JP2015518705A - Modified polynucleotides for the production of biologics and proteins associated with human diseases - Google Patents

Modified polynucleotides for the production of biologics and proteins associated with human diseases Download PDF

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JP2015518705A
JP2015518705A JP2015504565A JP2015504565A JP2015518705A JP 2015518705 A JP2015518705 A JP 2015518705A JP 2015504565 A JP2015504565 A JP 2015504565A JP 2015504565 A JP2015504565 A JP 2015504565A JP 2015518705 A JP2015518705 A JP 2015518705A
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mrna
modified
protein
cells
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バンセル、ステファヌ
チャクラボルティ、ティルタ
フジェローレ、アントニン ドゥ
フジェローレ、アントニン ドゥ
エム. エルバシール、セイダ
エム. エルバシール、セイダ
ジョン、マティアス
ロイ、アタヌ
ホリスキー、スーザン
エム. ウッド、クリスティ
エム. ウッド、クリスティ
ハタラ、ポール
ピー. シュラム、ジェイソン
ピー. シュラム、ジェイソン
エジェベ、ケネチ
リン エルスワース、ジェフ
リン エルスワース、ジェフ
ギルド、ジャスティン
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モデルナ セラピューティクス インコーポレイテッドModerna Therapeutics,Inc.
モデルナ セラピューティクス インコーポレイテッドModerna Therapeutics,Inc.
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Priority to US61/737,203 priority
Priority to US61/737,147 priority
Priority to US61/737,191 priority
Priority to US61/737,155 priority
Priority to US61/737,134 priority
Priority to PCT/US2013/030062 priority patent/WO2013151666A2/en
Application filed by モデルナ セラピューティクス インコーポレイテッドModerna Therapeutics,Inc., モデルナ セラピューティクス インコーポレイテッドModerna Therapeutics,Inc. filed Critical モデルナ セラピューティクス インコーポレイテッドModerna Therapeutics,Inc.
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K48/00Medicinal preparations containing genetic material which is inserted into cells of the living body to treat genetic diseases; Gene therapy
    • A61K48/005Medicinal preparations containing genetic material which is inserted into cells of the living body to treat genetic diseases; Gene therapy characterised by an aspect of the 'active' part of the composition delivered, i.e. the nucleic acid delivered
    • A61K48/0066Manipulation of the nucleic acid to modify its expression pattern, e.g. enhance its duration of expression, achieved by the presence of particular introns in the delivered nucleic acid
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K14/00Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • C07K14/435Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • C07K14/46Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans from vertebrates
    • C07K14/47Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans from vertebrates from mammals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/63Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression
    • C12N15/67General methods for enhancing the expression
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K38/00Medicinal preparations containing peptides

Abstract

The present invention relates to the composition of polynucleotides, primary transcripts, and mmRNA molecules, and methods for their preparation, manufacture, and therapeutic use.

Description

Reference to Sequence Listing This application has been filed in electronic form with the Sequence Listing. M300_PCTSQLST. The sequence table file entitled txt is created on March 9, 2013 and has a size of 49,417,315 bytes. Information in electronic form of this sequence listing is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Cross-reference to related applications This application is a US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,742, filed Aug. 10, 2012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Related Proteins and Peptides”, December 14, 2012. US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,224, dated “Terminal Optimized Modified RNAs”, International Application No. PCT / US2012 / 069610, filed Dec. 14, 2012, title “Modified Nucleoside, Nucleotide, and Nucleotide, and Nucleotide, and Nucleotide, Acid Compositions ", US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,862, filed April 2, 2012. , Title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Biology”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,645, filed Aug. 10, 2012, title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production 12th Month of Production 12th Month” US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,130, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Biology”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,866, filed April 2, 2012, entitled “Modified Polyolefins”. Production of Antibodies ", 2012 US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,647, filed August 10, 2012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Antibodies”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,134, filed December 14, 2012, Title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Antibodies”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,868, filed April 2, 2012, Title “Modified Polynucleotides for Prod. US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,648, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the” "Production of Vaccines", US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,135, filed on December 14, 2012, entitled "Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Vaccines", US Provisional Patent Application 61, filed April 2, 2012 No. 618,870, title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Therapeutic Proteins and Peptides”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,649 filed Aug. 10, 2012, title and Peptide US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,139, filed on Dec. 14, 2012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Therapeutic Proteins and Peptides”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61, Apr. 2, 2012. / 618,873, the title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Secreted Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,650 filed on August 10, 2012, the title “Modified Polynucleotides US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 filed on Dec. 14, 2012 737,147, title "Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Secreted Proteins", US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,878, filed April 2, 2012, title "Modified Polynucleotides US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,654, filed Aug. 10, 2012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Plasma Membrane Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/737, filed Dec. 14, 2012, No. 152, title “Modified Polynuc “eotaides for the Production of Plasma Membrane Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,885, filed Apr. 2, 2012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for Produce 20th Month”. US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,658, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Cytoplasmic and Cytoskeleton Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,155, filed December 14, 2012 Modified Polyn quotients for the Production of Cytoplasmic and Cytoskeleton Proteins ”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,896, filed on April 2, 2012, entitled“ Modified Polynucleotides for Prot. US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 668,157 filed in Japan, titled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Intracellular Membrane Bound Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,661 filed on August 10, 2012 "M `` Modified Polynucleids for the Production of `` Intracellular Membrane Bound Proteins '', US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,160, filed on Dec. 14, 2012, entitled `` Modified Polycure US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,911, filed 2 days, title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Nuclear Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,667, filed August 10, 2012, title “ Modifi ed Polynucleotides for the Production of Nuclear Proteins ", U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,168, filed December 14, 2012, titled" Modified Polynucleotides for the Prod. US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,922, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,675 filed on August 10, 2012, “Modified Polynucleotides of Proteins ", 2012 US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,174, filed Dec. 14, title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 618,935, filed Apr. 2, 2012, Title "Modified Polynucleids for the Production of Proteins Associate with human Human Disease 20", filed August 10, 2012, entitled "Modified Polynectide". United States filed December 14, Patent application 61 / 737,184, title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins Associated with Human Disease”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/618, or di the Production of Proteins Associated with Human Disease ”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,696, filed Aug. 10, 2012, entitled“ Modified Polynucleotides for the Produced Produce Production the Producer US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,191, filed Dec. 14, 012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins Associated with Human Disease”, US Provisional Application No. 61 / April 2, 2012 No. 618,953, title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins Associated with Human Humanis”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 681,704, filed August 10, 2012 wit “Human Disease”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 737,203, filed on Dec. 14, 2012, entitled “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins Associated with Human Disease, United States Patent Application, April 2, 2012”. Application 61 / 618,961, entitled “Dosing Methods for Modified mRNA”, US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 648,286, filed May 17, 2012, entitled “Dosing Methods for Modified mRNA” The content of each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  This application is based on International Publication No. PCT / US2012 / 58519, filed Oct. 3, 2012, entitled “Modified Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids, and Uses Thereof”, and International Publication No. 14 December 2012. PCT / US2012 / 69610, title “Modified Nucleoside, Nucleotide, and Nucleic Acid Compositions”.

  This application is also related to co-pending applications, each of which was filed concurrently with this application on March 9, 2013, and has a representative serial number M301.20 (PCT / US13 / XXXX) with the title “Modified Polynucleotides”. Agent number of MModified Polytheloids for Pro Production of the Secreted Proteins M304.20 (PCT / US13 / XXXX), title “Modified Polynucleateds for Pro. / XXXX), the title “Modified Polynucleotides f The agent reference number M306.20 (PCT / US13 / XXXX) of the r The Production of Cytoplasmic and Cytoskeleton Proteins (PCT / US13 / XXXX) ), The representative reference number M309.20 (PCT / US13 / XXXX) of the title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Proteins”, the title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production Products” Proxy number for Ms. 310 310 (PCT / US13 / XXXX), title of “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Cosmetic Proteins and PX” And the title “Modified Polynucleotides for the Production of Oncology-Related Proteins and Peptides”, the agent reference number MNC2.20 (PCT / US13 / XXXX), the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Incorporated.

The present invention relates to the composition of polynucleotides, primary constructs, and modified mRNA molecules (mmRNA), methods, processes, kits, and devices for their design, preparation, manufacture, and / or formulation.

There are many problems with previous methods of producing protein expression. For example, the introduced DNA can be incorporated into the host cell genomic DNA at a certain frequency, resulting in denaturation and / or damage of the host cell genomic DNA. Alternatively, heterologous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) introduced into a cell can be inherited by daughter cells (whether or not the heterologous DNA is integrated into the chromosome) or by progeny.
In addition, there are many steps that must occur before the encoded protein is made, assuming proper delivery and no damage or integration of the host genome. Once inside the cell, the DNA must be transported into the nucleus where it is RNA transcribed. Subsequently, RNA transcribed from DNA must enter the cytoplasm where it is translated into protein. Not only do multiple processing steps from administered DNA to protein create a time lag before the production of functional proteins, but each step also represents an opportunity for cellular error and damage. Furthermore, it is known that it is difficult to achieve DNA expression in cells because DNA frequently enters cells but is not expressed or expressed at a reasonable rate or concentration. This can be particularly problematic when DNA is introduced into primary cells or modified cell lines.

  In the early 1990s, Bloom and colleagues successfully rescued vasopressin-deficient rats by injecting vasopressin mRNA transcribed in vitro into the hypothalamus (Science 255: 996-998; 1992). However, low levels of translation and molecular immunogenicity have hampered the development of mRNA as a therapeutic agent, and since then, an alternative use that could take advantage of these pitfalls: immunization with mRNA encoding cancer antigens Concentrate effort on.

  Others are studying the use of mRNA to deliver the polypeptide of interest, and certain chemical modifications of the mRNA molecule, specifically pseudouridine and 5-methyl-cytosine, exert immunostimulatory effects. It shows that it was lowered.

  These studies are, for example, published on July 9, 2003 by Ribostem Limited and now abandoned UK Patent Application No. 0316089.2, published as International Publication No. WO2005005622. PCT Application No. PCT / GB2004 / 002981, filed June 8, 2006, filed Jun. 8, 2006, which is published as U.S. Pat. No. US200602247195, now abandoned. And European Patent Application National Publication No. EP2004743322, filed July 9, 2004, published as European Patent EP 1646714 and currently withdrawn; Novozymes, Inc. PCT application No. PCT / US2007 / 88060 filed on Dec. 19, 2007, published as International Publication No. WO2000081615, and US patent application national phase of Jul. 2, 2009 application published as US Pat. Registered 12 / 520,072, and European Patent Application National Phase Registration No. EP2007874376, filed July 7, 2009, published as European Patent No. EP2104739; published as International Publication No. WO2007064952 of University of Rochester 2006 US Patent Application No. 11 / 606,995, filed December 1, 2006, published as PCT Application No. PCT / US2006 / 46120, filed December 4, 2006, and US Patent No. US20070141030; BioNT PCT Application No. PCT / EP2008 / December 12, 2008, filed on December 14, 2007, published as European Patent Application No. EP200704312 and International Publication No. WO2009077134, filed December 14, 2007 No. 01059, European Patent Application No. EP2008861423 filed on June 2, 2010 published as European Patent No. EP2240572, US Patent Application filed on November 24, 2010 published as US Patent No. US20110065103 National Phase 12 /, 735,060, German Patent Application DE 10 2005 046 490 filed September 28, 2005, PCT application filed September 28, 2006 published as International Publication No. WO2007036366 PCT / P2006 / 0448, national phase European Patent No. 1934345 filed on March 21, 2012, and national phase US Patent Application No. 11 / 992,638 filed August 14, 2009 published as 20130012987; ImmunoDisease Institute Inc. PCT application No. PCT filed on Apr. 15, 2011, filed Apr. 15, 2011, and published on Apr. 15, 2011, published as WO 20111030624, published as U.S. Pat. No. US20120046346. No. 12 / 957,340 filed Nov. 20, 2010, published as Shire Human Genetic Therapeutic US Pat. No. US201102444026; Sequitu Inc. PCT Application No. PCT / US1998 / 019492, filed September 18, 1998, published as International Publication No. WO 1999014346, published on February 24, 2010, published as International Publication No. WO2000098861 of The Scripts Research Institute. PCT Application No. PCT / US2010 / 00567 and US Patent Application National Phase Registration No. 13 / 203,229 filed Nov. 3, 2011, published as US Pat. No. US20120053333; International Publication of Ludwig Maximilian University PCT Application No. PCT / EP2010 / 004681 filed July 30, 2010, published as WO20110131616; Cellscript Inc. US Patent No. 8,039,214 filed on June 30, 2008 and granted on October 18, 2011, published as December 7, 2010, published as US Patent No. US201101143436 No. 12 / 962,498, published as Dec. 7, 2010, published as US Pat. No. US20110143397 No. 12 / 962,468, filed Dec. 7, 2010, published as Sep. 20, 2011, published as US Pat. No. 13 / 237,451 of the application, and PCT application PCT / US2010 / 59305 filed on Dec. 7, 2010, published as International Publication No. WO20111071931, and 2010/12 published as International Publication No. WO20111071936. PCT / US2 filed on 7th of May PCT Application No. PCT / US2006 / 32372, filed August 21, 2006, published as International Publication No. WO2007024708 of the University of Pennsylvania Board of Directors, and US Patent No. US20090286852, published March 3, 2009 No. 11 / 990,646, US patent application filed on May 27th; German patent application DE10 2001 027 283.9 filed June 5, 2001, filed on Curevac GMBH, filed December 19, 2001 DE 10 2001 062 480.8 and DE 20 2006 051 516 filed Oct. 31, 2006 (all of which are abandoned), European Patent No. EP 139341 granted March 30, 2005. Issue, and 2008 European Patent No. EP1458410 granted on May 2, PCT Application No. PCT / EP2002 / 06180 filed June 5, 2002, published as International Publication No. WO2002098443, published as International Publication No. WO2003051401 PCT / EP2002 / 14577 filed on December 19, 2007, PCT / EP2007 / 09469 filed on December 31, 2007, published as International Publication No. WO2008052770, published as International Publication No. WO2009127230 PCT / EP2008 / 03033 filed on Apr. 16, 2008, PCT / EP2006 / 004784 filed on May 19, 2005, published as WO2006122828, and PCT / EP2006 / 004784 PCT / EP2008 / 00081 filed Jan. 9, 2007, published as 2008083949, and U.S. Patent Application No. 10 / 729,830, filed Dec. 5, 2003, published as U.S. Pat. No. US20050032730. No. 10 / 870,110, filed Jun. 18, 2004, published as US Pat. No. US20050059624, and No. 11/914, filed Jul. 7, 2008, published as US Pat. No. US20080267873. No. 945, published as U.S. Pat. No. US20110047261 and now abandoned No. 12 / 446,912 filed Oct. 27, 2009, published as U.S. Pat. No. 12/522 of Japanese application. No. 214, U.S. Pat. No. 12 / 787,566, filed May 26, 2010, published as U.S. Pat. No. 20110077287, and U.S. Pat. No. 12,260, filed May 26, 2010, published as U.S. Pat. No. 787,755, No. 13 / 185,119 filed Jul. 18, 2011 published as US Pat. No. US20110269950, and No. 13 / 185,119 filed as US Pat. No. 13 / 106,548, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

  Despite these reports limited to the selection of chemical modifications including pseudouridine and 5-methyl-cytosine, it surrounds effective regulation of intracellular translation and processing of nucleic acids encoding polypeptides or fragments thereof. There remains a need in the art for treatments that address myriad barriers.

  To achieve this goal, we have the potential as a therapeutic agent that certain modified mRNA sequences have the advantage that they do not just escape, avoid or reduce the immune response. Showed that. Such studies are published co-pending applications, International Application No. PCT / US2011 / 046861 filed Aug. 5, 2011 and PCT / US2011-054636 filed Oct. 3, 2011, International application No. PCT / US2011 / 054617 filed Oct. 3, 2011, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

  The present invention encodes a polypeptide of interest (eg, modified mRNA or mmRNA) and avoids one or more of the problems in the art, such as structural and / or chemical features, eg, structural and functional Preserves physical integrity, overcomes expression thresholds, improves expression rate, half-life, and / or protein concentration, optimizes protein localization, and deleterious biological responses and / or degradation such as immune responses This need is addressed by providing nucleic acid-based compounds or polynucleotides that have characteristics useful for optimizing the formulation and delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics while avoiding the route.

  Described herein are compositions of modified mRNA (mmRNA) molecules, methods, processes, kits, and devices for designing, preparing, manufacturing, and / or formulating modified mRNA (mmRNA) molecules.

  The details of various embodiments of the invention are set forth in the following detailed description. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

  The foregoing and other objects, features, and advantages will become apparent from the following description of specific embodiments of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to different drawings. To point to the same part. The drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale, but rather focus on illustrating the principles of various embodiments of the invention.

1 is a schematic diagram of a primary construct of the present invention. FIG. 2 illustrates prior art lipid structures useful in the present invention. 98N12-5 (TETA5-LAP), DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA (2,2-dilinoleyl-4-dimethylaminomethyl- [1,3] -dioxolane), DLin-KC2-DMA, DLin-MC3- The structure of DMA and C12-200 is shown. Same as above. A representative plasmid useful in the IVT reaction taught herein. This plasmid contains insert 64818 designed by the inventors. It is a gel profile of the modified mRNA encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. It is a histogram of factor IX protein production PLGA formulation factor IX modification mRNA. 2 is a histogram showing VEGF protein production in human keratinocyte cells after transfection of modified mRNA at various doses. FIG. 6A shows protein production after transfection of a modified mRNA containing native nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). 2 is a histogram showing VEGF protein production in human keratinocyte cells after transfection of modified mRNA at various doses. FIG. 6B shows protein production after transfection of modified mRNA fully modified with pseudouridine (pseudo U) and 5-methylcytosine (5 mC). 2 is a histogram showing VEGF protein production in human keratinocyte cells after transfection of modified mRNA at various doses. FIG. 6C shows protein production after transfection of modified mRNA fully modified with N1-methyl-pseudouridine (N1-methyl-pseudoU) and 5-methylcytosine (5 mC). 2 is a histogram of VEGF protein production in HEK293 cells. FIG. 6 is a histogram of VEGF expression and IFN-α induction after transfection of VEGF modified mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). FIG. 8A shows VEGF expression. FIG. 6 is a histogram of VEGF expression and IFN-α induction after transfection of VEGF modified mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). FIG. 8B shows IFN-α induction. Figure 2 is a histogram of VEGF protein production in HeLa cells from VEGF modified mRNA. 2 is a histogram of VEGF protein production from lipoplexed VEGF-modified mRNA in mice. Fig. 6 is a histogram of G-CSF protein production in HeLa cells from G-CSF modified mRNA. Figure 2 is a histogram representing G-CSF protein production from lipoplexed G-CSF modified mRNA in mice. FIG. 6 is a histogram representing factor IX protein production from factor IX modified mRNA in HeLa cell supernatants. It is a histogram showing the production of APOA1 protein from APOA1 wild type modified mRNA, APOA1 Milano modified mRNA or APOA1 Paris modified mRNA in HeLa cells. It is a gel profile of APOA1 protein derived from APOA1 wild type modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of APOA1 protein derived from APOA1 Paris-modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of APOA1 protein derived from APOA1 Milano modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of FGA protein derived from fibrinogen alpha (FGA) modified mRNA. Fig. 6 is a histogram representing plasminogen protein production from plasminogen modified mRNA in HeLa cell supernatant. It is a gel profile of plasminogen protein derived from plasminogen-modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of GALT protein derived from galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) modified mRNA. FIG. 6 is a gel profile of ASL protein derived from argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) modified mRNA. FIG. 2 is a gel profile of TAT protein derived from tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of GBE1 protein derived from glucan (1,4-α-), branching enzyme 1 (GBE1) modified mRNA. FIG. 6 is a histogram representing prothrombin protein production from prothrombin modified mRNA in HeLa cell supernatant. FIG. 6 is a histogram representing prothrombin protein production from prothrombin modified mRNA in HeLa cell supernatant. Fig. 2 is a gel profile of CP protein derived from ceruloplasmin (CP or CLP) modified mRNA. It is a histogram showing TGF-β1 protein production from transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) modified mRNA in HeLa cell supernatant. It is a gel profile of OTC protein derived from ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) modified mRNA. Figure 2 is a flow cytometry plot of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of UGT1A1 protein derived from UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) modified mRNA. Figure 2 is a histogram representing factor XI protein production in HEK293 cells. It is a gel profile of aquaporin-5 protein derived from aquaporin-5 modified mRNA. FIG. 6 is a histogram representing factor VII protein production from factor VII modified mRNA in HeLa cells. It is a histogram showing the production of insulin glargine protein from insulin glargine modified mRNA in HeLa cells. It is a histogram showing tissue factor protein production from tissue factor-modified mRNA in HeLa cells. FIG. 6 is a histogram representing factor XI protein production from factor XI modified mRNA in HeLa cells. FIG. 6 is a histogram representing factor XI protein production from factor XI modified mRNA in HeLa cell supernatants. It is a histogram showing the production of insulin aspart protein from insulin aspart-modified mRNA. It is a histogram showing insulin lispro protein production from insulin lispro modified mRNA in HeLa cells. It is a histogram showing the production of insulin glurizine protein from insulin gluridine modified mRNA in HeLa cells. Fig. 6 is a histogram representing human growth hormone protein production from human growth hormone modified mRNA in HeLa cells. It is a gel profile of p53 protein derived from tumor protein 53 (p53) modified mRNA. FIG. 43A shows the predicted size of p53. FIG. 43B shows the predicted size of p53. It is a gel profile of TUFT1 protein derived from tufterin (TUFT1) modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of GALK1 protein derived from galactokinase 1 (GALK1) modified mRNA. FIG. 45A shows the predicted size of GALK1. FIG. 45B shows the predicted size of GALK1. It is a gel profile of DEFB103A protein derived from defensin and β103A (DEFB103A) modified mRNA. Fig. 3 is a flow cytometry plot of LDLR modified mRNA. It is a histogram showing the vascular endothelial growth factor expression in HeLa. It is a histogram showing the cell viability of HeLa cells transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. It is a histogram showing insulin aspart protein expression. 2 is a histogram representing insulin glargine protein expression. 2 is a histogram representing insulin gluridine protein expression. It is a histogram showing interleukin 7 (IL-7) protein expression. 2 is a histogram representing erythropoietin (EPO) protein expression. It is a gel profile of lysosomal acid lipase protein derived from lysosomal acid lipase modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of glucocerebrosidase protein derived from glucocerebrosidase-modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of iduronic acid-2-sulfatase protein derived from iduronic acid-2-sulfatase-modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of luciferase protein derived from luciferase-modified mRNA. It is a histogram showing the IgG density | concentration after administration of formulation herceptin modification mRNA in a mammal. It is a histogram showing IgG concentration (ng / ml) after transfection of Herceptin modified mRNA. It is a gel profile of the Herceptin protein derived from Herceptin modified mRNA. 2 is a histogram of glucocerebrosidase enzyme activity. 2 is a histogram of lysosomal acid lipase enzyme activity. Figure 5 is a histogram representing factor VIII protein expression. It is a histogram showing the color development activity of a factor VIII. It is a graph showing LDLR expression. FIG. 66A shows cellular LDL receptor expression upon addition of LDLR mRNA. It is a graph showing LDLR expression. FIG. 66B shows LDL receptor expression in cells after transfection. It is a graph showing LDLR expression. FIG. 66C shows the saturation of the BODIPY® labeled LRL. It is a graph showing LDLR expression. FIG. 66D shows the binding affinity of BODIPY-LDL to cells. FIG. 5 is a graph showing the percentage of cells positive for UGT1A1 expression. It is a graph which shows accumulation | storage of UGT1A1 protein. It is a gel profile of UGT1A1 protein derived from UGT1A1 modified mRNA or OTC modified mRNA and OTC. FIG. 5 is a flow cytometry plot of HEK293 cells transfected with PAh or UGT1A1. It is a gel profile of UGT1A1 protein derived from UGT1A1 modified mRNA. FIG. 6 is a gel profile of microsomal extracts of mice treated with LNP containing UGT1A1.

  Whether in vitro, in vivo, in situ, or ex vivo in therapeutics, diagnostics, reagents, and biological assays, for example, to cause intracellular translation of nucleic acids and production of the encoded polypeptide of interest It is of great interest to be able to deliver nucleic acids, such as ribonucleic acid (RNA), into cells. The delivery and function of non-integrated polynucleotides is particularly important.

  Described herein are compositions of polynucleotides (including pharmaceutical compositions) encoding one or more polypeptides of interest, as well as methods for their design, preparation, manufacture, and / or formulation. Also provided are systems, processes, devices, and kits for selecting, designing, and / or utilizing a polynucleotide that encodes a polypeptide of interest described herein.

  In accordance with the present invention, these polynucleotides are preferably modified to avoid defects in molecules encoding other polypeptides in the art. These polynucleotides are therefore referred to as modified mRNA or mmRNA.

  The fields of application in antibodies, viruses, veterinary medicine, and the use of modified polynucleotides in various in vivo environments have been investigated by the inventors, such as co-pending and co-owned in vivo mRNAs. US Provisional Patent Application No. 61 / 470,451, filed Mar. 31, 2011, teaching application; No. 61, filed Apr. 26, 2011, teaching nucleic acids engineered for the production of antibody polypeptides. No. 517,784; 61 / 519,158 filed May 17, 2011 teaching the application of mRNA technology in veterinary medicine; filed September 12, 2011 teaching the application of mRNA technology in antibacterial agents No. 61 / 533,537; No. 61/5, filed Sep. 12, 2011, which teaches viral application of mmRNA technology. No. 3,554; No. 61 / 542,533 filed Oct. 3, 2011 teaching various chemical modifications used in mmRNA technology; December 2011 teaching mobile devices used in making and using mmRNA technology No. 61 / 570,690, filed 14 days; No. 61 / 570,708, filed Dec. 14, 2011; teaching the use of mRNA in emergency treatment situations; 61 / 576,651 filed December 16, 2011; 61 / 576,705 filed December 16, 2011 teaching methods for delivery of mRNA using lipidoids; Or 61 / 578,271, filed Dec. 21, 2011, teaching methods for increasing tissue viability; cell penetration 61 / 581,322, filed December 29, 2011, which teaches mRNA encoding peptides; 61/581, filed December 29, 2011, which teaches the incorporation of cytotoxic nucleosides into mRNA. , 352; and 61 / 631,729, filed Jan. 10, 2012, which teaches how to use mmRNA to cross the blood brain barrier, all of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety. Are incorporated herein.

  Stability and / or elimination in tissues, receptor uptake and / or kinetics, cell arrival by composition, translation mechanism involvement, mRNA half-life, translation efficiency, immune evasion, protein production capacity, secretion efficiency (application Intended to improve one or more of: blood circulation reachability, protein half-life, and / or modulation of cellular state, function, and / or activity Polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA are provided as part of this specification.

  I. Compositions of the Invention (mmRNA) The present invention provides nucleic acid molecules, specifically polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs that encode one or more polypeptides of interest. The term “nucleic acid” in its broadest sense includes any compound and / or substance comprising a polymer of nucleotides. These polymers are often referred to as polynucleotides. Exemplary nucleic acids or polynucleotides of the invention include ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), threose nucleic acid (TNA), glycol nucleic acid (GNA), peptide nucleic acid (PNA), locked nucleic acid (LNA, β-D -LNA with ribo configuration, α-LNA with α-L-ribo configuration (diastereomers of LNA), 2'-amino-LNA with 2'-amino functionalization, and 2'-amino functionalization 2'-amino-α-LNA), or hybrids thereof, including but not limited to.

  In a preferred embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule is messenger RNA (mRNA). As used herein, the term “messenger RNA (mRNA)” encodes a polypeptide of interest and is translated and encoded in vitro, in vivo, in situ, or ex vivo. Refers to any polynucleotide capable of producing

  Conventionally, the major components of an mRNA molecule include at least the coding region, 5'UTR, 3'UTR, 5'cap, and poly A tail. Based on this wild-type modular structure, the present invention maintains modular organization, but in some embodiments includes the lack of substantial induction of the cell's innate immune response to the portion into which the polynucleotide is introduced. Expanding the scope of functionality of conventional mRNA molecules by providing polynucleotides or primary RNA constructs that contain one or more structures and / or chemical modifications or alterations that confer useful properties to the polynucleotide. Accordingly, the modified mRNA molecule of the present invention is referred to as “mmRNA”. As used herein, a “structural” feature or modification is one in which two or more linked nucleotides are inserted, deleted, replicated in a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mRNA without significant chemical modification to the nucleotide itself. A feature or modification that is inverted or randomized. Structural modifications are of chemical nature and are therefore chemical modifications because chemical bonds are inevitably broken and reformed resulting in structural modifications. However, structural modifications result in different nucleotide sequences. For example, the polynucleotide “ATCG” can be chemically modified to “AT-5meC-G”. The same polynucleotide can be structurally modified from “ATCG” to “ATCCCG”. Here, the dinucleotide “CC” has been inserted, resulting in a structural modification to the polynucleotide.

mmRNA Structures The mRNA of the present invention is in their functional and / or structural design features that help to overcome the existing problems of effective polypeptide production using nucleic acid based therapeutics as demonstrated herein. Differentiated from wild type mRNA.

  FIG. 1 shows a representative polynucleotide primary construct 100 of the present invention. As used herein, the term “primary construct” or “primary mRNA construct” encodes one or more polypeptides of interest, in which the polypeptides of interest encoded are translated. It refers to a polynucleotide transcript that retains sufficient structural and / or chemical characteristics to make it possible. The primary construct can be a polynucleotide of the invention. When structurally or chemically modified, the primary construct can be referred to as mmRNA.

  Referring now to FIG. 1, the primary construct 100 now contains a first region of binding nucleotides 102 adjacent to a first adjacent region 104 and a second adjacent region 106. As used herein, a “first region” may be referred to as a “coding region” or “coding region” or simply “first region”. This first region can include, but is not limited to, the encoded polypeptide of interest. The polypeptide of interest may comprise one or more signal sequences encoded by signal sequence region 103 at its 5 'end. The flanking region 104 can include a region of bound nucleotides that includes one or more complete or incomplete 5'UTR sequences. The adjacent region 104 may also include a 5 'end cap 108. The second flanking region 106 can include a region of bound nucleotides that includes one or more complete or incomplete 3'UTRs. The adjacent region 106 may also include a 3 'tail array 110.

  The bridge at the 5 ′ end of the first region 102 and the first adjacent region 104 is the first manipulation region 105. Conventionally, this operational region includes an initiation codon. Alternatively, the operational region can include any translation initiation sequence or signal that includes an initiation codon.

  The bridge at the 3 ′ end of the first region 102 and the second adjacent region 106 is the second manipulation region 107. Conventionally, this engineering region contains a stop codon. Alternatively, the engineered region can include any translation initiation sequence or signal that includes a stop codon. In accordance with the present invention, multiple consecutive stop codons can also be used.

  In general, the minimum length of the first region of the primary construct of the invention is sufficient to encode a dipeptide, tripeptide, tetrapeptide, pentapeptide, hexapeptide, heptapeptide, octapeptide, nonapeptide, or decapeptide. The length of a particular nucleic acid sequence. In another embodiment, the length is a peptide of 2-30 amino acids, e.g., 5-30, 10-30, 2-25, 5-25, 10-25, or 10-20 amino acids. It may be enough to code. This length is a peptide of at least 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 25, or 30 amino acids, or a peptide not longer than 40 amino acids, eg, 35, 30, 25, 20, It may be sufficient to encode a peptide that is no longer than 17, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, or 10 amino acids. Examples of dipeptides that can be encoded by a polynucleotide sequence include, but are not limited to, carnosine and anserine.

  Generally, the length of the first region encoding a polypeptide of interest of the present invention is greater than about 30 nucleotides in length (eg, at least about 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1,100, 1,200, 1,300, 1,400, 1,500, 1,600, 1,700, 1,800, 1,900, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, 6,000, 7 , 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000, 60,000, 70,000, 80,000, 90,000, etc. Ku is up to 100,000 nucleotides in length (including 100,000), or above their). As used herein, a “first region” may be referred to as a “coding region” or “coding region” or simply “first region”.

  In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is about 30 to about 100,000 nucleotides (e.g., 30-50, 30-100, 30-250, 30-500, 30-1, 000, 30-1,500, 30-3,000, 30-5,000, 30-7,000, 30-10,000, 30-25,000, 30-50,000, 30-70,000, 100-250, 100-500, 100-1,000, 100-1,500, 100-3,000, 100-5,000, 100-7,000, 100-10,000, 100-25,000, 100 to 50,000, 100 to 70,000, 100 to 100,000, 500 to 1,000, 500 to 1,500, 500 to 2,000, 500 to 3 000, 500 to 5,000, 500 to 7,000, 500 to 10,000, 500 to 25,000, 500 to 50,000, 500 to 70,000, 500 to 100,000, 1,000 to 1, 500, 1,000-2,000, 1,000-3,000, 1,000-5,000, 1,000-7,000, 1,000-10,000, 1,000-25,000, 1,000-50,000, 1,000-70,000, 1,000-100,000, 1,500-3,000, 1,500-5,000, 1,500-7,000, 1, 500-10,000, 1,500-25,000, 1,500-50,000, 1,500-70,000, 1,500-100,000, 2,000-3,000, 2,000- 5,000, 1,000 to 7,000, 2,000 to 10,000, 2,000 to 25,000, 2,000 to 50,000, 2,000 to 70,000, and 2,000 to 100,000). Including.

  In accordance with the present invention, the first and second flanking regions are independently in the range of 15 to 1,000 nucleotides long (eg, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, and more than 900 nucleotides in length, or at least 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 nucleotides in length).

  In accordance with the present invention, the tail sequence ranges from 0 to 500 nucleotides in length (eg, at least 60, 70, 80, 90, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, or 500 nucleotides). Long). If the tail region is a poly A tail, the length can be determined in units of poly A binding protein binding or as a function thereof. In this embodiment, the poly A tail is long enough to bind to at least four monomers of the poly A binding protein. The monomer of the poly A binding protein binds to a stretch of about 38 nucleotides. Thus, it has been observed that a poly A tail of about 80 nucleotides and 160 nucleotides is functional.

  In accordance with the present invention, the capping region may comprise a single cap or a series of nucleotides that form a cap. In this embodiment, the capping region can be 1-10, such as 2-9, 3-8, 4-7, 1-5, 5-10, or at least 2, or 10 or fewer nucleotides in length. In some embodiments, the cap is absent.

  In accordance with the present invention, the first and second engineering regions can be 3-40, eg, in the range of 5-30, 10-20, 15, or at least 4, or no more than 30 nucleotides in length, the start codon and / or Or, in addition to a stop codon, it may include one or more signals and / or restriction sequences.

Circular mRNA
In accordance with the present invention, the primary construct or mmRNA can be cyclized or concatamerized to produce a translation competent molecule, assisting in the interaction between the poly A binding protein and the 5 ′ end binding protein. The mechanism of cyclization or concatamerization can occur through at least three different pathways: 1) chemical pathway, 2) enzymatic pathway, and 3) ribozyme catalytic pathway. Newly formed 5 ′ / 3 ′ linkages can be intramolecular or intermolecular.

  In the first pathway, the 5 'and 3' ends of the nucleic acid contain chemically reactive groups that form new covalent bonds between the 5 'and 3' ends of the molecule when they are in close proximity. In an organic solvent, such that the 3′-amino terminal nucleotide on the 3 ′ end of the synthetic mRNA molecule undergoes a nucleophilic attack on the 5′-NHS-ester moiety to form a new 5 ′ / 3 ′ amide bond. The 5 ′ end may contain an NHS-ester reactive group and the 3 ′ end may contain a 3′-amino terminal nucleotide.

  In the second pathway, T4 RNA ligase can be used to enzymatically link 5'-phosphorylated nucleic acid molecules to the 3'-hydroxyl group of nucleic acids to form new phosphorodiester bonds. In the example reaction, 1 μg of nucleic acid molecule is incubated for 1 hour at 37 ° C. with 1-10 units of T4 RNA ligase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, Mass.) According to the manufacturer's protocol. The ligation reaction can occur in the presence of split oligonucleotides that can base pair together with both the 5 'region and the 3' region to assist in the enzymatic ligation reaction.

  In the third pathway, either the 5 ′ end or the 3 ′ end of the cDNA template allows the resulting nucleic acid molecule to link the 5 ′ end of the nucleic acid molecule to the 3 ′ end of the nucleic acid molecule during in vitro transcription. The ligase ribozyme sequence is encoded such that it can contain active ribozyme sequences that can. The ligase ribozyme can be derived from a group I intron, group I intron, hepatitis delta virus, hairpin ribozyme, or can be selected by SELEX (systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment). The ribozyme ligase reaction can take 1-24 hours at a temperature of 0-37 ° C.

mmRNA Multimers In accordance with the present invention, a plurality of distinct polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs can be linked via the 3 'end with nucleotides modified at the 3' end. Chemical complex formation can be used to control the stoichiometry of delivery to cells. For example, glyoxylate cycle enzyme, isocitrate lyase, and malate synthase can be supplied to HepG2 cells in a 1: 1 ratio to alter cellular fatty acid metabolism. This ratio is chemistry using 3'-azido terminal nucleotides for one polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA species, and C5-ethynyl or alkynyl containing nucleotides for the opposite polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA species. It can be controlled by chemically binding the binding polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. This modified nucleotide is added post-transcriptionally using terminal transferase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, Mass.) According to the manufacturer's protocol. After the addition of the 3 ′ end modified nucleotide, these two polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA species are combined in aqueous solution in the presence or absence of copper and via the click chemistry mechanism described in the literature. New covalent bonds can be formed.

In another example, three or more polynucleotides can be attached using a functionalized linker molecule. For example, functionalized saccharide molecule, a plurality of chemically reactive group (SH-, NH 2 -, N 3, etc.) cognate moiety on containing 3'functionalized mRNA molecule (i.e., 3'-maleimide ester, 3 '-NHS-ester, alkynyl) can be chemically modified. The number of reactive groups on this modified saccharide can be controlled in a stoichiometric manner to directly control the stoichiometric ratio of the complexed polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA.

mmRNA complexes and combinations In order to further enhance protein production, the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention may comprise other polynucleotides, dyes, intercalating agents (eg, acridine), cross-linking agents (eg, psoralen, mitomycin C), porphyrins. (TPPC4, texaphyrin, saphirin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (eg, phenazine, dihydrophenazine), artificial endonucleases (eg, EDTA), alkylating agents, phosphates, amino, mercapto, PEG (eg, PEG- 40K), MPEG, [MPEG] 2 , polyamino, alkyl, substituted alkyl, radiolabeled marker, enzyme, hapten (eg, biotin), transport / absorption enhancer (eg, aspirin, vitamin E, folic acid), synthetic ribonuclease, protein , Example For example, glycoproteins, or peptides, eg, molecules having specific affinity for coligands, or antibodies, eg, antibodies, hormones and hormone receptors that bind to specific cell types such as cancer cells, endothelial cells, or bone cells , Can be designed to be complexed with non-peptide species such as lipids, lectins, carbohydrates, vitamins, cofactors, or drugs.

  Complexation can result in increased stability and / or half-life and can be particularly useful when targeting a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to a specific site in a cell, tissue, or organism. .

  In accordance with the present invention, the mRNA or primary construct is selected from among RNAi agents, siRNA, shRNA, miRNA, miRNA binding sites, antisense RNA, ribozymes, catalytic DNA, tRNA, RNA that induces triple helix formation, aptamers, vectors, etc. They can be administered with one or more, or they can be further encoded.

Bifunctional mRNA
One embodiment of the invention is a bifunctional polynucleotide (eg, a bifunctional primary construct or bifunctional mmRNA). As the name implies, a bifunctional polynucleotide is a polynucleotide that has at least two functions or is capable of at least two functions. These molecules can also be referred to as multifunctional by convention.

  Multiple functions of a bifunctional polynucleotide can be encoded by RNA (this function cannot appear until the encoded product is translated) or can be a property of the polynucleotide itself. This can be structural or chemical. Bifunctional modified polynucleotides can include functions that are covalently or electrostatically associated with the polynucleotide. Furthermore, these two functions may be provided in the context of a complex of mmRNA and another molecule.

  The bifunctional polynucleotide can encode an antiproliferative peptide. These peptides can be linear, cyclic, constrained, or random coils. They can function as aptamers, signaling molecules, ligands, or mimetics or mimetics thereof. Anti-proliferative peptides can be 3-50 amino acids long when translated. They can be 5-40, 10-30, or about 15 amino acids long. They can be single-stranded, multi-stranded, or branched and when translated can form complexes, aggregates, or any multi-unit structure.

Non-coding polynucleotides and primary constructs As described herein, polynucleotides and primary constructs having sequences that are not partially or substantially translatable, eg, non-coding regions, are provided. Such a non-coding region may be the “first region” of the primary construct. Alternatively, the non-coding region can be a region other than the first region. Such molecules are not normally translated, but affect protein production by one or more of binding and sequestration to one or more translation machinery components such as ribosomal proteins or transfer RNA (tRNA), thereby It can effectively reduce protein expression in a cell or modulate one or more pathways or cascades in a cell, which in turn changes protein levels. A polynucleotide or primary construct can be one or more long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA or lincRNA) or portions thereof, small nuclear RNA (sno-RNA), microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), or Piwi Interfering RNA (piRNA) can be contained or encoded.

Polypeptides of interest In accordance with the present invention, primary constructs are designed to encode one or more polypeptides of interest or fragments thereof. A polypeptide of interest can include, but is not limited to, a whole polypeptide, a plurality of polypeptides, or fragments of a polypeptide, which are independently one or more nucleic acids, a plurality of nucleic acids, a nucleic acid Or a variant of any of the foregoing. As used herein, the term “polypeptide of interest” refers to any polypeptide that is selected and encoded in a primary construct of the invention. As used herein, “polypeptide” means a polymer of amino acid residues (natural or non-natural) that are most often joined by peptide bonds. The term as used herein refers to proteins, polypeptides, and peptides having any size, structure, or function. In some examples, if the encoded polypeptide is smaller than about 50 amino acids, the polypeptide is referred to as a peptide. When the polypeptide is a peptide, it is at least about 2, 3, 4, or at least 5 amino acid residues long. Thus, polypeptides include gene products, naturally occurring polypeptides, synthetic polypeptides, homologues, orthologs, paralogs, the aforementioned fragments and other equivalents, variants, and analogs. A polypeptide can be a single molecule or can be a multimolecular complex such as a dimer, trimer, or tetramer. They can also include single-chain or multi-chain polypeptides such as antibodies or insulin and can be associated or bound. In most cases, disulfide bonds are found in multi-chain polypeptides. The term “polypeptide” may also apply to amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acid residues are artificial chemical analogues of the corresponding naturally occurring amino acids.

  The term “polypeptide variant” refers to molecules whose amino acid sequence differs from a native or reference sequence. Amino acid sequence variants may have substitutions, deletions, and / or insertions at certain positions within the amino acid sequence as compared to the native sequence or reference sequence. Usually, variants have at least about 50% identity (homology) with the native or reference sequence, preferably they are at least about 80%, more preferably at least about 90% identical (homologous).

  In some embodiments, “variant mimetics” are provided. As used herein, the term “variant mimetic” is one that contains one or more amino acids that mimic the activation sequence. For example, glutamate may serve as a phosphoro-threonine and / or phosphoro-serine mimic. Alternatively, a variant mimetic can result in inactivation or inactivation of the product containing the mimetic, for example, phenylalanine can serve as an inactivation substitution for tyrosine, or alanine can be a serine It can serve as an inactivating substitution.

  “Homology”, when applied to an amino acid sequence, refers to residues in the amino acid sequence of the second sequence after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps as necessary to obtain the maximum percent homology. It is defined as the percentage of residues in the same candidate amino acid sequence. Methods and computer programs for aligning are well known in the art. It will be appreciated that homology will depend on the percent identity calculation, but the values may differ due to gaps and penalties introduced into the calculation.

  “Homolog” when applied to a polypeptide sequence means a corresponding sequence of another species that has a significant percentage of identity to the second sequence of the second species.

  “Analogs” are polypeptide variants that differ by one or more amino acid modifications, eg, substitution, addition, or deletion of amino acid residues, that still maintain one or more of the properties of the parent or starting polypeptide. Is intended to include.

  The present invention contemplates several types of compositions of polypeptide systems, including variants and derivatives. These include substitutions, insertions, deletions, and covalent variants and derivatives. The term “derivative” is used interchangeably with the term “variant” but generally refers to a molecule that has been modified and / or altered in any way relative to a reference molecule or starting molecule.

  Accordingly, a reference sequence, specifically an mRNA encoding a polypeptide containing substitutions, insertions and / or additions, deletions, and covalent modifications to the polypeptide sequences disclosed herein, is provided by the present invention. Is included in the range. For example, a sequence tag or amino acid, eg, one or more lysines can be added to the peptide sequence of the invention (eg, at the N-terminus or C-terminus). Sequence tags can be used for peptide purification or localization. Lysine is used to increase peptide solubility or allow biotinylation. Alternatively, amino acid residues located in the carboxy and amino terminal regions of the peptide or protein amino acid sequence can optionally be deleted to provide a truncated sequence. Alternatively, certain amino acids (eg, C-terminal or N-terminal residues) can be deleted upon expression of the sequence, eg as part of a soluble larger sequence, depending on the use of the sequence, or solid support Can be bound to the body.

  “Substitutional variant” when referring to a polypeptide is one in which at least one amino acid residue in the native or starting sequence has been removed and a different amino acid inserted in its place at the same position. These substitutions are single substitutions and may be those in which only one amino acid in the molecule is substituted, or these substitutions are polysubstitutions, and two or more amino acids in the same molecule are It can be substituted.

  As used herein, the term “conservative amino acid substitution” refers to the replacement of an amino acid normally present in a sequence with a different amino acid having a similar size, charge, or polarity. Examples of conservative substitutions include substitution of a nonpolar (hydrophobic) residue such as isoleucine, valine, and leucine with another nonpolar residue. Similarly, examples of conservative substitutions include substitution of another polar (hydrophilic) residue such as arginine and lysine, glutamine and asparagine, and glycine serine. Furthermore, substitution of a basic residue such as lysine, arginine, or histidine with another basic residue, or substitution of one acidic residue such as aspartic acid or glutamic acid with another acidic residue is a conservative substitution. It is a further example. Examples of non-conservative substitutions include substitution of nonpolar (hydrophobic) amino acid residues such as isoleucine, valine, leucine, alanine and methionine with polar (hydrophilic) residues such as cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid or lysine And / or substitution of polar residues with nonpolar residues.

  An “insertion variant”, when referring to a polypeptide, is one in which one or more amino acids have been inserted immediately adjacent to the amino acid at a particular position in the native or starting sequence. “Immediately adjacent” to an amino acid means linked to either the α-carboxy or α-amino functional group of the amino acid.

  A “deletion variant”, when referring to a polypeptide, is one in which one or more amino acids within the native or starting amino acid sequence have been removed. Usually, a deletion variant deletes one or more amino acids in a particular region of the molecule.

  “Covalent derivatives” when referring to polypeptides include modifications of natural or starting proteins with organic or non-protein derivatizing agents and / or post-translational modifications. Covalent modifications traditionally function by reacting a target amino acid residue of a protein with an organic derivatizing agent capable of reacting with a selected side chain or terminal residue, or in selected recombinant host cells. It is introduced by utilizing the mechanism of post-translational modification. The resulting covalent derivatives are useful in programs aimed at identifying residues important for biological activity, immunoassay, or preparation of anti-protein antibodies for immunoaffinity purification of recombinant glycoproteins It is. Such modifications are within the skill of the art and are performed without undue experimentation.

  Certain post-translational modifications are the result of the action of recombinant host cells on the expressed polypeptide. Glutaminyl and asparaginyl residues are frequently deamidated to the corresponding glutamyl and aspartyl residues after translation. Alternatively, these residues are deamidated under mildly acidic conditions. Any form of these residues may be present in the polypeptide produced according to the present invention.

