference between the observable area on the display screen in the conventional example and the observable area on the display screen in the first embodiment. In particular, FIG. 3 is a top view of a plane orthogonal to the display screen.

  FIG. 3A is a diagram for explaining a visible region on a display screen of a hologram display device in a conventional example. In FIG. 3A, among the modulated lights emitted from the respective points on the display screen 310, the modulated lights MLu and ML1 emitted from both ends of the display screen 310 are shown, and the propagation directions thereof are indicated by alternate long and short dash lines.

  In the hologram display device in the conventional example, the propagation directions of the modulated light emitted from each point on the display screen 310 at the viewing zone angle β are parallel to each other as indicated by the modulated light MLu and MLl. Therefore, in FIG. 3A, the observer can observe only a part of the display screen 310 as shown in the observable area OAa. Note that the width of the observable area OAa is d + Lβ where L is the distance from the display screen 310 to the pupil of the observation eye E and d is the pupil diameter of the observation eye E.

  FIG. 3B is a diagram for explaining a visible region on the display screen of the hologram display device in the present embodiment. In FIG. 3B, among the modulated light emitted from each point on the scan mirror 110, the modulated light MLu and MLl emitted from both ends of the scan mirror 110 are shown, and the propagation direction thereof is indicated by a one-dot chain line.

  In FIG. 3B, the modulated lights MLu and MLl are viewed at a viewing zone angle α toward the pupil of the observer's observation eye E located at a distance L from each point on the scan mirror 110 as a display screen. Emitted. As represented by the modulated light MLu and ML1, the luminous fluxes of the respective modulated lights emitted from the scan mirror 110 substantially overlap each other in the region 111a, and are localized viewing zones. Form. Therefore, in FIG. 3B, the observer can observe the entire reproduced image formed in the vicinity of the scan mirror 110 as shown in the observable area OAb.

  In the conventional hologram display device, the propagation directions of the modulated light emitted from the display screen are parallel and the viewing zone angles are the same, so there can be no region where all the light beams of the respective modulated light overlap. . That is, the conventional hologram display device does not localize the viewing zone. In contrast, the hologram display apparatus according to the present embodiment has a configuration of the magnifying optical system 103 as shown in FIG. 2, and substantially overlaps each of the light beams of the respective modulated lights in the region 111a. The area is localized. As described above, the hologram display device according to the present embodiment can observe the entire reproduced image at a position closer to the display screen than the conventional hologram display device by localizing the viewing zone. .

  FIG. 4 is a configuration diagram of a hologram display device according to the second embodiment. The hologram display device 200 according to the second embodiment includes a diffusion plate 210 in addition to the members constituting the hologram display device 100 according to the first embodiment. In addition, the same code | symbol is attached | subjected to the member same as the member shown in FIG. 1, and the overlapping description is abbreviate | omitted.

  The diffuser plate 210 is disposed so as to contact the reflection surface of the scan mirror 110. The diffuser plate 210 diffuses the modulated light in a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction SD of the scan mirror 110, and expands the viewing zone angle in the diffusion direction. For the diffuser plate 210, a lenticular sheet composed of a large number of cylindrical lenses, a holographic diffuser, or the like can be used.

  A region 211 indicates a region that is a cross section of a localized viewing zone. As indicated by the region 211, the viewing zone localized in the direction orthogonal to the scanning direction SD of the scan mirror 110 is enlarged by the diffusion action of the diffusion plate 210. Further, the scanning area of the scanning mirror 110 is substantially enlarged in the scanning direction as indicated by the enlarged area 214. The observer can observe the entire reproduced image formed in the vicinity of the scan mirror 110 as a display screen from an arbitrary position on the enlarged region 214.

  In this embodiment, the localized viewing zone is scanned only in a one-dimensional direction, and the viewing zone is widened by the diffusion plate 210 in the direction orthogonal to the direction. Thereby, it is possible to realize a viewing area that is two-dimensionally enlarged while ensuring parallax in the scanning direction.

FIG. 5 is a photograph of a reproduced image obtained by the hologram display device as one embodiment of the present invention. In the hologram display device of this example, a DMD (Digital Micromirror Device: Discovery TM 3000 manufactured by Texas Instruments), which is a MEMS-SLM, was used as the spatial light modulator. The spatial light modulator has a resolution of 1024 × 768 and a pixel pitch of 13.68 μm. The frame rate is 13.333 kHz. A semiconductor laser having an oscillation wavelength of 635 nm was used as a light source for illumination light for image reproduction.

A galvanometer mirror (Micro Max series 671 manufactured by Cambridge Technology) was used as the scan mirror. The scanning mirror has a diameter of 50 mm, a scanning frequency of 60 Hz, and a scanning angle of ± 20.0 degrees.

The magnification imaging system has a magnification M of 2.86. Therefore, the pixel pitch on the scan mirror is enlarged to 39.1 μm. Further, the size of the display screen on the scan mirror is enlarged to 40 × 30 mm 2 (diagonal 2.0 inches).

  The viewing zone was localized at a position 600 mm from the imaging plane. The width of the localized viewing zone in the scanning direction was 9.75 mm. The entire viewing zone was expanded to 437 mm by scanning with a scan mirror.

  The frame rate of hologram display is 60.1 Hz, and the number of hologram patterns displayed in one scan is 222. Therefore, there is an overlap between localized viewing zones.