  Other post-translational modifications include hydroxylation of proline and lysine, phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group of seryl or threonyl residues, methylation of α-amino groups of lysine, arginine, and histidine side chains (TE Creighton). , Proteins: Structure and Molecular Properties, WH Freeman & Co., San Francisco, pp. 79-86 (1983)).

  A “characteristic” is defined as a component based on a distinct amino acid sequence of a molecule when referring to a polypeptide. Features of the polypeptide encoded by the mRNA of the invention include surface appearance, local conformational shape, folding, loop, half-loop, domain, half-domain, site, end, or any combination thereof.

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “surface appearance” refers to the appearance of the polypeptide-based component of a protein on the outermost surface.

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “local conformational shape” refers to the appearance of a polypeptide-based structure of a protein located within the definable space of the protein.

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “folding” refers to the conformation that results from the amino acid sequence upon energy minimization. Folding can occur at the secondary or tertiary level of the folding process. Examples of secondary level folding include beta sheets and alpha helices. Examples of tertiary level folding include domains and regions formed due to the aggregation or separation of energy forces. The region thus formed includes hydrophobic and hydrophilic pockets and the like.

  As used herein, the term “rotation”, as it relates to protein structure, means a bend that changes the orientation of the backbone of the peptide or polypeptide and may involve one, two, or more amino acid residues. .

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “loop” refers to a structural feature of a polypeptide that can serve to reverse the orientation of the peptide or polypeptide backbone. If a loop is found in the polypeptide and changes only the orientation of the backbone, it can contain 4 or more amino acid residues. Oliva et al. Have identified at least five classes of protein loops (J. Mol Biol 266 (4): 814-830; 1997). The loop can be open loop or closed loop. A closed or “circular” loop may comprise 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 or more amino acids between bridging moieties. Such bridging moieties can include cysteine-cysteine bridges (Cys-Cys) typical in polypeptides having disulfide bridges, or alternatively, the bridging moiety can be a dibromozyl agent as used herein. ) And the like.

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “half loop” refers to the portion of the loop that has at least half of the amino acid residues identified as the loop from which it is derived. It is understood that the loop does not necessarily contain an even number of amino acid residues. Thus, if a loop is identified as containing an odd number of amino acids or containing an odd number of amino acids, then the half loop of the odd number of loops is either the integer part of the loop or the next integer part (number of amino acids in the loop / 2 + /−0.5 amino acids). For example, a loop identified as a 7 amino acid loop can result in a half loop of 3 amino acids or 4 amino acids (7/2 = 3.5 +/− 0.5 becomes 3 or 4).

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “domain” refers to one or more identifiable structural or functional characteristics or properties (eg, binding ability, role as a site of interaction between proteins) A polypeptide motif having

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “half domain” means a portion of a domain having at least half of the amino acid residues identified as the domain from which it is derived. It is understood that a domain does not necessarily contain an even number of amino acid residues. Thus, when a domain contains an odd number of amino acids or is identified as containing an odd number of amino acids, the odd domain half-domain is the integer part of the domain or the next integer part (number of amino acids in the domain / 2 + /−0.5 amino acids). For example, a domain identified as a 7 amino acid domain can result in a half domain of 3 amino acids or 4 amino acids (7/2 = 3.5 +/− 0.5 becomes 3 or 4). Subdomains may also be identified within a domain or semi-domain, and these subdomains may have structural or functional properties that are less than all of the structural or functional properties identified in the domain or semi-domain from which they are derived. Understood. Amino acids comprising any of the domain types herein need not be contiguous along the backbone of the polypeptide (ie, non-adjacent amino acids are structurally folded into a domain, half-domain, or subdomain) Is also understood).

  As used herein and when referring to a polypeptide, the term “site” is used interchangeably with “amino acid residue” and “amino acid side chain” when referring to an amino acid based embodiment. A site represents a position within a peptide or polypeptide that can be modified, manipulated, altered, derivatized, or altered within a polypeptide-based molecule of the invention.

  As used herein, when referring to a polypeptide, the term “termini” or “terminus” refers to the end of a peptide or polypeptide. Such ends are not limited to the first or final site of the peptide or polypeptide, but may also include additional amino acids in the terminal region. The polypeptide-based molecule of the present invention may be characterized by having both an N-terminus (terminated with a free amino group (NH2) by an amino acid) and a C-terminus (terminated with a free carboxyl group (COOH) by an amino acid). The protein of the present invention may in some cases consist of multiple polypeptide chains linked by disulfide bonds or non-covalent forces (multimers, oligomers). These types of proteins have multiple N-termini and C-termini. Alternatively, the ends of the polypeptides can be modified so that they optionally begin or end with a non-polypeptide based moiety such as an organic complex.

  When any of these features are identified or defined as being a desired component of a polypeptide encoded by the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention, of some manipulation and / or modification of these features Either can be done by migration, exchange, inversion, deletion, randomization, or replication. Furthermore, it is understood that the manipulation of features yields the same results as modifications to the molecules of the invention. For example, manipulations involving deletion of a domain result in alteration of the length of the molecule, such as modification of a nucleic acid encoding less than the full length molecule.

  Modifications and manipulations can be accomplished by methods known in the art, such as but not limited to site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting modified molecules can then be tested for activity using in vitro or in vivo assays such as those described herein, or any other suitable screening assay known in the art.

  In accordance with the present invention, a polypeptide can include a consensus sequence discovered by a series of experiments. As used herein, a “consensus” sequence is a single sequence that represents a collection of sequences that allows for variability at one or more sites.

  As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, protein fragments, functional protein domains, and homologous proteins are also considered to be within the scope of polypeptides of interest of the present invention. For example, any protein fragment of a reference protein longer than 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, or 100 amino acids (at least one amino acid residue from the reference polypeptide sequence) Which means a polypeptide sequence that is short, but otherwise identical) is provided herein. In another example, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, about 95%, or about 100% identical to any of the sequences described herein Any protein comprising a stretch of about 20, about 30, about 40, about 50, or about 100 amino acids may be utilized in accordance with the present invention. In certain embodiments, the polypeptides utilized in accordance with the present invention are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 shown in any of the sequences provided or referenced herein. Contains 10 or more mutations.

Encoded polypeptide The primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention is a biologic, antibody, vaccine, therapeutic protein or peptide, cell penetrating peptide, secreted protein, plasma membrane protein, cytoplasmic or cytoskeletal protein, intracellular membrane binding Including proteins encoded by the human genome that have utility in the field of research and discovery, even though no proteins, nucleoproteins, human disease-related proteins, target moieties, or any therapeutic indicators have been identified It can be designed to encode a polypeptide of interest selected from any of several target categories not limited to:

  In one embodiment, the primary construct or mmRNA can encode a variant polypeptide having a certain identity with a reference polypeptide sequence. As used herein, “reference polypeptide sequence” refers to a starting polypeptide sequence. The reference sequence can be a wild-type sequence or any sequence that is referenced in the design of another sequence. The “reference polypeptide sequence” is, for example, any one of SEQ ID NOS: 769 to 1392 disclosed herein, eg, SEQ ID NOS: 769,770,771,772,773,774,775,776,777. 778, 779, 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, 798, 799, 800, 801, 802 , 803, 804, 805, 806, 807, 808, 809, 810, 811, 812, 813, 814, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 820, 821, 822, 823, 824, 825, 826, 827 , 828, 829, 830, 831, 832, 833, 834, 835, 836, 837, 38, 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849, 850, 851, 852, 853, 854, 855, 856, 857, 858, 859, 860, 861, 862, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868, 869, 870, 871, 872, 873, 874, 875, 876, 877, 878, 879, 880, 881, 882, 883, 884, 885, 886, 887, 888, 889, 890, 891, 892, 893, 894, 895, 896, 897, 898, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906, 907, 908, 909, 910, 911, 912, 913, 914, 915, 916, 917, 918, 919, 920, 9 1,922,923,924,925,926,927,928,929,930,931,932,933,934,935,936,937,938,939,940,941,942,943,944,945, 946, 947, 948, 949, 950, 951, 952, 953, 954, 955, 956, 957, 958, 959, 960, 961, 962, 963, 964, 965, 966, 967, 968, 969, 970, 971, 972, 973, 974, 975, 976, 977, 978, 979, 980, 981, 982, 983, 984, 985, 986, 987, 988, 989, 990, 991, 992, 993, 994, 995, 996, 997, 998, 999, 1000, 1001, 1002, 1003 , 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1015, 1016, 1017, 1018, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024, 1025, 1026, 1027, 1028 1029, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1033, 1034, 1035, 1036, 1037, 1038, 1039, 1040, 1041, 1042, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046, 1047, 1048, 1049, 1050, 1051, 1052, 1053 1054, 1055, 1056, 1057, 1058, 1059, 1060, 1061, 1062, 1063, 1064, 1065, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1069, 10 0, 1071, 1072, 1073, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1078, 1079, 1080, 1081, 1082, 1083, 1084, 1085, 1086, 1087, 1088, 1089, 1090, 1091, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1095, 1096, 1097, 1098, 1099, 1100, 1101, 1102, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1114, 1115, 1116, 1117, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1121, 1122, 1123, 1124, 1125, 1126, 1127, 1128, 1129, 1130, 1311, 1132, 1133, 1134, 1135, 1136, 137, 1138, 1139, 1140, 1141, 1142, 1143, 1144, 1145, 1146, 1147, 1148, 1149, 1150, 1151, 1152, 1153, 1154, 1155, 1156, 1157, 1158, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1162, 1163, 1164, 1165, 1166, 1167, 1168, 1169, 1170, 1171, 1172, 1173, 1174, 1175, 1176, 1177, 1178, 1179, 1180, 1181, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185, 1186, 1187, 1188, 1189, 1190, 1191, 1192, 1193, 1194, 1195, 1196, 1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1201, 1202, 1203 1204, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209, 1210, 1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1216, 1217, 1218, 1219, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1223, 1224, 1225, 1226, 1227, 1228 , 1229, 1230, 1231, 1232, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1236, 1237, 1238, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1243, 1244, 1245, 1246, 1247, 1248, 1249, 1250, 1251, 1252, 1253 , 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257, 1258, 1259, 1260, 1261, 1262, 1263, 1264, 1265, 1266, 1267, 1268, 1269, 12 0, 1271, 1272, 1273, 1274, 1275, 1276, 1277, 1278, 1279, 1280, 1281, 1282, 1283, 1284, 1285, 1286, 1287, 1288, 1289, 1290, 1291, 1292, 1293, 1294, 1295, 1296, 1297, 1298, 1299, 1300, 1301, 1302, 1303, 1304, 1305, 1306, 1307, 1308, 1309, 1310, 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316, 1317, 1318, 1319, 1320, 1321, 1322, 1323, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330, 1331, 1332, 1333, 1334, 1335, 1336, 337, 1338, 1339, 1340, 1341, 1342, 1343, 1344, 1345, 1346, 1347, 1348, 1349, 1350, 1351, 1352, 1353, 1354, 1355, 1356, 1357, 1358, 1359, 1360, 1361, 1362, 1363, 1364, 1365, 1366, 1367, 1368, 1369, 1370, 1371, 1372, 1373, 1374, 1375, 1376, 1377, 1378, 1379, 1380, 1381, 1382, 1383, 1384, 1385, 1386 , 1387, 1388, 1389, 1390, 1391, 1392.

  The term “identity” as known in the art refers to the relationship between the sequences of two or more peptides as determined by comparing the sequences. In the art, identity also refers to the degree of sequence relatedness between peptides determined by the number of matches between strings of two or more amino acid residues. Identity is the percentage of identical matches between smaller sequences of two or more sequences that have gap alignment (if any) processed by a particular mathematical model or computer program (ie, “algorithm”). %). The identity of related peptides can be easily calculated by known methods. Such methods include Computational Molecular Biology, Lesk, A. et al. M.M. , Ed. , Oxford University Press, New York, 1988, Biocomputing: Informatics and Genome Projects, Smith, D .; W. , Ed. , Academic Press, New York, 1993, Computer Analysis of Sequence Data, Part 1, Griffin, A .; M.M. , And Griffin, H .; G. , Eds. , Humana Press, New Jersey, 1994, Sequence Analysis in Molecular Biology, von Heinje, G. et al. , Academic Press, 1987, Sequence Analysis Primer, Gribskov, M .; and Devereux, J. et al. , Eds. , M.M. Stockton Press, New York, 1991, and Carillo et al. , SIAM J. et al. Applied Math. 48, 1073 (1988), but is not limited thereto.

  In some embodiments, the polypeptide variant may have the same or similar activity as the reference polypeptide. Alternatively, the variant may have altered (eg, increased or decreased) activity relative to a reference polypeptide. In general, a particular polynucleotide or polypeptide variant of the invention is a specific reference polynucleotide or polypeptide as described herein and determined by sequence alignment programs and parameters known to those skilled in the art. And at least about 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94% 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, but less than 100% sequence identity. Such alignment tools include a set of BLAST programs (Stephen F. Altschul, Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Sch 艪 ... Chichi Jinghui Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Webb Miller, and David J. 97 (Lipman). "Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs", Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 3389-3402). Other tools are described herein, specifically in the definition of “identity”.

  The default parameters of the BLAST algorithm include, for example, a prediction threshold 10, a word size 28, a match / mismatch score 1, -2, and a linear gap cost. Any filter, as well as selection of species specific repeats, eg, human specific repeats can be applied.

Biologics The polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA disclosed herein can encode one or more biologics. As used herein, a “biologic” is produced by the methods provided herein and is used to treat, cure, reduce, prevent, or diagnose a serious or life-threatening disease or condition. Polypeptide-based molecules that can be obtained. Biologics include, in accordance with the present invention, allergen extracts (eg, for allergy injection and testing), blood components, gene therapy products, human tissue or cell products used for transplantation, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, growth factors, enzymes , Thrombolytic agents, as well as immunoregulatory factors and the like.

  In accordance with the present invention, one or more biologics currently sold or in development can be encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention. Without wishing to be bound by theory, at least in part, due to specificity, purity, and / or selectivity of construct design, polynucleotides encoding known biologics to the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention. It is thought that the incorporation of this will improve the therapeutic effect.

Antibodies A primary construct or mmRNA disclosed herein may encode one or more antibodies or fragments thereof. The term “antibody” includes monoclonal antibodies (including full-length antibodies having an immunoglobulin Fc region), antibody compositions with polyepitope specificity, multispecific antibodies (eg, bispecific antibodies, bispecific antibodies ( diabody), and single chain molecules), as well as antibody fragments. The term “immunoglobulin (Ig)” is used interchangeably with “antibody” herein. As used herein, the term “monoclonal antibody” refers to an antibody obtained from a substantially homogeneous antibody population, ie, naturally occurring mutations and / or post-translational modifications that may be present in small amounts. Refers to an individual antibody comprising its population that is identical except (eg, isomerization, amidation). Monoclonal antibodies are very specific and are directed against a single antigenic site.

  Monoclonal antibodies herein are antibodies in which a portion of the heavy and / or light chain is derived from a particular species or belongs to a particular antibody class or subclass as long as they exhibit the desired biological activity. Is identical or homologous to the corresponding sequence of, while the remaining part of the chain (s) is identical or homologous to the corresponding sequence of an antibody from another species or belonging to another antibody class or subclass Specifically include “chimeric” antibodies (immunoglobulins), as well as fragments of such antibodies. Chimeric antibodies of interest herein include “primatized” antibodies comprising variable domain antigen binding sequences from non-human primates (eg, Old World monkeys, apes etc.) and human constant region sequences. However, the present invention is not limited to this.

“Antibody fragments” comprise a portion of an intact antibody, preferably the antigen binding and / or variable region of the intact antibody. Examples of antibody fragments include Fab, Fab ′, F (ab ′) 2 , and Fv fragments; bispecific antibodies; linear antibodies; nanobodies; single chain antibody molecules; and multispecific antibodies formed from antibody fragments Is mentioned.

  Any of the five classes of immunoglobulins, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each comprising heavy chains designated α, δ, ε, γ, and μ, are encoded by the mRNA of the present invention. Can be done. Polynucleotide sequences encoding subclasses, γ and μ are also included. Thus, any of the following subclasses of antibodies, including IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1, and IgA2, can be partially or fully encoded.

  In accordance with the present invention, one or more antibodies or fragments currently sold or in development can be encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention. While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that incorporation, at least in part, into the primary construct of the present invention results in improved therapeutic efficacy due to specificity, purity, and selectivity of mRNA design.

  Blood, cardiovascular, CNS, poisoning (including antitoxin), dermatology, endocrinology, gastrointestinal, medical imaging, musculoskeletal, tumor using the antibody encoded in the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention A condition or disease in a number of therapeutic areas can be treated, including but not limited to science, immunology, respiratory, sensory, and anti-infection.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct or mmRNA disclosed herein may encode a monoclonal antibody and / or a variant thereof. Antibody variants may also include, but are not limited to, substitution variants, conservative amino acid substitutions, insertion variants, deletion variants, and / or covalent derivatives. In one embodiment, the primary construct and / or mmRNA disclosed herein can encode an immunoglobulin Fc region. In another embodiment, the primary construct and / or mmRNA can encode a variant immunoglobulin Fc region. As a non-limiting example, the primary construct and / or the mRNA encode an antibody having a variant immunoglobulin Fc region as described in US Pat. No. 8,217,147, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. obtain.

Vaccines A primary construct or mmRNA disclosed herein may encode one or more vaccines. As used herein, a “vaccine” is a biological preparation that enhances immunity against a particular disease or infectious agent. In accordance with the present invention, one or more vaccines currently sold or in development can be encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention. While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that incorporation, at least in part, into the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention results in improved therapeutic efficacy due to specificity, purity, and selectivity of construct design.

  Utilizing a vaccine encoded in the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention, such as cardiovascular, CNS, dermatology, endocrinology, oncology, immunology, respiratory organs, anti-infection, etc. A condition or disease in many therapeutic areas, not limited to, can be treated.

Therapeutic Proteins or Peptides A primary construct or mmRNA disclosed herein may encode one or more effective or “testing” therapeutic proteins or peptides.

  In accordance with the present invention, one or more therapeutic proteins or peptides currently sold or in development can be encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention. While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that incorporation, at least in part, into the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention results in improved therapeutic efficacy due to specificity, purity, and selectivity of construct design.

  Blood, cardiovascular, CNS, addiction (including antitoxins), dermatology, endocrinology, genetics, urogenital organs using therapeutic proteins and peptides encoded in the polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the invention It can treat conditions or diseases in many therapeutic areas including, but not limited to, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, oncology, and immunology, respiratory, sensory, and anti-infection.

Cell-permeable polypeptides The primary construct or mmRNA disclosed herein can encode one or more cell-permeable polypeptides. As used herein, “cell permeable polypeptide” or CPP refers to a polypeptide that can promote cellular uptake of a molecule. The cell permeable polypeptides of the present invention may contain one or more detectable labels. The polypeptide can be partially labeled or fully labeled throughout. The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can fully encode, partially encode, or not encode the detectable label. The cell penetrating peptide can also include a signal sequence. As used herein, “signal sequence” refers to a sequence of amino acid residues that are bound to the amino terminus of a nascent protein during protein translation. A signal sequence can be used to signal secretion of a cell permeable polypeptide.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can also encode a fusion protein. A fusion protein can be made by operably linking a charged protein to a therapeutic protein. As used herein, “operably linked” means that the therapeutic protein and the charged protein are bound in a manner that allows expression of the complex when introduced into the cell. Point to. As used herein, “charged protein” refers to a protein with a positive charge, a negative charge, or an overall neutral charge. Preferably, the therapeutic protein can be covalently bound to the charged protein upon formation of the fusion protein. The ratio of surface charge to total amino acids or surface amino acids is about 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, or 0.9 possible.

  A cell-permeable polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can form a complex after being translated. The complex can include a charged protein that is bound, eg, covalently linked, to a cell permeable polypeptide. “Therapeutic protein” refers to a protein that has a therapeutic, diagnostic, and / or prophylactic effect and / or elicits a desired biological and / or pharmacological effect when administered to a cell.

  In one embodiment, the cell permeable polypeptide can comprise a first domain and a second domain. The first domain can comprise a supercharged polypeptide. The second domain can include a protein binding partner. As used herein, “protein binding partner” includes, but is not limited to, antibodies and functional fragments thereof, scaffold proteins, or peptides. The cell permeable polypeptide may further comprise an intracellular binding partner of the protein binding partner. A cell permeable polypeptide can be secreted from a cell into which a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be introduced. The cell permeable polypeptide may also be able to penetrate the first cell.

  In a further embodiment, the cell permeable polypeptide can penetrate the second cell. The second cell can be derived from the same region as the first cell or from a different region. This region can include, but is not limited to, tissues and organs. The second cell can be proximal to or distal to the first cell.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can encode a cell permeable polypeptide that can include a protein binding partner. Protein binding partners can include, but are not limited to, antibodies, hypercharged antibodies, or functional fragments. A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be introduced into a cell into which a cell-permeable polypeptide comprising a protein binding partner is introduced.

Secreted proteins Humans and other eukaryotic cells are subdivided into many functionally distinct compartments by membranes. Each membrane-bound compartment, or organelle, contains a different protein that is essential for organ function. The cells target proteins to specific organelles using “screening signals”, which are amino acid motifs located within the protein.

  A type of sorting signal called a signal sequence, signal peptide, or leader sequence directs a class of proteins to an organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

  Proteins targeted to the ER by signal sequences can be released into the extracellular space as secreted proteins. Similarly, proteins present on the cell membrane can be secreted into the extracellular space by proteolytic cleavage of a “linker” that holds the protein to the membrane. Without wishing to be bound by theory, the molecules of the invention can be used to take advantage of the cellular transport described above. Thus, in some embodiments of the invention, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that expresses a secreted protein is provided. Secreted proteins may be selected from those described herein or in US Patent Publication No. 201200255554, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

  In one embodiment, they can be used in the production of large quantities of beneficial human gene products.

Plasma membrane proteins In some embodiments of the invention, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that expresses a plasma membrane protein is provided.

Cytoplasmic or cytoskeletal proteins In some embodiments of the invention, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs that express cytoplasmic or cytoskeletal proteins are provided.

Intracellular membrane-bound protein In some embodiments of the invention, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that expresses an intracellular membrane-bound protein is provided.

Nucleoprotein In some embodiments of the invention, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that expresses a nucleoprotein is provided.

Proteins associated with human diseases In some embodiments of the invention, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs that express proteins associated with human diseases are provided.

Various Proteins In some embodiments of the invention, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs that express proteins with currently unknown therapeutic functions are provided.

Target moiety In some embodiments of the invention, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that expresses a target moiety is provided. These include protein binding partners or receptors on the surface of the cell that serve to target the cell to a specific tissue space or interact with a specific moiety, either in vivo or in vitro. Suitable protein binding partners include, but are not limited to, antibodies and functional fragments thereof, scaffold proteins, or peptides. In addition, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA can be used to direct the synthesis and extracellular localization of lipids, carbohydrates, or other biological moieties or biomolecules.

Polypeptide Library In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be used to generate a polypeptide library. These libraries can arise from the generation of populations of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs, each having a different structure or chemical modification design. In this embodiment, the population of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs are antibodies or antibody fragments, protein binding partners, scaffold proteins, and other polypeptides taught herein or known in the art. A plurality of encoded polypeptides can be included, including but not limited to. In a preferred embodiment, the polynucleotide is a primary construct of the invention comprising an mRNA that can be suitable for direct introduction into a target cell or culture that can subsequently synthesize the encoded polypeptide.

In certain embodiments, multiple variants of a protein, each with different amino acid modification (s), may be biophysical, such as pharmacokinetics, stability, biocompatibility, and / or biological activity, or expression level. Can be produced and tested to determine the best variant in terms of pharmacological properties. Such libraries contain more than 10, 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9 , or 10 9 possible variants (substitution of one or more residues , Deletions, and insertions of one or more residues).

Antimicrobial and Antiviral Polypeptides The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can be designed to encode one or more antimicrobial peptides (AMP) or antiviral peptides (AVP). AMP and AVP have been isolated and described from a variety of animals including, but not limited to, microorganisms, invertebrates, plants, amphibians, birds, fish, and mammals (Wang et al., Nucleic). Acids Res. 2009; 37 (database publication): D933-7). For example, the antibacterial polypeptide can be obtained from the antibacterial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php; Wang et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 2009; 37 (database publication): D933-7). , CAMP: Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (http://www.bicirhrh.res.in/antimicrobial/); Thomas et al. , Nucleic Acids Res. 2010; 38 (database publication): D774-80), U.S. Pat. No. 5,221,732, U.S. Pat. No. 5,447,914, U.S. Pat. No. 5,519,115, U.S. Pat. No. 5,607,914, U.S. U.S. Pat. US 6329504, US 6399370, US 6476189, US 6478825, US 6492328, US 6514701, US No. 573361, US Pat. No. 6,573,361, US Pat. No. 6,576,755, US Pat. No. 6,605,698, US Pat. No. 6,624,140, US Pat. No. 6,663,531, US Pat. No. 6,642,203, US Pat. US6730659, US6743598, US6774369, US6774707, US6790833, US6790833, US6794490, US6818407, US6835536, US6835713, US6838435, US US6872705, US6875907, US6884776, US68887847, US6906035, US6911524 U.S. Pat. No. 6,936,432, U.S. Pat. No. 7,100,924, U.S. Pat. No. 7,071,293, U.S. Pat. No. 7,078,380, U.S. 7,091,185, U.S. Pat. The contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

  The antimicrobial polypeptides described herein can block cell fusion and / or viral entry by one or more enveloped viruses (eg, HIV, HCV). For example, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be a region, eg, at least about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 of a transmembrane subunit of a viral envelope protein, eg, HIV-1 gp120 or gp41. May comprise or consist of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a contiguous sequence of 50, 55, or 60 amino acids. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences of HIV-1 gp120 or gp41 are described in, for example, Kuiken et al. (2008) “HIV Sequence Compendium,” Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  In some embodiments, an antimicrobial polypeptide can have at least about 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100% sequence homology to the corresponding viral protein sequence. In some embodiments, an antimicrobial polypeptide can have at least about 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 100% sequence homology to the corresponding viral protein sequence.

  In other embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide has a region, eg, at least about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 of the binding domain of a capsid binding protein. It may comprise or consist of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a contiguous sequence of amino acids. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide has at least about 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 100% sequence homology to the corresponding sequence of the capsid binding protein. obtain.

  The antimicrobial polypeptides described herein block protease dimerization and inhibit cleavage of viral proproteins (eg, HIV Gag-pol treatment) into functional proteins, thereby causing one or more Release of other enveloped viruses (eg, HIV, HCV). In some embodiments, an antimicrobial polypeptide can have at least about 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100% sequence homology to the corresponding viral protein sequence.

  In other embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide has a region, eg, at least about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 of the binding domain of a protease binding protein. It may comprise or consist of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a contiguous sequence of amino acids. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide may have at least about 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100% sequence homology to the corresponding sequence of the protease binding protein. .

  The antimicrobial polypeptides described herein can include in vitro evolved polypeptides that are directed against viral pathogens.

Antimicrobial Polypeptides Antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPs) are variable with broad activity against a variety of microorganisms including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, and tumor / cancer cells. Small peptides of length, variable sequence, and variable structure (see, eg, Zaiu, J Mol Med, 2007; 85: 317, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). It has been shown that AMP has a wide range of rapidly occurring killing activity and may have a low level of induced resistance and a concomitant wide range of anti-inflammatory effects.

  In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be less than 10 kDa, such as less than 8 kDa, 6 kDa, 4 kDa, 2 kDa, or 1 kDa. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) is about 6 to about 100 amino acids, such as about 6 to about 75 amino acids, about 6 to about 50 amino acids. , About 6 to about 25 amino acids, about 25 to about 100 amino acids, about 50 to about 100 amino acids, or about 75 to about 100 amino acids. In certain embodiments, an antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, an antibacterial polypeptide) can consist of about 15 to about 45 amino acids. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) is substantially cationic.

  In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be substantially amphiphilic. In certain embodiments, an antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, an antibacterial polypeptide) can be substantially cationic and amphiphilic. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be cytostatic to Gram positive bacteria. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be cytotoxic to Gram positive bacteria. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be cytostatic and cytotoxic to Gram positive bacteria. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be cytostatic to Gram negative bacteria. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be cytotoxic to Gram negative bacteria. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be cytostatic and cytotoxic to Gram positive bacteria. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be cytostatic to viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be cytotoxic to viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be cytostatic and cytotoxic to viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be cytotoxic to tumors or cancer cells (eg, human tumors and / or cancer cells). In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be cytostatic to tumors or cancer cells (eg, human tumors and / or cancer cells). In certain embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide can be cytotoxic and cytostatic to tumors or cancer cells (eg, human tumors or cancer cells). In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, antibacterial polypeptide) can be a secreted polypeptide.

  In some embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide comprises or consists of defensin. Exemplary defensins include α-defensins (eg, neutrophil defensin 1, defensin α1, neutrophil defensin 3, neutrophil defensin 4, defensin 5, defensin 6), β-defensins (eg, β-defensin 1 , Β-defensin 2, β-defensin 103, β-defensin 107, β-defensin 110, β-defensin 136), and θ-defensin. In other embodiments, the antimicrobial polypeptide comprises or consists of cathelicidin (eg, hCAP18).

Antiviral Polypeptides Antiviral polypeptides (AVP) are small peptides of variable length, variable sequence, and variable structure with broad activity against various viruses. See, for example, Zaiou, J Mol Med, 2007; 85: 317. It has been shown that AVP has a wide range of rapidly occurring killing activities and may have a low level of induced resistance and a concomitant wide range of anti-inflammatory effects. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is less than 10 kDa, eg, less than 8 kDa, 6 kDa, 4 kDa, 2 kDa, or 1 kDa. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide has about 6 to about 100 amino acids, such as about 6 to about 75 amino acids, about 6 to about 50 amino acids, about 6 to about 25 amino acids. It comprises or consists of amino acids, about 25 to about 100 amino acids, about 50 to about 100 amino acids, or about 75 to about 100 amino acids. In certain embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide comprises or consists of about 15 to about 45 amino acids. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is substantially cationic. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is substantially amphiphilic. In certain embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is substantially cationic and amphiphilic. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytostatic to the virus. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytotoxic to the virus. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytostatic and cytotoxic to the virus. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytostatic to bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytotoxic to bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytostatic and cytotoxic to bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytotoxic to tumors or cancer cells (eg, human cancer cells). In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytostatic to tumor or cancer cells (eg, human cancer cells). In certain embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is cytostatic to and against tumor or cancer cell (eg, human cancer cells) cytotoxicity. In some embodiments, the antiviral polypeptide is a secreted polypeptide.

Cytotoxic nucleosides In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention may incorporate one or more cytotoxic nucleosides. For example, a cytotoxic nucleoside can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, such as a bifunctional modified RNA or mRNA. Cytotoxic nucleoside anticancer agents include adenosine arabinoside, cytarabine, cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluorouracil, fludarabine, furoxyuridine, FTORAFUR® (combination of tegafur and uracil), tegafur ((RS) -5-fluoro -1- (tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) pyrimidine-2,4 (1H, 3H) -dione), and 6-mercaptopurine.

  Some cytotoxic nucleoside analogs have been used clinically or have been the subject of clinical trials as anticancer agents. Examples of such analogs include cytarabine, gemcitabine, troxacitabine, decitabine, tezacitabine, 2′-deoxy-2′-methylidene cytidine (DMDC), cladribine, clofarabine, 5-azacytidine, 4′-thio-aracitidine, Cyclopentenylcytosine and 1- (2-C-cyano-2-deoxy-β-D-arabino-pentofuranosyl) -cytosine are included, but are not limited to these. Another example of such a compound is fludarabine phosphate. These compounds can be administered systemically and can have typical side effects of cytotoxic drugs such as, but not limited to, side effects such as little or no specificity for tumor cells during normal cell growth. .

  Several prodrugs of cytotoxic nucleoside analogs have also been reported in the art. Examples include N4-behenoyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, N4-octadecyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, N4-palmitoyl-1- (2-C-cyano-2 -Deoxy- [beta] -D-arabino-pentofuranosyl) cytosine, and P-4055 (cytarabine 5'-elaidate), but is not limited to these. In general, these prodrugs are converted to active drugs primarily in the liver and systemic circulation and exhibit little or no selective release of the active drug in tumor tissue. For example, capecitabine, a prodrug of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (finally 5-fluorouracil) is metabolized in liver and tumor tissue. A series of capecitabine analogs containing “radicals readily hydrolyzable under physiological conditions” are claimed by Fujiu et al. (US Pat. No. 4,966,891) and are hereby incorporated by reference. Incorporated. This series of capecitabine analogs described by Fujiu includes N4 alkyl and aralkylcarbamate of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine, which are activated by hydrolysis under normal physiological conditions. Implying 5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine.

  A series of cytarabine N4-carbamates have been reported by Fadl et al. (Pharmacizie. 1995, 50, 382-7, incorporated herein by reference), where the compound is converted to cytarabine in the liver and plasma. Designed to be. International Publication No. WO 2004/041203, incorporated herein by reference, discloses prodrugs of gemcitabine, where some of the prodrugs are N4-carbamates. These compounds were designed to overcome the gastrointestinal toxicity of gemcitabine and were intended to provide gemcitabine by hydrolytic release in the liver and plasma after absorption of the intact prodrug from the gastrointestinal tract. Nomura et al. (Bioorg Med. Chem. 2003,11,2453-61, incorporated herein by reference) produces intermediates that require further hydrolysis under acidic conditions during bioreduction, and 1 illustrates an acetal derivative of 1- (3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofalanosyl) cytosine that produced a damaging nucleoside compound.

  Cytotoxic nucleotides that can be chemotherapeutic agents include pyrazolo [3,4-D] -pyrimidine, allopurinol, azathioprine, capecitabine, cytosine arabinoside, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, acyclovir, ara-adenosine, Ribavirin, 7-deaza-adenosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 6-aza-uracil, 6-aza-cytidine, thymidine ribonucleotide, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, 2-chloro-purine, and inosine, or combinations thereof Including, but not limited to.

Adjacent region: Untranslated region (UTR)
The untranslated region (UTR) of a gene is transcribed but not translated. The 5′UTR begins at the transcription start site and continues to the start codon, but does not include the start codon, while the 3′UTR begins immediately after the stop codon and continues to the transcription termination signal. There are a number of reports on the regulatory role that UTRs play in the stability of nucleic acid molecules and translations. The regulatory features of the UTR can be incorporated into the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the present invention to increase the stability of the molecule. Certain features can also be incorporated to ensure controlled down-regulation of transcripts should they be misdirected to undesired organ sites.

5′UTR and translation initiation The native 5′UTR has characteristics involved in translation initiation. They have features like Kozak sequences that are commonly known for the ribosome to participate in the process of initiating the translation of many genes. The Kozak sequence has a consensus CCR (A / G) CCAUGG, where R is a purine (adenine or guanine) 3 bases upstream of the start codon (AUG) followed by another “G”. . The 5′UTR is also known to form secondary structures involved in elongation factor binding.

  By manipulating the characteristics typically found in highly expressed genes of a particular target organ, the stability and protein production of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the invention can be increased. For example, using 5 'UTR transduction of mRNA expressed in liver such as albumin, serum amyloid A, apolipoprotein A / B / E, transferrin, alpha fetoprotein, erythropoietin, or factor VIII, The expression of a nucleic acid molecule such as mmRNA can be enhanced. Similarly, using 5′UTRs from other tissue-specific mRNAs to enhance expression in that tissue can result in muscle (MyoD, myosin, myoglobin, myogenin, Herculin), endothelial cells (Tie-1, CD36), bone marrow cells (C / EBP, AML1, G-CSF, GM-CSF, CD11b, MSR, Fr-1, i-NOS), leukocytes (CD45, CD18), adipose tissue (CD36, GLUT4, ACRP30, adiponectin) ), And in lung epithelial cells (SP-A / B / C / D).

  Other non-UTR sequences can be incorporated into the 5'UTR (or 3'UTR). For example, an intron or part of an intron sequence can be incorporated into a flanking region of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. Intron sequence incorporation can increase protein production as well as mRNA levels.

3'UTR and AU-rich elements 3'UTRs are known to have a stretch of adenosine and uridine embedded in them. These AU-rich features are particularly common in genes with high turnover rates. Based on their sequence characteristics and functional properties, AU-rich elements (AREs) can be divided into three classes (Chen et al, 1995): Class I AREs contain AUUUA motifs within U-rich regions. Contains several dispersed copies. C-Myc and MyoD contain class I AREs. Class II AREs have two or more overlapping UUAUUUA (U / A) (U / A) nonamers. Molecules containing this type of ARE include GM-CSF and TNF-a. Class III AREs are not well defined. These U-rich regions do not contain the AUUUA motif. C-Jun and myogenin are two well-studied examples of this class. Although most proteins that bind to ARE are known to destabilize messengers, ELAV family members, notably HuR, have been demonstrated to improve mRNA stability. HuR binds to these three classes of AREs. Manipulating the HuR specific binding site into the 3′UTR of the nucleic acid molecule leads to stabilization of HuR binding and thus in vivo messages.

  Introduction, removal, or modification of the AU-rich element (ARE) of the 3'UTR can be used to modulate the stability of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. When manipulating a particular polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, one or more copies of the ARE are introduced to reduce the stability of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention, thereby resulting in It can suppress the translation of the resulting protein and reduce its production. Similarly, AREs can be identified and removed or mutated to improve intracellular stability and thus increase translation and production of the resulting protein. Transfection experiments with the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA of the invention can be performed in relevant cell lines, and protein production can be assayed at various times after transfection. For example, cells can be transfected with different ARE engineered molecules and produced at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 7 days after transfection using an ELISA kit for related proteins. Proteins can be assayed.

Incorporation of microRNA binding sites MicroRNAs (or miRNAs) bind to the 3′UTR of nucleic acid molecules and down-regulate gene expression by either reducing nucleic acid molecule stability or inhibiting translation It is a 19-25 nucleotide long non-coding RNA. A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can include one or more microRNA target sequences, microRNA sequences, or microRNA species. Such sequences can correspond to any known microRNA, such as those taught in US Patent Publication No. US2005 / 0261218 and US Publication No. US2005 / 0059005, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. The entirety is incorporated herein.

  The microRNA sequence comprises a sequence in the “seed” region, ie, the region 2-8 of the mature microRNA, which sequence has complete Watson-Crick complementarity to the miRNA target sequence. The microRNA species can include positions 2-8 or 2-7 of mature microRNA. In some embodiments, the microRNA species can comprise 7 nucleotides (eg, nucleotides 2-8 of the mature microRNA) and the species-complementary site in the corresponding miRNA target is opposite to microRNA 1 position. Adjacent to adenine (A). In some embodiments, the microRNA species can comprise 6 nucleotides (eg, nucleotides 2-7 of the mature microRNA) and the species-complementary site in the corresponding miRNA target is opposite to microRNA 1 position. Adjacent to adenine (A). For example, Grimsson A, Farh KK, Johnston WK, Garrett-Angel P, Lim LP, Bartel DP; Mol Cell. 2007 Jul 6; 27 (1): 91-105, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The base of the microRNA species has complete complementarity with the target sequence. By manipulating the microRNA target sequence into the 3′UTR of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention, this molecule can be targeted for degradation or translation reduction, provided that the problem Provided that the microRNA is available. This process reduces the risk of off-target effects during nucleic acid molecule delivery. The identification of microRNAs, microRNA target regions, and their expression patterns, and their role in biology have been reported (Bonauer et al., Curr Drug Targets, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 2010 11: 943-949, Anand and Cheresh Curr Opin Hematol 2011 18: 171-176, Contreras and Rao Leukemia 2012 26: 404-413 (2011 Dec 20..doi: 10.10.38C, leu.20111356ell) 2009 136: 215-233, Landgraf et al, Cell, 2007 129: 1401-1414).

  For example, if the nucleic acid molecule is mRNA and is not intended to be delivered to the liver, but settles there, miR-122, which is abundant microRNA in the liver, is one or more target sites for miR-122. Once engineered into the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA 3′UTR, expression of the gene of interest can be inhibited. The introduction of one or more binding sites of different microRNAs can be manipulated to further reduce the long life, stability, and protein translation of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA.

  As used herein, the term “microRNA site” refers to a microRNA target site or microRNA recognition site, or any nucleotide sequence to which microRNA binds or associates. It is understood that “binding” can follow conventional Watson-Crick hybridization rules, or can indicate any stable association of microRNA with a target sequence at or adjacent to a microRNA site. I want.

  Conversely, for purposes of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the invention, the naturally occurring microRNA binding site is engineered out of sequence to increase protein expression in a particular tissue (ie, sequence Can be removed from). For example, miR-122 binding sites can be removed to improve liver protein expression. Control of expression in multiple tissues can be achieved by the introduction or removal of one or several microRNA binding sites.

  Examples of tissues known that microRNAs regulate mRNA and consequently protein expression include liver (miR-122), muscle (miR-133, miR-206, miR-208), endothelium Cells (miR-17-92, miR-126), bone marrow cells (miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-16, miR-21, miR-223, miR-24, miR-27), fat Tissue (let-7, miR-30c), heart (miR-1d, miR-149), kidney (miR-192, miR-194, miR-204), and lung epithelial cells (let-7, miR-133, miR-126), but is not limited thereto. MicroRNAs can also control complex biological processes such as angiogenesis (miR-132) (Anand and Cheresh Curr Opin Hematol 2011 18: 171-176, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). In the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the invention, the binding site of the microRNA involved in such a process is polymorphic to the biologically relevant cell type or in relation to the relevant biological process. It can be removed or introduced to modulate the expression of nucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA. A list of microRNAs, miR sequences, and miR binding sites is provided in Table 9 of US Provisional Application No. 61 / 753,661, filed Jan. 17, 2013, US Provisional Application No. Table 9 of 61 / 754,159 and Table 7 of US Provisional Application No. 61 / 758,921 filed January 31, 2013, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Incorporated into.

  Finally, through an understanding of microRNA expression patterns in different cell types, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs are more targeted in specific cell types or more targeted only under specific biological conditions. Can be manipulated for optimized expression. By introducing a tissue-specific microRNA binding site, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that is optimal for protein expression in tissue or protein expression associated with biological conditions can be designed. Examples of the use of microRNAs to drive tissue or disease specific gene expression are listed (Getner and Naldini, Tissue Antigens. 2012, 80: 393-403), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. In addition, microRNA species sites can reduce expression in certain cells that are incorporated into mRNA, which results in biological improvement. An example for this is the incorporation of the miR-142 site into a UGT1A1 expressing lentiviral vector. The presence of the miR-142 species site decreased expression in hematopoietic cells, resulting in decreased expression in antigen presenting cells, resulting in the absence of an immune response against UGT1A1 expressed by the virus (both of which are entirely Schmitt et al., Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 999-1007, Gonzalez-Asequinolaza et al. Gastroenterology 2010, 139: 726-729), incorporated herein by reference. Incorporation of the miR-142 site into the modified mRNA not only reduced expression of the encoded protein in hematopoietic cells, but also reduced or abolished the immune response to the mRNA encoded protein. did it. Incorporation of miR-142 species site (s) into mRNA is important when treating patients with complete protein deficiency (type I UGT1A1, LDLR deficient patients, CRIM negative Pompe patients, etc.).

  Transfection experiments with engineered polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA can be performed in relevant cell lines and protein production can be assayed at various time points after transfection. For example, cells can be transfected with different microRNA binding site engineered polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA, and 6, 12, 24, 48, 48 hours post-transfection using an ELISA kit for related proteins. Protein produced at time, 72 hours, and 7 days can be assayed. In vivo experiments using microRNA binding site engineering molecules can also be performed to test changes in tissue-specific expression of formulated polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA.

5 ′ Capping The 5 ′ cap structure of mRNA is involved in nuclear export, improves mRNA stability, and binds to mRNA cap binding protein (CBP), which binds to CBP poly (A) binding protein. It is involved in mRNA stability and translational eligibility in cells through association and forms mature circular mRNA species. This cap further assists in the removal of the 5 ′ proximal intron during mRNA splicing.

  Endogenous mRNA molecules can be 5 'end capped, resulting in a 5'-ppp-5'-triphosphate linkage between the terminal guanosine cap residue and the 5' terminal transcribed sense nucleotide of the mRNA molecule. This 5'-guanylic acid cap can then be methylated to produce an N7-methyl-guanylic acid residue. The ribose sugar of the 5 'terminal end and / or the preterminal transcribed nucleotide of the mRNA can also optionally be 2'-O-methylated. 5 'decapping through hydrolysis and cleavage of the guanylate cap structure can target nucleic acid molecules such as mRNA molecules for degradation.

  Modifications of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA of the invention can generate non-hydrolyzable cap structures that prevent decapping, resulting in increased mRNA half-life. Modified nucleotides can be used during the capping reaction because hydrolysis of the cap structure requires cleavage of the 5'-ppp-5 'phosphorodiester bond. For example, a vaccinia capping enzyme from New England Biolabs (Ipswich, Mass.) Can be used with α-thio-guanosine nucleotides according to the manufacturer's instructions to cause phosphorothioate linkage in the 5'-ppp-5 'cap. Additional modified guanosine nucleotides such as α-methyl-phosphonate and seleno-phosphate nucleotides can be used.

  Further modifications include 2′-O-methylation (as described above) of the ribose sugar at the 5 ′ end and / or 5 ′ front end nucleotide of the mRNA at the 2′-hydroxyl group of the sugar ring. It is not limited. A plurality of distinctly different 5'-cap structures can be used to generate 5 'caps of nucleic acid molecules such as mRNA molecules.

  Cap analogs, also referred to herein as synthetic cap analogs, chemical caps, chemical cap analogs, or structural or functional cap analogs, are natural (ie, endogenous, wild-type) in terms of their chemical structure. (Or physiologic) different from the 5 ′ cap, but retains the cap function. Cap analogs can be chemically (ie, non-enzymatic) or enzymatically synthesized and / or attached to nucleic acid molecules.

For example, a reverse cap analog (ARCA) cap contains two guanines linked by a 5′-5′-triphosphate group, where one guanine is an N7 methyl group, as well as 3′-O-methyl. Group (ie N7,3′-O-dimethyl-guanosine-5′-triphosphate-5′-guanosine (m 7 G-3′mppp-G, which is equivalently 3′O-Me-m7G (5 ′ ) May be designated ppp (5 ′) G) The 3′-O atom of the other unmodified guanine is bound to the 5 ′ terminal nucleotide of the capped nucleic acid molecule (eg, mRNA or mmRNA). N7- and 3′-O-methylated guanine provides the terminal portion of a capped nucleic acid molecule (eg, mRNA or mmRNA).

Another exemplary cap is mCAP, which is similar to ARCA, but with a 2′-O-methyl group (ie, N7,2′-O-dimethyl-guanosine-5′-tria on guanosine). Phosphate-5′-guanosine, m 7 Gm-ppp-G).

  While cap analogs allow capping of nucleic acid molecules to occur simultaneously in in vitro transcription reactions, up to 20% of transcripts can remain uncapped. This, as well as the structural difference of cap analogs with the endogenous 5'-cap structure of nucleic acids produced by the endogenous cell transcription machinery, can lead to reduced translation eligibility and reduced cell stability.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can also be capped after transcription with enzymes to produce more authentic 5'-cap structures. As used herein, the expression “more authentic” refers to features that mimic or mimic endogenous or wild-type features, either structurally or functionally. That is, a “more authentic” feature better represents an endogenous, wild-type, natural, or physiological cellular function and / or structure compared to a prior art synthetic feature or analog, etc., or This outperforms the corresponding endogenous, wild type, natural or physiological characteristics in one or more respects. Non-limiting examples of the more authentic 5 ′ cap structures of the present invention include synthetic 5 ′ cap structures known in the art (or wild type, natural or physiological 5 ′ cap structures) Among others, those with enhanced cap binding protein binding, increased half-life, decreased sensitivity to 5 ′ endonuclease, and / or decreased 5 ′ decapping. For example, a recombinant vaccinia virus capping enzyme and a recombinant 2'-O-methyltransferase enzyme can generate a reference 5'-5'-triphosphate linkage between the 5 'terminal nucleotide of the mRNA and a guanine cap nucleotide. , Capguanine contains N7 methylation, and the 5 ′ terminal nucleotide of the mRNA contains 2′-O-methyl. Such a structure is referred to as a cap 1 structure. This cap provides, for example, higher translational eligibility and cell stability, and reduced activation of cellular pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to other 5'cap analog structures known in the art. The cap structure includes 7mG (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) N, pN2p (cap 0), 7mG (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) NlpNp (cap 1), and 7mG (5 ′)-ppp (5 ′ ) NlmpN2mp (cap 2) is included, but not limited to.

  Because the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be capped after transcription and the process is more efficient, nearly 100% of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be capped. This is very different from about 80% when the cap analog is bound to mRNA during the in vitro transcription reaction.

  In accordance with the present invention, the 5 'end cap may include an endogenous cap or a cap analog. In accordance with the present invention, the 5 'end cap may comprise a guanine analog. Useful guanine analogs include inosine, N1-methyl-guanosine, 2′fluoro-guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2-amino-guanosine, LNA-guanosine, and 2-azido-guanosine. Is included, but is not limited thereto.

Viral Sequences Barley Stripe Dwarf Virus (BYDV-PAV) Translation Enhancer Sequence, Yargzite Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV), and / or Locally Diseased Nasal Tumor Virus (eg, International Publication, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) Additional viral sequences can be engineered and inserted into the 3′UTR of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention, such as but not limited to Can stimulate translation. Transfection experiments can be performed in the relevant cell lines and protein production can be assayed by ELISA at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 7 days after transfection.

IRES sequences Further provided are polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA that may contain an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The IRES initially identified as the characteristic picornavirus RNA plays an important role in initiating protein synthesis in the absence of the 5 ′ cap structure. The IRES can serve as the only ribosome binding site of the mRNA or can play a role in one of multiple ribosome binding sites. A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA containing two or more functional ribosome binding sites may encode several peptides or polypeptides that are independently translated by ribosomes (“polycistronic nucleic acid molecules”). . When the IRES is provided to the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, a second translatable region is optionally further provided. Examples of IRES sequences that can be used in accordance with the present invention include, without limitation, picornavirus (eg, FMDV), plague virus (CFFV), poliovirus (PV), encephalomyocarditis virus (ECMV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) , Hepatitis C virus (HCV), swine cholera virus (CSFV), murine leukemia virus (MLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), or cricket paralysis virus (CrPV).

Poly A tail During RNA processing, a long adenine nucleotide chain (poly A tail) can be added to a polynucleotide, such as an mRNA molecule, to improve stability. Immediately after transcription, the 3 ′ end of the transcript can be cleaved to release the 3 ′ hydroxyl. PolyA polymerase then adds an adenine nucleotide chain to the RNA. This process, called polyadenylation, adds a poly A tail, which can be, for example, about 100-250 residues long.

  It has been found that the unique poly A tail length provides certain advantages over the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the present invention.

  In general, the length of the poly A tail of the present invention exceeds 30 nucleotides in length. In another embodiment, the poly A tail is greater than 35 nucleotides in length (eg, at least about 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 , 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1,100, 1,200, 1,300, 1,400, 1,500, 1,600, 1 , 700, 1,800, 1,900, 2,000, 2500, and 3,000 nucleotides in length or more). In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is from about 30 to about 3,000 nucleotides (e.g., 30-50, 30-100, 30-250, 30-500, 30-750, 30 to 1,000, 30 to 1,500, 30 to 2,000, 30 to 2,500, 50 to 100, 50 to 250, 50 to 500, 50 to 750, 50 to 1,000, 50 to 1, 500, 50-2,000, 50-2,500, 50-3,000, 100-500, 100-750, 100-1,000, 100-1,500, 100-2,000, 100-2 500, 100 to 3,000, 500 to 750, 500 to 1,000, 500 to 1,500, 500 to 2,000, 500 to 2,500, 500 to 3,000, 1,000 To 1,500, 1,000 to 2,000, 1,000 to 2,500, 1,000 to 3,000, 1,500 to 2,000, 1,500 to 2,500, 1,500 to 3, , 2,000, 3,000 to 3,000, 2,000 to 2,500, and 2,500 to 3,000).

  In one embodiment, the poly A tail is designed for the entire polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA length. This design can be based on the length of the coding region, a particular feature or region length (such as the first or adjacent region), or based on the length of the final product expressed from the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. obtain.

  In this context, the poly A tail is 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, more than the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, or a feature thereof. Alternatively, it can be 100% longer. A poly A tail can also be designed as a fraction of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to which it belongs. In this context, the poly A tail is 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% of the total length of the construct or the length of the construct minus the poly A tail. Or it may be 90% or more. Furthermore, manipulation of the binding site and complexation of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to a poly A binding protein can enhance expression.

  In addition, a plurality of distinct polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs can be bound to PABP (poly A binding protein) via the 3 'end using nucleotides modified at the 3' end of the poly A tail. Transfection experiments can be performed in the relevant cell lines and protein production can be assayed by ELISA at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 7 days after transfection.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide primary constructs of the invention are designed to include poly AG triplets. The G quartet is a cyclic hydrogen bonding array of four guanine nucleotides that can be formed by G-rich sequences in both DNA and RNA. In this embodiment, the G quartet is incorporated at the end of the poly A tail. The resulting mmRNA constructs are assayed for stability, protein production, and other parameters such as half-life at various time points. It has been found that polyA to G quartet results in protein production representing at least 75% of the protein production produced using a 120 nucleotide polyA tail alone.

Quantification In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can be quantified in exosomes from one or more body fluids. As used herein, “body fluid” includes peripheral blood, serum, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, earwax, breast milk, Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostate fluid, Cooper's gland fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, sweat, feces, hair, tear fluid, cyst fluid, pleural and ascites, pericardial fluid, lymph fluid, rod fluid, milk fistula, bile, interstitial fluid , Subpulmonary, pus, sebum, vomiting, vaginal discharge, mucosal discharge, stool, pancreatic juice, nasal wash, bronchopulmonary aspirate, blastocyst fluid, and umbilical cord blood. Alternatively, exosomes are recovered from an organ selected from the group consisting of lung, heart, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bladder, kidney, ovary, testis, skin, colon, breast, prostate, brain, esophagus, liver, and placenta. obtain.

  In the quantification method, a sample of less than 2 mL is obtained from the subject, and exosomes are size exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, fractional centrifugation, nanomembrane ultrafiltration, immunoabsorption capture, affinity purification, microfluidic separation Or a combination thereof. In the analysis, the level or concentration of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be the expression level, presence, absence, cleavage, or modification of the administered construct. It is advantageous to correlate this level with assays for one or more clinical phenotypes or human disease biomarkers. While this assay can be performed using construct-specific probes, cytometry, qRT-PCR, real-time PCR, PCR, flow cytometry, electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, or combinations thereof, exosomes are enzyme-linked It can be isolated using immunohistochemical methods such as immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Exosomes can also be isolated by size exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, differential centrifugation, nanomembrane ultrafiltration, immunoabsorption capture, affinity purification, microfluidic separation, or a combination thereof.

  These methods provide researchers with the ability to monitor in real time the levels of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA that are remaining or delivered. This is possible because the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention differs from the endogenous form due to structural or chemical modifications.

II. Design and synthesis of mRNAs Polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mRNAs used in accordance with the present invention include chemical synthesis, enzymatic synthesis, commonly referred to as in vitro transcription (IVT), or enzymatic or chemical cleavage of longer precursors, etc. Can be prepared according to any available technique, but not limited thereto. Methods for synthesizing RNA are known in the art (eg, Gait, MJ (ed.) Oligonucleotide synthesis: a practical approach, Oxford [Oxfordshire], both of which are incorporated herein by reference. Washington, DC: IRL Press, 1984, and Herdewijn, P. (ed.) Oligonucleotide synthesis: methods and applications, Methods in Molecular Biology, v. 288 (N.J. , 2005).

  The primary construct design and synthesis process of the present invention generally comprises a gene construction step, an mRNA production step (with or without modification), and a purification step. In an enzymatic synthesis method, a target polynucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of interest is first selected for incorporation into a vector that is amplified to produce a cDNA template. Optionally, the target polynucleotide sequence and / or any flanking sequences can be codon optimized. The cDNA template is then used to produce mRNA by in vitro transcription (IVT). After production, the mRNA can go through a purification and purification process. These steps are provided in more detail below.

Gene Construction Gene construction steps can include, but are not limited to, gene synthesis, vector amplification, plasmid purification, plasmid linearization and purification, and cDNA template synthesis and purification.

Gene synthesis When a polypeptide or target of interest is selected for production, a primary construct is designed. Within the primary construct, the first region of the binding nucleoside encoding the polypeptide of interest can be constructed using the open reading frame (ORF) of the selected nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) transcript. The ORF can include a wild type ORF, an isoform, a variant, or a fragment thereof. As used herein, “open reading frame” or “ORF” is intended to refer to a nucleic acid sequence (DNA or RNA) capable of encoding a polypeptide of interest. The ORF often begins with a start codon ATG and ends with a nonsense or stop codon or signal.

Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence of the first region can be codon optimized. Codon optimization methods are known in the art and may be useful in efforts to achieve one or more of several goals. These goals include matching codon frequencies in the target and host organisms to ensure proper folding, energizing GC content to increase mRNA stability, or reducing secondary structure. Minimizing tandem repeat codons or base migration that may impair gene construction or expression, customizing transcriptional and translational control regions, inserting or removing protein transport sequences, post-translational modifications in the encoded protein Removing / adding sites (eg, glycosylation sites), adding, removing, or recombining protein domains, inserting or deleting restriction sites, modifying ribosome binding sites and mRNA degradation sites , Regulate the translation rate and allow proper folding of various domains of the protein To it, or whether to reduce the secondary structure in the mRNA problem, or includes eliminating. Codon optimization tools, algorithms, and services are known in the art, and non-limiting examples include GeneArt services (Life Technologies), DNA2.0 (Menlo Park CA), and / or proprietary rights. The method which has is mentioned. In one embodiment, the ORF sequence is optimized using an optimization algorithm. The codon options for each amino acid are provided in Table 1.
Table 1. Codon options

  Features that may be considered beneficial in some embodiments of the present invention may be encoded by the primary construct and may be adjacent to the ORF as the first or second adjacent region. This adjacent region can be incorporated into the primary construct before and / or after optimization of the ORF. The primary construct need not contain both 5 'and 3' adjacent regions. Examples of such features include, but are not limited to, untranslated region (UTR), Kozak sequence, oligo (dT) sequence, and detectable tag, multiple cloning that may have XbaI recognition. A site may also be mentioned.

  In some embodiments, a 5'UTR and / or a 3'UTR may be provided as a contiguous region. Multiple 5 'or 3' UTRs can be included in adjacent regions and can be the same or different sequences. Any portion of the contiguous region (including the case where there is no such portion) can be codon optimized, any of which can independently be one or more different structures or before and / or after codon optimization. It may contain chemical modifications. A combination of features may be included in the first and second adjacent regions and may be included within other features. For example, the ORF may be flanked by a 5 'UTR that may contain a strong Kozak translation initiation signal and / or a 3' UTR that may contain an oligo (dT) sequence for poly A tail template addition. A 5 ′ UTR, such as the 5 ′ UTR described in US Patent Application Publication No. 201200293625, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, is a first polynucleotide fragment and a second poly-nucleotide derived from the same and / or different genes. Nucleotide fragments can be included.

Tables 2 and 3 provide a list of exemplary UTRs that can be utilized in the primary construct of the present invention as adjacent regions. A list of 5 'untranslated regions of the present invention is shown in Table 2. Variants of the 5′UTR in which one or more nucleotides including A, T, C, or G are added to the end or removed from the end can be utilized.
Table 2.5 'Untranslated region

A representative list of 3 ′ untranslated regions of the present invention is shown in Table 3. Variants of the 3′UTR in which one or more nucleotides including A, T, C, or G are added or removed from the terminus may be utilized.
Table 3.3 'Untranslated region

  It should be appreciated that what is listed in the previous table is an example, and any UTR from any gene can be incorporated into each first or second flanking region of the primary construct. Furthermore, multiple wild type UTRs of any known gene can be utilized. It is also within the scope of the present invention to provide an artificial UTR that is not a mutant form of the wild type gene. These UTRs or portions thereof can be arranged in the same orientation as the UTRs or portions thereof of the transcript from which they can be selected, or can change orientation or position. Thus, a 5 'or 3'UTR can be inverted, shortened, extended and chimerized with one or more other 5'UTRs or 3'UTRs. As used herein, the term “altered” when referring to a UTR sequence means that the UTR has changed in that it is relative to a reference sequence. For example, the 3 ′ or 5 ′ UTR can be altered relative to the wild-type or native UTR by an orientation or position change taught above, or include additional nucleotides, nucleotide deletions, nucleotide exchanges or transpositions. It can be changed by. Any of these changes resulting in an “altered” UTR (regardless of 3 'or 5') includes a variant UTR.

  In one embodiment, a double, triple, or quadruple UTR such as a 5 'or 3' UTR may be used. As used herein, a “dual” UTR is one in which two copies of the same UTR are encoded either sequentially or substantially consecutively. For example, the double β-globin 3'UTR described in US Patent Publication No. 20130012987, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, can be used.

  It is within the scope of the present invention to have a patterned UTR. As used herein, a “patterned UTR” is a UTR that indicates a repeating or alternating pattern that is repeated once, twice, or more than three times, eg, ABABAB or AABBAABBAABB or ABCABCABC or variants thereof. It is. In these patterns, each letter, A, B, or C represents a different UTR at the nucleotide level.

  In one embodiment, the flanking region is selected from a family of transcripts whose proteins share common functions, structures, and characteristic features. For example, the polypeptide of interest can belong to a family of proteins that are expressed in specific cells, tissues, or expressed at some point during development. Any UTR of these genes can be exchanged with any other UTR of the same or different protein family to create a new chimeric primary transcript. As used herein, a “family of proteins” in the broadest sense means two or more polypeptides of interest that share at least one function, structure, feature, localization, origin, or expression pattern. Used to refer to a group of

  After optimization (if desired), the primary construct components can be reconstructed and converted into vectors such as, but not limited to, plasmids, viruses, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. For example, the optimized construct can be reconstructed and transformed into chemically competent E. coli, yeast, red mold, corn, Drosophila, etc., and high copy number plasmid-like or chromosomal structures are described herein. Caused by the method.

  The untranslated region may also include a translation enhancer element (TEE). By way of non-limiting example, TEEs can include TEEs described in US Patent Application No. 20090226470, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and TEEs known in the art.

Stop Codons In one embodiment, the primary construct of the present invention may include at least two stop codons before the 3 ′ untranslated region (UTR). The stop codon can be selected from TGA, TAA, and TAG. In one embodiment, the primary construct of the present invention includes a stop codon TGA and another stop codon. In a further embodiment, the other stop codon can be TAA. In another embodiment, the primary construct of the present invention includes three stop codons.

Vector amplification The vector containing the primary construct is then amplified and subjected to methods known in the art such as, but not limited to, maxiprep using the Invitrogen PURELINK ™ HiPure Maxiprep kit (Carlsbad, Calif.). Used to isolate and purify the plasmid.

Plasmid linearization The plasmid can then be linearized using methods known in the art, including but not limited to the use of restriction enzymes and buffers. Linearization reactions include, for example, Invitrogen's PURELINK ™ PCR Micro kit (Carlsbad, Calif.), As well as strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC ( HPLC-based purification methods such as, but not limited to, HIC-HPLC), as well as methods including Invitrogen's standard PURELINK ™ PCR kit (Carlsbad, Calif.). The purification method can be modified depending on the size of the resulting linearization reaction. The linearized plasmid is then used to generate cDNA for in vitro transcription (IVT) reactions.

cDNA Template Synthesis A cDNA template can be synthesized by subjecting a linearized plasmid to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Table 4 is a list of primers and probes that may be useful in the PCR reaction of the present invention. It should be understood that this list is not exhaustive and that primer-probe designs for any amplification are within the skill of the art. The probe may also contain a base that has been chemically modified to increase base pairing fidelity and base pairing strength to the target molecule. Such modifications can include 5-methyl-cytidine, 2,6-di-amino-purine, 2′-fluoro, phosphoro-thioate, or locked nucleic acid.
Table 4. Primers and probes
* UFP is a universal forward primer and URP is a universal reverse primer.

  In one embodiment, the cDNA can be submitted for sequencing analysis before undergoing transcription.

mRNA production The process of mRNA or mmRNA production can include, but is not limited to, in vitro transcription, cDNA template removal and RNA purification, and mRNA capping and / or tailing reactions.

In vitro transcription The cDNA produced in the previous step can be transcribed using an in vitro transcription (IVT) system. This system typically includes a transcription buffer, nucleotide triphosphate (NTP), an RNase inhibitor, and a polymerase. NTPs can be manufactured in-house, selected from suppliers, or synthesized as described herein. The NTP may be selected from the NTPs described herein including, but not limited to, natural and non-natural (modified) NTPs. The polymerase can be selected from, but not limited to, T7 RNA polymerase, T3 RNA polymerase, and polymerases that can incorporate modified nucleic acids, but are not limited thereto.

RNA polymerase Any number of RNA polymerases or variants can be used in the design of the primary construct of the invention.

  RNA polymerases can be modified by inserting or deleting amino acids of the RNA polymerase sequence. As a non-limiting example, RNA polymerases can be modified to show an improved ability to incorporate 2′-modified nucleotide triphosphates compared to unmodified RNA polymerases (these are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). See International Publication No. WO2008078180 and US Pat. No. 8,101,385, incorporated).

  Variants can be obtained by evolving RNA polymerase, optimizing RNA polymerase amino acid and / or nucleic acid sequences, and / or using other methods known in the art. As a non-limiting example, the T7 RNA polymerase variant is a continuous-oriented evolution system designed by Esvelt et al. T7 RNA polymerase clones can be evolved using a mutation in which lysine at position 93 is replaced with threonine (K93T), I4M, A7T, E63V, V64D, A65E, D66Y, T76N, C125R, S128R, A136T, N165S. , G175R, H176L, Y178H, F182L, L196F, G198V, D208Y, E222K, S228A, Q239R, T243N, G259D, M267I, G280C, H300R, D351A, A354S, E356D, L360P, A383V, Y385C, D388Y, S397R, M401T, N410S, K450R, P451T, G452V, E484A, H523L, H524N, G542V, E565K, K577E, K577M, N601S, S684Y, L699N, 7487E, L699I, K713E75K Alternatively, it may encode at least one mutation, such as but not limited to L864F. As another non-limiting example, a T7 RNA polymerase variant can encode at least one mutation described in US Patent Publication Nos. 201200120024 and 200701117112, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Variants of RNA polymerase can also include, but are not limited to, substitutional variants, conservative amino acid substitutions, insertional variants, deletion variants, and / or covalent derivatives.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct can be designed to be recognized by wild-type or mutant RNA polymerase. In doing so, the primary construct can be modified to contain sequence change sites or regions from the wild-type or parent primary construct.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct has at least one substitution and / or insertion within the 5′UTR, before and / or after the 5′UTR, upstream of the RNA polymerase binding or recognition site of the primary construct. , Downstream of the RNA polymerase binding or recognition site, upstream of the TATA box sequence, downstream of the TATA box sequence, but can be designed to include upstream of the coding region of the primary construct.

  In one embodiment, the 5'UTR of the primary construct can be replaced by the insertion of at least one region and / or string of nucleotides of the same base. A region and / or string of nucleotides can include, but is not limited to, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, or at least 8 nucleotides. It can be natural. By way of non-limiting example, the nucleotide group can include 5-8 adenine, cytosine, thymine, a string of any of the other nucleotides disclosed herein, and / or combinations thereof.

  In one embodiment, the 5′UTR of the primary construct is, but not limited to, adenine, cytosine, thymine, any of the other nucleotides disclosed herein, and / or combinations thereof 2 It can be replaced by insertion of at least two regions and / or strings of nucleotides of two different bases. For example, the 5'UTR can be replaced by inserting 5-8 adenine bases followed by 5-8 cytosine bases. In another example, the 5'UTR can be replaced by inserting 5-8 cytosine bases followed by 5-8 adenine bases.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct may include at least one substitution and / or insertion downstream of the transcription initiation site that can be recognized by RNA polymerase. By way of non-limiting example, at least one substitution and / or insertion replaces at least one nucleic acid in a region immediately downstream (such as, but not limited to) +1 to +6 of the transcription start site. Can occur downstream of the transcription start site. Transcription complexes by changing the nucleotide region immediately downstream of the transcription start site, affecting the initiation rate, increasing the apparent nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) reaction constant, and curing the initial transcript Can enhance the dissociation of short transcripts from Brieba et al, Biochemistry (2002) 41: 5144-5149, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Modification, substitution, and / or insertion of at least one nucleic acid can cause silent mutation of the nucleic acid sequence or can cause mutation in the amino acid sequence.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct is at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least downstream of the transcription initiation site. It may include substitution of 12, or at least 13 guanine bases.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct may comprise a substitution of at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, or at least 6 guanine bases in a region immediately downstream of the transcription start site. As a non-limiting example, when the nucleotide in the region is GGGAGA, the guanine base can be replaced by at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, or at least 4 adenine nucleotides. In another non-limiting example, when the nucleotide in the region is GGGAGA, the guanine base can be replaced by at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, or at least 4 cytosine bases. In another non-limiting example, when the nucleotide in the region is GGGAGA, the guanine base is at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, or at least 4 thymines, and / or the nucleotides described herein. Can be replaced by any of the following:

  In one embodiment, the primary construct may include at least one substitution and / or insertion upstream of the start codon. For clarity, those skilled in the art understand that the start codon is the first codon of the protein coding region, while the transcription start site is the site where transcription begins. The primary construct may comprise at least one, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, or at least 8 substitutions and / or insertions of nucleotide bases, but these It is not limited to. Nucleotide bases can be inserted or substituted at one, at least one, at least two, at least three, at least four, or at least five positions upstream of the start codon. Inserted and / or substituted nucleotides are the same base (eg, all A or all C or all T or all G), two different bases (eg, A and C, A and T, or C and T) There can be 3 different bases (eg, A, C, and T, or A, C, and T), or at least 4 different bases. As a non-limiting example, a guanine base upstream of the coding region in the primary construct can be replaced with adenine, cytosine, thymine, or any of the nucleotides described herein. In another non-limiting example, substitution of guanine bases in the primary construct can be designed to leave one guanine base in the region downstream of the transcription start site and in front of the start codon (entirely by reference). Is incorporated herein by reference, see Esvelt et al. Nature (2011) 472 (7344): 499-503). As a non-limiting example, at least 5 nucleotides can be inserted at one position downstream of the transcription start site and upstream of the start codon, and at least 5 nucleotides can be of the same base type.

cDNA Template Removal and Purification cDNA templates can be removed using methods known in the art such as, but not limited to, treatment with deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I). RNA purification was performed using the Beckman Coulter (Danvers, MA) AGENCOUNT® CLEANSEQ® system; strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC ( A purification method based on HPLC, such as, but not limited to, HIC-HPLC) may be included.

Capping and / or tailing reaction The primary construct or mmRNA can also undergo a capping and / or tailing reaction. The capping reaction can be performed using methods known in the art to add a 5 ′ cap to the 5 ′ end of the primary construct. Methods for capping include, but are not limited to, the use of vaccinia capping enzyme (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, Mass.).

  The poly A tailing reaction may be performed using methods known in the art such as, but not limited to, 2'O-methyl transferase and the methods described herein. If the primary construct generated from the cDNA does not contain poly T, it may be beneficial to perform a poly A tailing reaction before the primary construct is cleared.

mRNA purification Primary construct or mmRNA purification can include, but is not limited to, mRNA or mmRNA purification, quality assurance, and quality control. mRNA or mmRNA purification is performed using AGENCOUNT® beads (Beckman Coulter Genomics, Danvers, Mass.); Poly T beads; LNA ™ Oligo T capture probes (EXIQON® Inc, Vedbaek, Denmark); or strong anions Such as, but not limited to, exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC). This can be done using methods known in the art that are not. The term “purified”, such as “purified mRNA or mmRNA”, refers to what is separated from at least one contaminant when used in the context of a polynucleotide. As used herein, a “contaminant” is any substance that renders another substance inappropriate, impure, or inferior. Thus, a purified polynucleotide (eg, DNA and RNA) is in a form or environment that is different from the form or environment in which it is found in nature, or a form or environment that is different from the form or environment that existed prior to subjecting it to processing or purification methods Or it exists in the environment.

  Quality assurance and / or quality control testing can be performed using methods such as, but not limited to, gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet absorption, or analytical HPLC.

  In another embodiment, the mRNA or mmRNA can be sequenced using methods including but not limited to reverse transcription PCR.

  In one embodiment, mRNA or mmRNA can be quantified using methods such as, but not limited to, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV / Vis). A non-limiting example of a UV / Vis spectrometer is the NANODROP® spectrometer (ThermoFisher, Waltham, Mass.). The quantified mRNA or mmRNA can be analyzed to determine if the mRNA or mmRNA can be of an appropriate size and to confirm that no degradation of the mRNA or mmRNA has occurred. The degradation of mRNA and / or mmRNA includes agarose gel electrophoresis; strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC), etc. Purification methods based on HPLC that are not limited to: liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS); capillary electrophoresis (CE); and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) can be confirmed using methods such as, but not limited to.

The signal sequence primary construct or mmRNA may also encode additional features that facilitate transport of the polypeptide to a therapeutically relevant site. One such feature that supports protein transport is the signal sequence. As used herein, a “signal sequence” or “signal peptide” is about 9-200 nucleotides in length, respectively, incorporated into the coding region or 5 ′ (or N-terminus) of the encoded polypeptide, respectively. A polynucleotide or polypeptide (3 to 60 amino acids long). The addition of these sequences results in transport of the encoded polypeptide into the endoplasmic reticulum through one or more secretory pathways. Some signal peptides are cleaved from the protein by signal peptidase after the protein is transported.

Table 5 is a representative list of protein signal sequences that can be incorporated to encode a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention.
Table 5. Signal sequence

  In this table, SS is a secretion signal and MLS is a mitochondrial leader signal. The primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention can be designed to encode any of the signal sequences of SEQ ID NOs: 94-155, or fragments or variants thereof. These sequences can be included at the beginning, middle, or end of the polypeptide coding region, or alternatively can be included in adjacent regions. Furthermore, any of the polynucleotide primary constructs of the present invention may also include one or more of the sequences defined by SEQ ID NOs: 32-93. These can be in the first region or any adjacent region.

  Additional signal sequences that can be utilized in the present invention are described, for example, at http: // www. signalpeptidetide. de / or http: // proline. bic. nus. edu. Contains signal sequences taught in databases such as those found in sg / spdb /. U.S. Pat. Nos. 8,124,379, 7,413,875, and 7,385,034 are also within the scope of the present invention, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. Are incorporated herein in their entirety.

Target selection In accordance with the present invention, the primary construct comprises at least one first region of a binding nucleoside encoding at least one polypeptide of interest. The polypeptides or “targets” that are the object of the present invention are listed in Table 6. In addition to the name and description of the gene encoding the polypeptide of interest, the ENSEMBL transcript SEQ ID NO (ENST), the ENSEMBL protein SEQ ID NO (ENSP), and, where available, the optimized transcription SEQ ID NO ( The OPtim Trans SEQ ID NO) or optimized open reading frame SEQ ID NO (Optim ORF SEQ ID NO) is also shown in Table 6. There can be one or more variants or isoforms for any particular gene. If they are present, they are indicated in the table as well. One skilled in the art understands that what is disclosed in the table is a possible adjacent region. These are encoded either 5 ′ (upstream) or 3 ′ (downstream) of the ORF or coding region in each ENST transcript. The coding region is disclosed assertively and specifically by teaching the ENSP sequence. As a result, adjacent teaching sequences encoding proteins are considered adjacent regions. It is also possible to further characterize the 5 ′ and 3 ′ neighboring regions by utilizing one or more available databases or algorithms. The database annotates features contained in adjacent regions of the ENST transcript and these are available in the art.
Table 6. target

Protein cleavage signal and site In one embodiment, a polypeptide of the invention may comprise at least one protein cleavage signal containing at least one protein cleavage site. The protein cleavage site is in the middle of the N-terminus and C-terminus, between the N-terminus and the midpoint, between the midpoint and the C-terminus, and combinations thereof, but is not limited to these. Can be located at the N-terminus, C-terminus, in any space between.

The polypeptides of the present invention may include, but are not limited to, proprotein convertase (or prohormone convertase), thrombin, or factor Xa protein cleavage signal. Proprotein convertase is associated with yeast kexins known as prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1 / 3), PC2, furin, PC4, PC5 / 6, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4), and PC7. Other basic amino acid-specific subtilisin-like serine proteinases and two other cleaved nonbasic residues called subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) A family of nine proteinases including one subtilase. Non-limiting examples of protein cleavage signal amino acid sequences are listed in Table 7. In Table 7, “X” refers to any amino acid, “n” can be 0, 2, 4, or 6 amino acids, and “ * ” refers to a protein cleavage site. In Table 7, SEQ ID NO: 21426 indicates when n is 4, and SEQ ID NO: 21427 indicates when n is 6.
Table 7. Protein cleavage site sequence

  In one embodiment, the primary construct and mmRNA of the present invention can be engineered such that the primary construct or mmRNA contains at least one encoded protein cleavage signal. The encoded protein cleavage signal may be located within the coding region, before the start codon, after the start codon, before the coding region, within the coding region, e.g., between the coding region, between the start codon and the midpoint, Between, but not limited to, a stop codon, after a coding region, after a stop codon, between two stop codons, after a stop codon, and combinations thereof.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention may comprise at least one encoded protein cleavage signal that contains at least one protein cleavage site. The encoded protein cleavage signal can include, but is not limited to, a proprotein convertase (or prohormone convertase), thrombin, and / or a factor Xa protein cleavage signal. One skilled in the art can use Table 1 above or other known methods to determine the appropriate encoded protein cleavage signal to include in the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention. For example, starting with the signals in Table 7, considering the codons in Table 1, a signal for a primary construct that can produce a protein signal in the resulting polypeptide can be designed.

  In one embodiment, the polypeptides of the invention include at least one protein cleavage signal and / or site.

  As a non-limiting example, US Pat. No. 7,374,930 and US Patent Publication No. 20090227660, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, use GPL- One N-terminal methionine is cleaved from the Golgi apparatus of the cell. In one embodiment, the polypeptides of the invention include at least one protein cleavage signal and / or site, provided that the polypeptide is not GLP-1.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention comprises at least one encoded protein cleavage signal and / or site.

  In one embodiment, the primary construct or mmRNA of the invention comprises at least one encoded protein cleavage signal and / or site, provided that the primary construct or mmRNA does not encode GLP-1. .

  In one embodiment, the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention may contain more than one coding region. If multiple coding regions are present in the primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention, the multiple coding regions may be separated by encoded protein cleavage sites. As a non-limiting example, the primary construct or mmRNA can be written in an ordered pattern. Such a pattern follows the AXBY form, wherein A and B can be the same or different coding regions and / or are coding regions that can encode the same or different polypeptides, and X and Y are the same Or an encoded protein cleavage signal that may encode a different protein cleavage signal. A second such pattern follows the AXYBZ form, where A and B can be the same or different coding regions and / or are coding regions that can encode the same or different polypeptides, X, Y , And Z are encoded protein cleavage signals that may encode the same or different protein cleavage signals. The third pattern follows the ABXCY form, A, B, and C can be the same or different coding regions and / or can be the same or different coding regions, and X and Y are the same Or an encoded protein cleavage signal that may encode a different protein cleavage signal.

  In one embodiment, the polypeptide, primary construct and mmRNA are as described above such that the polypeptide, primary construct and mmRNA can be released from the carrier region or fusion partner by treatment with a protease specific for the protein cleavage site. A sequence encoding a protein cleavage site may also be included.

  In one embodiment, the polypeptides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention can include a sequence encoding a 2A peptide. In one embodiment, this sequence can be used to separate the coding regions of two or more polypeptides of interest. As a non-limiting example, a sequence encoding a 2A peptide can be present between coding region A and coding region B (A-2Apep-B). The presence of the 2A peptide results in cleavage of one long protein into protein A, protein B, and 2A peptides. Protein A and protein B can be the same or different polypeptides of interest. In another embodiment, a 2A peptide is used in a polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA of the invention to produce 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more proteins. be able to.

Incorporation of Post-transcriptional Regulatory Modulators In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the invention can include at least one post-transcriptional regulatory regulator. These post-transcriptional regulatory regulators can be, but are not limited to, small molecules, compounds, and regulatory sequences. As a non-limiting example, post-transcriptional control is performed using the PEMS Therapeutics Inc. GEMS ™ (Gene Expression Modulation by Small-Molecules) screening technique. Can be achieved using small molecules identified by (South Plainfield, NJ).

  The post-transcriptional regulatory factor can be a gene expression regulatory factor screened by the method detailed in International Publication No. WO2006022712, or a gene expression regulatory factor described therein, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. . A method for identifying RNA regulatory sequences involved in translation control is described in International Publication No. WO2004067728, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, to identify compounds that modulate untranslated region-dependent expression of genes. This method is described in International Publication No. WO2004065651 which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA of the present invention is at least one located in the 5 ′ and / or 3 ′ untranslated region of the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA of the present invention. Post-transcriptional regulatory regulators can be included.

  In another embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the invention can include at least one post-transcriptional regulatory regulator to modulate immature translation termination. Post-transcriptional regulatory factors are compounds described in International Publication Nos. WO2004010106, WO2006044456, WO2006044682, WO2006044503, and WO2006044505, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Or a compound found by the methods outlined therein. By way of non-limiting example, the compound can bind to a region of 28S ribosomal RNA to modulate premature translation termination (see, eg, WO20040010106, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. See

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the invention can include at least one post-transcriptional regulatory regulator to alter protein expression. By way of non-limiting example, the expression of VEGF is a compound described in International Publication Nos. WO2005118587, WO2006065480, WO2006065479, and WO2006058088, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Or can be controlled using compounds that can be found by the methods described therein.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the present invention can include at least one post-transcriptional regulatory regulator to control translation. In one embodiment, the post-transcriptional regulatory regulator can be an RNA regulatory sequence. As a non-limiting example, RNA regulatory sequences can be identified by the method described in International Publication No. WO2006071903, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

III. Modification In the polynucleotides (such as primary constructs or mRNA molecules) herein, the term “modification” or optionally “modified” refers to modifications to A, G, U, or C ribonucleotides. In general, as used herein, these terms are not intended to refer to ribonucleotide modifications in the naturally occurring 5 ′ terminal mRNA cap portion. In a polypeptide, the term “modification” refers to a modification compared to a reference set of 20 amino acids (portions).

  This modification can be a variety of distinctly different modifications. In some embodiments, the coding region, adjacent region, and / or terminal region may contain one, two, or two (optionally different) nucleoside or nucleotide modifications. In some embodiments, a modified polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA introduced into a cell may exhibit reduced degradation in the cell as compared to an unmodified polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA.

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA can include any useful modification to a sugar, nucleobase, or internucleoside linkage (eg, to a linked phosphate / phosphodiester linkage / phosphodiester backbone) and the like. One or more atoms of the pyrimidine nucleobase is replaced with an optionally substituted amino, an optionally substituted thiol, an optionally substituted alkyl (eg, methyl or ethyl), or a halo (eg, chloro or fluoro). Can be obtained or substituted with these. In certain embodiments, modifications (eg, one or more modifications) are present at each of the sugars and internucleoside linkages. Modifications according to the present invention include modifications of ribonucleic acid (RNA) to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), threose nucleic acid (TNA), glycol nucleic acid (GNA), peptide nucleic acid (PNA), locked nucleic acid (LNA), or a hybrid thereof. possible. Further modifications are described herein.

  As described herein, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention do not substantially induce the innate immune response of the cell into which the mRNA is introduced. The characteristics of the induced innate immune response are 1) increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, 2) activation of intracellular PRR (RIG-I, MDA5, etc.) and / or 3) termination or decrease of protein translation. included.

  In certain embodiments, it may be desirable to degrade a modified nucleic acid molecule introduced into a cell within the cell. For example, degradation of the modified nucleic acid molecule may be preferred when precise timing of protein production is desired. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the present invention provides modified nucleic acid molecules containing degradation domains that can be acted on in a directed manner in cells. In another aspect, the disclosure provides a polynucleotide comprising a nucleoside or nucleotide that can disrupt the binding of a major groove interaction (eg, binding) partner to the polynucleotide (eg, a modified nucleotide is an unmodified nucleotide and a nucleotide). In comparison with a reduced binding affinity for the major groove interaction partner).

  Polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs are other agents (eg, RNAi inducers, RNAi agents, siRNA, shRNA, miRNA, antisense RNA, ribozyme, catalytic DNA, tRNA, RNA that induces triple helix formation, aptamers , Vectors, etc.) may optionally be included. In some embodiments, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can comprise one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) and one or more modified nucleosides or nucleotides (eg, an mRNA mRNA molecule). Details about these polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA follow below.

Polynucleotides and Primary Constructs The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention comprise a first region of a binding nucleoside encoding a polypeptide of interest, a first flanking region located at the 5 ′ end of the first region. And a second adjacent region located at the 3 ′ end of the first region.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) is of formula (Ia) or formula (Ia-1):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

U is O, S, N (R U ) nu , or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo Or optionally substituted alkyl;

  --- is a single bond or absent,

Each of R 1 ′ , R 2 ′ , R 1 ″ , R 2 ″ , R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 , if present, is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol Optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted Hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, or absent A combination of R3 and one or more of R1 ′, R1 ″, R2 ′, R2 ″, or R5 (eg, a combination of R1 ′ and R3) , R1 ″ and R3, R2 ′ and R3, R2 ″ and R3, or R5 and R3) together to form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene. And, together with the carbon to which they are attached, can provide optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl), R5 and R1 ′ , R1 ″, R2 ′, or a combination with one or more of R2 ″ (eg, a combination of R1 ′ and R5, a combination of R1 ″ and R5, a combination of R2 ′ and R5, or a combination of R2 ″ and R5) ) Together can form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, and together with the carbon to which they are attached, Substituted meaning heterocyclyl (e.g., bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl) can provide a and R 4, R 1 ', R 1 ", R 2', R 2", R 3 , Or a combination with one or more of R 5 together to form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, and together with the carbon to which they are attached Optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl), wherein each of m ′ and m ″ is independently 0-3 (eg, 0- 2, 0-1, 1, 1-3, or 1-2)

Each of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 3 is independently O, S, Se, —NR N1 —, an optionally substituted alkylene, or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted aryl, or absent,

Each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, boranyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino;

Each Y 5 is independently O, S, Se, optionally substituted alkylene (eg, methylene), or optionally substituted heteroalkylene;

  n is an integer from 1 to 100,000;

B is a nucleobase (eg, purine, pyrimidine, or derivatives thereof), a combination of B and R 1 ′, a combination of B and R 2 ′, a combination of B and R 1 ″ , or B and R 2 ″ Can combine with the carbon to which they are attached to optionally form a bicyclic group (eg, bicyclic heterocyclyl), or a combination of B, R 1 ″ , and R 3 , or B , R 2 ″ , and R 3 optionally form a tricyclic or tetracyclic group (eg, a tricyclic or tetracyclic heterocyclyl such as formula (IIo)-(IIp) herein) Can do. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises a modified ribose. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (Ia-2)-(Ia-5) N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) is of formula (Ib) or formula (Ib-1):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

U is O, S, N (R U ) nu , or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo Or optionally substituted alkyl;

  --- is a single bond or absent,

Each of R 1 , R 3 ′ , R 3 ″ , and R 4 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, Optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally A substituted aminoalkyl, an optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, an optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, or absent, and a combination of R 1 and R 3 ′ or a combination of R 1 and R 3 ″ together Can form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene (eg, producing a locked nucleic acid To)),

Each R 5 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted Aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or absent;

Each of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 3 is independently O, S, Se, —NR N1 —, an optionally substituted alkylene, or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl;

Each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, boranyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino;

  n is an integer from 1 to 100,000;

  B is a nucleobase.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (Ic):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

U is O, S, N (R U ) nu , or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo Or optionally substituted alkyl;

  --- is a single bond or absent,

Each of B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 is independently independently substituted with a nucleobase (eg, a purine, pyrimidine, or derivative thereof as described herein), H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally Alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally Substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, B 1 , B 2 , and B Only one of the three is a nucleobase,

Each of R b1 , R b2 , R b3 , R 3 , and R 5 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl An optionally substituted aminoalkyl, an optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, or an optionally substituted aminoalkynyl,

Each of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 3 is independently O, S, Se, —NR N1 —, an optionally substituted alkylene, or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl;

Each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, boranyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino;

Each Y 5 is independently O, S, Se, optionally substituted alkylene (eg, methylene), or optionally substituted heteroalkylene;

  n is an integer from 1 to 100,000;

  The ring containing U may contain one or more double bonds.

In certain embodiments, the ring containing U has no double bond between U-CB 3 R b3 between or CB 3 R b3 -C B2 R b2 .

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (Id):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

U is O, S, N (R U ) nu , or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo Or optionally substituted alkyl;

Each R 3 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted Aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted Aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl,

Each of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 3 is independently O, S, Se, —NR N1 —, an optionally substituted alkylene, or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl;

Each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, boranyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino;

Each Y 5 is independently O, S, an optionally substituted alkylene (eg, methylene), or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene;

  n is an integer from 1 to 100,000;

  B is a nucleobase (eg, purine, pyrimidine, or derivative thereof).

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (Ie):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each of U ′ and U ″ is independently O, S, N (R U ) nu , or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R U is independently H, halo, or optionally substituted alkyl;

Each R 6 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted Aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted Aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl,

Each Y 5 ′ is independently O, S, an optionally substituted alkylene (eg, methylene or ethylene), or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene;

  n is an integer from 1 to 100,000;

  B is a nucleobase (eg, purine, pyrimidine, or derivative thereof).

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (If) or (If-1):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each of U ′ and U ″ is independently O, S, N, N (R U ) nu , or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2; Each R U is independently H, halo, or optionally substituted alkyl (eg, U ′ is O and U ″ is N);

  --- is a single bond or absent,

Each of R 1 ′ , R 2 ′ , R 1 ″ , R 2 ″ , R 3 , and R 4 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted Alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide , Optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, or absent, a combination of R 1 ′ and R 3 , R 1 "combination of R 3, the combination of R 2 'and R 3, or R 2' in a combined combination of R 3 is, a is an optionally substituted Xylene and optionally substituted heteroalkylene can be formed (eg, to produce a locked nucleic acid) and each of m ′ and m ″ is independently 0-3 (eg, 0-2, 0-1 , 1-3, or 1-2)

Each of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 3 is independently O, S, Se, —NR N1 —, an optionally substituted alkylene, or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted aryl, or absent,

Each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, boranyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino;

Each Y 5 is independently O, S, Se, optionally substituted alkylene (eg, methylene), or optionally substituted heteroalkylene;

  n is an integer from 1 to 100,000;

  B is a nucleobase (eg, purine, pyrimidine, or derivative thereof).

  In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia), (Ia-1)-(Ia-3), (Ib)-(If), and (IIa)-(IIp )), The ring containing U has one or two double bonds.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 1 , R 1 ′ , and R 1 ″ , if present, are H. In further embodiments, each of R 2 , R 2 ′ , and R 2 ″ , if present, is independently H, halo (eg, fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy or ethoxy), or optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy. In certain embodiments, alkoxyalkoxy, - (CH 2) a s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ', wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1 -4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently an integer of 0-10 (eg, 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10). , R ′ is H or C 1-20 alkyl. In some embodiments, s2 is 0, s1 is 1 or 2, s3 is 0 or 1, and R ′ is C 1-6 alkyl.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 2 , R 2 ′ , and R 2 ″ , if present, are H. In further embodiments, each of R 1 , R 1 ′ , and R 1 ″ , if present, is independently H, halo (eg, fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy or ethoxy), or optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy. In certain embodiments, alkoxyalkoxy, - (CH 2) a s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ', wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1 -4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently an integer of 0-10 (eg, 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10). , R ′ is H or C 1-20 alkyl. In some embodiments, s2 is 0, s1 is 1 or 2, s3 is 0 or 1, and R ′ is C 1-6 alkyl.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 are each independently H, halo (eg, fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy or ethoxy), Or optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy. In certain embodiments, R 3 is H, R 4 is H, R 5 is H, or all of R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 are H. In certain embodiments, R 3 is C 1-6 alkyl, R 4 is C 1-6 alkyl, R 5 is C 1-6 alkyl, or R 3 , R 4 , and R 5. Are all C 1-6 alkyl. In certain embodiments, both R 3 and R 4 are H, and R 5 is C 1-6 alkyl.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 3 and R 5 together form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene and together with the carbon to which they are attached, trans-3 ′, 4′-like Optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl) and R 3 and R 5 together form a heteroalkylene (eg, — (CH 2 ) b1 O ( CH 2) b2 O (CH 2 ) b3 - a a, wherein, b1, b2, and each b3 is, independently, an integer of 0 to 3).

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 3 and one or more of R 1 ′ , R 1 ″ , R 2 ′ , R 2 ″ , or R 5 together to form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene Together with the carbon to which they are attached to provide an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, a bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl), and R 3 and R 1 ′ , R 1 one of ", R 2 ', R 2 ", or R 5 Above together form a heteroalkylene (e.g., - (CH 2) b1 O (CH 2) b2 O (CH 2) b3 - a a, wherein each of b1, b2, and b3 , Independently an integer from 0 to 3).

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 5 and one or more of R 1 ′ , R 1 ″ , R 2 ′ , or R 2 ″ together form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene. Together with the carbon to which they are attached, provides an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl), and R 5 and R 1 ′ , R 1 ″ , R 2 ', or it together one or more of R 2 " Te, to form a heteroalkylene (e.g., - (CH 2) b1 O (CH 2) b2 O (CH 2) b3 - a a, wherein each of b1, b2, and b3, independently, 0 to an integer of 3).

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) Each Y 2 is independently O, S, or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted. Alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl. In certain embodiments, Y 2 is NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl, eg, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, or n -Propyl).

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , Each Y 3 is independently O or S.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , R 1 is H and each R 2 is independently H, halo (eg, fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy or ethoxy), or optionally substituted alkoxy alkoxy (eg, - (CH 2) a s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 oR ', wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1-4) An integer, s2 and s Each, independently of 0-10 (e.g., 0~4,0~6,1~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer of, R 'is H or C 1 to 20 Alkyl, for example, wherein s2 is 0, s1 is 1 or 2, s3 is 0 or 1 (eg, R ′ is C 1-6 alkyl), and each Y 2 is , Independently O or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted. Is aryl (eg, wherein R N1 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl, eg, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, or n-propyl)), each Y 3 Are independently O or S (eg, S). In facilities embodiment, R 3 is, H, halo (e.g., fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy (e.g., methoxy or ethoxy), or an optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy In still further embodiments, each Y 1 is independently O or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally Substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl (eg, wherein R N1 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl, eg, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, or n-propyl) and each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted. Alkoxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) Each R 1 is independently H, halo (eg, fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy or ethoxy), or optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy (eg,-( CH 2) a s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 oR ', wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., an integer from 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), the s2 and s3 Each independently , 0-10 (eg, 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10), and R ′ is H or C 1-20 alkyl (eg, formula In which s2 is 0, s1 is 1 or 2, s3 is 0 or 1, R ′ is C 1-6 alkyl), R 2 is H, and each Y 2 is independently O or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl. (Eg, where R N1 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl, eg, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, or n-propyl)), each Y 3 is independently O or S (eg, S) In a further embodiment, Te, R 3 is, H, halo (e.g., fluoro), hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy (e.g., methoxy or ethoxy), or an optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy. Yet In certain embodiments, each Y 1 is independently O or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted. Alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl (eg, wherein R N1 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl, eg, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, or n- Each Y 4 is independently H, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy. Ci, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino.

  In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1)-(IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa)-(IVl), and (IXa)-(IXr)) , The ring containing U is in the β-D (eg, β-D-ribo) configuration.