  FIG. 5A, FIG. 5B, and FIG. 5C are photographs obtained by photographing reproduced images of different objects from different horizontal angles. Specifically, it is a photograph taken from different horizontal angles of −20 degrees, −10 degrees, 0 degrees, 10 degrees, and 20 degrees of reproduced images of airplanes, castles, and ships.

  The horizontal viewing area was wide, and the reconstructed image could be easily observed with both eyes, and the head could be moved from side to side. The reproduced image had smooth motion parallax.

The hologram display device described above can be applied to the following fields, for example.
[Robot surgery, laparoscopic surgery]
Since high-definition stereoscopic display without visual fatigue can be realized, it can be expected to be used as a display in robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery.
[Car head-up display]
In recent years, a head-up display (HUD) that displays driving support information through a windshield has been put into practical use. By using the hologram display device in the above-described embodiment for the HUD, the driving support information can be displayed at the same depth position as the actual object.
[Head mounted display]
A head mounted display (HMD) typified by Google glass has been researched and developed as a device that superimposes and displays digital information such as the Internet in the real world. The hologram display device in the above-described embodiment can be miniaturized and incorporated in the HMD. The problem with conventional HMDs is that they have visual fatigue and cannot be used for a long time. However, visual fatigue can be reduced by using the hologram display device of the present invention.

  In the above description, the first lens 104 and the second lens 106 are each represented by a single convex lens, but may be composed of a plurality of lenses from the viewpoint of aberration correction.

  In the above description, the hologram display device that performs scanning only in the horizontal direction using the scan mirror 110 has been described. However, instead of the diffusion plate 210 in the vertical direction, a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the scan mirror 110 is provided. A scan mirror may be separately provided to perform scanning in the vertical direction. As a result, a reproduced image including vertical parallax can be observed.

  In the above description, the scan mirror 110 has been described as being disposed on the imaging plane on which the modulated light is imaged by the magnifying optical system 103. However, the reflection surface of the scan mirror 110 may not partially or entirely coincide with the imaging surface of the magnifying optical system 103, and is disposed substantially in the vicinity of the imaging surface of the magnifying optical system 103. It only has to be.

  When distortion occurs in the reproduced image due to scanning of the scan mirror 110, the distortion may be compensated by changing the hologram pattern displayed on the spatial light modulator 102. Further, even when an aberration occurs due to a shift of the imaging point from the scan mirror 110 by scanning, the aberration may be compensated by changing the hologram pattern displayed on the spatial light modulator 102.

  In the above description, the diffusion plate 210 has been described as being disposed so as to be in contact with the reflection surface of the scan mirror 110. However, the diffusing surface by the diffusing plate 210 may not be partially or entirely coincident with the reflecting surface of the scan mirror 110, and may be disposed substantially in the vicinity of the reflecting surface of the scan mirror 110. .

  As mentioned above, although this invention was demonstrated using embodiment, the technical scope of this invention is not limited to the range as described in the said embodiment. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications or improvements can be added to the above-described embodiment. It is apparent from the scope of the claims that the embodiments added with such changes or improvements can be included in the technical scope of the present invention.

100, 200 Hologram display device, 101 Light source, 102 Spatial light modulator, 103 Magnifying optical system, 104 First lens, 106 Second lens, 108 SSB filter, 110 Scan mirror, 111a, 111b, 111c region, 112 Localization Viewing area, 114 enlarged area, 130 control unit, 132 CPU, 134 operation panel, 210 diffuser plate, 211 area, 214 enlarged area, 310 display screen

Claims (9)

  1. A spatial light modulator that enters laser light and modulates the laser light based on reproduction wavefront information of the hologram;
    An enlarging optical system for enlarging and imaging the modulated light modulated by the spatial light modulator;
    A scanning optical system disposed on an imaging surface on which the modulated light is imaged,
    The magnifying optical system forms an image of the modulated light emitted from each point on the spatial light modulator, and then superimposes the luminous fluxes of the modulated light on a predetermined region to form a three-dimensional Form a closed viewing zone,
    The scanning optical system is a hologram display device that changes the viewing zone over time.
  2.   The hologram display device according to claim 1, wherein the scanning optical system is a galvano scanner.
  3.   The hologram display device according to claim 1, wherein the spatial light modulator is a MEMS SLM.
  4. A control unit for causing the MEMS type SLM to display a pattern based on the reproduction wavefront information;
    The hologram display device according to claim 3, wherein the control unit synchronizes generation of the pattern and a scanning angle of the scanning optical system.
  5.   5. The hologram display device according to claim 1, wherein the scanning optical system changes the viewing zone in a uniaxial direction over time.
  6.   5. The hologram display device according to claim 1, wherein the scanning optical system changes the viewing zone in a biaxial direction over time.
  7.   The hologram display device according to claim 1, further comprising a diffusion plate that diffuses the modulated light in a direction orthogonal to a uniaxial direction in which the scanning optical system changes the viewing zone over time.
  8. The magnifying optical system is composed of a plurality of lenses,
    The hologram display device according to claim 1, further comprising a filter that is disposed between the plurality of lenses and that cuts a zero-order light and a conjugate image of the modulated light.
  9.   The hologram display device according to claim 1, wherein the viewing zone has a size including at least a circle having a diameter of 2 mm or more.
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CN106773588B (en) * 2017-01-03 2019-07-23 京东方科技集团股份有限公司 A kind of holographic display and its control method

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