  In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , U-containing rings are in the α-L (eg, α-L-ribo) configuration.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) One or more of B is not pseudouridine (ψ) or 5-methyl-cytidine (m 5 C). In some embodiments, about 10% to about 100% of n B nucleobases are neither ψ nor m 5 C (eg, 10% to 20%, 10% to 35% of n B, 10% -50%, 10% -60%, 10% -75%, 10% -90%, 10% -95%, 10% -98%, 10% -99%, 20% -35%, 20% -50%, 20% -60%, 20% -75%, 20% -90%, 20% -95%, 20% -98%, 20% -99%, 20% -100%, 50% -60 %, 50% to 75%, 50% to 90%, 50% to 95%, 50% to 98%, 50% to 99%, 50% to 100%, 75% to 90%, 75% to 95%, 75% to 98%, 75% to 99%, and 75% to 100% are neither ψ nor m 5 C). In some embodiments, B is neither ψ nor m 5 C.

In some embodiments of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, formulas (Ia)-(Ia-5), (Ib)-(If-1), (IIa)-(IIp), (IIb- 1), (IIb-2), (IIc-1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr)) , B is an unmodified nucleobase selected from cytosine, guanine, uracil, and adenine, at least one of Y 1 , Y 2 , or Y 3 is not O.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises a modified ribose. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (IIa)-(IIc):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof. In certain embodiments, U is O or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo, or optionally Substituted alkyl (eg, U is —CH 2 — or —CH—). In other embodiments, each of R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy. Optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, Optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl or absent (eg, each R 1 and R 2 is independently to, H, halo, hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl or optionally substituted alkoxy, each R 3 and 4 are independently alkyl substituted with H or optionally, R 5 is H or hydroxy), --- is a single bond or a double bond.

In certain embodiments, the polynucleotide or mmRNA is of formula (IIb-1) to (IIb-2):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof. In some embodiments, U is O or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo, or any (Eg, U is —CH 2 — or —CH—). In other embodiments, each of R 1 and R 2 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally Alkynyloxy substituted, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted Aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, or absent (eg, each R 1 and R 2 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, optional Substituted or optionally substituted alkoxy such as H, halo, hydroxy, alkyl, and Is alkoxy). In certain embodiments, R 2 is hydroxy or optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy, ethoxy, or any described herein).

In certain embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IIc-1) to (IIc-4):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof. In some embodiments, U is O or C (R U ) nu , where nu is an integer from 0 to 2, and each R U is independently H, halo, or any (Eg, U is —CH 2 — or —CH—). In some embodiments, each of R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted. Alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azide, optionally substituted Aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl or absent (eg, each R 1 and R 2 is independently H, Halo, hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted alkoxy, eg, H, halo, hydro X, alkyl, or alkoxy, each R 3 is independently H or optionally substituted alkyl)). In certain embodiments, R 2 is an optionally substituted alkoxy (eg, methoxy or ethoxy, or any of those described herein). In certain embodiments, R 1 is optionally substituted alkyl and R 2 is hydroxy. In other embodiments, R 1 is hydroxy and R 2 is optionally substituted alkyl. In a further embodiment, R 3 is optionally substituted alkyl.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises an acyclic modified ribose. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, the first region, the first flanking region, or the second flanking region) has the formula (IId)-(IIf):
N linked nucleosides having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises an acyclic modified hexitol. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (IIg)-(IIj):
N linked nucleosides, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises a sugar moiety having a shortened or extended ribose ring. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, the first region, the first flanking region, or the second flanking region) has the formula (IIk)-(IIm):
N linked nucleosides, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each of R 1 ′ , R 1 ″ , R 2 ′ , and R 2 ″ is independently , H, halo, hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted Alkoxyalkoxy or absent and the combination of R 2 ′ and R 3 or the combination of R 2 ″ and R 3 together form an optionally substituted alkylene or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene Can do.

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises locked modified ribose. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (IIn):
Wherein n 3 linked nucleosides, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R 3 ′ is O, S, or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is , H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl, wherein R 3 ″ is an optionally substituted alkylene (eg, —CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH 2 -, or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -), or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene (e.g., -CH 2 NH -, - CH 2 CH 2 NH -, - CH 2 OCH 2 -, or -CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 - is a) (e.g., R 3 'is O, alkylene R 3 "is optionally substituted (e.g., -CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH 2 -, Or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -) a).

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IIn-1)-(II-n2):
Wherein n 3 linked nucleosides, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R 3 ′ is O, S, or —NR N1 —, wherein R N1 is , H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted aryl, wherein R 3 ″ is an optionally substituted alkylene (eg, —CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH 2 -, or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -), or an optionally substituted heteroalkylene (e.g., -CH 2 NH -, - CH 2 CH 2 NH -, - CH 2 OCH 2 -, or -CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 - is a) (e.g., R 3 'is O, alkylene R 3 "is optionally substituted (e.g., -CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH 2 -, Or -CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -) a).

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises a locked modified ribose that forms a tetracyclic heterocyclyl. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, first region, first flanking region, or second flanking region) has the formula (IIo):
N linked nucleosides, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R 12a , R 12c , T 1 ′ , T 1 ″ , T 2 ′ , T 2 ″ , V 1 and V 3 are as described herein.

  Any of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA formulas can include one or more nucleobases as described herein (eg, formulas (b1)-(b43)).

In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of preparing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, wherein the polynucleotide is of formula (Ia) as defined herein:
This method comprises n nucleosides having the formula (IIIa) as defined herein:
Reacting the compound with RNA polymerase and cDNA template.

  In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a method of amplifying a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprising at least one nucleotide (eg, an mRNA mRNA), wherein the method comprises a formula as defined herein. Reacting the compound of (IIIa) with a primer, cDNA template, and RNA polymerase.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of preparing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprising at least one nucleotide (eg, an mRNA mRNA), wherein the polynucleotide is defined herein. Formula (Ia):
This method comprises n nucleosides having the formula (IIIa-1) as defined herein:
Reacting the compound with RNA polymerase and cDNA template.

  In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a method of amplifying a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprising at least one nucleotide (eg, mmRNA molecule) comprising:

  Reacting a compound of formula (IIIa-1) as defined herein with a primer, a cDNA template, and an RNA polymerase.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of preparing a modified mRNA comprising at least one nucleotide (eg, an mRNA mRNA), wherein the polynucleotide has the formula (Ia-2) as defined herein :
This method comprises n nucleosides having the formula (IIIa-2) as defined herein:
Reacting the compound with RNA polymerase and cDNA template.

  In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a method for amplifying a modified mRNA comprising at least one nucleotide (eg, an mRNA mRNA molecule) comprising:

  Reacting a compound of formula (IIIa-2) as defined herein with a primer, a cDNA template, and an RNA polymerase.

  In some embodiments, the reaction can be repeated from 1 to about 7,000 times. In any of the embodiments herein, B can be a nucleobase of formula (b1)-(b43).

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA can optionally include the 5 'and / or 3' flanking regions described herein.

Modified RNA (mmRNA) molecules The present invention also includes building blocks of modified RNA (mmRNA) molecules, such as modified ribonucleosides, modified ribonucleotides. For example, these building blocks can be useful for the preparation of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA of the invention.
In some embodiments, the building block molecule has the formula (IIIa) or (IIIa-1):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein the substituents are those described herein (eg, formulas (Ia) and (Ia-1)), and B Is an unmodified nucleobase selected from cytosine, guanine, uracil, and adenine, at least one of Y 1 , Y 2 , or Y 3 is not O.

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IVa)-(IVb):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein B is one described in the present specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). . In certain embodiments, formula (IVa) or (IVb) is a modified uracil (eg, any of formulas (b1)-(b9), (b21)-(b23), and (b28)-(b31)). One, for example, formula (b1), (b8), (b28), (b29), or (b30)). In certain embodiments, formula (IVa) or (IVb) is a modified cytosine (eg, any of formulas (b10)-(b14), (b24), (b25), and (b32)-(b36)). One, for example, formula (b10) or (b32)). In certain embodiments, formula (IVa) or (IVb) is combined with a modified guanine (eg, any one of formulas (b15)-(b17) and (b37)-(b40)). In certain embodiments, Formula (IVa) or (IVb) is combined with a modified adenine (eg, any one of Formulas (b18)-(b20) and (b41)-(b43)).

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IVc)-(IVk):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein B is one described in the present specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). . In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IVc)-(IVk) is modified uracil (eg, formulas (b1)-(b9), (b21)-(b23), and (b28)-(b31)). ), For example, formula (b1), (b8), (b28), (b29), or (b30)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IVc)-(IVk) is a modified cytosine (eg, formulas (b10)-(b14), (b24), (b25), and (b32)-(b36)). ), For example, formula (b10) or (b32)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IVc)-(IVk) is a modified guanine (eg, any one of formulas (b15)-(b17) and (b37)-(b40)). Combined with. In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IVc)-(IVk) is a modified adenine (eg, any one of formulas (b18)-(b20) and (b41)-(b43)). Combined with.

In other embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (Va) or (Vb):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein B is one described in the present specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). .

In other embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IXa)-(IXd):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein B is one described in the present specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). . In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXa) to (IXd) is a modified uracil (eg, formulas (b1) to (b9), (b21) to (b23), and (b28) to (b31). ), For example, formula (b1), (b8), (b28), (b29), or (b30)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXa)-(IXd) is a modified cytosine (eg, formulas (b10)-(b14), (b24), (b25), and (b32)-(b36)). ), For example, formula (b10) or (b32)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXa)-(IXd) is a modified guanine (eg, any one of formulas (b15)-(b17) and (b37)-(b40)) Combined with. In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXa)-(IXd) is a modified adenine (eg, any one of formulas (b18)-(b20) and (b41)-(b43)) Combined with.

In other embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IXe)-(IXg):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein B is one described in the present specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). . In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXe)-(IXg) is modified uracil (eg, formulas (b1)-(b9), (b21)-(b23), and (b28)-(b31)). ), For example, formula (b1), (b8), (b28), (b29), or (b30)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXe)-(IXg) is a modified cytosine (eg, formulas (b10)-(b14), (b24), (b25), and (b32)-(b36)). ), For example, formula (b10) or (b32)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXe)-(IXg) is a modified guanine (eg, any one of formulas (b15)-(b17) and (b37)-(b40)). Combined with. In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXe)-(IXg) is a modified adenine (eg, any one of formulas (b18)-(b20) and (b41)-(b43)) Combined with.

In other embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IXh)-(IXk):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein B is one described in the present specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). . In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXh)-(IXk) is modified uracil (eg, formulas (b1)-(b9), (b21)-(b23), and (b28)-(b31)). ), For example, formula (b1), (b8), (b28), (b29), or (b30)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXh)-(IXk) is a modified cytosine (eg, formulas (b10)-(b14), (b24), (b25), and (b32)-(b36)). ), For example, formula (b10) or (b32)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXh)-(IXk) is a modified guanine (eg, any one of formulas (b15)-(b17) and (b37)-(b40)). Combined with. In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXh)-(IXk) is a modified adenine (eg, any one of formulas (b18)-(b20) and (b41)-(b43)) Combined with.

In other embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is of formula (IXl)-(IXr):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each rl and r2 is independently 0-5 (e.g. 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5). It is an integer, and B is as described in this specification (for example, any one of (b1) to (b43)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXl) to (IXr) is a modified uracil (eg, formulas (b1) to (b9), (b21) to (b23), and (b28) to (b31). ), For example, formula (b1), (b8), (b28), (b29), or (b30)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXl)-(IXr) is a modified cytosine (eg, formulas (b10)-(b14), (b24), (b25), and (b32)-(b36)). ), For example, formula (b10) or (b32)). In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXl)-(IXr) is a modified guanine (eg, any one of formulas (b15)-(b17) and (b37)-(b40)). Combined with. In certain embodiments, one of formulas (IXl)-(IXr) is a modified adenine (eg, any one of formulas (b18)-(b20) and (b41)-(b43)) Combined with.

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is
Or may be selected from the group consisting of pharmaceutically acceptable salts or stereoisomers thereof, wherein each r is independently 0-5 (eg 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5 ).

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each r is independently 0-5 (eg 0-3, 1-3, or 1- 5) and s1 is as described in this specification.

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a nucleic acid (eg, RNA, mRNA, polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA) is a modified uridine (eg, selected from the group consisting of: Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein Y 1 , Y 3 , Y 4 , Y 6 , and r are as described herein (eg, each r is And independently is an integer from 0 to 5, such as 0 to 3, 1 to 3, or 1 to 5):

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is a modified cytidine (eg, selected from the group consisting of: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof) Or a stereoisomer, wherein Y 1 , Y 3 , Y 4 , Y 6 , and r are as described herein (eg, each r is independently 0-5, For example, it is an integer of 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5):
For example, a building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each r is independently an integer of 0-5 (eg, 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5). It is.

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is a modified adenosine (eg, selected from the group consisting of: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof) Or a stereoisomer, wherein Y 1 , Y 3 , Y 4 , Y 6 , and r are as described herein (eg, each r is independently 0-5, For example, it is an integer of 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5):

In some embodiments, the building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is a modified guanosine (eg, selected from the group consisting of: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof) Or a stereoisomer, wherein Y 1 , Y 3 , Y 4 , Y 6 , and r are as described herein (eg, each r is independently 0-5, For example, it is an integer of 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5):

In some embodiments, the chemical modification is a substitution of a C-5 C group with a N (eg,> NR of a C-5> CH group) (eg, a pyrimidine nucleoside, eg, cytosine or uracil). Substitution with the N1 group, where R N 1 is H or optionally substituted alkyl). For example, a building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each r is independently an integer of 0-5 (eg, 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5). It is.

In another embodiment, the chemical modification can include substitution of cytosine with a C-5 hydrogen halo (eg, Br, Cl, F, or I) or an optionally substituted alkyl (eg, methyl). For example, a building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each r is independently an integer of 0-5 (eg, 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5). It is.

In still further embodiments, the chemical modification may include a fused ring formed by NH 2 at the C-4 position and by a carbon atom at the C-5 position. For example, a building block molecule that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each r is independently an integer of 0-5 (eg, 0-3, 1-3, or 1-5). It is.

Modifications in sugars Modified nucleosides and nucleotides (eg, building block molecules) that can be incorporated into polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs (eg, RNA or mRNA described herein) can be modified in the ribonucleic acid sugar. For example, the 2 ′ hydroxyl group (OH) can be modified or substituted with several different substituents. Exemplary substitutions at the 2 ′ position include H, halo, optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl, optionally substituted C 1-6 alkoxy, optionally substituted C 6-10 aryloxy, optionally Optionally substituted C 3-8 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C 3-8 cycloalkoxy, optionally substituted C 6-10 aryloxy, optionally substituted C 6-10 aryl-C 1-6 Alkoxy, optionally substituted C 1-12 (heterocyclyl) oxy, sugar (eg, ribose, pentose, or any of those described herein), polyethylene glycol (PEG), —O (CH 2 CH 2 O) n CH 2 CH 2 OR (wherein R is H or optionally substituted alkyl, and n is 0 to 20 (eg, 0 to 4, 0 to 8, 0 to 10, 0 to 16, 1 to 4). , 1-8, 1-1 1-16, 1-20, 2-4, 2-8, 2-10, 2-16, 2-20, 4-8, 4-10, 4-16, and 4-20). ) A “locked” nucleic acid (LNA) in which the 2′-hydroxyl is attached to the 4′-carbon of the same ribose sugar by a C 1-6 alkylene or C 1-6 heteroalkylene bridge (example bridges include methylene, Propylene, ether, or amino bridges), aminoalkyl as defined herein, aminoalkoxy as defined herein, amino as defined herein, and amino acids as defined herein. Is included, but is not limited thereto. In general, RNA comprises a five-membered sugar ribose with oxygen. Non-limiting exemplary modified nucleotides include ribose oxygen substitution (eg, S, Se, or alkylene, eg, methylene or ethylene), double bond addition (eg, ribose to cyclopentenyl or cyclohexenyl). Ribose ring contraction (eg, to form a cyclobutane or oxetane 4-membered ring), ribose ring expansion (eg, anhydrous hexitol, altitol, mannitol, cyclohexanyl, cyclohexenyl, and phospho) To form 6- or 7-membered rings with additional carbon or heteroatoms such as morpholino that also have a ramidate backbone), polycyclic forms (eg, tricyclo, and “unlocked” forms, eg, glycol nucleic acid (GNA) (eg, , R-GNA or S-GNA, Ribo Is substituted with a glycol unit that binds to a phosphodiester bond), threose nucleic acid (TNA, where ribose is replaced with α-L-threofranosyl- (3 ′ → 2 ′)), and peptide nucleic acid (PNA, 2 A moiety in which the amino-ethyl-glycine bond replaces the ribose and phosphodiester backbone) The sugar group may also contain one or more carbons having a stereochemical configuration opposite to that of the corresponding carbon of ribose. Thus, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA molecule may comprise a nucleotide containing, for example, arabinose as a sugar.

Modifications at Nucleobases The present disclosure provides modified nucleosides and nucleotides. As described herein, a “nucleoside” is a sugar molecule (eg, pentose or ribose) in combination with an organic base (eg, purine or pyrimidine) or a derivative thereof (also referred to herein as “nucleobase”) or Defined as a compound containing the derivative. A “nucleotide” as described herein is defined as a nucleoside containing a phosphate group. Modified nucleotides can be synthesized by any useful method described herein (eg, to include one or more modified or unnatural nucleosides, eg, chemically, enzymatically, or recombinantly).

  Modified nucleotide base pairing includes not only standard adenosine-thymine, adenosine-uracil, or guanosine-cytosine base pairs, but also base pairs formed between and / or between non-standard or modified base nucleotides. Including, the arrangement of hydrogen bond donors and hydrogen bond acceptors allows hydrogen bonding between non-standard bases and standard bases or between two complementary non-standard base structures. An example of such non-standard base pairing is base pairing between the modified nucleotide inosine and adenine, cytosine, or uracil.

Modified nucleosides and nucleotides can include modified nucleobases. Examples of nucleobases found in RNA include, but are not limited to, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Examples of nucleobases found in DNA include, but are not limited to, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. These nucleobases can be modified or fully substituted to provide polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA molecules that have enhanced properties, such as resistance to nucleases by disruption of the binding of the major groove binding partner. Table 8 below identifies the chemical appearance of each reference nucleotide. Circles identify the atoms that contain each chemical region.
Table 8

In some embodiments, B is modified uracil. Exemplary modified uracils have the formulas (b1) to (b5):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Is a single or double bond,

Each of T 1 ′ , T 1 ″ , T 2 ′ , and T 2 ″ is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or optionally substituted thioalkoxy. Or a combination of T 1 ′ and T 1 ″ or a combination of T 2 ′ and T 2 ″ (eg, as in T 2 ), O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (Seleno),

Each of V 1 and V 2 is independently O, S, N (R Vb ) nv , or C (R Vb ) nv , where nv is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Vb is independently H, halo, an optionally substituted amino acid, an optionally substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted haloalkyl, an optionally substituted alkenyl, an optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted Alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl (Eg, an N-protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, eg, substituted with trifluoroacetyl), an optionally substituted amino group Lucenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted acylaminoalkyl (eg, N-protecting group, eg, any described herein, eg, substituted with trifluoroacetyl), optional Substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, or optionally substituted alkynyloxy (e.g., any substituent described herein, e.g., , Optionally substituted with a substituent selected from alkyl (1) to (21)),

R 10 is H, halo, optionally substituted amino acid, hydroxy, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted Hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonyl Alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl, or optionally substituted The Carbamoylalkyl,

R 11 is H or optionally substituted alkyl;

R 12a is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted Aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl (eg, optionally substituted with hydroxy), optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyaminoalkyl, or An optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl;

R 12c is H, halo, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted Hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl.

Other exemplary modified uracils are represented by formulas (b6)-(b9):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Is a single or double bond,

Each of T 1 ′ , T 1 ″ , T 2 ′ , and T 2 ″ is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or optionally substituted thioalkoxy. Or a combination of T 1 ′ and T 1 ″ together (eg as in T 1 ) or a combination of T 2 ′ and T 2 ″ together (eg in T 2 ) ), O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (seleno), or each T 1 and T 2 is independently O (oxo), S (thio), or Se ( Seleno),

Each of W 1 and W 2 is independently N (R Wa ) nw or C (R Wa ) nw , where nw is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Wa is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted alkoxy;

Each V 3 is independently O, S, N (R Va ) nv , or C (R Va ) nv , where nv is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Va is independently H, halo, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted Alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, or optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally A substituted aminoalkyl (eg, an N-protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, eg, trifluoroacetyl, or Optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted acylaminoalkyl (eg, an N-protecting group such as any of those described herein). For example, substituted with trifluoroacetyl), optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylacyl, optionally Substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl (eg, optionally substituted with hydroxy and / or O-protecting groups), optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyamino Alkyl, also Optionally substituted carbamoyl alkyl (e.g., any substituents described herein, for example, alkyl (1) to (21) optionally those substituted with a substituent selected from), R Va and R 12c together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, a 5 or 6 membered ring). Can form,

R 12a is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted Aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl (eg, optionally substituted with hydroxy and / or O-protecting groups), optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted Carboxyaminoalkyl, optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl or absent,

R 12b is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl Optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted alkylaryl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, optionally Substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonyl acyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonyl Alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl (eg, optionally substituted with hydroxy and / or O-protecting groups), optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted Carboxyaminoalkyl, or optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl,

The combination of R 12b and T 1 ′ or the combination of R 12b and R 12c can be combined to form an optionally substituted heterocyclyl;

R 12c is H, halo, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted Aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl.

Further exemplary modified uracils are of formula (b28)-(b31):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each of T 1 and T 2 is independently O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (seleno);

Each R Vb ′ and R Vb ″ is independently H, halo, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted haloalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted Hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, Optionally substituted aminoalkyl (eg, an N-protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, eg, substituted with trifluoroacetyl, or sulfoalkyl), optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, Optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted acylaminoalkyl (eg, A protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, eg, substituted with trifluoroacetyl), optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted Alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylacyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl (eg, optionally substituted with hydroxy and / or O-protecting groups), optional Substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyaminoalkyl, or optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl (eg, any substituent described herein, eg, from (1)-(21) of alkyl) Optionally substituted with selected substituents A thing) (e.g., R Vb 'is optionally substituted alkyl, alkenyl optionally substituted or optionally substituted aminoalkyl, for example, N- protecting group, e.g., as described herein Either, for example, substituted with trifluoroacetyl or sulfoalkyl),

R 12a is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted carboxyaminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl (eg, eg, an N-protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, For example, trifluoroacetyl, or substituted with sulfoalkyl), optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl,

R 12b is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl An optionally substituted aminoalkyl, an optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, an optionally substituted aminoalkynyl (eg, an N-protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, eg, trifluoroacetyl Or substituted with sulfoalkyl),

  Optionally substituted alkoxycarbonyl acyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, optionally substituted Alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl, or optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl.

In certain embodiments, T 1 is O (oxo) and T 2 is S (thio) or Se (seleno). In other embodiments, T 1 is S (thio) and T 2 is O (oxo) or Se (seleno). In some embodiments, R Vb ′ is H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted alkoxy.

In other embodiments, each R 12a and R 12b is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, or optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl. is there. In certain embodiments, R 12a is H. In other embodiments, both R 12a and R 12b are H.

In some embodiments, each R Vb ′ of R 12b is independently an optionally substituted aminoalkyl (eg, an N-protecting group, eg, any of those described herein, eg, trifluoro Acetyl, or those substituted with sulfoalkyl), optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, or optionally substituted acylaminoalkyl (eg, N-protecting groups, eg, For example, substituted with trifluoroacetyl). In some embodiments, the amino and / or alkyl of an optionally substituted aminoalkyl is an optionally substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted alkenyl, an optionally substituted sulfoalkyl, an optionally substituted carboxy. (Eg, substituted with an O-protecting group), optionally substituted hydroxy (eg, substituted with an O-protecting group), optionally substituted carboxyalkyl (eg, substituted with an O-protecting group) Substituted with one or more of optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl (eg, substituted with an O-protecting group), or an N-protecting group. In some embodiments, the optionally substituted aminoalkyl is substituted with an optionally substituted sulfoalkyl or an optionally substituted alkenyl. In certain embodiments, both R 12a and R Vb ″ are H. In certain embodiments, T 1 is O (oxo) and T 2 is S (thio) or Se (seleno). is there.

In some embodiments, R Vb ′ is an optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl or an optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl.

In certain embodiments, R 12a, R 12b, optional substituents R 12c or R Va, a polyethylene glycol group (e.g., - (CH 2) s2 ( OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR Where s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4) and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg 0 to 4, 0~6,1~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer of, R 'is H or C 1 to 20 alkyl), or an amino - polyethylene glycol group (e.g., -NR N1 ( CH 2) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2) a s3 NR N1, where, s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1 to 4), s2 and s3 Each is independently 0 10 (e.g., 0~4,0~6,1~4,1~6, or 10) is an integer, and each R N1 is independently, C 1 to 6 substituted with hydrogen or optionally Is alkyl).

In some embodiments, B is a modified cytosine. Exemplary modified cytosines have the formulas (b10) to (b14):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,
Where

Each of T 3 ′ and T 3 ″ is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or optionally substituted thioalkoxy, or T 3 ′ and T 3 ”In combination (eg, as in T 3 ) to form O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (seleno);

Each V 4 is independently O, S, N (R Vc ) nv , or C (R Vc ) nv , where nv is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Vc is independently H, halo, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, Optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, or optionally substituted alkynyloxy (eg, any substituent described herein, eg, selected from alkyl (1)-(21) The combination of R 13b and R Vc can be combined to form an optionally substituted heterocyclyl;

Each V 5 is independently N (R Vd ) nv , or C (R Vd ) nv , where nv is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Vd is independently H , Halo, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted Heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, or optionally substituted alkynyloxy (eg, any substituent described herein, eg, a substituent selected from alkyl (1)-(21)) Optionally substituted with, for example, V 5 is —CH or N),

Each of R 13a and R 13b are, independently, H, an optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted acyloxyalkyl, alkyl optionally substituted or optionally substituted alkoxy, and R 13b R 14 combinations can be taken together to form an optionally substituted heterocyclyl;

Each R 14 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted haloalkyl, optionally substituted Alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl (eg, substituted with an O-protecting group), optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted Alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted acyloxyalkyl, optionally substituted amino ( For example, —NHR (where R is H, alkyl, aryl, or phosphoryl )), Azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted Aminoalkyl,

Each of R 15 and R 16 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, or optionally substituted alkynyl.

Further exemplary modified cytosines are of formula (b32)-(b35):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each of T 1 and T 3 is independently O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (seleno);

Each of R 13a and R 13b are, independently, H, an optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted acyloxyalkyl, alkyl optionally substituted or optionally substituted alkoxy, and R 13b R 14 combinations can be taken together to form an optionally substituted heterocyclyl;

Each R 14 is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted haloalkyl, optionally substituted Alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl (eg, substituted with an O-protecting group), optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, optionally substituted Alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted acyloxyalkyl, optionally substituted amino ( For example, —NHR (where R is H, alkyl, aryl, or phosphoryl An azide, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted heterocyclyl, an optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, an optionally substituted aminoalkyl (eg, hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl), Optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl,

Each of R 15 and R 16 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, or optionally substituted alkynyl (eg, R 15 is H, R 16 is H or optionally substituted alkyl).

In some embodiments, R 15 is H and R 16 is H or optionally substituted alkyl. In certain embodiments, R 14 is H, acyl, or hydroxyalkyl. In some embodiments, R 14 is halo. In some embodiments, both R 14 and R 15 are H. In some embodiments, both R 15 and R 16 are H. In some embodiments, each of R 14 and R 15 and R 16 is H. In further embodiments, each of R 13a and R 13b is independently H or optionally substituted alkyl.

Further non-limiting examples of modified cytosines include formula (b36):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each R 13b is independently H, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted acyloxyalkyl, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted alkoxy, and the combination of R 13b and R 14b Together can form an optionally substituted heterocyclyl;

Each R 14a and R 14b is independently H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted haloalkyl, optionally Substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl (eg, substituted with an O-protecting group), optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally Substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted acyloxyalkyl, optionally substituted amino (eg, —NHR ( In which R is H, alkyl, aryl, phosphoryl, optionally substituted amino A), azide, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally Substituted aminoalkenyl, or optionally substituted aminoalkynyl,

Each of R 15 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, or optionally substituted alkynyl.

In certain embodiments, R 14b is an optionally substituted amino acid (eg, optionally substituted lysine). In some embodiments, R 14a is H.

In some embodiments, B is a modified guanine. Exemplary modified guanines have the formulas (b15) to (b17):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each of T 4 ′ , T 4 ″ , T 5 ′ , T 5 ″ , T 6 ′ , and T 6 ″ is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted alkoxy , T 4 ′ and T 4 ″ (eg as in T 4 ) or T 5 ′ and T 5 ″ (eg as in T 5 ) or T 6 ′ and T 6 ″ Together (such as at T 6 ) together form O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (seleno);

Each of V 5 and V 6 is independently O, S, N (R Vd ) nv , or C (R Vd ) nv , where nv is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Vd is independently H, halo, thiol, optionally substituted amino acid, cyano, amidine, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally A substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted alkenyl, an optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted alkoxy, an optionally substituted alkenyloxy, or an optionally substituted alkynyloxy (e.g., as described herein) Optional substituents such as those optionally substituted with a substituent selected from alkyl (1) to (21), optionally substituted thioalkoxy, or optionally substituted Amino,

Each of R 17 , R 18 , R 19a , R 19b , R 21 , R 22 , R 23 , and R 24 is independently H, halo, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted An alkenyl, an optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted thioalkoxy, an optionally substituted amino, or an optionally substituted amino acid.

Exemplary modified guanosines have the formulas (b37) to (b40):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each T 4 ′ is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, or optionally substituted alkoxy, and each T 4 is independently O (oxo), S (thio), or Se (seleno),

Each of R 18 , R 19a , R 19b , and R 21 is independently H, halo, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted Thioalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, or optionally substituted amino acid.

In some embodiments, R 18 is H or optionally substituted alkyl. In a further embodiment, T 4 is oxo. In some embodiments, each of R 19a and R 19b is independently H or optionally substituted alkyl.

In some embodiments, B is a modified adenine. Exemplary modified adenines have the formulas (b18) to (b20):
Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof, wherein each V 7 is independently O, S, N (R Ve ) nv , or C (R Ve ) nv In which nv is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R Ve is independently H, halo, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, Optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, or optionally substituted alkynyloxy (eg, any substituent described herein, eg, (1 ) To (21) optionally substituted with a substituent selected from (21),

Each R 25 is independently H, halo, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, or optionally substituted Is amino,

Each of R 26a and R 26b is independently H, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl; An optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, an optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, an optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, an optionally substituted alkoxy, or a polyethylene glycol group (eg, — (CH 2 ) s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 oR '( wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1-4) is an integer of, each of s2 and s3, independently And an integer of 0 to 10 (for example, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10), and R ′ is H or C 1 20 alkyl) in a)), or amino polyethylene glycol group (e.g., -NR N1 (CH 2) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2) s3 NR N1 ( wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 ( For example, it is an integer of 1-6 or 1-4, and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0-10 (for example, 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1). )), Each R N1 is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl))

Each R 27 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, or optionally Substituted amino,

Each R 28 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, or optionally substituted alkynyl;

Each R 29 is independently H, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted Alkynyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or optionally substituted amino.

  Exemplary modified adenines have the formulas (b41) to (b43):

Or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof,

  Where

Each R 25 is independently H, halo, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, or optionally substituted Is amino,

Each of R 26a and R 26b is independently H, optionally substituted acyl, optionally substituted amino acid, optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl; An optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted hydroxyalkyl, an optionally substituted hydroxyalkenyl, an optionally substituted hydroxyalkynyl, an optionally substituted alkoxy, or a polyethylene glycol group (eg, — (CH 2 ) s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 oR '( wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1-4) is an integer of, each of s2 and s3, independently And an integer of 0 to 10 (for example, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10), and R ′ is H or C 1 20 alkyl as)), or amino polyethylene glycol group (e.g., -NR N1 (CH 2) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2) s3 NR N1 ( wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g. , 1-6 or 1-4) and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0-10 (eg 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1 10) and each R N1 is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl)))

Each R 27 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, or optionally Substituted amino.

In some embodiments, R 26a is H and R 26b is optionally substituted alkyl. In some embodiments, each of R 26a and R 26b is independently an optionally substituted alkyl. In certain embodiments, R 27 is optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or optionally substituted thioalkoxy. In other embodiments, R 25 is an optionally substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted alkoxy, or an optionally substituted thioalkoxy.

In certain embodiments, R 26a, optional substituents for R 26b or R 29, is a polyethylene glycol group (e.g., - (CH 2) s2 ( OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR '( wherein Wherein s1 is an integer of 1 to 10 (for example, 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (for example, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 ~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer of,, R 'is H or C 1 to 20 alkyl)), or amino polyethylene glycol group (e.g., -NR N1 (CH 2) s2 ( CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2 ) s3 NR N1 (wherein s1 is an integer of 1 to 10 (eg, 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0-10 (e.g. 0-4, 0-6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10), and each R N1 is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl)).

In some embodiments, B is of formula (b21):
Wherein X 12 is independently O, S, optionally substituted alkylene (eg, methylene), or optionally substituted heteroalkylene, and xa is 0-3. An integer, R 12a and T 2 are as described herein.

In some embodiments, B is of formula (b22):
Wherein R 10 ′ is independently an optionally substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted alkenyl, an optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted Heterocyclyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl , Optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl, or optionally substituted carbamoylalkyl, R 11 , R 12a, T 1, and T 2 Honmyo It is as described in the book.

In some embodiments, B is of formula (b23):
Wherein R 10 is an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, optionally substituted furyl, optionally substituted thienyl, or optionally substituted pyrrolyl), optionally substituted aryl (Eg, optionally substituted phenyl or optionally substituted naphthyl), or any substituent described herein (eg, that of R 10 ), and R 11 (eg, H or R 12a (eg, H or any substituent described herein), T 1 (eg, oxo or any substituent described herein), and T 2 (Eg, oxo or any substituent described herein) is as described herein.
In some embodiments, B is of formula (b24):
Wherein R 14 ′ is independently an optionally substituted alkyl, an optionally substituted alkenyl, an optionally substituted alkynyl, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted Heterocyclyl, optionally substituted alkylaryl, optionally substituted alkylheterocyclyl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally Substituted alkoxycarbonylalkenyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl, optionally substituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkoxy, optionally substituted carboxyalkyl Or optionally substituted A Luba moil alkyl, R 13a, R 13b, R 15, and T 3 are as described herein.

In some embodiments, B is of formula (b25):
Wherein R 14 ′ is an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (eg, an optionally substituted furyl, an optionally substituted thienyl, or an optionally substituted pyrrolyl), optionally substituted Aryl (eg, optionally substituted phenyl or optionally substituted naphthyl), or any substituent described herein (eg, that of R 14 or R 14 ′ ), and R 13a (eg, H or any substituent described herein), R 13b (eg, H or any substituent described herein), R 15 (eg, H or any substituent described herein) ), And T 3 (eg, oxo or any substituent described herein) is as described herein.

In some embodiments, B is a nucleobase selected from the group consisting of cytosine, guanine, adenine, and uracil. In some embodiments, B is
It can be.

In some embodiments, the modified nucleobase is modified uracil. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides with modified uracil include pseudouridine (ψ), pyridine-4-one ribonucleoside, 5-aza-uridine, 6-aza-uridine, 2-thio-5-aza-uridine, 2 - thio - uridine (s 2 U), 4- thio - uridine (s 4 U), 4- thio - pseudouridine, 2-thio - pseudouridine, 5-hydroxy - uridine (ho 5 U), 5-aminoallyl - Uridine, 5-halo-uridine (eg, 5-iodo-uridine or 5-bromo-uridine), 3-methyl-uridine (m 3 U), 5-methoxy-uridine (mo 5 U), uridine 5-oxyacetic acid (cmo 5 U), uridine 5-oxyacetic acid methyl ester (mcmo 5 U), 5- carboxymethyl - uridine (cm 5 U), 1- Rubokishimechiru - pseudouridine, 5-carboxymethyl-hydroxymethyl - uridine (chm 5 U), 5-carboxymethyl-hydroxymethyl - uridine methyl ester (mchm 5 U), 5- methoxycarbonylmethyl - uridine (mcm 5 U), 5-methoxycarbonyl Methyl-2-thio-uridine (mcm 5 s 2 U), 5-aminomethyl-2-thio-uridine (nm 5 s 2 U), 5-methylaminomethyl-uridine (mnm 5 U), 5-methylamino Methyl-2-thio-uridine (mnm 5 s 2 U), 5-methylaminomethyl-2-seleno-uridine (mnm 5 se 2 U), 5-carbamoylmethyl-uridine (ncm 5 U), 5-carboxymethyl aminomethyl - uridine (cmnm 5 U), 5- carboxymethyl Ami Methyl-2-thio - uridine (cmnm 5 s 2 U), 5- propynyl - uridine, 1-propynyl - pseudouridine, 5-Taurinomechiru - uridine (τm 5 U), 1- Taurinomechiru - pseudouridine, 5-Taurinomechiru - 2-thio-uridine (τm 5 s 2 U), 1-taurinomethyl-4-thio-pseudouridine, 5-methyl-uridine (m 5 U, ie, having the nucleobase deoxythymine), 1-methyl pseudouridine (M 1 ψ), 5-methyl-2-thio-uridine (m 5 s 2 U), 1-methyl-4-thio-pseudouridine (m 1 s 4 ψ), 4-thio-1-methyl-pseudo uridine, 3-methyl - pseudouridine (m 3 ψ), 2- thio-1-methyl - pseudouridine, 1-methyl-1-deaza - Yudourijin, 2-thio-1-methyl-1-deaza - pseudouridine, dihydrouridine (D), dihydro pseudouridine, 5,6-dihydrouridine, 5-methyl - dihydro uridine (m 5 D) 2- thio - Dihydrouridine, 2-thio-dihydropseudouridine, 2-methoxy-uridine, 2-methoxy-4-thio-uridine, 4-methoxy-pseudouridine, 4-methoxy-2-thio-pseudouridine, N1-methyl-pseudo Uridine (also known as 1 -methyl pseudouridine (m 1 ψ)), 3- (3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) uridine (acp 3 U), 1-methyl-3- (3-amino-3 - carboxypropyl) pseudouridine (acp 3 ψ), 5- (isopentenyl aminomethyl) Uri Down (inm 5 U), 5- (isopentenyl aminomethyl) -2-thio - uridine (inm 5 s 2 U), α- thio - uridine, 2'-O-methyl - uridine (Um), 5,2 '-O-dimethyl-uridine (m 5 Um), 2'-O-methyl-pseudouridine (ψm), 2-thio-2'-O-methyl-uridine (s 2 Um), 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl- 2′-O-methyl-uridine (mcm 5 Um), 5-carbamoylmethyl-2′-O-methyl-uridine (ncm 5 Um), 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2′-O-methyl-uridine (cmnm) 5 Um), 3,2′-O-dimethyl-uridine (m 3 Um), 5- (isopentenylaminomethyl) -2′-O-methyl-uridine (inm 5 Um), 1-thio-uridine, deoxythio Midine, 2'-F-ara-uridine, 2'-F-uridine, 2'-OH-ara-uridine, 5- (2-carbomethoxyvinyl) uridine, and 5- [3- (1-E-propenyl) Amino) uridine.

In some embodiments, the modified nucleobase is a modified cytosine. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides with modified cytosines include 5-aza-cytidine, 6-aza-cytidine, pseudoisocytidine, 3-methyl-cytidine (m 3 C), N4-acetyl-cytidine (ac 4 C). 5-formyl-cytidine (f 5 C), N4-methyl-cytidine (m 4 C), 5-methyl-cytidine (m 5 C), 5-halo-cytidine (eg 5-iodo-cytidine), 5 - hydroxymethyl - cytidine (hm 5 C), 1- methyl - shoe Doi Société cytidine, pyrrolo - cytidine, pyrrolo - shoe Doi Société cytidine, 2-thio - cytidine (s 2 C), 2-thio-5-methyl - cytidine, 4-thio-pseudoisocytidine, 4-thio-1-methyl-pseudoisocytidine, 4-thio-1-methyl-1-deaza-pseudoisocyti 1-methyl-1-deaza-pseudoisocytidine, zebularine, 5-aza-zebularine, 5-methyl-zebularine, 5-aza-2-thio-zebularine, 2-thio-zebularine, 2-methoxy-cytidine, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-cytidine, 4-methoxy-pseudoisocytidine, 4-methoxy-1-methyl-pseudoisocytidine, ricidin (k 2 C), α-thio-cytidine, 2′-O-methyl- Cytidine (Cm), 5,2′-O-dimethyl-cytidine (m 5 Cm), N4-acetyl-2′-O-methyl-cytidine (ac 4 Cm), N4,2′-O-dimethyl-cytidine ( m 4 Cm), 5- formyl--2'-O-methyl - cytidine (f 5 Cm), N4, N4,2'-O-tri -methyl - cytidine (m 4 2 Cm), 1- thio - cytidine 2'-F-ara-cytidine, 2'-F-cytidine, and 2'-OH-ara-cytidine.

In some embodiments, the modified nucleobase is a modified adenine. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides with modified adenine include 2-amino-purine, 2,6-diaminopurine, 2-amino-6-halo-purine (eg, 2-amino-6-chloro-purine), 6 -Halo-purines (eg 6-chloro-purine), 2-amino-6-methyl-purine, 8-azido-adenosine, 7-deaza-adenine, 7-deaza-8-aza-adenine, 7-deaza- 2-amino-purine, 7-deaza-8-aza-2-amino-purine, 7-deaza-2,6-diaminopurine, 7-deaza-8-aza-2,6-diaminopurine, 1-methyl- Adenosine (m 1 A), 2-methyl-adenine (m 2 A), N6-methyl-adenosine (m 6 A), 2-methylthio-N6-methyl-adenosine (ms 2 m 6 A), N6-isope Nthenyl-adenosine (i 6 A), 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyl-adenosine (ms 2 i 6 A), N6- (cis-hydroxyisopentenyl) adenosine (io 6 A), 2-methylthio-N6- ( cis- hydroxy isopentenyl) adenosine (ms 2 io 6 A), N6- glycidyl senior carbamoyl - adenosine (g 6 A), N6- tray demon carbamoyl - adenosine (t 6 A), N6- methyl -N6- Torre Oni carbamoyl - adenosine (m 6 t 6 A), 2- methylthio -N6- tray Oni carbamoyl - adenosine (ms 2 g 6 A), N6, N6- dimethyl - adenosine (m 6 2 A), N6- hydroxy nor burrs carbamoyl - adenosine (hn 6 A), 2- methylthio -N6- hydroxy-nor Li-carbamoyl - adenosine (ms 2 hn 6 A), N6- acetyl - adenosine (ac 6 A), 7- methyl - adenine, 2-methylthio - adenine, 2-methoxy - adenine, alpha-thio - adenosine, 2' O-methyl-adenosine (Am), N6,2′-O-dimethyl-adenosine (m 6 Am), N6, N6,2′-O-trimethyl-adenosine (m 6 2 Am), 1,2′- O-dimethyl-adenosine (m 1 Am), 2′-O-ribosyl adenosine (phosphate) (Ar (p)), 2-amino-N6-methyl-purine, 1-thio-adenosine, 8-azido-adenosine, 2'-F-ara-adenosine, 2'-F-adenosine, 2'-OH-ara-adenosine, and N6- (19-amino-pentaoxanonadecyl) -adenosine It is.

In some embodiments, the modified nucleobase is a modified guanine. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides with modified guanines include inosine (I), 1-methyl-inosine (m 1 I), wyocin (imG), methyl wyocin (mimG), 4-demethyl-wyosin (imG-14 ), Isowyocin (imG2), wivetocin (yW), peroxywitocin (o 2 yW), hydroxywivestocin (OHyW), unmodified hydroxywivestocin (OHyW *), 7-deaza-guanosine, queosine (Q) ), epoxy click eosin (OQ), galactosyl - Kueoshin (GalQ), mannosyl - Kueoshin (manQ), 7- cyano-7-deaza - guanosine (preQ 0), 7- amino-7-deaza - guanosine (preQ 1 ), Alkaeosin (G + ), 7-deaza-8-aza - guanosine, 6-thio - guanosine, 6-thio-7-deaza - guanosine, 6-thio-7-deaza-8-aza - guanosine, 7-methyl - guanosine (m 7 G), 6-thio-7 Methyl-guanosine, 7-methyl-inosine, 6-methoxy-guanosine, 1-methyl-guanosine (m 1 G), N2-methyl-guanosine (m 2 G), N 2, N2-dimethyl-guanosine (m 2 2 G ), N2,7- dimethyl - guanosine (m 2,7 G), N2, N2,7- dimethyl - guanosine (m 2,2,7 G), 8- oxo - guanosine, 7-methyl-8-oxo - Guanosine, 1-methyl-6-thio-guanosine, N2-methyl-6-thio-guanosine, N2, N2-dimethyl-6-thio-guanosine, α-thio-guanosine, 2′-O-methyl - guanosine (Gm), N2- methyl -2'-O-methyl - guanosine (m 2 Gm), N2, N2- dimethyl -2'-O-methyl - guanosine (m 2 2 Gm), 1- methyl-2 '-O-methyl-guanosine (m 1 Gm), N2,7-dimethyl-2'-O-methyl-guanosine (m 2,7 Gm), 2'-O-methyl-inosine (Im), 1,2 '-O-dimethyl-inosine (m 1 Im), and 2'-O-ribosyl guanosine (phosphate) (Gr (p)).

  The nucleotide nucleobase may be independently selected from purines, pyrimidines, purines, or pyrimidine analogs. For example, each nucleobase can be independently selected from adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, or hypoxanthine. In another embodiment, the nucleobase includes, for example, pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine, 5-methylcytosine (5-me-C), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2-aminoadenine. 6-methyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-propyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-thiouracil, 2-thiothymine and 2-thiocytosine, 5-propynyluracil and cytosine, 6-azouracil, Cytosine and thymine, 5-uracil (pseudouracil), 4-thiouracil, 8-halo (eg 8-bromo), 8-amino, 8-thiol, 8-thioalkyl, 8-hydroxyl and other 8-substituted adenines and Guanine, 5-halo, especially 5-bromo, 5- Rifluoromethyl and other 5-substituted uracils and cytosines, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine, 8-azaguanine and 8-azaadenine, deazaguanine, 7-deazaguanine, 3-deazaguanine, deazaadenine, 7-deazaadenine, 3-deazaadenine Pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine, imidazo [1,5-a] 1,3,5 triazinone, 9-deazapurine, imidazo [4,5-d] pyrazine, thiazolo [4,5-d] pyrimidine, Naturally occurring synthetic derivatives of bases including pyrazin-2-one, 1,2,4-triazine, pyridazine, and 1,3,5 triazine may also be included. When a nucleotide is indicated using the abbreviation A, G, C, T, or U, each letter refers to a representative base and / or derivative thereof, for example, A is adenine, or, for example, 7- Includes adenine analogs such as deazaadenine.

Modifications at Internucleoside Bonds Modified nucleotides that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA molecule can be modified at an internucleoside bond (eg, a phosphate backbone). In this specification, in the context of the polynucleotide backbone, the expressions “phosphate” and “phosphodiester” are used interchangeably. Skeletal phosphate groups can be modified by substituting one or more of the oxygen atoms with different substituents. In addition, modified nucleosides and nucleotides can include extensive substitutions of unmodified phosphate moieties with other internucleoside linkages described herein. Examples of modified phosphate groups include phosphorothioates, phosphoroselenates, boranophosphates, boranophosphate esters, hydrogen phosphonates, phosphoramidates, phosphorodiamidates, alkyl or aryl phosphonates, and phosphotriesters. However, it is not limited to these. The phosphorodithioate has both unbound oxygens substituted with sulfur. The phosphate linker can also be modified by substitution of the attached oxygen with nitrogen (bridged phosphoramidate), sulfur (bridged phosphorothioate), and carbon (bridged methylenephosphonate).

  The α-thio substituted phosphate moiety is provided to impart stability to RNA and DNA polymers via non-natural phosphorothioate backbone bonds. Phosphorothioate DNA and RNA have increased nuclease resistance followed by a longer half-life in the cellular environment. Phosphorothioate-binding polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA molecules are also expected to reduce the innate immune response by weaker binding / activation of cellular innate immune molecules.

  In certain embodiments, the modified nucleoside is an α-thio-nucleoside (eg, 5′-O- (1-thiophosphate) -adenosine, 5′-O- (1-thiophosphate) -cytidine (α-thio- Cytidine), 5'-O- (1-thiophosphate) -guanosine, 5'-O- (1-thiophosphate) -uridine, or 5'-O- (1-thiophosphate) -pseudouridine).

  Other internucleoside linkages that may be used in accordance with the present invention, including internucleoside linkages that do not contain a phosphorus atom, are described herein below.

Combinations of modified sugars, nucleobases, and internucleoside linkages The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention can include combinations of modifications to sugars, nucleobases, and / or internucleoside linkages. These combinations can include any one or more of the modifications described herein. For example, formulas (Ia), (Ia-1) to (Ia-3), (Ib) to (If), (IIa) to (IIp), (IIb-1), (IIb-2), (IIc- Any of the nucleotides described herein in 1) to (IIc-2), (IIn-1), (IIn-2), (IVa) to (IVl), and (IXa) to (IXr) Can be combined with any of the nucleobases described herein (eg, formulas (b1)-(b43) or any other described herein).

Synthesis of polypeptides, primary constructs, and mRNA mRNA molecules Polypeptides, primary constructs, and mRNA mRNA molecules used in accordance with the present invention may be prepared according to any useful technique described herein. The modified nucleosides and nucleotides used in the synthesis of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA molecules disclosed herein can be prepared from readily available starting materials using the following general methods and procedures. Where typical or preferred process conditions (eg, reaction temperature, time, molar ratio of reactants, solvent, pressure, etc.) are provided, those skilled in the art will optimize and develop additional process conditions. Will be able to. Optimum reaction conditions may vary with the particular reactants or solvent used, but such conditions can be determined by one skilled in the art using routine optimization procedures.

The process described herein can be monitored according to any suitable method known in the art. For example, product formation may be performed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (eg, 1 H or 13 C), infrared spectroscopy, spectrophotometry (eg, UV visible), spectroscopic means such as mass spectrometry, or high performance liquid chromatography. (HPLC) or may be monitored by chromatography such as thin layer chromatography.

  Preparation of the polypeptides, primary constructs, and mmRNA molecules of the invention can involve the protection and deprotection of various chemical groups. The need for protection and deprotection, and the selection of appropriate protecting groups can be readily determined by one skilled in the art. Protecting group chemistry is described, for example, in Greene, et al., Which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2d. Ed. , Wiley & Sons, 1991.

  The reactions of the processes described herein can be performed in a suitable solvent that can be readily selected by those skilled in the art of organic synthesis. Suitable solvents are those that are substantially non-reactive with the starting material (reactant), intermediate, or product at the temperature at which the reaction is carried out, ie, the temperature that can range from the freezing temperature of the solvent to the boiling point of the solvent. possible. A given reaction can be performed in one solvent or a mixture of two or more solvents. Depending on the particular reaction step, a suitable solvent for the particular reaction step can be selected.

Degradation of the racemic mixture of modified nucleosides and nucleotides can be performed by any of a number of methods known in the art. Examples of methods include fractional recrystallization using a “chiral resolving acid” which is an optically active salt-forming organic acid. Decomposable acids suitable for fractional recrystallization include, for example, optically active acids such as tartaric acid, diacetyltartaric acid, dibenzoyltartaric acid, mandelic acid, malic acid, lactic acid, or the D and L forms of various optically active camphorsulfonic acids. . Degradation of the racemic mixture can also be performed by elution on a column packed with an optically active degrading agent (eg, dinitrobenzoylphenylglycine). Suitable elution solvent compositions can be determined by one skilled in the art.
Modified nucleosides and nucleotides (eg, building block molecules) are described in Ogata et al., Each incorporated by reference in their entirety. , J .; Org. Chem. 74: 2585-2588 (2009), Purmal et al. , Nucl. Acids Res. 22 (1): 72-78, (1994), Fukuhara et al. Biochemistry, 1 (4): 563-568 (1962), and Xu et al. , Tetrahedron, 48 (9): 1729-1740 (1992).

  The polypeptides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention may or may not be uniformly modified along the entire length of the molecule. For example, one or more or all types of nucleotides (eg, purine or pyrimidine, or any one or more of A, G, U, C) may be a polynucleotide of the invention or a given It may or may not be uniformly modified in a predetermined sequence region (eg, one or more of the sequence regions depicted in FIG. 1). In some embodiments, all nucleotides X in a polynucleotide of the invention (or a given sequence region thereof) are modified, where X is any one of nucleotides A, G, U, C. Or a combination A + G, A + U, A + C, G + U, G + C, U + C, A + G + U, A + G + C, G + U, or A + G + C.

  Different sugar modifications, nucleotide modifications, and / or internucleoside linkages (eg, backbone structures) may exist at various positions in the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. One skilled in the art will recognize that the nucleotide analog or other modification (s) can be any position of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA such that the function of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is substantially reduced. Recognize that it can be located at (multiple). The modification can also be a 5 'or 3' terminal modification. The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises from about 1% to about 100% modified nucleotides (total nucleotide content or one or more nucleotides, ie, any one or more of A, G, U, or C). Any related) or any intermediate ratio (eg 1% -20%, 1% -25%, 1% -50%, 1% -60%, 1% -70%, 1% -80% 1% to 90%, 1% to 95%, 10% to 20%, 10% to 25%, 10% to 50%, 10% to 60%, 10% to 70%, 10% to 80%, 10% % -90%, 10% -95%, 10% -100%, 20% -25%, 20% -50%, 20% -60%, 20% -70%, 20% -80%, 20%- 90%, 20% to 95%, 20% to 100%, 50% to 60%, 50% to 7 %, 50% -80%, 50% -90%, 50% -95%, 50% -100%, 70% -80%, 70% -90%, 70% -95%, 70% -100%, 80% to 90%, 80% to 95%, 80% to 100%, 90% to 95%, 90% to 100%, and 95% to 100%).

In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises a modified pyrimidine (eg, modified uracil / uridine / U or modified cytosine / cytidine / C). In some embodiments, uracil or uridine (generally U) in a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA molecule is about 1% to about 100% modified uracil or modified uridine (eg, 1% to 20%, 1% -25%, 1% -50%, 1% -60%, 1% -70%, 1% -80%, 1% -90%, 1% -95%, 10% -20%, 10% -25%, 10% -50%, 10% -60%, 10% -70%, 10% -80%, 10% -90%, 10% -95%, 10% -100%, 20% -25 %, 20% to 50%, 20% to 60%, 20% to 70%, 20% to 80%, 20% to 90%, 20% to 95%, 20% to 100%, 50% to 60%, 50% -70%, 50% -80%, 50% -90%, 50% -95%, 50% -100% 70% -80%, 70% -90%, 70% -95%, 70% -100%, 80% -90%, 80% -95%, 80% -100%, 90% -95%, 90% -100%, and 95-100% modified uracil or modified uridine). A modified uracil or uridine can be replaced with a compound having a single unique structure or multiple compounds having different structures (eg, 2, 3, 4 or more unique structures as described herein). In some embodiments, the cytosine or cytidine (generally C) in the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA molecule is about 1% to about 100% modified cytosine or modified cytidine (eg, 1% to 20%, 1% -25%, 1% -50%, 1% -60%, 1% -70%, 1% -80%, 1% -90%, 1% -95%, 10% -20%, 10% -25%, 10% -50%, 10% -60%, 10% -70%, 10% -80%, 10% -90%, 10% -95%, 10% -100%, 20% -25 %, 20% to 50%, 20% to 60%, 20% to 70%, 20% to 80%, 20% to 90%, 20% to 95%, 20% to 100%, 50% to 60%, 50% -70%, 50% -80%, 50% -90%, 50% -95%, 50% -100% 70% -80%, 70% -90%, 70% -95%, 70% -100%, 80% -90%, 80% -95%, 80% -100%, 90% -95%, 90% ~ 100%, and 95% -100% modified cytosine or modified cytidine). The modified cytosine or cytidine can be replaced with a compound having a single unique structure or a plurality of compounds having different structures (eg, 2, 3, 4 or more unique structures as described herein).
In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides formula (Ia-1):
Providing a method of synthesizing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, a first region, a first flanking region, or a second flanking region) comprising n linked nucleosides having:
a) Formula (IV-1):
The nucleotide of formula (V-1):
(Wherein Y 9 is H, hydroxy, phosphoryl, pyrophosphate, sulfate, amino, thiol, an optionally substituted amino acid, or peptide (eg, 2-12 amino acids) Each P 1 , P 2 , and P 3 is independently a suitable protecting group,
Represents a solid support),
Providing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of formula (VI-1);
And b) oxidizing or sulfurizing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of formula (V) to yield a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of formula (VII-1);
And c) removing the protecting group to yield a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of formula (Ia).

  In some embodiments, steps a) and b) are repeated from 1 to about 10,000 times. In some embodiments, the method further comprises a nucleotide (eg, an mRNA mRNA molecule) selected from the group consisting of A, C, G, and U (adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, and uracil). In some embodiments, the nucleobase can be pyrimidine or a derivative thereof. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be translatable.

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, and other components of the mRNA are optional and are beneficial in some embodiments. For example, a 5 'untranslated region (UTR) and / or a 3' UTR are provided, either or both of which can independently contain one or more different nucleotide modifications. In such embodiments, nucleotide modifications may also be present in translatable regions. Polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA containing Kozak sequences are also provided.

Exemplary synthesis of modified nucleic acids or mmRNA, eg, modified nucleotides incorporated into RNA or mRNA, is provided in Schemes 1-11 below. Scheme 1 provides a general method for phosphorylation of nucleosides, including modified nucleosides.
Scheme 1

Various protecting groups can be used to control the reaction. For example, Scheme 2 provides for the use of multiple protection and deprotection steps to promote phosphorylation at the 5 ′ position of the sugar, rather than the 2 ′ and 3 ′ hydroxyl groups.
Scheme 2

Modified nucleotides can be synthesized by any useful method. Schemes 3, 4, and 7 provide exemplary methods for synthesizing modified nucleotides with modified purine nucleobases, and Schemes 5 and 6 synthesize modified nucleotides with modified pseudouridine or pseudoisocytidine, respectively. An exemplary method for doing so is provided.
Scheme 3
Scheme 4
Scheme 5
Scheme 6
Scheme 7

Schemes 8 and 9 provide exemplary syntheses of modified nucleotides. Scheme 10 provides a non-limiting biocatalytic method for producing nucleotides.
Scheme 8
Scheme 9
Scheme 10

Scheme 11 provides an exemplary synthesis of modified uracil where the N1 position is modified with R 12b as provided elsewhere and the 5 ′ position of ribose is phosphorylated. T 1 , T 2 , R 12a , R 12b , and r are as provided herein. This synthesis and optimized versions thereof can be used to modify other pyrimidine nucleobases and purine nucleobases (see, eg, formulas (b1)-(b43)) and / or one or more phosphorus An acid group can be introduced (eg, at the 5 ′ position of the sugar). This alkylation reaction can be used to generate any reactive group (eg, amino group) in any nucleobase described herein (eg, amino acids in the Watson-Crick base-pairing surface of cytosine, uracil, adenine, and guanine). The group) can also contain one or more optionally substituted alkyl groups.
Scheme 11

Nucleotide combinations in mmRNA Further examples of modified nucleotide and modified nucleotide combinations are provided in Table 9 below. These combinations of modified nucleotides can be used to form a polypeptide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. Unless otherwise stated, modified nucleotides can be fully substituted with the natural nucleotides of the modified nucleic acids or mmRNAs of the invention. As a non-limiting example, a natural nucleotide uridine can be replaced with a modified nucleoside as described herein. In another non-limiting example, the natural nucleotide uridine can be partially substituted with at least one of the modified nucleosides disclosed herein (eg, about 0.1%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% 95%, or 99.9%).
Table 9

Further examples of modified nucleotide combinations are provided in Table 10 below. These combinations of modified nucleotides can be used to form a polypeptide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention.
Table 10

  In some embodiments, at least 25% of cytosine is replaced with compounds of formula (b10)-(b14) (eg, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%). At least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95% Or about 100%).

  In some embodiments, at least 25% of uracil is replaced with compounds of formula (b1)-(b9) (eg, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%). At least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95% Or about 100%).

  In some embodiments, at least 25% of cytosine is replaced with a compound of formula (b10)-(b14) and at least 25% of uracil is replaced with a compound of formula (b1)-(b9) ( For example, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75 %, At least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, or about 100%).

IV. Pharmaceutical Composition Formulation, Administration, Delivery, and Dosing The present invention provides polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA compositions and complexes in combination with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. . The pharmaceutical composition may optionally comprise one or more additional active substances, for example therapeutically and / or prophylactically active substances. General considerations in pharmaceutical formulation and / or manufacturing are described, for example, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 21 st ed., Incorporated herein by reference. , Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

  In some embodiments, the composition is administered to a human, i.e., a human patient or subject. For the purposes of this disclosure, the expression “active ingredient” generally refers to the polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA to be delivered described herein.

  The description of the pharmaceutical composition provided herein is in principle directed to a pharmaceutical composition that is suitable for administration to humans, but such a composition is generally suitable for any other animal. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that it is suitable for administration to, eg, non-human animals, eg, non-human mammals. The modification of pharmaceutical compositions suitable for human administration in order to make the composition suitable for administration to various animals is well understood and veterinary pharmacologists even use it However, such modifications can be designed and / or implemented using only routine experimentation. Subjects intended for administration of the pharmaceutical composition include human and / or other primates; commercially relevant such as cows, pigs, horses, sheep, cats, dogs, mice, and / or rats Mammals including mammals; and / or birds including but not limited to commercially suitable birds such as poultry, chickens, ducks, geese, and / or turkeys.

  Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be prepared by any method known in the art of pharmacology or developed in the future. In general, such methods of preparation include mixing the active ingredient with excipients and / or one or more other accessory ingredients, and then, if necessary and / or desirable, the product in the desired single or multiple doses. Dividing, molding, and / or packaging into units.

  A pharmaceutical composition according to the invention may be prepared, packaged and / or sold in bulk, as a single unit dose and / or as a plurality of single unit doses. As used herein, a “unit dose” is an individual amount of a pharmaceutical composition that contains a predetermined amount of an active ingredient. The amount of active ingredient is generally the dosage of active ingredient that will be administered to a subject, and / or such dosage, eg, one half or one third of such dosage. Equivalent to a convenient fraction.

  The relative amounts of the active ingredients, pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, and / or any further ingredients in the pharmaceutical composition according to the invention are determined by the identity, size, and / or condition of the subject being treated. Depending on the route to which the composition is to be administered. By way of example, the composition comprises from 0.1% to 100 w / w%, eg 0.5-50 w / w%, 1-30 w / w%, 5-80 w / w%, at least 80 w / w% active ingredient Can be included.

Formulation The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention are: (1) increase stability, (2) increase cell transfection, (3) (eg, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mRNAs Allows sustained or delayed release (from depot formulations); (4) alters biodistribution (eg, targets polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA to specific tissues or cell types); (5) code In order to increase the translation of the encoded protein in vivo and / or to alter the release profile of the encoded protein in vivo, it can be formulated with one or more excipients. In addition to traditional excipients such as any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surfactants, isotonic agents, thickeners or emulsifiers, preservatives, Excipients of the invention include, without limitation, lipidoids, liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, polymers, lipoplexes, core-shell nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA (eg, for implantation into a subject Cell), hyaluronidase, nanoparticle mimics, and combinations thereof. Thus, the formulations of the present invention can include one or more excipients, each of which together increase the stability of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, cells by the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. An amount that increases transfection, increases the expression of a protein encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, and / or alters the release profile of a protein encoded by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA . Furthermore, the primary construct and mmRNA of the present invention may be formulated using self-assembling nucleic acid nanoparticles.

  Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be prepared by any method known or later developed in the pharmacological arts. In general, such preparation methods include a step of bringing into association the active ingredient with excipients and / or one or more other accessory ingredients.

  A pharmaceutical composition according to the present disclosure may be prepared, packaged and / or sold in bulk, as a single unit dose and / or as a plurality of single unit doses. As used herein, “unit dose” refers to a discrete amount of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a predetermined amount of active ingredient. The amount of active ingredient generally includes, but is not limited to, the dosage of active ingredient that will be administered to the subject, and / or, for example, one half or one third of such dosage, Equivalent to a convenient fraction of such dosage.

  The relative amounts of active ingredients, pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, and / or any additional ingredients in the pharmaceutical compositions according to the present disclosure are determined by the identity, size, and / or condition of the subject being treated. Depending on the route to which the composition is to be administered. For example, the composition may contain from 0.1 w / w% to 99% active ingredient.

  In some embodiments, the formulations described herein can contain at least one mmRNA. As non-limiting examples, the formulation may contain 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mmRNA. In one embodiment, the formulation comprises human proteins, veterinary proteins, bacterial proteins, biological proteins, antibodies, immunogenic proteins, therapeutic peptides and proteins, secreted proteins, plasma membrane proteins, cytoplasm and cells Modifications encoding proteins selected from categories such as, but not limited to, scaffold proteins, intracellular membrane-bound proteins, nuclear proteins, proteins associated with human diseases and / or proteins associated with non-human diseases It may contain mRNA. In one embodiment, the formulation contains a protein encoded by at least three modified mRNAs. In one embodiment, the formulation contains a protein encoded by at least 5 modified mRNAs

The pharmaceutical formulation may be any solvent, dispersion medium, diluent, or other liquid vehicle, dispersion or suspension aid, surface active, as used herein, suitable for the particular dosage form desired. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients may be further included, including but not limited to agents, isotonic agents, thickeners or emulsifiers, preservatives and the like. Various excipients for formulating pharmaceutical compositions and techniques for preparing the compositions are known in the art (Remington: The Science, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. and Practice of Pharmacy, 21 st Edition, AR Gennaro, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006). Any conventional excipient vehicle that causes any undesirable biological effects or otherwise interacts in a deleterious manner with any other component (s) of the pharmaceutical composition, or Except where it is incompatible with the derivative, its use may be contemplated within the scope of this disclosure.

  In some embodiments, the particle size of the lipid nanoparticles can be increased and / or decreased. The change in particle size may be able to help counter a biological response, such as but not limited to inflammation, or may increase the biological effect of the modified mRNA delivered to the mammal.

  Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions include inert diluents, surfactants and / or emulsifiers, preservatives, buffers, lubricants, and / or oils. Including, but not limited to. Such excipients may optionally be included in the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention.

Lipidoids The synthesis of lipidoids has been described in detail, and formulations containing these compounds are particularly suitable for delivery of polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNAs, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Mahon et al., Bioconjug Chem. 2010 21: 1448-1454, Schroeder et al., J Internal Med. 2010 267: 9-21, Akinc et al., Nat Biotechnol.2008 26: 561-569, Lov. et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2010 107: 1864-1869, Siegwalt et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2011108: 129996-30 1 see).

  These lipidoids have been used to effectively deliver double stranded small interfering RNA in rodents and non-human primates (all of which are incorporated herein in their entirety by Akinc et al. , Nat Biotechnol.2008 26: 561-569, Frank-Kamenskysky et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2008 105: 11915-11920, Akinc et al., Mol Ther.2009 17: 872-879 et al. , Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010 107: 1864-1869, Leuschner et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2011 29: 1005-1010), book. The disclosure describes their formulation and use in delivering single-stranded polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA. Complexes, micelles, liposomes, or particles containing these lipidoids can be prepared and therefore, as determined by production of the encoded protein after injection of the lipidoid formulation via a local and / or systemic route of administration. Effective delivery of nucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA can result. Polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmidolipidoid complexes can be administered by a variety of means including, but not limited to, intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous routes.

  In vivo delivery of nucleic acids includes, but is not limited to, many parameters including, but not limited to, pharmaceutical composition, nature of particle PEGylation, degree of loading, oligonucleotide to lipid ratio, and particle size. Can be influenced by pharmacological parameters (Akinc et al., Mol Ther. 2009 17: 872-879, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). As an example, slight changes in the anchor chain length of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) lipids can have a significant effect on in vivo efficacy. Penta [3- (1-laurylaminopropionyl)]-triethylenetetramine hydrochloride (TETA-5LAP (also known as 98N12-5), Murugaiah et al., Analytical Biochemistry, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 401: 61 (2010)), C12-200 (including derivatives and variants), and formulations with different lipidoids, including but not limited to MD1, can be tested for in vivo activity.

  Lipidoids referred to herein as “98N12-5” are described in Akinc et al., Which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. Mol Ther. 2009 17: 872-879 (see FIG. 2) (see FIG. 2).

  Lipidoids referred to herein as “C12-200” are described in Love et al., Both incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010 107: 1864-1869 (see FIG. 2) and Liu and Huang, Molecular Therapy. 2010 669-670 (see FIG. 2). Lipidoid formulations can include particles that contain either three or four or more components in addition to the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. By way of example, formulations with certain lipidoids include, but are not limited to 98N12-5, and may contain 42% lipidoid, 48% cholesterol, and 10% PEG (C14 alkyl chain length). As another example, formulations with certain lipidoids include, but are not limited to, C12-200, 50% lipidoid, 10% distyaroylphosphatidylcholine, 38.5% cholesterol, and 1. It may contain 5% PEG-DMG.

In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA formulated with a lipidoid for systemic intravenous administration can target the liver. For example, using polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA and including a lipid molar composition of 42% 98N12-5, 48% cholesterol, and 10% PEG-lipid, about 7.5-1 total lipid pairs The final optimized intravenous formulation with the final weight ratio of polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, and the C14 alkyl chain length on the PEG lipid and having an average particle size of approximately 50-60 nm is the liver (See Akinc et al., Mol Ther. 2009 17: 872-879, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). In another example, C12-200 (see US Provisional Application No. 61 / 175,770 and published International Application No. WO2010129709, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Can be used to have a molar ratio of C / 10-200 / distearoylphosphatidylcholine / cholesterol / PEG-DMG of 50/10 / 38.5 / 1.5, 7: 1 total lipid to polynucleotide, Intravenous preparations having a primary construct, or weight ratio of mmRNA, and an average particle size of 80 nm may be effective to deliver polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA to hepatocytes (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Love et al., Proc Natl Ac ad Sci USA. 2010 107: 1864-1869). In another embodiment, MD1 lipidoid-containing formulations can be used to effectively deliver polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA to hepatocytes in vivo. The properties of lipidoid formulations optimized for intramuscular or subcutaneous routes can vary greatly depending on the target cell type and the ability of the formulation to diffuse into the bloodstream through the extracellular matrix. Due to the size of the endothelium window, a particle size of less than 150 nm may be desired for effective hepatocyte delivery (Akinc et al., Mol Ther., Incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). 2009 17: 872-879), lipidoid formulated polynucleotides, primary constructs, for delivery of the formulation to other cell types including, but not limited to, endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, and muscle cells, Or the use of mmRNA may not be size limited as well. The use of lipidoid formulations to deliver siRNA in vivo to other non-hepatocyte cells such as bone marrow and endothelium has been reported (Akinc et al., Nat, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Biotechnol.2008 26: 561-569, Leuschner et al., Nat Biotechnol.2011 29: 1005-1010, Cho et al.Adv.Funct.Matter.2009 19: 3112-3118, 8 th International Judah Folm. See MA October 8-9, 2010). Effective delivery to bone marrow cells such as monocytes, lipidoid formulations can have similar component molar ratios. Using different ratios of lipidoids to other components including but not limited to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and PEG-DMG, preparations of polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA It can be optimized for delivery to different cell types including but not limited to cells, bone marrow cells, muscle cells and the like. For example, the component molar ratio can include, but is not limited to, 50% C12-200, 10% distearoylphosphatidylcholine, 38.5% cholesterol, and 1.5% PEG-DMG. (See Leuschner et al., Nat Biotechnol 2011 29: 1005-1010, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). The use of lipidoid formulations for local delivery of nucleic acids to cells (such as but not limited to adipocytes and muscle cells) via either subcutaneous or intramuscular delivery is desirable for systemic delivery. May not require all of the formulation components, and thus may include only lipidoids and polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA.

  Since lipidoids may be able to increase cell transfection by polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA and / or increase translation of the encoded protein, a combination of different lipidoids may be used, May improve the efficiency of protein production by directing primary constructs or mmRNA (see Whitehead et al., Mol. Ther. 2011, 19: 1688-1694, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). .

Liposomes, lipoplexes, and lipid nanoparticles The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can be formulated using one or more liposomes, lipoplexes, or lipid nanoparticles. In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA pharmaceutical composition comprises a liposome. Liposomes are artificially prepared vesicles that can be composed primarily of lipid bilayers and can be used as delivery vehicles for the administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical formulations. Liposomes can be several hundred nanometers in diameter and can contain a series of concentric bilayers separated by narrow aqueous compartments (MLV), small single cell vesicles that can be smaller than 50 nm in diameter (SUV), and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), which can be 50-500 nm in diameter, etc., but can be of different sizes. Liposome designs include, but are not limited to, opsonins or ligands to improve the binding of liposomes to unhealthy tissues or to activate events such as, but not limited to, endocytosis. Liposomes may contain low or high pH to improve delivery of pharmaceutical formulations.

  The formation of liposomes depends on the pharmaceutical formulation and liposome component to be encapsulated, the nature of the medium in which the lipid vesicles are dispersed, the effective concentration of the encapsulated substance and its potential toxicity, during vesicle application and / or delivery. Any additional processes involved, optimized size of vesicles for the intended application, polydispersity, and shelf life, and the possibility of batch-to-batch reproducibility and large-scale production of safe and efficient liposome products Such as, but not limited to, physicochemical properties.

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions described herein include, without limitation, 1,2-dioleyloxy-N, N-dimethylaminopropane (DODMA) liposomes, DiLa2 liposomes from Marina Biotech (Bothell, WA). 1,2-dilinoleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane (DLin-DMA), 2,2-dilinoleyl-4- (2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[1,3] -dioxolane (DLin- Liposomes such as those formed from KC2-DMA), and MC3 (US Patent Publication No. 201304120, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), and Janssen Biotech, Inc. Liposomes that can deliver small molecule drugs such as, but not limited to, DOXIL® by (Horsham, PA) may also be included.

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions described herein are, without limitation, stabilized plasmid-lipids previously described and shown to be suitable for oligonucleotide delivery in vitro and in vivo. Liposomes such as those formed from the synthesis of particles (SPLP) or stabilized nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALP) may be included (Wheeler et al. Gene Therapy, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. 1999 6: 271-281, Zhang et al. Gene Therapy.1999 6: 1438-1447, Jeffs et al.Pharm Res.2005 22: 362-372, Morrissey et al., Nat Biotechnol. 002-1007, Zimmermann et al., Nature.2006 441: 111-114, Heyes et al. J Contr Rel. 2005 107: 276-287, Sample et al. Nature Biotech.2010 28: 172-176, Judge et al. J Clin Invest. 2009 119: 661-673, deFougerlesHum Gene Ther.2008 19: 125-132). The original manufacturing method by Wheeler et al. Is a detergent dialysis method, which was later improved by Jeffs et al. And is referred to as a spontaneous vesicle formation method. Liposome formulations are composed of three to four lipid components in addition to the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. By way of example, liposomes are described by Jeffs et al. As described in 55% cholesterol, 20% distyaroylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 10% PEG-S-DSG, and 15% 1,2- Dioleyloxy-N, N-dimethylaminopropane (DODMA) can be included, but is not limited thereto. As another example, certain liposome formulations contain 48% cholesterol, 20% DSPC, 2% PEG-c-DMA, and 30% cationic lipid, as described by Heyes et al. The cationic lipid may be, but is not limited to, 1,2-distearyloxy-N, N-dimethylaminopropane (DSDMA), DODMA, DLin-DMA, or 1,2- It may be dilinolenyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane (DLenDMA).

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition may comprise liposomes that can be formed to deliver mmRNA that can encode at least one immunogen. The mmRNA may be encapsulated by liposomes and / or it may be contained in an aqueous core, which may then be encapsulated by liposomes, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. International Publication Nos. WO2012031046, WO2012031043, WO2012030901, and WO2012006378, which are incorporated). In another embodiment, the mRNA that can encode the immunogen may be formulated in a cationic oil-in-water emulsion, which emulsion particles interact with the mRNA to anchor the molecule to the emulsion particles. Possible oil cores and cationic lipids (see International Publication No. WO2012006380, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). In yet another embodiment, the lipid formulation may comprise at least a cationic lipid that is a lipid capable of improving transfection, and at least one lipid containing a hydrophilic parietal group linked to the lipid moiety (each of which is See International Publication No. WO2011076807 and US Publication No. 20110200582, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA encoding the immunogen may be formulated in lipid vesicles that may have crosslinks between functionalized lipid bilayers (by reference). (See US Publication No. 20120177724, which is incorporated herein in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may be formulated in lipid vesicles that may have crosslinks between functionalized lipid bilayers.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may be formulated in a liposome comprising a cationic lipid. Liposomes can be prepared as described in International Publication No. WO2013006825, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety: from nitrogen atoms in 1: 1 to 20: 1 cationic lipids: phosphates in RNA (N: P ratio). In another embodiment, the liposome may have an N: P ratio of greater than 20: 1 or less than 1: 1.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may be formulated in a lipid-polycation complex. Formation of the lipid-polycation complex may be accomplished by methods known in the art and / or as described in US Publication No. 20120178702, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. By way of non-limiting example, polycations include cationic peptides or polypeptides such as, but not limited to, polylysine, polyornithine, and / or polyarginine, and internationally incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The cationic peptide described in Publication No. WO20132013326 may be included. In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA is a lipid-polycation that may further comprise a neutral lipid, such as but not limited to cholesterol or dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). It may be formulated in a complex.

  Liposomal formulations can be influenced by, but not limited to, the selection of cationic lipid components, the degree of cationic lipid saturation, the nature of PEGylation, the ratio of all components, and the size. Not. In one example by Sample et al. (Sample et al. Nature Biotech. 2010 28: 172-176, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), the liposomal formulation comprises 57.1% cationic lipid, 7.1% It was composed of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, 34.3% cholesterol, and 1.4% PEG-c-DMA. As another example, by altering the composition of the cationic lipid, siRNA could be effectively delivered by various antigen presenting cells (Basha et al. Mol Ther, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). 2011 19: 2186-2200).

  In some embodiments, the ratio of PEG in a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulation can be increased or decreased and / or the carbon chain length of the PEG lipid is modified from C14 to C18 so that the pharmacokinetics of the LNP formulation And / or biodistribution can be changed. As a non-limiting example, the LNP formulation may contain 1-5% lipid molar ratio of PEG-c-DOMG compared to cationic lipids, DSPC, and cholesterol. In another embodiment, PEG-c-DOMG is PEG-DSG (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol) or PEG-DPG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene). Glycol) and the like, but not limited thereto, may be replaced with PEG lipids. The cationic lipid may be selected from any lipid known in the art, including but not limited to DLin-MC3-DMA, DLin-DMA, C12-200, and DLin-KC2-DMA. .

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be formulated into lipid nanoparticles or the like as described in International Publication No. WO2012170930, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the cationic lipids are each of International Publication Nos. WO2012040184, WO20111153120, WO2011149733, WO2011090965, WO2011043933, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. No. WO2011022460, No. WO2011061259, No. WO2012054365, No. WO2012044638, No. WO20100080724, No. WO2010102865, and No. WO2008103276, US Pat. No. 7,893,302, No.7 404,969, and 8,283,333, and US Patent Publication Nos. US20100036115 and US20120202871. It may be selected from cationic lipids described, without limitation. In another embodiment, the cationic lipids are each of International Publication Nos. WO2012040184, WO201115153120, WO2011149733, WO2011090965, WO2011039313, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. No. WO2011022460, WO20110612259, WO2012054365, and WO2012204438, but is not limited thereto. In yet another embodiment, the cationic lipids are of the formula CLI-CLXXIX of WO 2008103276, US Pat. No. 7,893,302, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. -CLXXXIX, may be selected from, but not limited to, Formula CLI-CLXXXII of US Pat. No. 7,404,969 and Formula I-VI of US 20100036115. As a non-limiting example, the cationic lipid is (20Z, 23Z) -N, N-dimethylnonacosa-20,23-dien-10-amine, (17Z, 20Z) -N, N-dimethylhexacosa ( dimethylhexexosa) -17,20-diene-9-amine, (1Z, 19Z) -N5N-dimethylpentacosa-16,19-diene-8-amine, (13Z, 16Z) -N, N-dimethyldocosa-13, 16-diene-5-amine, (12Z, 15Z) -N, N-dimethylhenicosa-12,15-diene-4-amine, (14Z, 17Z) -N, N-dimethyltricosa-14,17-diene- 6-amine, (15Z, 18Z) -N, N-dimethyltetracosa-15,18-diene-7-amine, (18Z, 21Z) -N, N-dimethylheptaco -18,21-diene-10-amine, (15Ζ, 18Ζ) -Ν, Ν-dimethyltetracosa-15,18-diene-5-amine, (14Z, 17Z) -N, N-dimethyltricosa-14 , 17-diene-4-amine, (19Z, 22Z) -N, N-dimethyloctacosa-19,22-diene-9-amine, (18Z, 21Z) -N, N-dimethylheptacosa -18,21-diene-8-amine, (17Z, 20Z) -N, N-dimethylhexacosa-17,20-diene-7-amine, (16Z, 19Z) -N, N-dimethylpentacosa-16 , 19-diene-6-amine, (22Z, 25Z) -N, N-dimethylhentriaconta-22,25-diene-10-amine, (21Z, 24Z) -N, N- Methyltriaconta-21,24-diene-9-amine, (18Z) -N, N-dimethylheptacosa-18-ene-10-amine, (17Z) -N, N-dimethylhexacosa-17 -Ene-9-amine, (19Z, 22Z) -N, N-dimethyloctacosa-19,22-diene-7-amine, N, N-dimethylheptacosane-10-amine, (20Z, 23Z) -N -Ethyl-N-methylnonacosa-20,23-dien-10-amine, 1-[(11Z, 14Z) -1-nonylicosa-11,14-dien-1-yl] pyrrolidine, (20Z) -N, N- Dimethylheptacosa-20-ene-10-amine, (15Z) -N, N-dimethyleptacosa-15-ene-10-amine, ( 4Z) -N, N-dimethylnonacosa-14-en-10-amine, (17Z) -N, N-dimethylnonacosa-17-en-10-amine, (24Z) -N, N-dimethyltritria Conta-24-ene-10-amine, (20Z) -N, N-dimethylnonacosa-20-ene-10-amine, (22Z) -N, N-dimethylhentriaconta-22-ene-10-amine (16Z) -N, N-dimethylpentacosa-16-ene-8-amine, (12Z, 15Z) -N, N-dimethyl-2-nonylhenicosa-12,15-dien-1-amine, (13Z, 16Z) -N, N-dimethyl-3-nonyldocosa-13,16-dien-1-amine, N, N-dimethyl-1-[(lS, 2R) -2-octylcyclopropyl] eptadecane (eptad) ecan) -8-amine, 1-[(1S, 2R) -2-hexylcyclopropyl] -N, N-dimethylnonadecan-10-amine, Ν, Ν-dimethyl-1-[(1S, 2R)- 2-octylcyclopropyl] nonadecan-10-amine, N, N-dimethyl-21-[(1S, 2R) -2-octylcyclopropyl] henicosane-10-amine, Ν, Ν-dimethyl-1-[(1S , 2S) -2-{[(1R, 2R) -2-pentylcyclopropyl] methyl} cyclopropyl] nonadecan-10-amine, Ν, Ν-dimethyl-1-[(1S, 2R) -2-octylcyclo Propyl] hexadecan-8-amine, Ν, Ν-dimethyl-[(1R, 2S) -2-undecylcyclopropyl] tetradecan-5-amine, N, N-dimethyl-3- {7-[(1S , 2R) -2-octylcyclopropyl] heptyl} dodecan-1-amine, 1-[(1R, 2S) -2-heptylcyclopropyl] -Ν, Ν-dimethyloctadecan-9-amine, 1-[(1S , 2R) -2-decylcyclopropyl] -N, N-dimethylpentadecan-6-amine, N, N-dimethyl-1-[(lS, 2R) -2-octylcyclopropyl] pentadecan-8-amine, R -N, N-dimethyl-1-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadec-9,12-dien-1-yloxy] -3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, SN, N-dimethyl-1 -[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca-9,12-dien-1-yloxy] -3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, 1- {2-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca- 9,12-dien-1-yloxy] -1-[(octyloxy) methyl] ethyl} pyrrolidine, (2S) -N, N-dimethyl-1-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca-9,12-diene -1-yloxy] -3-[(5Z) -oct-5-en-1-yloxy] propan-2-amine, 1- {2-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca-9,12-diene-1 -Yloxy] -1-[(octyloxy) methyl] ethyl} azetidine, (2S) -1- (hexyloxy) -N, N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca-9,12-diene -1-yloxy] propan-2-amine, (2S) -1- (heptyloxy) -N, N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca-9,12-dien-1-yloxy] propane − Amine, Ν, Ν-dimethyl-1- (nonyloxy) -3-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadec-9,12-dien-1-yloxy] propan-2-amine, Ν, Ν-dimethyl-1- [(9Z) -octadeca-9-en-1-yloxy] -3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine; (2S) -N, N-dimethyl-1-[(6Z, 9Z, 12Z) -octadeca -6,9,12-trien-1-yloxy] -3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, (2S) -1-[(11Z, 14Z) -icosa-11,14-dien-1-yloxy ] -N, N-dimethyl-3- (pentyloxy) propan-2-amine, (2S) -1- (hexyloxy) -3-[(11Z, 14Z) -icosa-11,14-diene-1- Iloxy] -N , N-dimethylpropan-2-amine, 1-[(11Z, 14Z) -icosa-11,14-dien-1-yloxy] -Ν, Ν-dimethyl-3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, 1-[(13Z, 16Z) -docosa-l3,16-dien-1-yloxy] -N, N-dimethyl-3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, (2S) -1-[(13Z, 16Z) -docosa-13,16-dien-1-yloxy] -3- (hexyloxy) -N, N-dimethylpropan-2-amine, (2S) -1-[(13Z) -docosa-13-ene -1-yloxy] -3- (hexyloxy) -N, N-dimethylpropan-2-amine, 1-[(13Z) -docosa-13-en-1-yloxy] -N, N-dimethyl-3- (Octyloki C) Propan-2-amine, 1-[(9Z) -hexadec-9-en-1-yloxy] -N, N-dimethyl-3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, (2R) -N, N-dimethyl-H (1-methoyloctyl) oxy] -3-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadec-9,12-dien-1-yloxy] propan-2-amine, (2R) -1-[( 3,7-dimethyloctyl) oxy] -N, N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z) -octadeca-9,12-dien-1-yloxy] propan-2-amine, N, N-dimethyl-1 -(Octyloxy) -3-({8-[(1S, 2S) -2-{[(1R, 2R) -2-pentylcyclopropyl] methyl} cyclopropyl] octyl} oxy) propan-2-amine, N, N-dimethyl -1-{[8- (2-octylcyclopropyl) octyl] oxy} -3- (octyloxy) propan-2-amine, and (11E, 20Z, 23Z) -N, N-dimethylnonacosa-11, It may be selected from 20,2-triene-10-amine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof.

  In one embodiment, the lipid may be a cleavable lipid such as the lipid described in International Publication No. WO2012170889, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the cationic lipid is prepared by methods known in the art and / or each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, International Publication Nos. WO2012040184, WO2011153120, Synthesized as described in WO2011149733, WO2011090965, WO2011043913, WO2011022460, WO20112061259, WO2012054365, WO20122044638, WO2010080724, and WO20101865. May be.

  In one embodiment, the LNP formulation of polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may contain PEG-c-DOMG at a 3% lipid molar ratio. In another embodiment, the LNP formulation polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may contain PEG-c-DOMG at a 1.5% lipid molar ratio.

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may comprise at least one of the PEGylated lipids described in WO2012099755, which is incorporated herein by reference. Good.

In one embodiment, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000 (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N- [methoxy (polyethylene glycol) -2000). In one embodiment, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, a cationic lipid known in the art, and at least one other component. In another embodiment, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, DSPC, and cholesterol, which are cationic lipids known in the art. As a non-limiting example, an LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, DLin-DMA, DSPC, and cholesterol. As another non-limiting example, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, DLin-DMA, DSPC, and cholesterol in a molar ratio of 2: 40: 10: 48 (eg, as a whole by reference). Is incorporated herein, see Geall et al., Non-virtual delivery of self-amplifying RNA vaccines, PNAS 2012; PMID: 2290294.). As another non-limiting example, the modified RNA described herein can be delivered via a parenteral route, as described in US Publication No. 20120207845, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. It may be formulated in.
In one embodiment, LNP formulations may be formulated by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2011127275 or WO2008103276, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. By way of non-limiting example, the modified RNAs described herein are as described in International Publication Nos. WO2011127275 and / or WO2008103276, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may be encapsulated in an LNP formulation.
In one embodiment, the LNP formulations described herein may comprise a polycationic composition. By way of non-limiting example, the polycationic composition may be selected from Formulas 1-60 of US Patent Publication No. US20050222064, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In another embodiment, an LNP formulation comprising a polycationic composition may be used for in vivo and / or in vitro delivery of a modified RNA described herein.

  In one embodiment, the LNP formulations described herein may further comprise a permeability enhancer molecule. Non-limiting permeability enhancer molecules are described in US Patent Publication No. US20050222064, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition comprises DiLa2 liposomes (Marina Biotech, Bothell, WA), SMARTLES® (Marina Biotech, Bothell, WA), neutral DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphocholine) -based liposomes (eg, siRNA delivery to ovarian cancer (Landen et al. Cancer Biology & Therapy 2006 5 (12) 1708-1713), incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), and hyaluronan-coated liposomes (Quiet Therapeutics) , Israel) and the like, but may be formulated in liposomes not limited thereto.

  The nanoparticle formulation may be a carbohydrate nanoparticle comprising a carbohydrate carrier and a modified nucleic acid molecule (eg, mmRNA). By way of non-limiting example, the carbohydrate carrier can be an anhydrous modified plant glycogen or glycogen-type material, a plant glycogen octenyl succinate, a plant glycogen β-dextrin, an anhydride modified plant glycogen β-dextrin However, it is not limited to these. (See, eg, International Publication No. WO2012109121, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  Lipid nanoparticle formulations may be improved by replacing cationic lipids with biodegradable cationic lipids known as rapidly eliminated lipid nanoparticles (reLNP). Ionizable cationic lipids have been shown to accumulate in plasma and tissue over time, including but not limited to DLinDMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, and DLin-MC3-DMA, and potentially Can be a source of significant toxicity. Rapid metabolism of rapidly excreted lipids can improve lipid nanoparticle tolerance and therapeutic index in rats by an order of magnitude of 1 mg / kg dose to 10 mg / kg dose. Incorporation of an enzymatically degraded ester bond can improve the degradation and metabolic profile of the cationic component while still maintaining the activity of the reLNP formulation. The ester bond can be located inside the lipid chain or it can be located at the end at the end of the lipid chain. The internal ester bond may replace any carbon in the lipid chain.

In one embodiment, the internal ester linkage may be located on either side of the saturated carbon. Non-limiting examples of reLNP include
Is mentioned.

  In one embodiment, an immune response can be elicited by delivering lipid nanoparticles that can include nanochemical species, polymers, and immunogens. (U.S. Publication No. 2012018700 and International Publication No. WO201299805, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). The polymer may encapsulate the nano species or may partially encapsulate the nano species. The immunogen may be a recombinant protein, modified RNA, and / or primary construct as described herein. In one embodiment, the lipid nanoparticles may be formulated for use in a vaccine such as, but not limited to, against a pathogen.

  The lipid nanoparticles may be engineered to change the surface properties of the particles such that the lipid nanoparticles penetrate the mucosal barrier. Mucus is found in the oral cavity (eg, peri- and esophageal membranes and tonsils), eyes, gastrointestinal (eg, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, colon, rectum), nose, respiratory organs (eg, nasal, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi Membrane), mucosal tissue located on the genitals (eg, in the vagina, cervix, and urethra), but is not limited thereto. Nanoparticles larger than 10-200 nm, which are preferred due to higher drug encapsulation efficiency and the ability to provide a wide range of sustained drug delivery, are considered too large to diffuse rapidly through the mucosal barrier. As mucus is continuously secreted, shedding, discarded or digested and regenerated, most of the captured particles can be removed from mucosal tissue within seconds or hours. Large polymer nanoparticles (200 nm to 500 nm in diameter) densely coated with low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) are only 4-6 times lower than the same particles diffusing in water and diffuse through mucus (each Lai et al. PNAS 2007 104 (5): 1482-487, Lai et al. Adv Drug Delv Rev. 2009 61 (2): 158-171), which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Nanoparticle transport can be determined using transmission rate and / or fluorescence microscopy techniques including, but not limited to, fluorescence post-fading recovery measurement (FRAP) and high resolution multiple particle tracking (MPT). As a non-limiting example, a composition that can penetrate the mucosal barrier may be made as described in US Pat. No. 8,241,670, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  Lipid nanoparticles engineered to permeate mucus may include polymeric materials (ie, polymer cores) and / or polymer-vitamin complexes and / or triblock copolymers. Polymer materials include polyamine, polyether, polyamide, polyester, polycarbamate, polyurea, polycarbonate, poly (styrene), polyimide, polysulfone, polyurethane, polyacetylene, polyethylene, polyethyleneimine, polyisocyanate, polyacrylate, polymethacrylate, poly Acrylonitrile and polyarylate may be included, but are not limited to these. The polymeric material may be biodegradable and / or biocompatible. The polymeric material may be further irradiated. As a non-limiting example, the polymeric material may be gamma irradiated (see, eg, International Application No. WO201282165, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Non-limiting examples of specific polymers include poly (caprolactone) (PCL), ethylene vinyl acetate polymer (EVA), poly (lactic acid) (PLA), poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly (glycol) Acid) (PGA), poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly (L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLLGA), poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLA), poly (L- Lactide) (PLLA), poly (D, L-lactide-co-caprolactone), poly (D, L-lactide-co-caprolactone-co-glycolide), poly (D, L-lactide-co-PEO-co- D, L-lactide), poly (D, L-lactide-co-PPO-co-D, L-lactide), polyalkyl cyanoacrylate (acrylate), poly Retan, poly-L-lysine (PLL), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), polyethylene glycol, poly-L-glutamic acid, poly (hydroxy acid), polyanhydride, polyorthoester, poly (ester amide), polyamide, poly (Ester ether), polyalkylenes such as polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene, polyalkylene glycols such as poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyalkylene oxide (PEO), polyalkylene terephthalates such as poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyvinyl alcohol ( PVA), polyvinyl ether, polyvinyl ester such as poly (vinyl acetate), halogenated polyvinyl such as poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polysiloxane Polystyrene (PS), polyurethane, alkylcellulose, hydroxyalkylcellulose, cellulose ether, cellulose ester, nitrocellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, derivatized cellulose such as carboxymethylcellulose, poly (methyl (meth) acrylate) (PMMA), poly (ethyl) (Meth) acrylate), poly (butyl (meth) acrylate), poly (isobutyl (meth) acrylate), poly (hexyl (meth) acrylate), poly (isodecyl (meth) acrylate), poly (lauryl (meth) acrylate) , Poly (phenyl (meth) acrylate), poly (methyl acrylate), poly (isopropyl acrylate), poly (isobutyl acrylate), poly (octadecyl acrylate), etc. Polymers of acrylic acid, and copolymers and mixtures thereof, polydioxanone and copolymers thereof, polyhydroxyalkanoates, polypropylene fumarate, polyoxymethylene, poloxamer, poly (ortho) esters, poly (butyric acid), poly (valeric acid), Poly (lactide-co-caprolactone), and trimethylene carbonate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Lipid nanoparticles comprise block copolymers (such as the branched polyether-polyamide block copolymers described in International Publication No. WO2013012476, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety), and (poly (ethylene glycol)-(poly (propylene) Oxide)-(poly (ethylene glycol) triblock copolymers (e.g., U.S. Publication Nos. 20120121718 and 20100003337, and U.S. Pat. No. 8,263,665, each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). And the like, but not limited to, may be coated with or associated with a copolymer, which may be a generally recognized safe (GRAS) polymer, Particle formation For example, lipid nanoparticles can be rapidly penetrated into human mucus without forming new chemical entities, such as poloxamers Coated PLGA nanoparticles may also be included (Yang et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011 50: 2597-2600, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  Vitamin E may be sufficient as the vitamin of a polymer-vitamin complex. The vitamin portion of this complex is composed of vitamin A, vitamin E, other vitamins, cholesterol, the hydrophobic portion or hydrophobic constituents of other surfactants (eg, sterol chains, fatty acids, hydrocarbon chains, and alkylene oxide chains). ) And the like, but may be substituted with other suitable components not limited thereto.

  Lipid nanoparticles engineered to penetrate mucus include, for example, cationic surfactants such as mmRNA, anionic protein (eg, bovine serum albumin), surfactant (eg, dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium butamide) Agents), sugars or sugar derivatives (eg, cyclodextrins), nucleic acids, polymers (eg, heparin, polyethylene glycol, and poloxamers), mucolytic agents (eg, N-acetylcysteine, camellia, bromelai, papain, clerodendron, acetyl) Cysteine, bromhexine, carbocysteine, eprazinone, mesna, ambroxol, sobrerol, domiodol, letostein, stepronin, thiopronin, gelsolin, thymosin β4 dornase α, nertenexin, eldstein) , And various DNases including rhDNase, but not limited thereto, surface modifying agents may be included. The surface-modifying agent may be embedded or entangled on the surface of the particle, or placed on the surface of the lipid nanoparticle (eg, by coating, adsorption, covalent bonding, or other processes). (See, eg, US Publication No. 20120155580 and US Publication No. 20080166414, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  The mucus permeable lipid nanoparticles may comprise at least one mmRNA as described herein. The mmRNA may be encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles and / or placed on the surface of the particle. The mmRNA may be covalently bound to the lipid nanoparticle. The formulation of mucus permeable lipid nanoparticles may include a plurality of nanoparticles. In addition, the formulation can interact with mucus and alter the structural and / or adhesive properties of the surrounding mucus to reduce mucoadhesion, thereby delivering mucus-permeable lipid nanoparticles to mucosal tissue. It may contain particles that can be increased.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is, without limitation, ATUPLEX ™ system, DACC system, DBTC system, and other siRNA-lipoplex technologies, STEMGENT by Silence Therapeutics (London, United Kingdom). Formulated as lipoplexes such as STEMFECT ™ by Cambridge (Cambridge, MA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) or protamine-based targeted and untargeted nucleic acid delivery (all by reference Aleku et al. Cancer Res. 2008 68: 9788-9798, Strumberg et al. Int J Cli, which is incorporated herein in its entirety. Pharmacol Ther 2012 50: 76-78, Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13: 1222-1234, Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13: 1360-1370, Guttier et al., Pulm Pharma20.23: 334-344, Kaufmann et al. Microvasc Res 2010 80: 286-293 Weide et al. J Immunother.2009 32: 498-507, Weide et al.J Immunother.2008 31: 180-188E. .4: 1285-1294, Foton-Mlez ek et al., 2011 J. Immunother.34: 1-15, Song et al., Nature Biotechnol.2005, 23: 709-717, Peer et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2007 6; 104: 4095- 4100, deFougerlesHum Gene Ther. 2008 19: 125-132).

  In one embodiment, such formulations may include different cell types, including but not limited to hepatocytes, immune cells, tumor cells, endothelial cells, antigen presenting cells, and leukocytes. It can also be constructed to be directed in vivo, or the composition can be altered (Akinc et al. Mol Ther. 2010 18: 1357-1364, Song et al., All incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. , Nat Biotechnol.2005 23: 709-717, Judge et al., J Clin Invest.2009 119: 661-673, Kaufmann et al., Microvasc Res 2010 80: 286-293, Santel et al. 2006 13: 1222-1234, Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13: 1360-1370, Gutbier et al., Pulm Pharmacol. Ther. 2010 23: 334-344, Basha et al., Mol.Ther. 2186-2200, Fenske and Callis, Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2008 5: 25-44, Peer et al., Science. 2008 319: 627-630, Peer and Lieberman, Gene Ther. Examples of passive targeting of formulations to liver cells include DLin-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, and DLin-MC3-DMA based lipid nanoparticle formulations, which bind to apolipoprotein E, It has been shown to promote the binding and uptake of these formulations into hepatocytes in vivo (Akinc et al. Mol Ther. 2010 18: 1357-1364, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). The formulations are exemplified by, but not limited to, folate, transferrin, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and antibodies targeting approaches selectively through the expression of different ligands on their surface Targets can also be defined (Kolhatkar et al., Curr Drug Disco Technol. 2011 8: 197-206, Musacchio and Torchilin, Front Biosci. 2011 16: 1388-1412, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Yu et al., Mol Membr Biol. 2010 27: 286-298, Patil et al., Crit Rev The Drug Carrier S St. 2008 25: 1-61, Benoit et al., Biomolecules.2011 12: 2708-2714, Zhao et al., Expert Open Drug Del. 2008 5: 309-319, Ainc et al., Mol Thl. : 1357-1364, Srinivasan et al., Methods Mol Biol. 2012 820: 105-116, Ben-Arie et al., Methods Mol Biol. 2012 757: 497-507, Peer 2010 J Control 20: 68 Peer et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2007 104: 4095- 100, Kim et al., Methods Mol Biol.2011 721: 339-353, Subramanya et al., Mol Ther.2010 18: 2028-2037, Song et al., Nat Biotechnol.2005 23: 709-717. al., Science. 2008 319: 627-630, Peer and Lieberman, Gene Ther. 2011 18: 1127-1133).

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is formulated as solid lipid nanoparticles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can be spherical with an average diameter of 10 to 1000 nm. SLN has a solid lipid core matrix that can solubilize lipophilic molecules and can be stabilized by surfactants and / or emulsifiers. In further embodiments, the lipid nanoparticles may be self-assembling lipid-polymer nanoparticles (Zhang et al., ACS Nano, 2008, 2 (8), incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. pp 1696-1702).

  Liposomes, lipoplexes, or lipid nanoparticles may allow these formulations to increase cell transfection by polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA and / or increase translation of the encoded protein. Thus, it may be used to improve the efficiency of protein production by indication of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA. One such example involves the use of lipid encapsulation to enable effective systemic delivery of polyplex plasmid DNA (Heyes et al., Mol Ther., Incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). 2007 15: 713-720). Liposomes, lipoplexes, or lipid nanoparticles can also be used to increase the stability of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the invention can be formulated for controlled release and / or targeted delivery. As used herein, “controlled release” refers to a pharmaceutical composition or compound release profile that conforms to a specific release pattern and results in a therapeutic outcome. In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is encapsulated in a delivery agent described herein and / or known in the art for controlled release and / or targeted delivery. It may be enclosed. As used herein, the term “encapsulation” means encapsulating, enclosing or enclosing. When it relates to a formulation of the compound of the invention, the encapsulation may be substantial, complete or partial. The term “substantially encapsulated” refers to at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% of a pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention. Greater than, 96%, greater than 97%, greater than 98%, greater than 99%, greater than 99.9%, greater than 99.9%, or greater than 99.999% encapsulated, enclosed within a delivery agent; Or it means being encased. “Partial encapsulation” means that less than 10, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or less of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention is encapsulated, enclosed or encapsulated in a delivery agent. means. Advantageously, encapsulation may be determined by measuring the escape or activity of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention using fluorescence and / or electron micrographs. For example, at least 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9 of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the present invention. , 99.99, or more than 99.99% are encapsulated in the delivery agent.

  In one embodiment, the controlled release formulation may include, but is not limited to, a triblock copolymer. As a non-limiting example, the formulation may comprise two different types of triblock copolymers (International Publication Nos. WO2012131104 and WO2012131106, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles or rapidly excreted lipid nanoparticles, where the lipid nanoparticles or rapidly excreted lipid nanoparticles are then described herein. It may be encapsulated in polymers, hydrogels, and / or surgical sealants described and / or known in the art. As a non-limiting example, a polymer, hydrogel, or surgical sealant can be PLGA, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVAc), poloxamer, GELSITE® (Nanotherapeutics, Inc. Alachua, FL), HYLENEX® ( Halozyme Therapeutics, San Diego CA), fibrinogen polymer (Ethicon Inc. Cornelia, GA), TISSELL (R) (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL), PEG-based sealing material, ter-based sealant, COB Inc. Deerfield, IL) or other surgical sealant Yes.

  In another embodiment, the lipid nanoparticles may be encapsulated in any polymer known in the art that can form a gel when injected into a subject. As another non-limiting example, lipid nanoparticles may be encapsulated in a polymer matrix that can be biodegradable.

  In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA formulation for controlled release and / or targeted delivery may also include at least one controlled release coating agent. Controlled release coatings include OPADRY®, polyvinylpyrrolidone / vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, EUDRAGIT RL®, EUDRAGIT RS®, and ethylcellulose. Cellulose derivatives such as, but not limited to, aqueous dispersions (AQUACOAT® and SURELEASE®) are included.

  In one embodiment, the controlled release and / or targeted delivery formulation may comprise at least one degradable polyester that may contain polycationic side chains. Degradable polyesters include poly (serine ester), poly (L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly (4-hydroxy-L-proline ester), and combinations thereof. It is not limited to. In another embodiment, the degradable polyester may comprise PEG conjugation to form a PEGylated polymer.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the invention may be encapsulated in therapeutic nanoparticles. Therapeutic nanoparticles can be obtained from the methods described herein, as well as International Publication Nos. WO2010005740, WO20130030763, WO2010005721, and WO2010005723, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. U.S. Pat. No. 747, No. 8,293,276, No. 8,318,208, No. 8,318,211, etc. No it may be formulated by methods known in the art. In another embodiment, therapeutic polymer nanoparticles may be identified by the method described in US Publication No. US20120140790, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may be formulated for sustained release. As used herein, “sustained release” refers to a pharmaceutical composition or compound that is compatible with the release rate over a specified period of time. The time period may include, but is not limited to, hours, days, weeks, months, and years. By way of non-limiting example, sustained release nanoparticles may include therapeutic agents such as, but not limited to, polymers and polynucleotides of the invention, primary constructs, and mmRNA (each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety). Are incorporated herein by reference, see International Publication No. WO 20100075072, and US Publication Nos. US20120021804, US201102177377, and US201201859).

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may be formulated to be target specific. As a non-limiting example, the therapeutic nanoparticles may include corticosteroids (see International Publication No. WO201104518, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may be formulated to be cancer specific. By way of non-limiting example, therapeutic nanoparticles may be incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, including International Publication Nos. WO2008121949, WO2010005726, WO2010005725, WO2011108451 It may be formulated into nanoparticles as described in US Publication No. US20000642626, US20120203933, and US20100104655.

  In one embodiment, the nanoparticles of the present invention may comprise a polymer matrix. As non-limiting examples, the nanoparticles can be polyethylene, polycarbonate, polyanhydride, polyhydroxy acid, polypropyl fumarate, polycaprolactone, polyamide, polyacetal, polyether, polyester, poly (orthoester), poly Cyanoacrylate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, polyphosphazene, polyacrylate, polymethacrylate, polycyanoacrylate, polyurea, polystyrene, polyamine, polylysine, poly (ethyleneimine), poly (serine ester), poly (L-lactide-co- L-lysine), poly (4-hydroxy-L-proline ester), or a combination thereof, but may include two or more polymers.

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticle comprises a diblock copolymer. In one embodiment, the diblock copolymer includes polyethylene, polycarbonate, polyanhydride, polyhydroxy acid, polypropyl fumarate, polycaprolactone, polyamide, polyacetal, polyether, polyester, poly (orthoester), poly Cyanoacrylate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, polyphosphazene, polyacrylate, polymethacrylate, polycyanoacrylate, polyurea, polystyrene, polyamine, polylysine, poly (ethyleneimine), poly (serine ester), poly (L-lactide-co-) L-lysine), poly (4-hydroxy-L-proline ester) or combinations thereof, including but not limited to PEG in combination with polymers Good.

  By way of non-limiting example, therapeutic nanoparticles include PLGA-PEG block copolymers (US Publication No. US20120004293 and US Pat. No. 8,236,330, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Issue). In another non-limiting example, the therapeutic nanoparticle is a stealth nanoparticle comprising a PEG and PLA or PEG and PLGA diblock copolymer, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. No. 8,246,968 and International Publication No. WO2012166923).

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may comprise a multi-block copolymer (eg, US Pat. Nos. 8,263,665 and 8,287, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). , 910).

  In one embodiment, the block copolymers described herein may be included in polyion complexes, including non-polymeric micelles and block copolymers. (See, eg, US Publication No. 20120076836, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticle may comprise at least one acrylic polymer. Acrylic polymers include acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, copolymers of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate copolymer, ethoxyethyl methacrylate, cyanoethyl methacrylate, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer, poly (acrylic acid), poly (methacrylic acid), polycyano Acrylates, as well as combinations thereof, are included, but are not limited to these.

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may comprise at least one cationic polymer as described herein and / or known in the art.

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles are polylysine, polyethyleneimine, poly (amidoamine) dendrimers, poly (β-amino esters) (eg, US Pat. No. 8,287, 849), and combinations thereof, including but not limited to at least one amine-containing polymer.

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may comprise at least one degradable polyester that may contain polycationic side chains. Degradable polyesters include poly (serine ester), poly (L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly (4-hydroxy-L-proline ester), and combinations thereof. It is not limited to. In another embodiment, the degradable polyester may comprise PEG conjugation to form a PEGylated polymer.

  In another embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticle may comprise complexing at least one targeting ligand. The targeting ligand may be any ligand known in the art, including but not limited to a monoclonal antibody. (Kirpotin et al, Cancer Res. 2006 66: 6732-6740, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the therapeutic nanoparticles may be formulated in an aqueous solution and used to target cancer (each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). WO 20111084533 and US Publication No. US20110294717).

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be encapsulated in, linked to and / or associated with a synthetic nanocarrier. Synthetic nanocarriers, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, International Publication Nos. WO2010005740, WO20130030763, WO2012135501, WO2012149252, WO2012149255, WO2012149259. No. WO201214129265, WO20121492268, WO20121492822, WO2012149301, WO2012149393, WO2012149405, WO2012149411, WO2012149454, and WO20131016969, and the United States Published US20110262491, US2011064545, US2010008 337 No., and include synthetic nanocarrier according to the No. US20120244222, without limitation. Synthetic nanocarriers can be formulated using methods known in the art and / or described herein. As non-limiting examples, synthetic nanocarriers are disclosed in International Publication Nos. WO2010005740, WO20130030763, and WO201213501, and US Publication No. US2011026291, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , US20100104645, US201000087337, and US2012024422. In another embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier formulations are lyophilized by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2011072218 and US Pat. No. 8,211,473, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. obtain.

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may contain reactive groups for releasing the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs described herein (each of which is herein entirely incorporated by reference). See International Publication No. WO20120525552 and US Publication No. US20120122929, which are incorporated herein by reference).

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may contain an immunostimulatory agent to enhance the immune response by delivery of the synthetic nanocarrier. As a non-limiting example, a synthetic nanocarrier may include a Th1 immunostimulatory agent that can improve a Th1-based response of the immune system (WO 20101233569, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. No. and U.S. Publication No. 201102223201).

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may be formulated for targeted release. In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier is formulated to release polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA at a specified pH and / or after a desired time interval. As a non-limiting example, the synthetic nanoparticles may be formulated to release polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA after 24 hours and / or at a pH of 4.5 (each by reference). (See International Publication Nos. WO2010138193 and WO2010138194, and US Publication Nos. 20110120388 and 20110027217, which are incorporated herein in their entirety).

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may be formulated for controlled and / or sustained release of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs described herein. As non-limiting examples, synthetic nanocarriers for sustained release are known in the art and are described herein and / or are each hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It may be formulated by the method described in International Publication No. WO2010138192 and US Publication No. 2013033850.

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may be formulated for use as a vaccine. In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may encapsulate at least one polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA encoding at least one antigen. As a non-limiting example, a synthetic nanocarrier may include excipients for at least one antigen and vaccine dosage form (WO 20111150264, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. And U.S. Publication No. US20110329323). As another non-limiting example, a vaccine dosage form may include at least two synthetic nanocarriers having the same or different antigens, and excipients, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. , International Publication No. WO2011150249 and US Publication No. US20110293701). Vaccine dosage forms are described in International Publication Nos. WO2011150258 and US Publication No. 20120027806, which are described herein and are known in the art and / or are each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. It may be selected by the method described.

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may comprise at least one polynucleotide encoding at least one adjuvant, a primary construct, and / or mmRNA. As non-limiting examples, adjuvants include dimethyldioctadecylammonium-bromide, dimethyldioctadecylammonium-chloride, dimethyldioctadecylammonium-phosphate, or dimethyldioctadecylammonium-acetate (DDA), and Mycobacterium spp. A non-polar fraction of a total lipid extract or a portion of the non-polar fraction (see, eg, US Pat. No. 8,241,610, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). ). In another embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may comprise at least one polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA, and an adjuvant. As a non-limiting example, a synthetic nanocarrier comprising an adjuvant may be formulated by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2011150240 and US201110293700, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. .

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may encapsulate at least one polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA encoding a virus-derived peptide, fragment, or region. By way of non-limiting example, synthetic nanocarriers include International Publication Nos. WO2012024621, WO201202629, WO2012024632, and US Publication No. 20120064110, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , US20120058153, and US20120058154 described in US20120058154, but are not limited thereto.

  In one embodiment, the synthetic nanocarrier may be linked to a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that may be capable of triggering a humoral response and / or a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response ( See, for example, International Publication No. WO20131019669, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the nanoparticles may be optimized for oral administration. The nanoparticles may include at least one cationic biopolymer, such as but not limited to chitosan or a derivative thereof. As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticles may be formulated by the method described in US Publication No. 201202282343, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Polymers, Biodegradable Nanoparticles, and Core-Shell Nanoparticles The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can be formulated using natural and / or synthetic polymers. Non-limiting examples of polymers that can be used for delivery include DYNAMIC POLYCONJUGATE® (Arrowhead Research Corp., Pasadena, CA) by MIRUS® Bio (Madison, WI) and Roche Madison (Madison, WI). ) Formulations, without limitation PHASERX ™ polymer formulations such as SMARTT POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ™ (PHASERX®, Seattle, WA), DMRI / DOPE, Poloxamer, VAXFECTIN® by Vical (San Diego, Calif.) ) Sick by adjuvant, chitosan, Calando Pharmaceuticals (Pasadena, CA) Dextrins, dendrimers and poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymers, RONDEL ™ (RNAi / oligonucleotide nanoparticle delivery) polymers (Arrowhead Research Corporation, Pasadena, Calif.), And PHASERX® (Seattle) , WA) and the like, but not limited thereto, include pH-responsive block copolymers (co-block polymers).

  Non-limiting examples of chitosan formulations include a positively charged chitosan core, as well as an outer portion of a negatively charged substrate (US Publication No. 2012020258, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Chitosan includes N-trimethyl chitosan, mono-N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC), N-palmitoyl chitosan (NPCS), EDTA-chitosan, low molecular weight chitosan, chitosan derivatives, or combinations thereof. It is not limited.

  In one embodiment, the polymer used in the present invention has undergone processing to reduce and / or inhibit the binding of undesirable substances to the surface of the polymer, such as but not limited to bacteria. The polymer may be processed by the methods described in International Publication No. WO2012150467, known in the art and / or described in the art and / or incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. .

  Non-limiting examples of PLGA formulations include, but are not limited to, PLGA infusion depots (eg, formed by dissolving PLGA in 66% N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). ELIGARD®, with the remaining portion being an aqueous solvent and leuprolide. Once injected, PLGA and leuprolide peptides precipitate in the subcutaneous space).

  Many of these polymer approaches have demonstrated efficacy in delivering oligonucleotides into the cytoplasm of cells in vivo (deFougerles Hum Gene Ther. 2008 19, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). : Outlined in 125-132). Two polymer approaches that have resulted in robust in vivo delivery of nucleic acids (in this example using small interfering RNA (siRNA)) are dynamic polyconjugates and cyclodextrin-based nanoparticles. The first of these delivery approaches has been shown to use dynamic polycomplexes to effectively deliver siRNA in vivo in mice and to silence endogenous target mRNA in hepatocytes. (Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007 104: 12982-1287, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). This particular approach is a multi-component polymer system, the main feature of which is that the nucleic acid (siRNA in this example) is covalently bonded via a disulfide bond, and a PEG (for charge shielding) group and N-acetylgalactosamine ( Membrane active polymers are included, both of which are linked via pH-sensitive bonds (for hepatocyte targeting) (Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., Incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). 2007 104: 12982-1287). Upon binding to hepatocytes and entering the endosome, the polymer complex breaks down in a low pH environment, exposing the polymer to its positive charge, resulting in escape from the endosome and release of the siRNA from the polymer into the cytoplasm. . It has been shown that targeting can be changed from hepatocytes expressing asialoglycoprotein receptors to sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells through replacement of the N-acetylgalactosamine group with a mannose group. Another polymer approach involves the use of cyclodextrin-containing polycationic nanoparticles that target transferrin. These nanoparticles have demonstrated targeted silencing of the EWS-FLI1 gene product in Ewing sarcoma tumor cells expressing the transferrin receptor (Hu-Lieskovan, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). et al., Cancer Res. 2005 65: 8984-8982), siRNA formulated in these nanoparticles was well tolerated in non-human primates (incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). Heidelet et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007 104: 5715-21). Both of these delivery strategies incorporate a rational approach using both targeted delivery mechanisms and endosomal escape mechanisms.

  The polymer formulation may allow sustained or delayed release of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, after intramuscular or subcutaneous injection). An altered release profile for a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can result, for example, in translation of the encoded protein over time. Polymer formulations may also be used to increase the stability of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. Biodegradable polymers have been used previously to protect nucleic acids other than mmRNA from degradation and have been shown to provide sustained release of payload in vivo (each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.2007 104: 12982-12887, Sullivan et al., Expert Open Drug Del. 2010 7: 1433-1446, Converte et al. et al., Acc Chem Res. 2012 Jan 13, Manganello et al., Biomaterials. 2012 33: 2301-23 09, Benoit et al., Biomacromolecules.2011 12: 2708-2714, Singha et al., Nucleic Acid Ther.2011 2: 133-147, deFougerles Hum Gene Ther. 2008 16: 1131-1138, Chaturvedi et al., Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2011 8: 1455-1468, Davis, Mol Pharm.

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition may be a sustained release formulation. In a further embodiment, the sustained release formulation may be for subcutaneous delivery. Sustained release formulations include PLGA microspheres, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVAc), poloxamer, GELSITE (R) (Nanotherapeutics, Inc. Alachua, FL), HYLENEX (R) (Halozyme Therapeutics, San Diego CA, San Diego CA) (Ethicon Inc. Cornelia, GA), TISSELL (R) (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL), PEG-based sealant, and COSEAL (R) (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL) Material may be included.

  As a non-limiting example, the modified mRNA is prepared with PLGA microspheres with adjustable release rates (eg, days and weeks) and the modified mRNA is maintained during the encapsulation process. However, it may be formulated in PLGA microspheres by encapsulating in PLGA microspheres. EVAc is a non-biodegradable, biocompatible polymer that is widely used in preclinical sustained release implant applications (eg, pilocarpine intraocular inserts for glaucoma). Product Ocusert or Progestester, a sustained-release progesterone intrauterine device; transdermal delivery systems Testderm, Duragesic, and Selegiline; catheter). Poloxamer F-407 NF is a hydrophilic nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene triblock copolymer having a low viscosity at temperatures below 5 ° C. Form a solid gel at temperatures above. A PEG-based surgical sealant includes two synthetic PEG components mixed in a delivery device that can be prepared in 1 minute, sealed in 3 minutes, and resorbed within 30 days. GELSITE® and natural polymers are capable of in-situ gelation at the site of administration. They have been shown to interact with protein and peptide therapeutic candidates via ionic interactions to provide a stabilizing effect.

  Polymer formulations are exemplified by folate, transferrin, and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), but can also be selectively targeted through the expression of different ligands that are not limited by these (each of which is entirely referenced by reference). Is incorporated herein by reference, Benoit et al., Biomolecules. 2011 12: 2708-2714, Rosema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 668, Davis, Nature 2010 464: 1067-1070).

  The modified nucleic acid and mmRNA of the present invention may be formulated with or in a polymer compound. Polymers include polyethene, polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly (l-lysine) (PLL), PEG grafted to PLL, cationic lipopolymer, biodegradable cationic lipopolymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI) , Crosslinked branched poly (alkyleneimines), polyamine derivatives, modified poloxamers, biodegradable polymers, resilient biodegradable polymers, biodegradable block copolymers, biodegradable random copolymers, biodegradable polyester copolymers, biodegradable Polyester block copolymer, biodegradable polyester block random copolymer, multi-block copolymer, linear biodegradable copolymer, poly [α- (4-aminobutyl) -L-glycolic acid) (PAGA), biodegradable cross-linked cationic monomer Block copolymer, polycarbonate, polyanhydride, polyhydroxy acid, polypropyl fumarate, polycaprolactone, polyamide, polyacetal, polyether, polyester, poly (orthoester), polycyanoacrylate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, polyphosphazene , Polyacrylate, polymethacrylate, polycyanoacrylate, polyurea, polystyrene, polyamine, polylysine, poly (ethyleneimine), poly (serine ester), poly (L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly (4-hydroxy -L-proline ester), acrylic polymer, amine-containing polymer, dextran polymer, dextran polymer derivative, or a combination thereof. At least one polymer that is not defined may be included.

  As a non-limiting example, a modified nucleic acid or mmRNA of the invention is formulated with a polymer compound of PEG grafted with PLL as described in US Pat. No. 6,177,274, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. May be used. The formulation may be used to transfect cells in vitro or for in vivo delivery of modified nucleic acids and mmRNA. In another example, the modified nucleic acid and mmRNA are in a solution or medium comprising a cationic polymer, in a dried pharmaceutical composition, or US Publication 20090042829, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. And may be suspended in a solution that can be dried as described in US Pat.

  As another non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention is a PLGA-PEG block copolymer (U.S. Publication No. US2012020393 and U.S. Pat. 236,330) or a PLGA-PEG-PLGA block copolymer (see US Pat. No. 6,004,573, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). . As a non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention may be formulated with a PEG and PLA or PEG and PLGA diblock copolymer (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, See U.S. Patent No. 8,246,968).

  Polyamine derivatives may be used to deliver nucleic acids or to treat and / or prevent disease or be included in an implantable or injectable device (US publication, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). No. 20100260817). By way of non-limiting example, a pharmaceutical composition may include modified nucleic acids and mmRNAs and polyamine derivatives as described in US Publication No. 20100260817, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. By way of non-limiting example, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention are 1,3-dipolar addition polymers prepared by combining carbohydrate diazide monomers with dilkin units containing oligoamines. Such as, but not limited to, may be delivered using polyamide polymers (US Pat. No. 8,236,280, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the present invention are disclosed in International Publication Nos. WO20111155862, WO2012082574, and WO2012061877, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. As well as at least one polymer and / or derivative thereof described in US Publication No. 201202283427. In another embodiment, a modified nucleic acid or mmRNA of the invention may be formulated with a polymer of formula Z as described in International Publication No. WO2011115862, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In yet another embodiment, the modified nucleic acid or mmRNA is a compound of formula Z as described in International Publication Nos. WO2012082574 or WO20120268187 and U.S. Publication No. 202028342, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may be formulated with a polymer of Z ′ or Z ″. The polymers formulated with the modified RNAs of the present invention may be synthesized by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2012082574 or WO2012068187, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention may be formulated with at least one acrylic polymer. Acrylic polymers include acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, copolymers of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate copolymer, ethoxyethyl methacrylate, cyanoethyl methacrylate, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer, poly (acrylic acid), poly (methacrylic acid), polycyano Acrylates, as well as combinations thereof, are included, but are not limited to these.

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA formulation of the present invention may include at least one amine-containing polymer such as, but not limited to, polylysine, polyethyleneimine, poly (amidoamine) dendrimer, or combinations thereof.

  For example, the modified nucleic acid or mmRNA of the present invention can be poly (alkyleneimine), biodegradable cationic lipopolymer, biodegradable block copolymer, biodegradable polymer, or biodegradable random copolymer, biodegradable polyester block copolymer, It may be formulated in a pharmaceutical compound that includes a biodegradable polyester polymer, a biodegradable polyester random copolymer, a linear biodegradable copolymer, PAGA, a biodegradable crosslinked cationic multi-block copolymer, or a combination thereof. Biodegradable cationic lipopolymers are known in the art and / or US Pat. No. 6,696,038, US application 20030073619, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. And the method described in JP20040142474. Poly (alkyleneimines) may be made using methods known in the art and / or methods described in US Publication No. 2010100004315, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. A biodegradable polymer, a biodegradable block copolymer, a biodegradable random copolymer, a biodegradable polyester block copolymer, a biodegradable polyester polymer, or a biodegradable polyester random copolymer is a method known in the art, And / or may be made using the methods described in US Pat. Nos. 6,517,869 and 6,267,987, the contents of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Linear biodegradable copolymers are known in the art and / or may be made using the methods described in US Pat. No. 6,652,886. PAGA polymers may be made using methods known in the art and / or the methods described in US Pat. No. 6,217,912, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. PAGA polymers are copolymers that include, but are not limited to, poly-L-lysine, polyargine, polyornithine, histone, avidin, protamine, polylactide, and poly (lactide-co-glycolide). A copolymer or block copolymer may be formed together. Biodegradable cross-linked cationic multi-block copolymers can be prepared by methods known in the art and / or US Pat. It may be produced by the method described in the issue. For example, multi-block copolymers may be synthesized using linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI) blocks that have a distinctly different pattern compared to branched polyethyleneimine. Further, the composition or pharmaceutical composition can be prepared by methods known in the art, as described herein, or US Publication No. 2010100004315 or US, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may be produced by the methods described in Patent Nos. 6,267,987 and 6,217,912.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention may be formulated with at least one degradable polyester that may contain polycationic side chains. Degradable polyesters include poly (serine ester), poly (L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly (4-hydroxy-L-proline ester), and combinations thereof. It is not limited to. In another embodiment, the degradable polyester may comprise PEG conjugation to form a PEGylated polymer.

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, mmRNA of the present invention may be formulated with at least one crosslinkable polyester. Crosslinkable polyesters include those crosslinkable polyesters known in the art and described in US Publication No. 20120297661, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the polymers described herein may be conjugated to lipid-terminating PEG. As a non-limiting example, PLGA may be conjugated to PEG with a lipid terminus to form PLGA-DSPE-PEG. As another non-limiting example, PEG conjugates for use with the present invention are described in International Publication No. WO 2008103276, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. The polymer may be conjugated using a ligand conjugate such as, but not limited to, the conjugates described in US Pat. No. 8,273,363, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the modified RNA described herein may be complexed with another compound. Non-limiting examples of complexes are described in US Pat. Nos. 7,964,578 and 7,833,992, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. In another embodiment, the modified RNAs of the invention have the formulas described in US Pat. Nos. 7,964,578 and 7,833,992, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may be complexed with 1 to 122 complexes. The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs described herein may be complexed with a metal, such as but not limited to gold. (See, for example, Giljohann et al. Journal. Amer. Chem. Soc. 2009 131 (6): 2072-2073, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs described herein may be complexed and / or encapsulated in gold nanoparticles. (International Publication Nos. WO201216269 and US Publication No. 20120302940, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  The gene delivery composition may comprise a nucleotide sequence and a poloxamer, as described in US Publication No. 2010100004313, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. For example, the modified nucleic acid and mmRNA of the present invention may be used in gene delivery compositions comprising poloxamers as described in US Publication No. 2010100004313.

  In one embodiment, the polymer formulation of the present invention may be stabilized by contacting a polymer formulation that may include a cationic carrier with a cationic lipopolymer that can be covalently bound to cholesterol and polyethylene glycol groups. The polymer formulation may be contacted with the cationic lipopolymer using the method described in US Publication No. 20090042829, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Cationic carriers include polyethyleneimine, poly (trimethyleneimine), poly (tetramethyleneimine), polypropyleneimine, aminoglycoside-polyamine, dideoxy-diamino-b-cyclodextrin, spermine, spermidine, poly (2-dimethylamino) Ethyl methacrylate, poly (lysine), poly (histidine), poly (arginine), cationized gelatin, dendrimer, chitosan, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), N- [1- (2, 3-dioleoyloxy) propyl] -N, N, N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA), 1- [2- (oleoyloxy) ethyl] -2-oleyl-3- (2-hydroxyethyl) imidazole Ni chloride (DO IM), 2,3-dioleyloxy-N- [2 (sperminecarboxamido) ethyl] -N, N-dimethyl-1-propanaminium trifluoroacetate (DOSPA), 3B- [N- (N ′, N'-dimethylaminoethane) -carbamoyl] cholesterol hydrochloride (DC-cholesterol HCl) diheptadecylamide glycylspermidine (DOGS), N, N-distearyl-N, N-dimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), N- (1,2-Dimyristyloxyprop-3-yl) -N, N-dimethyl-N-hydroxyethylammonium bromide (DMRIE), N, N-dioleyl-N, N-dimethylammonium chloride DODAC), and these Combinations may be included, but are not limited to these.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the invention may be formulated in one or more polymer polyplexes, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. US Publication No. 201202237565 No. and No. 2012020270927). In one embodiment, the polyplex includes two or more cationic polymers. Cationic polymers may include poly (ethyleneimine) (PEI) such as linear PEI.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention can also be formulated as nanoparticles using combinations of other biodegradable agents such as, but not limited to, polymers, lipids, and / or calcium phosphates. . The components may be combined as a core-shell, hybrid, and / or alternating stack architecture to allow for fine tuning of the nanoparticles so that delivery of polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA can be improved. (Wang et al., Nat Mater. 2006 5: 791-796, Fuller et al., Biomaterials. 2008 29: 1526-1532, DeKoker et al., Adv Drug Delv Rev, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 2011 63: 748-761, Endres et al., Biomaterials.2011 32: 7721-7731, Su et al., Mol Pharm. 2011 Jun 6; 8 (3): 77. -87). By way of non-limiting example, the nanoparticles are a hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymer (eg, PEG-PLGA), a hydrophobic polymer (eg, PEG), and / or a hydrophilic polymer, etc., but are not limited thereto. (See International Publication No. WO2012020225129, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

  Biodegradable calcium phosphate nanoparticles in combination with lipids and / or polymers have been shown to deliver polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA in vivo. In one embodiment, lipid-coated calcium phosphate nanoparticles that may also contain a targeting ligand such as anisamide may be used to deliver the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA of the invention. For example, lipid-coated calcium phosphate nanoparticles were used to effectively deliver siRNA in a mouse metastatic lung model (Li et al., J Contr Rel., Incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). 2010 142: 416-421, Li et al., J Contr Rel. 2012 158: 108-114, Yang et al., Mol Ther. 2012 20: 609-615). This delivery system combines both targeted nanoparticles and a component calcium phosphate to enhance escape from endosomes to improve siRNA delivery.

  In one embodiment, calcium phosphate may be used with a PEG-polyanion block copolymer to deliver polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA (Kazikawa et al., J Contr Rel, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. 2004 97: 345-356, Kazikawa et al., J Contr Rel.2006 111: 368-370).

  In one embodiment, PEG charge conversion polymers (Pitella et al., Biomaterials. 2011 32: 3106-3114) are used to form nanoparticles for delivering polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA of the invention. May be. PEG charge conversion polymers can be improved to PEG-polyanion block copolymers by cleaving into polycations at acidic pH and thus improving escape from endosomes.

  The use of core-shell nanoparticles has further focused on high throughput approaches to synthesize cationic cross-linked nanogel cores and various shells (Siegwart et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011 108: 129996-13001). . Polymer nanoparticle complexation, delivery, and internalization can be precisely controlled by changing the chemical composition of both the core and shell components of the nanoparticle. For example, core-shell nanoparticles can efficiently deliver siRNA to mouse hepatocytes after covalently attaching cholesterol to the nanoparticles.

  In one embodiment, a hollow lipid core comprising an intermediate PLGA layer and an outer neutral lipid layer containing PEG may be used to deliver a polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA of the invention. As a non-limiting example, in mice bearing luciferase expressing tumors, it was confirmed that lipid-polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles significantly suppressed luciferase expression compared to conventional lipoplexes (Shi et al, Angew Chem Int Ed. 2011 50: 7027-7031, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the lipid nanoparticles can include a core of a modified nucleic acid molecule disclosed herein, and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell can be used to protect the modified nucleic acid in the core.

  Core-shell nanoparticles for use with the modified nucleic acid molecules of the present invention are described and formed by the method described in US Pat. No. 8,313,777, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. May be.

  In one embodiment, the core-shell nanoparticles can include a core of a modified nucleic acid molecule disclosed herein, and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell can be used to protect the modified nucleic acid molecule in the core. As a non-limiting example, core-shell nanoparticles can be used to treat an eye disease or disorder (see, eg, US Publication No. 20120321719, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the polymers used with the formulations described herein are modified polymers such as, but not limited to, the modified polymers described in International Publication No. WO2011120053, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. May not be).

Peptides and Proteins The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can be formulated with peptides and / or proteins to increase transfection of cells with the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical formulation may be delivered using peptides such as, but not limited to, cell permeable peptides and proteins and peptides that allow intracellular delivery. Non-limiting examples of cell penetrating peptides that can be used with the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention include cell penetrating peptide sequences attached to polycations that facilitate delivery to the intracellular space, such as HIV-derived TAT. Peptide, penetratin, transportan, or hCT-derived cell penetrating peptide (eg, Caron et al., Mol. Ther. 3 (3): 310-8, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. 2001), Langel, Cell-Penetration Peptides: Processes and Applications (CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, 2002), El-Andalousi et al., Curr. Pharm. Des. 11 (28): 97. 1 (2003), and Dehayes et al., Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 62 (16): 1839-49 (2005)). The composition can also be formulated to include a cell permeable agent, such as a liposome, that improves delivery of the composition to the intracellular space. The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention include peptides and / or proteins from Aileron Therapeutics (Cambridge, MA) and Permeon Biologicals (Cambridge, MA) to allow intracellular delivery, but these May be complexed to peptides and / or proteins, not limited to (Cronic et al., ACS Chem. Biol. 2010 5: 747-752, McNaughton et al., All incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009 106: 6111- 6116, Sawyer, Chem Biol Drug Des.2009 73: 3- , Verdine and Hilinski, Methods Enzymol.2012; 503: 3-33).

  In one embodiment, the cell permeable polypeptide can comprise a first domain and a second domain. The first domain can comprise a supercharged polypeptide. The second domain can include a protein binding partner. As used herein, “protein binding partner” includes, but is not limited to, antibodies and functional fragments thereof, scaffold proteins, or peptides. The cell permeable polypeptide can further comprise an intracellular binding partner for the protein binding partner. A cell permeable polypeptide may be capable of being secreted from a cell into which a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be introduced.

  A formulation comprising a peptide or protein is used to increase cell transfection with a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA and alter the biodistribution of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA (eg, a specific tissue or cell type). And / or increase the translation of the encoded protein. (See, eg, International Publication No. WO20120110636, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

Cells The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can be transfected into cells ex vivo, which are then transplanted into a subject. As a non-limiting example, the pharmaceutical composition includes erythrocytes for delivering modified RNA to liver and bone marrow cells, virosomes for delivering modified RNA in virus-like particles (VLPs), and MAXCYTE®. Cells may include electroporated cells for delivering modified RNA, such as, but not limited to, cells from (Gaithersburg, MD) and cells from ERYTECH® (Lyon, France). Examples of the use of erythrocytes, viral particles, and electroporated cells to deliver payloads other than mmRNA have been documented (Godfrin et al., all incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. , Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 12: 127-133, Fang et al., Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 12: 385-389, Hu et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. al., Pharm Res. 2010 27: 400-420, Huckriede et al., J Liposome Res.2007; 17: 39-47, Cusi, Hum Vaccin. 62: 1-7, de Jonge et al., Gene Ther. 2006 13: 400-411).

  The polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA are delivered in a synthetic VLP synthesized by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2011085231 and US Publication No. 201101171248, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Also good.

  Cell-based formulations of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the present invention can be used to ensure cell transfection (eg, in a cell carrier) and alter the biodistribution of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA ( For example, by targeting the cell carrier to a specific tissue or cell type) and / or increasing the translation of the encoded protein.

  A variety of methods are known in the art that are suitable for the introduction of nucleic acids into cells, including viral and non-viral mediated techniques. Examples of typical non-viral mediated techniques include electroporation, calcium phosphate mediated transfer, nucleofection, sonoporation, heat shock, magnetofection, liposome mediated transfer, microinjection, microprojectile mediated Examples include, but are not limited to, transfer (nanoparticles), cationic polymer-mediated transfer (DEAE-dextran, polyethyleneimine, polyethylene glycol (PEG), etc.), or cell fusion.

  Sonoporation, or cell sonication techniques, use sound (eg, ultrasound frequency) to modify the permeability of the cell plasma membrane. Sonoporation methods are known to those of skill in the art and are used to deliver nucleic acids in vivo (Yon and Park, Expert Opin Drug Del. 2010 7: all incorporated herein by reference in their entirety: 321-330, Postema and Gilja, Curr Pharm Biotechnol.2007 8: 355-361, Newman and Bettinger, Gene Ther.2007 14: 465-475). Sonoporation methods are known in the art and are described, for example, in US Patent Publication No. 200100196983 if it relates to bacteria, for example, US patents if it relates to other cell types. Each of these is taught in publication number 20100009424, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  Electroporation techniques are also well known in the art and are used to deliver nucleic acids in vivo and clinically (Andre et al., Curr Gene, all incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Ther. 2010 10: 267-280, Chiarella et al., Curr Gene Ther. 2010 10: 281-286, Hojman, Curr Gene Ther. 2010 10: 128-138). In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be delivered by electroporation as described in Example 8.

Hyaluronidase Intramuscular or subcutaneous topical injection of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can include a hyaluronidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan. By catalyzing the hydrolysis of hyaluronan, an intermediary barrier component, hyaluronidase reduces the viscosity of hyaluronan and thereby increases tissue permeability (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, Frost, Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. (2007) 4: 427-440). It is useful to accelerate the systemic distribution of the encoded proteins produced by these dispersed and transfected cells. Alternatively, hyaluronidase can be used to increase the number of cells exposed to a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

Nanoparticle Mimics A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can be encapsulated and / or absorbed into a nanoparticle mimic. Nanoparticle mimics can mimic the delivery function of an organism or particle, including but not limited to pathogens, viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, and cells. By way of non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention may be encapsulated in non-viron particles that can mimic viral delivery functions (as a whole by reference). See International Publication No. WO2012006376, which is incorporated herein by reference).

Nanotubes Polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention include, but are not limited to, rosette nanotubes, rosette nanotubes with twin bases using linkers, carbon nanotubes and / or single-walled carbon nanotubes. Can be attached or bonded to at least one nanotube. A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be bound to a nanotube via forces such as, but not limited to, steric forces, ionic forces, covalent forces, and / or other forces.

  In one embodiment, the nanotubes can release one or more polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA into the cell. Changing the size and / or surface structure of at least one nanotube to control nanotube interactions in the body and / or to attach or bind to a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA disclosed herein. Can do. In one embodiment, the building blocks of at least one nanotube and / or the functional groups attached to the building blocks can be varied to adjust the dimensions and / or properties of the nanotubes. As a non-limiting example, the length of the nanotubes prevents the nanotubes from passing through holes in normal blood vessel walls, but still remains small enough to pass through larger holes in blood vessels in tumor tissue. It may be changed to.

  In one embodiment, the at least one nanotube may be coated with a delivery enhancing compound including a polymer such as but not limited to polyethylene glycol. In another embodiment, at least one nanotube and / or polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be mixed with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and / or delivery vehicle.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is attached and / or bound to at least one rosette nanotube. Rosette nanotubes can be formed by processes known in the art and / or by the processes described in WO201209304304, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. At least one polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may be attached and / or bound to at least one rosette nanotube by the process described in International Publication No. WO201209304304, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Well, where the rosette nanotubes or modules that form rosette nanotubes are at least one under conditions that allow at least one polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to become attached or bound to the rosette nanotubes in an aqueous medium. Mixed with polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be attached and / or bound to at least one carbon nanotube. As a non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be bound to a linking agent, and the linked agent may be bound to carbon nanotubes (eg, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). (See US Pat. No. 8,246,995, incorporated herein). The carbon nanotubes may be single-walled nanotubes (see, eg, US Pat. No. 8,246,995, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

Complexes The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention comprise two coding regions that are covalently linked to a carrier or targeting group or that together produce a fusion protein (eg, targeting group and therapeutic protein). Or carries a peptide), a polynucleotide, a primary construct, or a complex such as mmRNA.

  The complex of the present invention comprises a protein (eg, human serum albumin (HSA), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), or globulin), carbohydrate (eg, dextran, pullulan, chitin, chitosan, Including naturally occurring substances such as inulin, cyclodextrin or hyaluronic acid) or lipids. The ligand may be a synthetic polymer, eg, a recombinant or synthetic molecule, such as a synthetic polyamino acid, an oligonucleotide (eg, an aptamer). As examples of polyamino acids, polyamino acids include polylysine (PLL), poly L-aspartic acid, poly L-glutamic acid, styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymer, Divinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer, N- (2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer (HMPA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyurethane, poly (2-ethylacrylic acid), N -Isopropyl acrylamide polymer, or polyphosphazine. Examples of polyamines include polyethyleneimine, polylysine (PLL), spermine, spermidine, polyamine, pseudopeptide-polyamine, peptidomimetic polyamine, dendrimer polyamine, arginine, amidine, protamine, cationic lipid, cationic porphyrin, polyamine quaternary. Examples include grade salts and α-helix peptides.

  Representative US patents that teach the preparation of polynucleotide complexes, particularly to RNA, include US Pat. No. 4,828,979, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 4,948,882, 5,218,105, 5,525,465, 5,541,313, 5,545,730, 5,552 No. 5,538, No. 5,578,717, No. 5,580,731, No. 5,591,584, No. 5,109,124, No. 5,118,802, No. 5 No. 5,138,045, No. 5,414,077, No. 5,486,603, No. 5,512,439, No. 5,578,718, No. 5,608,046. No. 4,587,044, No. 4,605,735, No. 4 667,025, 4,762,779, 4,789,737, 4,824,941, 4,835,263, 4,876,335, 4,904,582, 4,958,013, 5,082,830, 5,112,963, 5,214,136, 5,082 830, 5,112,963, 5,214,136, 5,245,022, 5,254,469, 5,258,506, 5,262,536, 5,272,250, 5,292,873, 5,317,098, 5,371,241, 5,391, No. 723, No. 5,416,203, No. 5,451,463, No. 5,510,475 No. 5,512,667, No. 5,514,785, No. 5,565,552, No. 5,567,810, No. 5,574,142, No. 5, No. 585,481, No. 5,587,371, No. 5,595,726, No. 5,597,696, No. 5,599,923, No. 5,599,928 and 5,688,941, 6,294,664, 6,320,017, 6,576,752, 6,783,931, 6,900 No. 297, No. 7,037,646, but is not limited thereto.

  In one embodiment, the complex of the present invention may function as a carrier for the modified nucleic acid and mmRNA of the present invention. The composite may comprise a cationic polymer that can be grafted with poly (ethylene glycol), such as, but not limited to, polyamines, polylysines, polyalkyleneimines, and polyethyleneimines. As a non-limiting example, the conjugate may be similar to the polymer conjugate, and methods for synthesizing the polymer conjugate are described in US Pat. No. 6,586,524, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. It is described in.

  The complex can also include an antibody that binds to a specified cell type, such as a targeting group, eg, a cell or tissue targeting agent, eg, a lectin, glycoprotein, lipid, or protein, eg, a kidney cell. Targeting groups are thyrotropin, melanotropin, lectin, glycoprotein, surfactant protein A, mucin carbohydrate, polyvalent lactose, polyvalent galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine polyvalent mannose, polyvalent fucose, glycosyl A polyamino acid, polyvalent galactose, transferrin, bisphosphonate, polyglutamate, polyaspartate, lipid, cholesterol, steroid, bile acid, folate, vitamin B12, biotin, RGD peptide, RGD peptidomimetic, or aptamer obtain.

  Targeting groups are designated proteins, such as glycoproteins, or peptides, such as molecules with specific affinity for a co-ligand, or antibodies such as cancer cells, endothelial cells, or bone cells. Antibody that binds to a cell type. Targeting groups can also include hormones and hormone receptors. Non-peptides such as lipids such as lectins, carbohydrates, vitamins, cofactors, polyvalent lactose, polyvalent galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine polyvalent mannose, polyvalent fucose, or aptamers Species can also be included. The ligand can be, for example, a lipopolysaccharide, or an activator of p38 MAP kinase.

  The targeting group can be any ligand capable of targeting a specific receptor. Examples include, without limitation, folate, GalNAc, galactose, mannose, mannose-6P, aptamers, integrin receptor ligand, chemokine receptor ligand, transferrin, biotin, serotonin receptor ligand, PSMA, endothelin, GCPII, Examples include somatostatin, LDL, and HDL ligands. In certain embodiments, the targeting group is an aptamer. Aptamers can be unmodified or have any combination of the modifications disclosed herein.

  In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention may contain chemical modifications such as, but not limited to, modifications similar to locked nucleic acids.

  Representative US patents that teach the preparation of locked nucleic acids (LNA), such as those by Santaris, include US Pat. No. 6,268,490, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 6,670,461, 6,794,499, 6,998,484, 7,053,207, 7,084,125, and 7,399, No. 845, but is not limited to these.

  Representative US patents that teach the preparation of PNA compounds include US Pat. Nos. 5,539,082, 5,714,331, and 5, each of which is incorporated herein by reference. , 719, 262, but is not limited thereto. Further teachings of PNA compounds can be found in, for example, Nielsen et al. , Science, 1991, 254, 1497-1500.

Some embodiments featuring the present invention include polynucleotides having a phosphorothioate backbone, primary constructs, or mmRNAs, as well as other modified backbones, particularly those of US Pat. No. 5,489,677 referenced above. -CH 2 --NH - CH 2 -, - CH 2 --N (CH 3) - O - CH 2 - [ known as a methylene (methylimino) or MMI backbone], - CH 2 --O - N (CH 3 ) - CH 2 -, - CH 2 --N (CH 3) - N (CH 3) - CH 2 -, and --N (CH 3) - CH 2 --CH 2 - [ wherein the native phosphodiester backbone is represented, - O-P (O) 2 --O - CH 2 - represented as, and the above-referenced The amide skeleton of US Pat. No. 5,602,240 To, including oligonucleosides. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides featured herein have the morpholino backbone structure of US Pat. No. 5,034,506 referenced above.

Modifications at the 2 ′ position may also aid delivery. Preferably, the modification at the 2 ′ position is not located in the polypeptide coding sequence, ie not in the translatable region. Modifications at the 2 ′ position may be located in the 5 ′ UTR, 3 ′ UTR, and / or the tail region. Modifications at the 2 ′ position can include one of the following at the 2 ′ position: H (ie, 2′-deoxy); F; O—, S—, or N-alkyl; O—, S -, or N- alkenyl; O-, S-, or N- alkynyl; or O- alkyl -O--alkyl (wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted C 1 -C 10 alkyl or C 2 -C 10 may be alkenyl and alkynyl. the preferred modifications of the illustrative, O [(CH 2) n O] m CH 3, O (CH 2) n OCH 3, O (CH 2) n NH 2 , O (CH 2 ) n CH 3 , O (CH 2 ) n ONH 2 , and O (CH 2 ) n ON [(CH 2 ) n CH 3 )] 2, where n and m are 1 to about 10. In other embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprises one of the following at the 2 ′ position: C 1 -C 10 lower alkyl, substituted lower alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, O-alkaryl. or O- aralkyl, SH, SCH 3, OCN, Cl, Br, CN, CF 3, OCF 3, SOCH 3, SO 2 CH 3, ONO 2, NO 2, N 3, NH 2, heterocycloalkyl, heterocyclo Alkaryl, aminoalkylamino, polyalkylamino, substituted silyl, RNA cleaving groups, reporter groups, intercalators, groups for improving pharmacokinetic properties, or groups for improving pharmacodynamic properties, and similar properties Other substituents having. In some embodiments, the modification is also known as 2′-methoxyethoxy (2′-O—CH 2 CH 2 OCH 3 (2′-O— (2-methoxyethyl) or 2′-MOE). (Martinet al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 1995, 78: 486-504) i.e. containing alkoxy-alkoxy groups. Another exemplary modification is also known as 2′-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, ie, O (CH 2 ) 2 ON (CH 3 ) 2 group (2′-DMAOE), described in the Examples herein below. And 2′-dimethylaminoethoxy (also known in the art as 2′-O-dimethylaminoethoxyethyl or 2′-DMAEOE) as described in the examples herein below, ie 2′-O—CH 2 —O—CH 2 —N (CH 2 ) 2 . Other modifications include 2'-methoxy (2'-OCH 3), 2'- aminopropoxy (2'-OCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2), and 2'including fluoro (2'-F). Similar modifications may be made at other positions, particularly at the 3 ′ position of the sugar on the 3 ′ terminal nucleotide or in the 2′-5 ′ linked dsRNA and at the 5 ′ position of the 5 ′ terminal nucleotide. The polynucleotide of the present invention may have a sugar mimic such as a cyclobutyl moiety instead of the pentofuranosyl sugar. Representative US patents that teach the preparation of such modified sugar structures include US Pat. Nos. 4,981,957, 5,118,800, each incorporated herein by reference. 5,319,080, 5,359,044, 5,393,878, 5,446,137, 5,466,786, 5,514, No. 785, No. 5,519,134, No. 5,567,811, No. 5,576,427, No. 5,591,722, No. 5,597,909, No. No. 5,610,300, No. 5,627,053, No. 5,639,873, No. 5,646,265, No. 5,658,873, No. 5,670,633 No., and No. 5,700,920, but are not limited thereto.

  In still other embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is covalently complexed to the cell permeable polypeptide. The cell penetrating peptide can also include a signal sequence. The complexes of the invention can be designed to have increased stability, increased cell transfection, and / or altered biodistribution (eg, targeted to a specific tissue or cell type). .

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be conjugated to an agent to improve delivery. As a non-limiting example, the agent may be a monomer or polymer, such as a targeting monomer or polymer having a targeting block as described in International Publication No. WO2011062965, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In another non-limiting example, the agent may be a transport agent covalently linked to a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention (eg, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,835.393 and 7,374,778). In yet another non-limiting example, the agent is an agent described in US Pat. Nos. 7,737,108 and 8,003,129, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Membrane barrier transport improvers such as

  In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be complexed to SMARTT POLYMER TECHNOLOGY® (PHASERX®, Inc. Seattle, WA).

Self-assembling nanoparticles Nucleic acid self-assembling nanoparticles Self-assembling nanoparticles have a well-defined size that can be precisely controlled so that the nucleic acid strands can be easily reprogrammed. For example, the optimal particle size for a cancer-targeted nanodelivery carrier is 20 nm, since a diameter greater than 20 nm avoids renal clearance with improved permeability and retention effects and improves delivery to certain tumors. ~ 100 nm. A single population of uniform size and shape with self-assembling nucleic acid nanoparticles with precisely controlled spatial orientation and density of cancer targeting ligands for improved delivery. As a non-limiting example, oligonucleotide nanoparticles were prepared using programmable DNA self-assembly of short DNA fragments and therapeutic siRNA. These nanoparticles are molecularly identical with controllable particle size and target ligand location and density. DNA fragments and siRNA self-assembled into a one-step reaction to generate DNA / siRNA tetrahedral nanoparticles for targeted in vivo delivery. (Lee et al., Nature Nanotechnology 2012 7: 389-393, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein can be formulated as self-assembling nanoparticles. As a non-limiting example, nucleic acids may be used to make nanoparticles that can be used in delivery systems for polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA of the invention (eg, the entire See International Publication No. WO20121225987, which is incorporated herein by reference).

  In one embodiment, the nucleic acid self-assembling nanoparticles may include a polynucleotide, a primary construct, or a core of mmRNA disclosed herein, and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell may be used to protect polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA in the core.

Polymer-Based Self-Assembly Nanoparticles Polymers may be used to form self-assembled sheets into nanoparticles. These nanoparticles may be used to deliver the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs of the invention. In one embodiment, these self-assembling nanoparticles are microsponges formed of a long polymer of RNA hairpins that form a crystalline “pleated” sheet prior to self-assembly into a microsponge. Also good. These microsponges are closely packed sponge-like microparticles that can function as efficient carriers and be able to deliver cargo to cells. The microsponge can be 1 μm to 300 nm in diameter. The microsponge can be complexed with other agents known in the art to form larger microsponges. As a non-limiting example, the microsponge can be complexed with an agent that forms an outer layer to promote cellular uptake, such as polycation polyethyleneimine (PEI). This complex can form 250 nm diameter particles that can remain stable at high temperatures (150 ° C.) (Grabow and Jaegar, Nature Materials 2012, 11: incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). 269-269). Furthermore, these microsponges may be able to show an exceptional degree of protection from degradation by ribonucleases.

  In another embodiment, the polymer-based self-assembling nanoparticles, such as but not limited to microsponges, can be fully programmable nanoparticles. The shape, size, and stoichiometry of the nanoparticles can be precisely controlled to create nanoparticles that are optimal for delivery of cargo such as, but not limited to, polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA. it can.

  In one embodiment, the polymer-based nanoparticles can include a polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA core disclosed herein, and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell may be used to protect polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA in the core.

  In yet another embodiment, the polymer-based nanoparticle may comprise a non-nucleic acid polymer comprising a plurality of heterogeneous monomers, such as those described in International Publication No. WO2013009736, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Good.

Inorganic Nanoparticles The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA of the present invention may be formulated in inorganic nanoparticles (US Pat. No. 8,257,745, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). ). Inorganic nanoparticles may include, but are not limited to, clay materials that are water swellable. As a non-limiting example, the inorganic nanoparticles may comprise synthetic smectite clays made from simple silicates (eg, US Pat. No. 5,5 each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). , 585,108 and 8,257,745).

  In one embodiment, the inorganic nanoparticles may include a modified nucleic acid core disclosed herein and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell may be used to protect the modified nucleic acid in the core.

Semiconducting and metallic nanoparticles The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs of the present invention are formulated in water-dispersible nanoparticles comprising semiconducting or metallic materials (the entire U.S. Publication No. 201202228565), or incorporated into the specification, or may be formed in magnetic nanoparticles (U.S. Publication Nos. 201202265001 and 20120280303, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). . The water-dispersible nanoparticles may be hydrophobic nanoparticles or hydrophilic nanoparticles.

  In one embodiment, the semiconducting and / or metallic nanoparticles may comprise a polynucleotide, a primary construct, and / or a core of mmRNA disclosed herein, and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell may be used to protect polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA in the core.

Gels and hydrogels In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein can be encapsulated in any hydrogel known in the art that can form a gel when injected into a subject. It may be enclosed. A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that is hydrophilic and is sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. Hydrogels are natural or synthetic polymers that are highly absorbent (they can contain more than 99% water). Hydrogels also have a degree of softness that is very similar to natural tissue due to their considerable water content. The hydrogels described herein may be used to encapsulate lipid nanoparticles that are biocompatible, biodegradable, and / or porous.

  As a non-limiting example, the hydrogel may be an aptamer functionalized hydrogel. Aptamer functionalized hydrogels may be programmed to release one or more polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA using nucleic acid hybridization. (Battig et al., J. Am. Chem. Society. 2012 134: 12410-12413, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  As another non-limiting example, the hydrogel may be shaped as an inverted opal. Opal hydrogels exhibit a higher swelling rate, and their swelling rate is also faster by an order of magnitude. A method for producing opal hydrogels and a description of opal hydrogels is described in International Publication No. WO2012148684, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  In yet another non-limiting example, the hydrogel may be an antimicrobial hydrogel. Antibacterial hydrogels may include pharmaceutically acceptable salts or organic materials such as, but not limited to, pharmaceutical grade and / or medical grade silver salts and aloe vera gels or extracts. (International Publication No. WO2012151438, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the modified mRNA may be encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles, which may then be encapsulated in a hydrogel.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein may be encapsulated in any gel known in the art. By way of non-limiting example, the gel may be a fluorouracil injectable gel or a fluorouracil injectable gel containing chemical compounds and / or drugs known in the art. As another example, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may be encapsulated in a fluorouracil gel containing epinephrine (eg, Smith et al. Cancer, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 1999 44 (4): 267-274).

  In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein may be encapsulated in a fibrin gel, fibrin hydrogel, or fibrin glue. In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA are formulated in lipid nanoparticles or rapidly excreted lipid nanoparticles before being encapsulated in fibrin gel, fibrin hydrogel, or fibrin glue. May be. In yet another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA may be formulated as a lipoplex before being encapsulated in a fibrin gel, hydrogel, or fibrin glue. Fibrin gels, hydrogels, and glues contain two components, a fibrinogen solution and a thrombin solution rich in calcium (eg, Spicker and Mikos, Journal of, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Controlled Release 2012.148: 49-55, Kidd et al. Journal of Controlled Release 2012.157: 80-85). The concentration of the components of the fibrin gel, hydrogel, and / or glue includes, but is not limited to, changing the release characteristics of the fibrin gel, hydrogel, and / or glue. , Network mesh size, and / or decomposition characteristics can be varied. (For example, Spider and Mikos, Journal of Controlled Release 2012.148: 49-55, Kidd et al. Journal of Controlled Release 2012.157: 80-85, each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. et al., Tissue Engineering 2008.14: 119-128). This feature may be advantageous when used to deliver the modified mRNA disclosed herein. (See, for example, Kidd et al. Journal of Controlled Release 2012.157: 80-85, Catellas et al. Tissue Engineering 2008.14: 119-128, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. ).

Cations and Anions Polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA formulations disclosed herein may comprise a cation or anion. In one embodiment, the formulation comprises a metal cation, such as, but not limited to, Zn2 +, Ca2 +, Cu2 +, Mg +, and combinations thereof. By way of non-limiting example, the formulation may comprise a polymer and a polynucleotide complexed with a metal cation, a primary construct, and / or an mRNA (eg, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,265,389 and 6,555,525).

Shaped Nanoparticles and Microparticles The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein may be formulated in nanoparticles and / or microparticles. These nanoparticles and / or microparticles can be shaped into any size shape and chemical composition. By way of example, nanoparticles and / or microparticles can be made using the PRINT® technology from LIQUIDA TECHNOLOGIES® (Morrisville, NC) (eg, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). , See International Publication No. WO2007024323).

  In one embodiment, the shaped nanoparticles may comprise a polynucleotide, a primary construct, and / or a core of mmRNA disclosed herein, and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and known in the art. In further embodiments, a polymer shell may be used to protect polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA in the core.

Nanojackets (NanoJackets) and nanoliposomes (NanoLiposomes)
The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein may be formulated in nanojackets and nanoliposomes by Keystone Nano (State College, PA). Nanojackets are made of compounds that are found naturally in the body and contain calcium, phosphate, and may also contain small amounts of silicates. Nanojackets can range in size from 5 to 50 nm and can be used to deliver hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds such as but not limited to polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA. it can.

  Nanoliposomes are lipids and the like that occur naturally in the body, but are made of lipids that are not limited to these. Nanoliposomes can range in size from 60 to 80 nm and can be used to deliver hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds such as but not limited to polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA. it can. In one aspect, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA disclosed herein are formulated in nanoliposomes, such as but not limited to ceramide nanoliposomes.

Excipients Pharmaceutical formulations as used herein are any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids suitable for the particular dosage form desired. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, including surfactants, isotonic agents, thickeners or emulsifiers, preservatives, solid binders, lubricants and the like. Remington's The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21 st Edition, A., which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. R. Gennaro (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006) discloses various excipients used to formulate pharmaceutical compositions and known techniques for their preparation. Any conventional. A substance or derivative thereof such that the excipient medium of said agent causes any undesired biological effects or otherwise interacts adversely with any other component (s) of the pharmaceutical composition Except where it is incompatible, its use is contemplated within the scope of this disclosure.

  In some embodiments, the pharmaceutically acceptable excipient is at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100% pure. In some embodiments, the excipient is approved for human use and veterinary use. In some embodiments, the excipient is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In some embodiments, the excipient is pharmaceutical grade. In some embodiments, the excipient is a United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), a European Pharmacopoeia (EP), a British Pharmacopoeia, and / or an International Pharmacopoeia. International Pharmacopoeia) criteria are met.

  Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions include inert diluents, dispersants and / or granulators, surfactants and / or emulsifiers, disintegrants, binders , Preservatives, buffers, lubricants, and / or oils. Such excipients may optionally be included in the pharmaceutical composition.

  Exemplary diluents include calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, lactose, sucrose, cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, sorbitol, inositol , Sodium chloride, dry starch, corn starch, powdered sugar and the like, and / or combinations thereof.

  Exemplary granulating and / or dispersing agents include potato starch, corn starch, tapioca starch, sodium starch glycolate, clay, alginic acid, guar gum, citrus pulp, agar, bentonite, cellulose and wood products, natural sponges, cations Exchange resin, calcium carbonate, silicate, sodium carbonate, cross-linked poly (vinyl-pyrrolidone) (crospovidone), sodium carboxymethyl starch (sodium starch glycolate), carboxymethyl cellulose, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (croscarmellose), methyl cellulose , Pregelatinized starch (starch 1500), microcrystalline starch, water-insoluble starch, calcium carboxymethyl cellulose, aluminum magnesium silicate (V EGUM (TM)), sodium lauryl sulfate, such as quaternary ammonium compounds, and / or combinations thereof, without limitation.

  Exemplary surfactants and / or emulsifiers include natural emulsifiers (eg, acacia, agar, alginic acid, sodium alginate, tragacanth, chondrux, cholesterol, xanthan, pectin, gelatin, egg yolk, casein, wool fat, cholesterol , Waxes and lecithins), colloidal clays (eg bentonite [aluminum silicate] and VEEGUM® [magnesium aluminum silicate]), long chain amino acid derivatives, high molecular weight alcohols (eg stearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, Oleyl alcohol, triacetin monostearate, ethylene glycol distearate, glyceryl monostearate, and monostearate Propylene glycol acid, polyvinyl alcohol), carbomers (eg, carboxypolymethylene, polyacrylic acid, acrylic acid polymer, and carboxyvinyl polymer), carrageenan, cellulose derivatives (eg, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, powdered cellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxy) Propylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, methylcellulose), sorbitan fatty acid esters (for example, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate [TWEEN® 20], polyoxyethylene sorbitan [TWEENn® 60], polyoxy monooleate) Ethylene sorbitan [TWEEN (registered trademark) 80], sorbitan monopalmitate [SPAN (registered trademark)] 40], sorbitan monostearate [SPAN (R) 60], sorbitan tristearate [SPAN (R) 65], glyceryl monooleate, sorbitan monooleate [SPAN (R) 80]), polyoxy Ethylene esters (eg, polyoxyethylene monostearate [MYRJ® 45], polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, polyethoxylated castor oil, polyoxymethylene stearate, and SOLUTOOL®), Sucrose fatty acid ester, polyethylene glycol fatty acid ester (for example, CREMOPHOR (registered trademark)), polyoxyethylene ether, (for example, polyoxyethylene lauryl ether [BRIJ (registered trademark) 30]) Poly (vinyl-pyrrolidone), diethylene glycol monolaurate, triethanolamine oleate, sodium oleate, potassium oleate, ethyl oleate, oleic acid, ethyl laurate, sodium lauryl sulfate, PLUORINC® F 68, POLOXAMER (Registered trademark) 188, cetrimonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, docusate sodium, and the like, and / or combinations thereof, but are not limited thereto.

  Exemplary binders include starch (eg, corn starch and starch paste); gelatin; sugars (eg, sucrose, glucose, dextrose, dextrin, molasses, lactose, lactitol, mannitol); natural and synthetic gums (eg, Acacia, sodium alginate, irish moss extract, panwar gum, ghatti gum, isapol skin mucus, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, poly (vinyl-pyrrolidone), magnesium aluminum silicate Veegum®), and larch arabogalactan); alginate; polyethylene oxide; polyethylene glycol; inorganic calcium salt; silicic acid; polymethacrylate; wax; water; alcohol etc .; and combinations thereof However, it is not limited to these.

  Exemplary preservatives can include, but are not limited to, antioxidants, chelating agents, antibacterial preservatives, antifungal preservatives, alcohol preservatives, acidic preservatives, and / or other preservatives. . Exemplary antioxidants include alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, monothioglycerol, potassium metabisulfite, propionic acid, propyl gallate, sodium ascorbate , Sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and / or sodium sulfate. Exemplary chelating agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid monohydrate, edetate disodium, edetate dipotassium, edetic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, phosphoric acid, sodium edetate, tartaric acid, and And / or edetate trisodium. Exemplary antibacterial preservatives include benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, bronopol, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, cresol, ethyl alcohol, glycerin, hexetidi , Imidourea, phenol, phenoxyethanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric nitrate, propylene glycol, and / or thimerosal. Exemplary antifungal preservatives include butylparaben, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, and / or sorbic acid. Including, but not limited to. Exemplary alcohol preservatives include, but are not limited to, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, phenol, phenolic compounds, bisphenol, chlorobutanol, hydroxybenzoate, and / or phenylethyl alcohol. Exemplary acidic preservatives include, but are not limited to, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, citric acid, acetic acid, dihydroacetic acid, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, and / or phytic acid. Other preservatives include tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, deteroxime mesylate, cetrimide, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ethylenediamine, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, potassium sulfate, potassium metabisulfite, GLYDANT PLUS (registered trademark), PHENONIP (registered trademark), methylparaben, GERMALL (registered trademark) 115, GERMABEN (registered) (Trademark) II, NEOLONE (TM), KATHON (TM), and / or EUXYL (R) It is not limited to it.

  Exemplary buffering agents include citrate buffer, acetate buffer, phosphate buffer, ammonium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium grubionate, calcium glucoceptate, calcium gluconate, d-gluconic acid , Calcium glycerophosphate, calcium lactate, propanoic acid, calcium levulinate, pentanoic acid, dicalcium phosphate, phosphoric acid, tricalcium phosphate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, potassium gluconate, potassium mixture, dibasic potassium phosphate , Monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium phosphate mixture, sodium acetate, sodium dicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium lactate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate mixture, trome Min, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, alginic acid, pyrogen-free water, isotonic saline, Ringer's solution, ethyl alcohol, etc., and / or combinations thereof, without limitation.

  Exemplary lubricants include magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid, silica, talc, malt, behenate glyceryl, hydrogenated vegetable oil, polyethylene glycol, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, leucine, Examples include, but are not limited to, magnesium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and the like, and combinations thereof.

  Illustrative oils include almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, babas oil, bergamot oil, black currant seed oil, cadet oil, chamomile oil, canola oil, caraway oil, carnauba oil, castor oil, cinnamon oil, cocoa butter Oil, coconut oil, cod liver oil, coffee oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, emu oil, eucalyptus oil, evening primrose oil, fish oil, linseed oil, geraniol oil, gourd oil, grape seed oil, hazelnut oil, hyssop oil, isopropyl myristate Oil, mango seed oil, meadow foam oil, mink oil, nutmeg oil, olive oil, orange oil, orange luffy oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peach seed oil, peanut oil, poppy oil, pumpkin seed oil, rapeseed oil, rice bran oil , Rosemary oil, safflower oil, sandalwood oil, sasquana (sasq ana) including oils, sevolie, sea buckthorn oil, sesame oil, shea butter oil, silicone oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tea tree oil, thistle oil, camellia oil, vetiver oil, walnut oil, and wheat germ oil However, it is not limited to these. Exemplary oils include butyl stearic acid, caprylic acid triglyceride, capric acid triglyceride, cyclomethicone, diethyl sebacate, dimethicone 360, isopropyl myristate, mineral oil, octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, silicone oil, and / or combinations thereof Is included, but is not limited thereto.

  Excipients such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes, colorants, coatings, sweeteners, flavors, and / or fragrances may be present in the composition according to the judgment of the formulator.

Delivery This disclosure relates to polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA for any of therapeutic, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, or imaging purposes, by any suitable route that takes into account the scientific advancement of drug delivery. Also includes delivery. Delivery may be naked or formulated.

Naked Delivery The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention may be delivered to the cell naked. As used herein, “naked” refers to delivering a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA without an agent that promotes transfection. For example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA delivered to a cell may not contain any modifications. Naked polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA may be delivered to cells using the routes of administration known in the art and described herein.

Formulated Delivery The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention may be formulated using the methods described herein. The formulation may contain a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that may be modified and / or unmodified. The formulation can further include, but is not limited to, a cell penetrating agent, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, a delivery agent, a biodegradable or biocompatible polymer, a solvent, and a sustained release delivery depot. The formulated polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be delivered to the cells using the routes of administration known in the art and described herein.

  The composition may be a substrate such as a textile or biodegradable material coated or impregnated with the composition by direct water immersion or immersion, via catheter, gel, powder, ointment, cream, gel, lotion, and / or droplets Can also be formulated for direct delivery to an organ or tissue in any of several methods in the art including, but not limited to.

Administration The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention may be administered by any route that results in a therapeutically effective outcome. These include enteral, gastrointestinal, epidural, oral, transcutaneous, epidural (on the dura mater), brain (into the cerebrum), ventricle (into the ventricle), skin ( Application on the skin), intradermal, (into the skin itself), subcutaneous (under the skin), nasal administration (through the nose), intravenous (into the vein), intraarterial (into the artery) ), Intramuscular (into muscle), intracardiac (into heart), intraosseous infusion (into bone marrow), intrathecal (into spinal canal), intraperitoneal (into abdominal cavity) Infusion or infusion), intravesical infusion, intravitreal (through the eye), intracavity injection (into the penile base), intravaginal, intrauterine, extraamniotic, transdermal (for systemic distribution) Diffusion through intact skin (intact skin), transmucosal (diffusion through mucosa), gas injection (suction from the nose), sublingual, sublingual, enema, eye drops (on the conjunctiva), or ears Included in However, it is not limited to these. In certain embodiments, the compositions may be administered in a manner that allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier, vascular barrier, or other epithelial barrier. Non-limiting routes of administration for the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA of the invention are described below.

Parenteral and infusion administration Liquid dosage forms for parenteral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and / or elixirs. . In addition to the active ingredient, liquid dosage forms may be, for example, water or other solvents, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, dimethyl Solubilizers and emulsifiers such as formamide, oils (specifically, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, corn, germ oil, olive oil, castor oil, and sesame oil), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, As well as inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as mixtures thereof. In addition to inert diluents, oral compositions can include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, and / or perfuming agents. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, the composition comprises a solubilizer such as CREMOPHOR®, alcohol, oil, modified oil, glycol, polysorbate, cyclodextrin, polymer, and / or combinations thereof. Mixed with.

  Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions may be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing, wetting, and / or suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may be a sterile injectable solution, suspension and / or emulsion in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent and / or solvent, for example, 1,3-butanediol. It may be as a solution. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution, U.S.A. S. P. And isotonic sodium chloride solution. Non-irritating fixed oils are conventionally used as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids such as oleic acid can be used in the preparation of the injectate.

  Injectable preparations may contain sterile agents in the form of sterile solid compositions that can be dissolved or dispersed, for example, by filtration through a bacteria retaining filter and / or in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use. By incorporating, it can be sterilized.

  In order to prolong the effect of the active ingredient, it is often desirable to slow the absorption of the active ingredient from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with low water solubility. The absorption rate of the drug then depends on its dissolution rate, which in turn can depend on the crystal size and crystal form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered drug form is accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsule matrices of the drug in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending on the ratio of drug to polymer and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of drug release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly (orthoesters) and poly (anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations are prepared by entrapping the drug in liposomes or microemulsions that are compatible with body tissues.

Rectal and vaginal administration Compositions for rectal or vaginal administration are typically suppositories, which are solid at ambient temperature but liquid at body temperature and thus in the rectum or vaginal cavity. It can be prepared by mixing with a suitable nonirritating excipient such as cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol or suppository wax that dissolves to release the active ingredient.

Oral Administration Liquid dosage forms for oral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and / or elixirs. In addition to the active ingredient, liquid dosage forms can be, for example, water or other solvents such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, Solubilizers and emulsifiers such as dimethylformamide, oils (especially cottonseed oil, peanut oil, corn, germ oil, olive oil, castor oil, and sesame oil), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and these Inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as a mixture of In addition to inert diluents, oral compositions can include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, and / or perfuming agents. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, the composition comprises a solubilizer such as CREMOPHOR®, alcohol, oil, modified oil, glycol, polysorbate, cyclodextrin, polymer, and / or combinations thereof. Mixed with.

  Solid dosage forms for oral administration include capsules, tablets, pills, powders, and granules. In such solid dosage forms, the active ingredient is at least one inert pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate, and / or a filler or bulking agent (eg starch , Lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and silicic acid), binders (eg, carboxymethylcellulose, alginate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidinone, sucrose, and acacia), water retention agents (eg, glycerol), disintegrants (eg, , Agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate), solution retarding agents (eg, paraffin), absorption enhancers (eg, quaternary ammonium compounds) ), Wetting agents (eg cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate), absorbents (eg kaolin and bentonite clay), and lubricants (eg talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycol, sodium lauryl sulfate), As well as mixtures thereof. In the case of capsules, tablets, and pills, the dosage forms may also contain buffering agents.

Topical or transdermal administration As described herein, a composition containing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention may be formulated for topical administration. The skin can be an ideal target for delivery because it is easily accessible. Gene expression is not only restricted to the skin and may avoid non-specific toxicity, but may also be restricted to specific layers and cell types within the skin.

  The site of skin expression of the delivered composition depends on the route of nucleic acid delivery. The following three pathways are considered for delivering polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA to the skin: (i) topical application (eg, for topical / local treatment and / or cosmetic use), (ii) Transdermal injection (eg, for topical / local treatment and / or cosmetic use), and (iii) systemic delivery (eg, for the treatment of skin diseases that affect both the skin and extra-dermal areas). The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be delivered to the skin by several different approaches known in the art. Non-cationic liposome-DNA complexes, topical application of cationic liposome-DNA complexes, particle-mediated (gene gun), puncture-mediated gene transfection, viral delivery approaches, etc., but not limited to most This local delivery approach has been shown to be effective for DNA delivery. Following delivery of nucleic acids, gene products have been detected in a number of different skin cell types including, but not limited to, basal keratinocytes, sebaceous gland cells, dermal fibroblasts, and dermal macrophages.

  In one embodiment, the present invention provides a variety of dressings (eg, wound dressings) or bandages (eg, adhesive bandages) to conveniently and / or effectively perform the methods of the invention. Typically, the dressing or bandage is a sufficient amount of the pharmaceutical composition and / or polynucleotide described herein to allow the user to perform multiple treatments of the subject (s). Primary constructs, or mmRNA.

  In one embodiment, the invention provides a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA composition that is delivered in more than one injection.

  In one embodiment, prior to topical and / or transdermal administration, at least one region of tissue, such as skin, may be subjected to a device and / or solution that may increase permeability. In one embodiment, the tissue may be subjected to an abrasive device to increase skin permeability (see US Patent Publication No. 20080275468, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, the tissue may be subjected to an ultrasonic enhancement device. Ultrasonic enhancement devices include those described in U.S. Publication No. 200402236268 and U.S. Patent Nos. 6,491,657 and 6,234,990, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. May be included, but is not limited to these. Methods for improving tissue permeability are described in U.S. Publication Nos. 2004011980 and 20040236268 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,190,315, each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. .

  In one embodiment, the device may be used to increase tissue permeability prior to delivering the modified mRNA formulations described herein. Skin permeability can be measured by methods known in the art and / or described in US Pat. No. 6,190,315, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the modified mRNA formulation may be delivered by the drug delivery method described in US Pat. No. 6,190,315, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In another non-limiting example, the tissue may be treated with a local anesthetic eutectic mixture (EMLA) cream before, during and / or after the tissue can be subjected to a device that can increase permeability. Good. Katz et al. (Anesth Analg (2004); 98: 371-76, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) uses EMLA cream in combination with low energy to reduce the occurrence of superficial skin analgesia. It was seen as early as 5 minutes after the ultrasonic pretreatment.

  In one embodiment, a promoter may be applied to the tissue before, during, and / or after the tissue is treated to increase permeability. Accelerators include, but are not limited to, transport accelerators, physical accelerators, and cavitation accelerators. Non-limiting examples of accelerators are described in US Pat. No. 6,190,315, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, the device may be used to increase tissue permeability prior to delivering a modified mRNA formulation described herein, which may further contain substances that elicit an immune response. In another non-limiting example, formulations containing substances that elicit an immune response are produced by the methods described in US Publication Nos. 20040171980 and 20040236268, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. May be delivered.

  Dosage forms for topical and / or transdermal administration of the composition may include ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, powders, solutions, sprays, inhalants, and / or patches. Generally, the active ingredient is admixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and / or any needed preservatives and / or buffers as may be required.

  Furthermore, the present invention contemplates the use of transdermal patches, which can often have the additional advantage of providing controlled delivery of the compound to the body. Such dosage forms can be prepared, for example, by dissolving and / or dispensing the compound in the proper medium. Alternatively or additionally, the rate can be controlled either by providing a rate controlling membrane and / or by dispersing the compound in a polymer matrix and / or gel.

  Formulations suitable for topical administration include liquid and / or semi-liquid preparations such as liniments, lotions, oil-in-water and / or water-in-oil emulsions such as creams, ointments, and / or pastes, and / or solutions. And / or including but not limited to suspension.

  Topically administrable formulations may contain, for example, from about 0.1 w / w% to about 10 w / w% active ingredient, but the concentration of the active ingredient is up to the limit of solubility of the active ingredient in the solvent It may be high. Formulations for topical administration may further comprise one or more of the additional ingredients described herein.

Depot Administration As described herein, in some embodiments, the composition is formulated in a depot for sustained release. In general, a specific organ or tissue (“target tissue”) is targeted for administration.

  In some embodiments of the invention, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is spatially retained within or proximal to the target tissue. A target tissue (containing one or more target cells) and a composition, in particular the nucleic acid component (s) of the composition, are substantially retained in the target tissue, i.e. at least of the composition More than 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9, 99.99, or 99.99% retained in the target tissue There is provided a method of providing a composition to a target tissue of a mammalian subject by contacting under such conditions. Advantageously, retention is determined by measuring the amount of nucleic acid present in the composition that enters one or more target cells. For example, at least 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, of nucleic acid administered to a subject after a certain period of administration. More than 99.9, 99.99, or 99.99% are present in the cell. For example, an intramuscular injection into a mammalian subject is performed using an aqueous composition containing ribonucleic acid and a transfection reagent, and retention of the composition is accomplished by measuring the amount of ribonucleic acid present in muscle cells. It is determined.

  Aspects of the invention involve contacting a target tissue (containing one or more target cells) with the composition under conditions such that the composition is substantially retained within the target tissue. It is directed to a method of providing to a target tissue of a mammalian subject. The composition contains an effective amount of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA so that the polypeptide of interest is produced in at least one target cell. The compositions generally contain a cell penetrating agent and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, but “naked” nucleic acids (such as nucleic acids free of cell penetrating agents or other agents) are also contemplated.

  In some situations, the amount of protein produced by the cells in the tissue is desirably increased. Preferably, this increase in protein production is spatially restricted to cells within the target tissue. Accordingly, a method is provided for increasing production of a protein of interest in a tissue of a mammalian subject. A polynucleotide, primary, characterized in that the unit amount of the composition is determined to produce the polypeptide of interest in a substantial percentage of cells contained within a predetermined volume of the target tissue Constructs, or compositions containing mmRNA are provided.

  In some embodiments, the composition comprises a plurality of different polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs, wherein one or more of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs encode the polypeptide of interest. Optionally, the composition also contains a cell penetrating agent to assist in intracellular delivery of the composition. Produces the polypeptide of interest in a significant percentage (%) of cells contained within a predetermined volume of the target tissue (generally in the tissue adjacent to or distal to the target volume) A determination of the dose of the composition required (without inducing significant production of the peptide) is made. Following this determination, the determined dose is introduced directly into the tissue of the mammalian subject.

  In one embodiment, the invention provides a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that is to be delivered in more than one infusion or by divided dose infusion.

  In one embodiment, the present invention may be held near target tissue using a small disposable drug reservoir, patch pump, or osmotic pump. Non-limiting examples of patch pumps include BD® (Franklin Lakes, NJ), Insulation Corporation (Bedford, Mass.), SteadyMed Therapeutics (San Francisco, Calif.), Medtronic (Minneapolis, Minn. ), UniLife (York, PA), Valeritas (Bridgewater, NJ), and SpringLeaf Therapeutics (Boston, MA). Non-limiting examples of osmotic pumps include those manufactured by DURECT® (Cupertino, Calif.) (Eg, DUROS® and ALZET®).

Pulmonary Administration The pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged and / or sold in a formulation suitable for pulmonary administration via the lumen. Such formulations may comprise dry particles comprising the active ingredient and having a diameter in the range of about 0.5 nm to about 7 nm or about 1 nm to about 6 nm. Such a composition preferably uses a device comprising a dry powder reservoir to which a propellant stream can be directed to disperse the powder and / or dissolves in a low boiling propellant in a sealed container. And / or in the form of a dry powder for administration using a self-propelled solvent / powder dispensing container, such as a device containing the suspended active ingredient. Such a powder comprises particles wherein at least 98% by weight of the particles have a diameter greater than 0.5 nm and at least 95% (quantity) of the particles have a diameter of less than 7 nm. Alternatively, at least 95% by weight of the particles have a diameter greater than 1 nm and at least 90% (quantity) of the particles have a diameter of less than 6 nm. A dry powder composition may include a solid fine powder diluent such as sugar, which is conveniently provided in a unit dosage form.

  Low boiling propellants generally include liquid propellants having a melting point below 65 ° F. (about 18.3 ° C.) at atmospheric pressure. Generally, the propellant can constitute 50 w / wv% to 99.9 w / wv% of the composition, and the active ingredient can comprise 0.1 w / w% to 20 w / w% of the composition. The propellant may further comprise additional components such as liquid nonionic and / or solid anionic surfactants and / or solid diluents (which may have the same particle size as the particles containing the active ingredient).

  By way of non-limiting example, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs described herein can be pulmonary by the methods described in US Pat. No. 8,257,685, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may be formulated for delivery.

  A pharmaceutical composition formulated for pulmonary delivery may provide the active ingredient in the form of droplets of a solution and / or suspension. Such formulations may be prepared, packaged and / or sold as aqueous and / or diluted alcohol solutions and / or suspensions, optionally containing sterile, active ingredients, conveniently Any spray and / or atomization device may be used for administration. Such formulations further include one or more additional ingredients including but not limited to flavoring agents such as sodium saccharin, volatile oils, buffering agents, surfactants, and / or preservatives such as methylhydroxybenzoate. May be included. The droplets provided by this route of administration can have an average diameter in the range of about 0.1 nm to about 200 nm.

Intranasal, Nasal, and Buccal Administration The formulations described herein as useful for pulmonary delivery are useful for intranasal delivery of pharmaceutical compositions. Another formulation suitable for intranasal administration is a coarse powder comprising the active ingredient and having an average particle from about 0.2 μm to 500 μm. Such a formulation is administered in such a way that inhalation through the nose takes place, ie by rapid inhalation through the nostrils from a container of powder held close to the nose.

  Formulations suitable for nasal administration may contain, for example, a minimum of about 0.1 w / w% to a maximum of 100 w / wv% active ingredient, including one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Good. The pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged and / or sold in a formulation suitable for buccal administration. Such formulations may be, for example, in the form of tablets and / or lozenges made using conventional methods and may be, for example, from 0.1 w / w% to 20 w / w% active ingredient. And the remainder comprises an orally soluble and / or degradable composition, and optionally one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Alternatively, formulations suitable for buccal administration may comprise powders and / or aerosolized and / or atomized solutions and / or suspensions containing the active ingredient. Such powdered, aerosolized, and / or aerosolized formulations can have an average particle size and / or droplet size in the range of about 0.1 nm to about 200 nm when dispersed, as described herein. One or more of any additional ingredients described may further be included.

Intraocular administration The pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged and / or sold in a formulation suitable for intraocular administration. Such formulations are, for example, in the form of eye drops comprising, for example, a 0.1 / 1.0 w / w% solution and / or suspension of the active ingredient in an aqueous or oily liquid excipient. Also good. Such droplets may further comprise a buffer, salt, and / or one or more of any additional components described herein. Other intraocularly administrable formulations that are useful include those that comprise the active ingredient in microcrystalline form and / or in a liposomal preparation. Ear drops and / or eye drops are contemplated as being within the scope of the present invention. For delivery to the eye and / or surrounding tissue, multilayer thin film devices may be prepared to contain a pharmaceutical composition.

Payload administration: detectable agents and therapeutic agents The polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs described herein can be detected for delivery of a substance (“payload”) to a biological target, eg, detection of the target. It can be used in several different scenarios where delivery of a substance or delivery of a therapeutic agent is desired. Detection methods include both in vitro and in vivo imaging, such as immunohistochemistry, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, Raman imaging, optical coherence tomography, absorption imaging, thermal imaging, fluorescence reflection imaging, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent molecular tomography imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray imaging , Ultrasound imaging, photoacoustic imaging, laboratory assays, or methods in any situation where tagging / staining / imaging is required.

  A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be designed to include both a linker and a payload in any useful orientation. For example, using a linker with two ends, one end is at the C-7 or C-8 position of deaza-adenosine or deaza-guanosine or at the N-3 or C-5 position of cytosine or uracil. The payload and the other end are bound to a nucleobase. The polynucleotides of the invention can include more than one payload (eg, a label and a transcription inhibitor) and a cleavable linker. In one embodiment, the modified nucleotide is attached at one end of the cleavable linker to the C7 position of 7-deaza-adenine and the other end of the linker to an inhibitor (eg, the C5 position of the nucleobase on cytidine). A modified 7-deaza-adenosine triphosphate that is attached and a label (eg, Cy5) attached to the center of the linker (eg, US Pat. No. 7,994,304, incorporated herein by reference). Of A * pCp C5 Parg Capsule Compound 1 and columns 9 and 10 in FIG. When the modified 7-deaza-adenosine triphosphate is incorporated into the coding region, the resulting polynucleotide with a cleavable linker is attached to a label and an inhibitor (eg, a polymerase inhibitor). When the linker is cleaved (eg, by reducing conditions to reduce the linker having a cleavable disulfide moiety), the label and inhibitor are released. Additional linkers and payloads (eg, therapeutic agents, detectable labels, and cell permeable payloads) are described herein.

Scheme 12 below depicts an exemplary modified nucleotide in which the nucleobase adenine is attached to a linker at the C-7 carbon of 7-deazaadenine. In addition, Scheme 12 depicts a modified nucleotide with a linker and payload, eg, a detectable agent incorporated on the 3 ′ end of the mRNA. Disulfide cleavage and 1,2-addition of a thiol group onto the propargyl ester releases a detectable agent. The remaining structure (eg, depicted as pApC5Parg in Scheme 12) is an inhibitor. The rationale for the structure of the modified nucleotide is that the tethered inhibitor sterically interferes with the ability of the polymerase to incorporate the second base. Thus, the tether is long enough to affect this function and the inhibitor inhibits or prohibits the second and subsequent nucleotides from joining the growing polynucleotide chain. It is essential to be in stereochemical orientation.
Scheme 12

  For example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA described herein can be used to reprogram induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), thereby comparing to the total cells in the cluster. The transfected cells can be tracked directly. In another example, a drug can be tracked in vivo, eg, in a cell, using a drug that can be linked to a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA via a linker and that can be fluorescently labeled. Other examples include, but are not limited to, the use of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA in reversible drug delivery into cells.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs described herein can be used in the intracellular targeting of payloads, eg, detectable agents or therapeutic agents, to specific organelles. Exemplary intracellular targets can include, but are not limited to, nuclear localization for advanced mRNA processing, or nuclear localization sequences (NLS) linked to mRNA containing inhibitors.

  Furthermore, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA described herein can be used to deliver therapeutic agents to cells or tissues, for example, in living animals. For example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA described herein can be used to deliver a highly polar chemotherapeutic agent to kill cancer cells. A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA attached to a therapeutic agent via a linker may allow the therapeutic agent to migrate into the cell and reach an intracellular target by facilitating permeation of the member. .

  In one example, the linker is attached at the 2 ′ position of the ribose ring and / or at the 3 ′ and / or 5 ′ position of the polynucleotide, primary construct mmRNA (eg, international, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. See published WO2012030683). The linker may be any linker disclosed in International Publication No. WO2012030683 as disclosed herein and known in the art and / or incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In another example, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be attached to the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA virus inhibitory peptide (VIP) via a cleavable linker. The cleavable linker can release VIP and dye into the cell. In another example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be linked via a linker to ADP-ribosylate, involved in the action of several bacterial toxins such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin. These toxin proteins are ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify target proteins in human cells. For example, the cholera toxin ADP-ribosylate G protein denatures human cells by causing massive fluid secretion from the inner wall of the small intestine, resulting in fatal diarrhea.

  In some embodiments, the payload may be a therapeutic agent such as a cytotoxin, radioactive ion, chemotherapeutic agent, or other therapeutic agent. A cytotoxin or cytotoxic agent includes any agent that can be detrimental to cells. Examples include taxol, cytochalasin B, gramicidin D, ethidium bromide, emetine, mitomycin, etoposide, teniposide, vincristine, vinblastine, colchicine, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dihydroxyanthracenedione, mitoxantrone, mitoxantrone Mycin D, 1-dehydrotestosterone, glucocorticoid, procaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, propranolol, puromycin, maytansinoids such as maytansinol (incorporated herein by reference 5,208,020), Rachelmycin (CC-1065, all by reference) (See US Pat. Nos. 5,475,092, 5,585,499, and 5,846,545), and analogs or homologues thereof, incorporated herein. For example, but not limited to. Radioactive ions include, but are not limited to, iodine (eg, iodine 125 or iodine 131), strontium 89, phosphorus, palladium, cesium, iridium, phosphate, cobalt, yttrium 90, samarium 153, and praseodymium. . Other therapeutic agents include antimetabolites (eg, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, 5-fluorouracil dacarbazine), alkylating agents (eg, mechloretamine, thiotepachlorambucil, rakel) Mycin (CC-1065), melphalan, carmustine (BSNU), lomustine (CCNU), cyclophosphamide, busulfan, dibromomannitol, streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum (II) (DDP) cisplatin), Anthracyclines (eg, daunorubicin (formerly daunomycin) and doxorubicin), antibiotics (eg, dactinomycin (formerly actinomycin), bleomycin, mi Ramaishin, and anthramycin (AMC)), and anti-mitotic agents (e.g., vincristine, vinblastine, taxol, and maytansinoids) include, but are not limited to.

In some embodiments, the payload includes various organic small molecules, inorganic compounds, nanoparticles, enzymes or enzyme substrates, fluorescent materials, luminescent materials (eg, luminol), bioluminescent materials (eg, luciferase, luciferin, and aequorin). ), Chemiluminescent materials, radioactive materials (eg, 18 F, 67 Ga, 81 m Kr, 82 Rb, 111 In, 123 I, 133 Xe, 201 Tl, 125 I, 35 S, 14 C, 3 H, or r 99m Tc (eg pertechnetate (as technetate (VII), TcO 4 —)) and contrast agent (eg gold (eg gold nanoparticles), gadolinium (eg chelated Gd), iron oxide (eg , Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), single crystal iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), and ultra-small superparamagnetic It can be a detectable agent such as ferrous iron oxide (USPIO), manganese chelate (eg, Mn-DPDP), barium sulfate, iodinated contrast media (iohexol), microbubbles, or perfluorocarbon). Such photodetectable labels include, but are not limited to, 4-acetamido-4′-isothiocyanate stilbene-2,2′disulfonic acid; acridines and derivatives (eg, acridine and acridine isothiocyanate); 5- (2 '-Aminoethyl) aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS); 4-amino-N- [3-vinylsulfonyl) phenyl] naphthalimide-3,5 disulfonate; N- (4-anilino-1-naphthyl) ) Maleimide; Anthranilamide; BODIPY; Brilliant yellow; Marine and derivatives such as coumarin, 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC, coumarin 120), and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (coumarin 151); cyanine dyes; cyanocine; 4 ′, 6-diamidino 2-phenylindole (DAPI); 5'5 "-dibromopyrogallol-sulfonaphthalene (bromopyrogallol red); 7-diethylamino-3- (phenyl'4'-isothiocyanate) -4-methylcoumarin; diethylenetriamine-5 Acetic acid salt; 4,4′-diisothiocyanic acid dihydro-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid; 4,4′-diisothiocyanic acid stilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid; 5- [dimethylamino] -naphthalene- 1-sulfonyl chloride (DNS, dansi Chloride); 4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4′-isothiocyanate (DABITC); eosin and derivatives (eg, eosin and eosin isothiocyanate); erythrosine and derivatives (eg, erythrosine B and erythrosine isothiocyanate); ethidium; Sein and derivatives (eg, 5-carboxyfluorocein (FAM), 5- (4,6-dichlorotriazin-2-yl) aminofluorothein (DTAF), 2 ′, 7′-dimethoxy-4′5′-dichloro -6-carboxyfluorescein, fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate, X-rhodamine-5- (and -6) -isothiocyanate (QFITC or XRITC), and fluorescamine); 2- [2- [3 -[[1,3-dihydro-1,1-dimethyl-3- (3-sulfopropyl) -2H-benz [e] indole-2-ylidene] ethylidene] -2- [4- (ethoxycarbonyl) -1 -Piperazinyl] -1-cyclopenten-1-yl] ethenyl] -1,1-dimethyl-3- (3-sulfopropyl) -1H-benz [e] indolium hydroxide, inner salt, n , N-diethylethanamine (1: 1) (IR144); 5-chloro-2- [2- [3-[(5-chloro-3-ethyl-2 (3H) -benzothiazole-ylidene)] Ethylidene] -2- (diphenylamino) -1-cyclopenten-1-yl] ethenyl] -3-ethylbenzothiazolium perchlorate (IR140); malachite green iso Ocynate; 4-methylumbelliferone orthocresolphthalein; nitrotyrosine; pararosaniline; phenol red; B-phycoerythrin; o-phthaldialdehyde; pyrene and derivatives (eg, pyrene, pyrene butyrate, and succinimidyl 1-pyrene) Butyrate quantum dots; reactive red 4 (CIBACRON ™ brilliant red 3B-A); rhodamines and derivatives (eg 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), 6-carboxyrhodamine (R6G), lysamine rhodamine Bsulfonyl chloride rhodamine (Rhod), rhodamine B, rhodamine 123, rhodamine X isothiocyanate, sulforhodamine B, sulforhodamine 101, sulforhodamine 01 sulfonyl chloride derivatives (Texas Red), N, N, N ′, N′tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA) tetramethylrhodamine, and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC); riboflavin; rosoleic acid; terbium chelate Derivatives: cyanine-3 (Cy3); cyanine-5 (Cy5); cyanine-5.5 (Cy5.5), cyanine-7 (Cy7); IRD 700; IRD 800; Alexa 647; La Jolta Blue; phthalocyanine; Contains naphthalocyanine.

  In some embodiments, the detectable agent is a non-detectable precursor (eg, a fluorogenic tetrazine-fluorophore construct (eg, tetrazine-BODIPY FL, tetrazine-oregon) that becomes detectable upon activation. Green 488, or tetrazine-BODIPY TMR-X), or an enzyme-activatable fluorogen (eg, PROSENSE® (VisEn Medical)) In vitro enzyme labeling compositions can be used. Assays include, but are not limited to, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoprecipitation assay, immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and Western blot analysis.

Combinations A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be used in combination with one or more other therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging agents. “In combination with” is not intended to imply that the agents need to be formulated for simultaneous administration and / or delivery together, although these methods of delivery are disclosed herein. It is in the range. The composition can be administered in parallel with, before, or after one or more other desired therapeutics or medical procedures. In general, each drug will be administered at a dose determined for that drug and / or based on a time schedule. In some embodiments, the disclosure provides pharmaceutical, prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging compositions that improve their bioavailability, reduce and / or modify their metabolism, and reduce their excretion. Delivering in combination with agents that can inhibit and / or modify their biodistribution. As a non-limiting example, the nucleic acid or mmRNA may be used in combination with a medicament for the treatment of cancer or for controlling hyperproliferative cells. In US Pat. No. 7,964,571, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, a pharmaceutical composition comprising a DNA plasmid encoding interleukin-12 with a lipopolymer is used, and at least one anticancer agent or chemistry Combination therapies for the treatment of primary or metastatic solid tumors in which therapeutic agents are administered are described. In addition, the nucleic acids and mmRNA of the invention that encode an antiproliferative molecule may be in a pharmaceutical composition with a lipopolymer (eg, a pharmaceutical composition comprising a DNA plasmid and a lipopolymer encoding an antiproliferative molecule). Claim US Pat. No. 20110218231, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, which may be administered with at least one chemotherapeutic or anticancer agent.

  It is further understood that therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging active agents utilized in combination may be administered together in a single composition or separately in different compositions. Like. In general, drugs utilized in combination are expected to be utilized at a level that does not exceed the level at which they are utilized individually. In some embodiments, the level utilized in combination will be lower than the level utilized individually. In one embodiment, the combination may be administered each or together according to the split dosing regimen described herein.

Dosing The present invention provides a method comprising administering the modified mRNA according to the present invention and their encoded protein or complex to a subject in need thereof. A nucleic acid, protein, or complex, or a pharmaceutical, imaging, diagnostic, or prophylactic composition thereof, is a disease, disorder, and / or condition (eg, a disease, disorder, and / or condition associated with memory impairment efforts). Or any amount and any route of administration effective for the prevention, treatment, diagnosis, or imaging of a condition). The exact amount required will vary from subject to subject, depending on the species, age, and general condition of the subject, the severity of the disease, the particular composition, its method of administration, its method of activity, and the like. Compositions according to the present invention are typically formulated in unit dosage form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. It will be understood, however, that the total daily usage of the compositions of the present invention may be determined by the attending physician within the scope of appropriate medical judgment. The particular therapeutically effective, prophylactically effective, or appropriate imaging dose level of any particular patient depends on the disorder being treated and the severity of the disorder; the activity of the particular compound used; the particular composition used; Patient age, weight, overall health, sex, and diet; time of administration, route of administration, and excretion rate of the particular compound used; duration of treatment; in combination with or with the particular compound used Drugs used at the same time; depends on various factors including factors well known in the medical field.

  In certain embodiments, the composition according to the invention provides from about 0.0001 mg / kg to about 100 mg / kg, about 0.001 mg / kg per day to achieve the desired therapeutic, diagnostic, prophylactic, or imaging effect. 001 mg / kg to about 0.05 mg / kg, about 0.005 mg / kg to about 0.05 mg / kg, about 0.001 mg / kg to about 0.005 mg / kg, about 0.05 mg / kg to about 0.5 mg / Kg, about 0.01 mg / kg to about 50 mg / kg, about 0.1 mg / kg to about 40 mg / kg, about 0.5 mg / kg to about 30 mg / kg, about 0.01 mg / kg to about 10 mg / kg From about 0.1 mg / kg to about 10 mg / kg, or from about 1 mg / kg to about 25 mg / kg (body weight of the subject) at a dosage level sufficient to deliver one or more times per day. The desired dosage is three times a day, twice a day, once a day, every other day, every other day, once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, or for four weeks May be delivered once. In certain embodiments, the desired dosage is multiple administrations (eg, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 times, 13 times, 14 times or more). When multiple doses are used, a divided dosage regimen such as the divided dosage regimes described herein can be used.

  In accordance with the present invention, administration of mmRNA in divided dose regimes has been found to produce higher levels of protein in mammalian subjects. As used herein, a “divided dose” is a single unit dose or a total daily dose divided into two or more doses, eg, a single unit dose divided into two or more doses. As used herein, “single unit dose” refers to any treatment administered in a single dose / once / single route / single contact point, ie, in a single dose event. The dose of the drug. As used herein, “total daily dose” is the amount given or prescribed within 24 hours. This may be administered as a single unit dose. In one embodiment, the mRNA of the present invention is administered to a subject in divided doses. The mmRNA may be formulated in buffer alone or in the formulations described herein.

Dosage Forms The pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be topical, intranasal, intratracheal, or for infusion (eg, intravenous, intraocular, intravitreal, intramuscular, intracardiac, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous), etc. It can be formulated into the dosage forms described herein.

Liquid dosage forms Liquid dosage forms for parenteral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and / or elixirs. In addition to the active ingredient, liquid dosage forms may contain water or other solvents, solubilizers and emulsifiers such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3 -Butylene glycol, dimethylformamide, oils (specifically cottonseed oil, peanut oil, corn, germ oil, olive oil, castor oil, and sesame oil), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, sorbitan polyethylene glycol and fatty acid esters, and their It may include inert diluents commonly used in the art including, but not limited to, mixtures. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, the composition comprises a solubilizer, eg, CREMOPHOR®, alcohol, oil, modified oil, glycol, polysorbate, cyclodextrin, polymer, and / or combinations thereof And may be mixed.

Injectables Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions may be formulated according to the known art and may include suitable dispersing, wetting, and / or suspending agents. Good. Sterile injectable preparations are nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluents and / or solvents, eg, sterile injectable solutions, suspensions, and / or emulsions in 1,3-butanediol solutions. obtain. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution, U.S.P. S. P. And isotonic sodium chloride solution. Non-irritating fixed oils are conventionally used as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids such as oleic acid can be used in the preparation of the injectate. Injectable formulations are incorporated, for example, by filtration through a bacteria-retaining filter and / or in the form of a sterile solid composition in which the sterilant can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use. Can be sterilized. In order to prolong the effect of the long active ingredient, it may be desirable to delay the absorption of the active ingredient from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with low water solubility. Thereafter, the absorption rate of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA depends on its dissolution rate, which in turn can depend on the crystal size and crystal morphology. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be accomplished by dissolving or suspending the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms are made by forming microcapsule matrices of polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending on the ratio of polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to polymer, and the nature of the particular polymer used, the release rate of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be adjusted. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include, but are not limited to, poly (orthoesters) and poly (anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations may be prepared by encapsulating the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA in liposomes or microemulsions that are compatible with body tissue.

Lungs The formulations described herein as being useful for pulmonary delivery can also be used for intranasal delivery of pharmaceutical compositions. Another formulation suitable for intranasal administration may be a coarse powder comprising the active ingredient and having an average particle from about 0.2 μm to 500 μm. Such formulations may be administered in such a way that nasal inhalation takes place, ie by rapid inhalation through the nostrils from a container of powder held close to the nose.

  Formulations suitable for nasal administration may contain, for example, a minimum of about 0.1 w / w% to a maximum of 100 w / w% active ingredient, including one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Good. The pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged and / or sold in a formulation suitable for buccal administration. Such formulations may be, for example, in the form of tablets and / or lozenges made using conventional methods and contain, for example, about 0.1 w / w% to 20 w / w% active ingredient. The equilibrium may comprise an orally soluble and / or degradable composition and optionally one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Alternatively, formulations suitable for buccal administration may comprise powders and / or aerosolized and / or atomized solutions and / or suspensions containing the active ingredient. Such powdered, aerosolized, and / or aerosolized formulations can have an average particle size and / or droplet size in the range of about 0.1 nm to about 200 nm when dispersed, as described herein. One or more of any additional ingredients described may further be included.

General considerations in pharmaceutical formulation and / or manufacture are described, for example, in Remington: Science and Practice of Pharmacy 21 st ed., Which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

Coatings or Shells Solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills, and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells, such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical formulation art. . They may optionally contain opacifiers, which release only or preferentially release the active ingredient (s), optionally, in a delayed manner, in certain parts of the intestinal tract. Composition. Examples of embedding compositions that can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. Similar types of solid compositions may be used as fillers in soft and hard filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or lactose, and high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

Pharmaceutical Composition Properties The pharmaceutical compositions described herein may be characterized by one or more of bioavailability, therapeutic area, and / or distribution amount.

Bioavailability A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is formulated into a composition with a delivery agent described herein, as compared to a composition lacking the delivery agent described herein. May exhibit increased bioavailability. As used herein, the term “bioavailability” refers to the systemic availability of a given amount of polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA administered to a mammal. Bioavailability can be assessed by measuring the area under the curve (AUC) or maximum serum or plasma concentration (C max ) of the unchanged form of the compound after administration of the compound to the mammal. AUC is the determination of the area under the curve plotting the serum or plasma concentration of a compound along the ordinate (Y axis) versus time along the abscissa (X axis). In general, the AUC for a particular compound can be determined by methods known to those of skill in the art and by G. S. Banker, Modern Pharmaceuticals, Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 72, Marcel Dekker, New York, Inc. , 1996 can be used.

The C max value is the maximum concentration of the compound that is achieved in the serum or plasma of the mammal after the compound is administered to the mammal. The C max value for a particular compound can be measured using methods known to those skilled in the art. The expression “increased bioavailability” or “improved pharmacokinetics” refers to the systemic availability of the first polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA measured as AUC, C max , or C min in a mammal. Means higher when co-administered with the delivery agent described herein than when co-administration with the delivery agent described herein is not performed. In some embodiments, the bioavailability of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is at least about 2%, at least about 5%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about It can be increased by 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, or about 100%.

Therapeutic region When a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is formulated into a composition with a delivery agent described herein, an administered polynucleotide, primary construct, lacking the delivery agent described herein, Or it may exhibit an increase in the therapeutic range of the administered polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA composition as compared to the therapeutic range of the mmRNA composition. As used herein, “therapeutic zone” refers to a range of plasma concentrations or levels of therapeutically active substance at the site of action that are likely to elicit a therapeutic effect. In some embodiments, the therapeutic window of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is at least about 2%, at least about 5%, at least about 10% when co-administered with a delivery agent described herein, At least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, It may be increased by at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, or about 100%.

Distribution amount When a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is formulated into a composition with a delivery agent described herein, the amount of distribution is compared to a composition lacking the delivery agent described herein. An improvement (eg, reduction or targeting) of ( Vdist ) may be exhibited. Distribution volume (Vdist) correlates the amount of drug in the body with the concentration of drug in the blood or plasma. As used herein, the term “distributed amount” refers to the amount of fluid required to contain the total amount of drug in the body at the same concentration as in blood or plasma, and V dist Equal to the amount of drug / concentration of drug in blood or plasma. For example, for a dose of 10 mg and a plasma concentration of 10 mg / L, the distribution volume is 1 liter. The amount of distribution reflects the degree to which the drug is present in extravascular tissue. A large amount of distribution reflects the propensity of the compound to bind to tissue constituents compared to plasma protein binding. In the clinical setting, V dist can be used to determine the loading dose and achieve steady state concentrations. In some embodiments, the amount of polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA distribution is at least about 2%, at least about 5%, at least about 10% when co-administered with a delivery agent described herein, At least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, It may be reduced by at least about 65%, at least about 70%.

Biological Effects In one embodiment, the biological effects of modified mRNA delivered to an animal can be classified by analyzing protein expression in the animal. Protein expression can be determined by analyzing a biological sample collected from a mammal that has been administered a modified mRNA of the invention. In one embodiment, at least 50 pg / mL expressed protein encoded by a modified mRNA administered to a mammal may be preferred. For example, a 50-200 pg / mL expressed protein of a protein encoded by a modified mRNA delivered to a mammal can be considered a therapeutically effective amount of protein in the mammal.

Detection of Modified Nucleic Acids by Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that can provide molecular mass and molecular weight / concentration information after molecular ion conversion. Molecules are first ionized to obtain a positive or negative charge, and then they move through the mass analyzer to different regions of the detector according to their mass / charge (m / z) ratio To reach.

  Mass spectrometry is performed using a mass spectrometer that includes an ion source for ionizing the fractionated sample and creating charged molecules for further analysis. For example, sample ionization includes electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), photoionization, electron ionization fast atom bombardment (FAB) / liquid secondary ionization (LSIMS), matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization ( MALDI), field ionization, field desorption, thermospray / plasma spray ionization, and particle beam ionization. One skilled in the art will appreciate that the choice of ionization method can be determined based on the analyte being measured, the type of sample, the type of detector, the choice of positive and negative modes, and the like.

  After the sample is ionized, the resulting positive or negative charge ions can be analyzed to determine the mass to charge ratio (ie, m / z). Suitable analyzers for determining the mass to charge ratio include quadrupole analyzers, ion trap analyzers, and time-of-flight analyzers. Ions can be detected using several detection modes. For example, selected ions can be detected (ie, using a selective ion monitoring mode (SIM)), or alternatively, ions can be scanned, eg, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) or selective reaction monitoring ( SRM).

  Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS / MRM) coupled with stable isotope-labeled dilution of peptide standards has been shown to be an effective method for protein validation (eg, these Keshitian et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 2009 8: 2339-2349, Kuhn et al., Clin Chem 2009 55: 1108-1117, Lopez et al., Clin, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Chem 2010 56: 281-290). Unlike untargeted mass spectrometry, which is often used in biomarker discovery studies, the targeted MS method has selected the dozens to hundreds of instruments in a complex mixture for the full analytical capability of the instrument This mode is based on the peptide sequence of MS concentrated on the peptide. By limiting only to peptides derived from proteins intended for detection and fragmentation, sensitivity and reproducibility are dramatically improved compared to discovery mode MS methods. This protein mass spectrometry-based multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification method dramatically impacts biomarker discovery and quantification through rapid targeted multiplexed protein expression profiling of clinical samples Can do.

  In one embodiment, a biological sample that can contain at least one protein encoded by at least one modified mRNA of the present invention can be analyzed by MRM-MS methods. The quantification of the biological sample can further include, but is not limited to, an isotope labeled peptide or protein as an internal standard.

  In accordance with the present invention, a biological sample may be subjected to enzymatic digestion when obtained from a subject. As used herein, the term “digestion” means splitting into shorter peptides. As used herein, the expression “treating a sample to digest a protein” means manipulating the sample in such a way as to disassemble the protein in the sample. These enzymes include, but are not limited to, trypsin, endoproteinase Glu-C, and chymotrypsin. In one embodiment, a biological sample that can contain at least one protein encoded by at least one modified mRNA of the present invention can be digested with an enzyme.

  In one embodiment, a biological sample that can contain a protein encoded by a modified mRNA of the invention can be analyzed for the protein using electrospray ionization. Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (ESIMS) uses electrical energy to assist the transfer of ions from solution to the gas phase before they are analyzed by mass spectrometry. Samples can be analyzed using methods known in the art (eg, Ho et al., Clin Biochem Rev. 2003 24 (1): 3-12, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). The ionic species contained in the solution move into the gas phase by dispersing the droplet spray, evaporating the solvent, and ejecting the ions from the droplet to produce a highly charged droplet spray. obtain. The spray of highly charged droplets is analyzed using at least one, at least two, at least three, or at least four mass analyzers, such as but not limited to a quadrupole mass analyzer. obtain. In addition, mass spectrometry can include a purification step. As a non-limiting example, the first quadrupole may be set to select a single m / z ratio, thus filtering out other molecular ions having different m / z ratios. This can eliminate complex and time consuming sample purification procedures prior to MS analysis.

  In one embodiment, a biological sample that can contain a protein encoded by a modified mRNA of the invention can be analyzed for the protein in a tandem ESIMS system (eg, MS / MS). As non-limiting examples, droplets can be analyzed using product scan (or daughter scan), precursor scan (parent scan), neutral loss, or multiple reaction monitoring.

  In one embodiment, a biological sample that can contain a protein encoded by a modified mRNA of the invention can be analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). MALDI provides non-destructive evaporation and ionization of both macro and small molecules such as proteins. In MALDI analysis, the analyte is first co-crystallized with a high molar excess of matrix compound that may also include, but is not limited to, UV absorbing weak organic acids. Non-limiting examples of matrices used for MALDI include α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Laser radiation of the analyte-matrix mixture can result in evaporation of the matrix and analyte. Laser-induced desorption provides a high ion yield of intact analyte and allows for highly accurate measurement of compounds. Samples can be analyzed using methods known in the art (eg, Lewis, Wei and Siuddak, Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry 2000: 5880-5894, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). As non-limiting examples, mass analyzers used for MALDI analysis can include linear time-of-flight (TOF), TOF reflectron, or Fourier transform mass analyzers.

  In one embodiment, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using a dry droplet method. The biological sample is mixed with a matrix to make a saturated matrix solution, the matrix to sample ratio is approximately 5000: 1. An aliquot (approximately 0.5-2.0 μL) of saturated matrix solution is then dried to form the analyte-matrix mixture.

  In one embodiment, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using a thin layer method. A matrix homogeneous film is first formed, after which the sample can be applied and absorbed by the matrix to form an analyte-matrix mixture.

  In one embodiment, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using a thick layer method. A matrix homogeneous film is formed with a nitro-cellulose matrix additive. Once a uniform nitro-cellulose matrix layer is obtained, a sample is applied and absorbed into the matrix to form an analyte-matrix mixture.

  In one embodiment, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using a sandwich method. A thin layer of matrix crystals is prepared as in the thin layer method, followed by the addition of aqueous trifluoroacetic acid, sample, and matrix droplets. The sample is then absorbed into the matrix to form an analyte-matrix mixture.

V. Use of the Polynucleotides, Primary Constructs, and mMRNAs of the Present Invention Polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA of the present invention, in preferred embodiments, avoid toxic responses such as immune responses and / or degradation pathways or Evasion, overcoming thresholds of expression and / or improving protein production capacity, improved expression rate or translation efficiency, improved drug or protein half-life and / or protein concentration, optimized protein localization To provide stability and / or clearance in tissues, uptake and / or kinetics by receptors, cell arrival by compositions, translational mechanisms, secretion efficiency (if applicable), reachable blood circulation Sex and / or cell status, function And / or designed to improve one or more of the modulation of activity.

Therapeutic Agents Therapeutic Agents The polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the invention, such as modified nucleic acids and modified RNAs described herein, and proteins translated therefrom may be used as therapeutic or prophylactic agents. it can. They are provided for use in medicine. For example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA described herein can be administered to a subject, and the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is translated in vivo to be therapeutic or prophylactic in the subject. Produce a polypeptide. Compositions, methods, kits, and reagents for diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of diseases or conditions in humans and other mammals are provided. Active therapeutic agents of the invention include polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mRNA, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or cells containing mmRNA, or polypeptides translated from polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mRNA.

  In certain embodiments, one or more polynucleotides containing a translatable region encoding a protein (s) that boosts immunity in a mammalian subject along with a protein that induces antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, Provided herein are combination therapies that contain a primary construct, or mmRNA. For example, provided herein are therapeutic agents that contain one or more nucleic acids encoding trastuzumab and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Specifically, such combination therapies are useful in Her2 + breast cancer patients who develop induced resistance to trastuzumab. (See, for example, Albrecht, Immunotherapy. 2 (6): 795-8 (2010)).

  Provided herein are methods for inducing translation of a recombinant polypeptide within a cell population using a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA as described herein. Such translation can be in vivo, ex vivo, in culture, or in vitro. The cell population is contacted with an effective amount of a composition containing a nucleic acid having a translatable region encoding at least one nucleoside modification and a recombinant polypeptide. The population is contacted under conditions such that the nucleic acid is localized within one or more cells of the cell population and the recombinant polypeptide is translated from the nucleic acid within the cell.

  An “effective amount” of the composition is provided based at least in part on the target tissue, target cell type, means of administration, physical characteristics of the nucleic acid (eg, size, degree of modified nucleoside), and other determinants. Is done. In general, an effective amount of the composition provides efficient protein production within the cell, preferably more efficiently than a composition containing the corresponding unmodified nucleic acid. Increased efficiency can be attributed to increased cell transfection (ie, percentage of cells transfected with nucleic acids), increased protein translation from nucleic acids, decreased nucleic acid degradation (eg, increased protein translation from modified nucleic acids) As demonstrated by the sustained duration), or by a reduced innate immune response of the host cell.

  Aspects of the invention are directed to methods of inducing in vivo translation of a recombinant polypeptide in a mammalian subject in need. Among them, an effective amount of a composition containing a nucleic acid having at least one structural or chemical modification and a translatable region encoding a recombinant polypeptide is provided to a subject using the delivery methods described herein. Be administered. The nucleic acid is provided in an amount and other conditions such that the nucleic acid is localized within the cell of interest and the recombinant polypeptide is translated from the nucleic acid within the cell. The cell in which the nucleic acid is localized or the tissue in which the cell is present can be targeted by one or more cycles of nucleic acid administration.

  In certain embodiments, the administered polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA provides a functional activity that is substantially absent in the cell, tissue, or organism into which the recombinant polypeptide is translated. Directs production of one or more recombinant polypeptides. For example, a defective functional activity can have the property of enzymatic activity, structural activity, or gene regulatory activity. In related embodiments, the administered polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA increases functional activity that is present in the cell into which the recombinant polypeptide is translated but is substantially defective (eg, , Synergistically) directing the production of one or more recombinant polypeptides.

  In other embodiments, the administered polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA replaces one polypeptide (or polypeptides) that is substantially absent in the cell into which the recombinant polypeptide is translated. Directing the production of one or more recombinant polypeptides. Such absence can be due to a genetic mutation in the coding gene or its regulatory pathway. In some embodiments, the recombinant polypeptide increases the level of endogenous protein in the cell to a desired level, and such increase reduces the level of endogenous protein from a subnormal level to a normal level. Or from normal to overnormal levels.

  Alternatively, the recombinant polypeptide functions to antagonize the activity of endogenous proteins present in the cell, on the top surface, or secreted from the cell. Normally, the activity of an endogenous protein is detrimental to the subject, for example, due to mutations in the endogenous protein resulting in altered activity or localization. Furthermore, the recombinant polypeptide directly or indirectly antagonizes the activity of biological parts that are present in the cell, on the top surface, or secreted from the cell. Examples of biological parts to be antagonized include lipids (eg, cholesterol), lipoproteins (eg, low density lipoprotein), nucleic acids, carbohydrates, protein toxins such as Shiga toxin and tetanus toxin, or botulinum toxin, cholera toxin, and And small molecule toxins such as diphtheria toxin. Furthermore, the biological molecule to be antagonized may be an endogenous protein that exhibits undesirable activity, such as cytotoxic activity or cytostatic activity.

  The recombinant proteins described herein may be engineered for localization within a cell, possibly within a specific compartment such as the nucleus, or secreted from the cell or cell plasma membrane Operated for transition to.

  In some embodiments, the modified mRNAs and their encoded polypeptides according to the present invention include any of a variety of diseases, disorders, and / or conditions including, but not limited to, one or more of the following: May be used for treatment: autoimmune disorders (eg, diabetes, lupus, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis); inflammatory disorders (eg, arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease); infectious diseases (eg, Viral infection (eg, HIV, HCV, RSV), bacterial infection, fungal infection, sepsis); neuropathy (eg, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease; autism; Duchenne muscular dystrophy); cardiovascular disorder (eg, atherosclerotic artery) Sclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, thrombosis, coagulopathy, macular degeneration such as angiogenesis disorders); proliferative disorders (eg cancer, benign neoplasia) Respiratory disorders (eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease); gastrointestinal disorders (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, gastric ulcer); musculoskeletal disorders (eg, fibromyalgia, arthritis); endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional disorders (Eg, diabetes, osteoporosis); urological disorders (eg, kidney disease); mental disorders (eg, depression, schizophrenia); skin disorders (eg, wounds, eczema); blood and lymphatic system disorders (eg, anemia) Disease, hemophilia), etc.

  Diseases characterized by dysfunctional or abnormal protein activity include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, epidermolysis bullosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Symptoms are included. The present invention provides a method for treating such a condition or disease in a subject by introducing a nucleic acid or cell-based therapeutic comprising a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA provided herein. However, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encodes a protein that antagonizes or overcomes abnormal protein activity present in the subject's cells. A specific example of a dysfunctional protein is a missense mutant variant of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that produces a dysfunctional protein variant of the CFTR protein that causes cystic fibrosis Is mentioned.

  Diseases characterized by deficient (or proper (substantially reduced so that normal or physiological protein function does not occur)) include cystic fibrosis, Niemann-Pick disease type C, severe β Thalassemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Hurler's syndrome, Hunter syndrome, and hemophilia A. Such proteins may be absent or essentially non-functional. Providing a method for treating such a condition or disease in a subject by introducing a nucleic acid or cell-based therapeutic comprising a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA provided in the document, The primary construct, or mRNA, places protein activity that is missing from the target cell of interest. A specific example of a dysfunctional protein is a nonsense mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that produces a non-functional protein variant of the CFTR protein that causes cystic fibrosis. Mutant variants are mentioned.

  Thus, contacting a cell of interest with a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA having a translatable region encoding a functional CFTR polypeptide under conditions such that an effective amount of CTFR polypeptide is present in the cell. Provides a method of treating cystic fibrosis in a mammalian subject. Preferred target cells are epithelial, endothelium, and mesothelial cells such as the lung, and the method of administration is determined taking into account the target tissue, ie, for pulmonary delivery, RNA molecules are formulated for administration by inhalation. Is done.

  In another embodiment, the present invention introduces into a subject cell population using a modified mRNA molecule encoding Sortilin, a protein recently characterized by genomic studies, thereby ameliorating hyperlipidemia in a subject. To provide a method for treating hyperlipidemia in a subject. The SORT1 gene encodes a trans-Golgi network (TGN) transmembrane protein called Sortilin. Genetic studies show that 1 in 5 individuals confer a low level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) predisposition at the 1p13 locus of the SORT1 gene rs12740374 It has shown that it has. Each copy of this minor allele present in about 30% of people changes LDL cholesterol by 8 mg / dL, while two copies of this minor allele present in about 5% of the population contain LDL cholesterol. Reduce by 16 mg / dL. Carriers of this minor allele have also been shown to have a 40% reduced risk of myocardial infarction. Functional in vivo studies in mice have shown that SORT1 overexpression in mouse liver tissue results in significantly lower LDL-cholesterol levels lower than up to 80% and SORT1 silencing increases LDL cholesterol by approximately 200%. (Musunuru K et al. From noncoding variant to phenotype via SORT1 at the 1p13 cholesterol locus. Nature 2010; 466: 714-721).

In another embodiment, the present invention is for treating hematopoietic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, oncology, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, neurological diseases, inborn errors of metabolism, skin and systemic disorders, and blindness. Provide a method. Entirety by molecular targets for the treatment of these specific diseases have been described (reference is incorporated herein, Templeton ed, Gene and Cell Therapy :. Therapeutic Mechanisms and Strategies, 3 rd Edition, Bota Raton , FL: CRC Press).

  Provided herein is a method for preventing infection and / or sepsis in a subject at risk of developing an infection and / or sepsis, the method comprising: A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA precursor encoding an antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, an antibacterial polypeptide), or a partially or fully processed form thereof, in an amount sufficient to prevent sepsis Administering a composition comprising the body. In certain embodiments, a subject at risk of developing an infection and / or sepsis may be a cancer patient. In certain embodiments, the cancer patient may have undergone a pretreatment regimen. In some embodiments, pretreatment regimen includes, but is not limited to, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. As a non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can encode protein C, a zymogen or prepro protein thereof, or an activated form of protein C (APC) or a variant of protein C, which is Known in the technical field. The polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be chemically modified and delivered to the cell. Non-limiting examples of polypeptides that can be encoded within chemically modified mRNAs of the present invention include US Pat. No. 7,226,999, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 7,498,305, and 6,630,138. These patents teach protein C-like molecules, variants, and derivatives, any of which can be encoded within the chemically modified molecules of the present invention.

  Further provided herein is a method for treating infection and / or sepsis in a subject, the method comprising an amount sufficient to treat infection and / or sepsis in a subject in need of such treatment. A polynucleotide, primary construct, encoding an antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, an antibacterial polypeptide), eg, an antimicrobial polypeptide described herein, or a partially or fully processed form thereof, or administering a composition comprising an mRNA precursor. In certain embodiments, the subject in need of treatment is a cancer patient. In certain embodiments, the cancer patient has undergone a pretreatment regimen. In some embodiments, pretreatment regimen includes, but is not limited to, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both.

  In certain embodiments, the subject may exhibit an acute or chronic microbial infection (eg, a bacterial infection). In certain embodiments, the subject may have received or may have received treatment. In certain embodiments, treatment may include, but is not limited to, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, steroids, ultraviolet radiation, or combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the patient may suffer from a microvascular disorder. In some embodiments, the microvascular disorder can be diabetes. In certain embodiments, the patient may have a wound. In some embodiments, the wound can be an ulcer. In a specific embodiment, the wound can be a diabetic foot ulcer. In certain embodiments, the subject may have one or more burn wounds. In certain embodiments, administration may be local or systemic. In certain embodiments, administration may be subcutaneous. In certain embodiments, administration may be intravenous. In certain embodiments, administration may be oral. In certain embodiments, administration may be local. In certain embodiments, administration may be by inhalation. In certain embodiments, administration may be rectal. In certain embodiments, administration may be intravaginally.

  Another aspect of the present disclosure relates to transplantation of cells containing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA into a mammalian subject. Administration of cells to mammalian subjects is known to those of skill in the art and includes local (local) transplantation (eg, topical or subcutaneous administration), organ delivery or systemic implantation (eg, intravenous infusion or inhalation), And preparations of cells in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, including but not limited to. Such a composition containing a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is intramuscularly, transarterially, intraperitoneally, intravenously, intranasally, subcutaneously, endoscopically, transdermally. Or for intrathecal administration. In some embodiments, the composition may be formulated for sustained release.

  A subject to whom a therapeutic agent can be administered may suffer from or be at risk of developing a disease, disorder, or adverse condition. Based on these, methods for identifying, diagnosing, and classifying subjects are provided, including clinical diagnosis, biomarker levels, whole genome correlation analysis (GWAS), and other methods known in the art. Good.

Rare liver disease or liver disorder progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC)
In one embodiment, the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the present invention may be used to treat progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). The term “progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis” or “PFIC” as used herein refers to a liver disorder that can result in liver failure. PFIC is characterized by autosomal recessive bile production defects and hepatocellular cholestasis. As used herein, “hepatocellular” is a term used to describe things that affect or are related to liver cells (also called hepatocytes). As used herein, the term “cholestasis” refers to a condition characterized by slowing or obstructing the flow of bile from the liver. As used herein, the term “bile” refers to a liquid substance produced by the liver, including water, bile salts, mucus, fat, inorganic salts and cholesterol, which aids in the emulsification and digestion of dietary fat.

  It is known that there are three types of PFIC (PFIC-1, PFIC-2, and PFIC-3). All three types are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the hepatocyte transport system and bile production. It is said that.

  PFIC-1 and PFIC-2 are usually diagnosed in early childhood, but may be diagnosed in the early or neonatal period. The term “prenatal” as used herein refers to a certain period of time before the birth of an organism. As used herein, the term “newborn” refers to a period of time after birth during the life of an organism. In humans, the neonatal period can include the period from birth to about 1 month, about 3 months or about 6 months. As used herein, the term “infanthood” refers to a period of time between the birth and childhood of a living organism. In humans, early childhood can include periods from birth to about 1 year, about 2 years, about 3 years or about 4 years.

  PFIC-3 can be diagnosed in any of the first trimester, neonatal period, and early childhood. In some cases, PFIC-3 may escape diagnosis until childhood or adolescence. The term “childhood” as used herein refers to the period of life of an organism from infancy to adolescence. In humans, childhood is about 2 years to about 10 years old, about 3 years to about 11 years old, about 4 years to about 12 years old, or about 5 years to about 13 years old. A period may be included. The term “adolescence” as used herein refers to the period of life of an organism from childhood to adulthood. In humans, adolescence is about 10 years to about 16 years old, about 11 years to about 17 years old, about 12 years to about 18 years old, about 13 years to about 19 years old, and The period from about 14 years after birth to about 20 years after birth may be included.

  Clinical symptoms of PFIC include, but are not limited to, pruritus, cholestasis and jaundice. As used herein, the term “pruritus” refers to an unpleasant sensation that causes an urge to scratch or rub the affected part of the body. As used herein, the term “jaundice” refers to a condition characterized by yellowed skin, eyeballs and / or mucous membranes resulting from the accumulation of bilirubin.

  Most patients with PFIC will develop fibrosis by adulthood, resulting in liver failure. Individuals suffering from PFIC can be diagnosed by clinical symptom observation, cholangiography, liver ultrasonography, liver histology and genetic testing. Other tests may be performed to rule out other disorders that cause childhood cholestasis.

  Each of PFIC type 1, type 2 and type 3 develops when one of three different cell transporters becomes dysfunctional. Each cell transporter is involved in lipid transport, and each plays an extremely important role in the secretion of bile from the liver. PFIC type 1 is due to a genetic mutation that results in dysfunction of ATPase aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 1 (ATP8B1). ATP8B1 functions to move phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of the phospholipid bilayer to the other. Both PFIC-2 and PFIC-3 are caused by mutations that affect the function of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. ABC, subfamily B, member 11 (ABCB11) transporter assists bile production by transporting cholic acid binding compounds, including taurocholic acid, from hepatocytes into bile. If the ABCB11 function is defective, you will receive PFIC-2. ABC, subfamily B, member 4 (ABCB4) transports phospholipids, preferably phosphatidylcholine, across the hepatocyte membrane for incorporation into bile. Genetic mutations that cause ABCB4 dysfunction cause PFIC-3 (Davit-Spraul et al., Progressive Pharmaceutical Intrahepatic cholestasis. Orphanet J Rarecurr et al., Morsital Mort., Jan 8; of 25 new ABCB4 mutations in progressive family intrahepatic cholesterol type 3 (PFIC3) .Eur J Hum Genet.2007 Dec; 15 (12): 1230-8; Incorporated) to.

  In one embodiment, a patient with PFIC may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA is not particularly limited, but includes an ATP binding cassette, subfamily (MDR / TAP), member 4 (ABCB4), ATP binding cassette, subfamily (MDR / TAP). , Member 11 (ABCB11) and ATPase, aminophophorid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 1 (ATP8B1) and other peptides, proteins or fragments thereof.

  In one embodiment, PFIC-1 is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding an ATP8B1 peptide, protein or fragment thereof. Can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 855 or 856 is administered. Can treat PFIC-1.

  In one embodiment, PFIC-2 is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding an ABCB11 peptide, protein or fragment thereof. Can be treated. In another embodiment, PFIC-2 is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising a rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 865. Can be treated.

  In one embodiment, PFIC-3 is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding an ABCB4 peptide, protein or fragment thereof. Can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 866-871 is administered. Can treat PFIC-3.

Familial hypercholesterolemia In one embodiment, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may be treated with the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention. As used herein, the term “familial hypercholesterolemia” or “FH” refers to an inherited disorder characterized by elevated levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) associated cholesterol in plasma. A patient or subject with FH may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease at a young age. In some embodiments, the increase in blood LDL concentration in such individuals may be due to mutations in the gene encoding the LDL receptor. Without being limited in any way, it is believed that the LDL receptor binds to circulating LDL and promotes LDL endocytosis into cells expressing that receptor. When this receptor becomes dysfunctional, circulating LDL levels remain elevated and the development of atherosclerosis is promoted. Individuals with FH may be heterozygous or homozygous for FH-related gene mutations. Symptoms in homozygous individuals can be more severe. It can be diagnosed in childhood or adolescence by methods known in the art, including physical examinations that reveal xanthomas (growth of fat-rich skin). FH can be diagnosed at a relatively early stage by family history and genetic analysis (Sjouke, B. et al., Family hypercholesterolemia: present and future management. Curr Cardol Rep. 2011 Dec; 13 (6): 527-36; Avis, H. J. et al., A systematic review and meta-analysis of statistic, in the form of childhood with family hypercholesteroidia.7, respectively. Incorporated into).

  In one embodiment, a patient with FH may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. Rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNAs include, but are not limited to, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB) and proprotein convertase subtilisin / kexin type 9 (PCSK9) ) And the like, or a fragment thereof.

  In one embodiment, FH is treated by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of a rare liver disease or disorder that encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of LDLR. obtain. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1145 to 1151 is administered. Can treat FH.

  In one embodiment, FH is treated by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding an APOB peptide, protein or fragment thereof. obtain. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 819 or 819 is administered. Can treat FH.

  In one embodiment, FH is treated by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of a rare liver disease or disorder that encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of PCSK9. obtain. In another embodiment, a rare liver disease or liver disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOS: 1241-1243 is administered. Can treat FH.

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency In one embodiment, a rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention may be used to treat ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). As used herein, the term “ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency” or “OTCD” refers to an inherited disorder of urea synthesis resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC). Mutations can lead to hyperammonemia, neurological problems and increased mortality OTC is a key component of the urea cycle and catalyzes the production of citrulline from carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine, OTCD is an X-linked disorder because the OTC gene is on the X chromosome, and as with most X-linked disorders, OTCD is predominantly male. Affected, females become carriers, the severity of OTCD depends on the nature of the genetic mutation, non-functional OTC When a mutation occurs, the individual usually dies within the first month of life, and such mutations can be found by genetic analysis of individuals suspected of having OTCD. Individuals with genetic mutations that produce the enzyme function of the disease may have a relatively long survival period and may benefit from treatments that reduce the effects of the disease, observing symptoms and detecting high concentrations of ammonia and orotic acid in the urine Can be diagnosed (Brunetti-Pierri, N., et al., Phenotypic correction of ornithine transcarbylase defensiveness using low dose helper-dependent. 8 Aug; 10 (8): 890-6; Wilmslow, UK, Ornithine transcarbylase defect: aurea cycle defect.Eur J Padiator Neurol. 2003; 7 (3): 115-21 respectively; Incorporated herein).

  In one embodiment, a patient with OTC may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. The rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA may encode a peptide, protein or fragment thereof, such as but not limited to ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC).

  In one embodiment, OTCD is treated by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding an OTC peptide, protein or fragment thereof. obtain. In another embodiment, by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 1192. OTCD can be treated.

Krigler-Najjar Syndrome In one embodiment, the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention may be used to treat Krigler-Najjar syndrome. As used herein, the term “Crigler-Najjar syndrome” refers to a congenital anomaly that affects the function of the 1A1 isoform (UGT1A1) of the enzyme bilirubin-uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase. UGT1A1 is extremely important for the detoxification of the toxic heme degradation by-product, hydrophobic bilirubin. UGT1A1 is thought to function by binding hydrophobic bilirubin and glucoronic acid and excreting it in bile. Individuals suffering from Krigler-Najjar syndrome develop non-conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (or excess hydrophobic bilirubin in the circulation) and develop neurological deficits that are effective as the patient ages Decreased regular phototherapy may be required. Diagnosis of Crigler-Najjar syndrome usually begins with the observation of infant jaundice and can then be assessed for enzyme function by enzymes and liver assays known in the art (Lysy, PA, et al., Liver cell translation for Crigler). -Najjar syndrome type I: update and perspectives.World J Gastroenterol.2008 Jun 14; 14 (22): 3464-70; Sugatani, J., Function, genetic polymorphism, and transcriptional regulation of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Drug Me ab Pharmacokinet.2012 Oct 23. [prepress electronic publication]; entirely incorporated herein by reference).

  In one embodiment, patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA may encode a peptide, protein or fragment thereof such as, but not limited to, UGT1A1.

  In one embodiment, Krigler-Nager syndrome by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of a rare liver disease or disorder that encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of UGT1A1 Can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 1357 or 1358 is administered. Can treat Crigler-Najjar syndrome.

Aceruloplasminemia In one embodiment, the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention may be used to treat aceruloplasminemia. The term “celluloplasminemia” as used herein refers to a disease in which CP is defective and / or CP is dysfunctional due to a genetic mutation in the ceruloplasmin (CP) gene. CP is thought to be a transport protein involved in transporting iron from cells into capillaries. As iron enters the capillaries, it can bind ferritin and enter the bloodstream. Without a functioning CP, iron accumulates in the cell and increases serum ferritin levels (Ogimoto, M. et al., Criteria for early identification of aceruloplasmia. Intern Med. 2011; 50 (13): 1415-8; Miyajima, H., Aceruloplasminemia. GeneReviews [Internet] .Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 2003 Aug 12 [updated February 17, 2011];

  Iron accumulation can be particularly high in the liver and in the eyeball, brain and pancreas. Aceruloplasminemia caused by a genetic defect in the CP gene is an autosomal recessive disorder. As used herein, the term “autosomal recessive” refers to a disease, disorder, trait or phenotype that can affect a person whose homologous gene is homozygous. Symptoms of the disease usually develop between 25 and 60 years old. Serum analysis of ceruloplasmin and iron concentrations or MRI analysis of the brain searching for iron accumulation can make a diagnosis of an individual suspected of having the disease.

  In one embodiment, a patient with aceruloplasminemia may be administered a composition comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the rare liver disease or disorder of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA may encode a peptide, protein or fragment thereof, such as, but not limited to, CP.

  In one embodiment, ceruloplasmin-free blood is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of a rare liver disease or disorder that encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of CP. Can treat the disease. In another embodiment, by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 891. Aceruloplasminemia can be treated.

Alpha-mannose disease In one embodiment, the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention may be used to treat alpha-mannose disease. As used herein, the term “α-mannose disease” refers to a disorder that results from defective and / or dysfunctional α-D-mannosidase enzyme activity and causes lysosomal storage diseases. Α-mannose disease caused by a genetic defect in the MAN2B1 gene (encoding α-D-mannosidase) is an autosomal recessive disorder. The characteristics of those suffering from α-mannose disease include, but are not limited to, immunodeficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment and intellectual disability. Diagnosis can be made as early as infancy using methods known in the art including, but not limited to, analysis of phenotypic characteristics and liver and spleen dysfunction. A relatively mild disease may not be diagnosed during childhood and adolescence. Diagnosis of the disease is usually established by measurement of α-D-mannosidase enzyme activity in whole blood cells (Malm, D. et al., Alpha-mannosidosis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2008 Jul 23; 3:21; Incorporated herein by reference).

  In one embodiment, a patient with α-mannose disease may be administered a composition comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the rare liver disease or disorder of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA may encode a peptide, protein or fragment thereof such as, but not limited to, MAN2B1.

  In one embodiment, α-mannose disease by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of MAN2B1. Can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1156 to 1158 is administered. Can treat α-mannose disease.

Tyrosineemia In one embodiment, a rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention may be used to treat tyrosineemia. As used herein, the term “tyrosinemia” refers to disorders and / or conditions characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and / or tyrosine by-products. In some embodiments, tyrosinemia is caused by a genetic mutation that results in a defect and / or dysfunction of an enzyme required for tyrosine degradation. Symptoms include, but are not limited to, growth disorder, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, increased tendency to nasal bleeding, microcephaly, tremor, ataxia, self-injurious behavior, fine coordination movement disorder, language disorder, convulsions and / or Cabbage-like odors (Nakamura, K. et al., Animal models of tyrosinemia. J Nutr. 2007 Jun; 137 (6 Suppl 1): 1556S-1560S; Endoplasmic reticulum stress disorder? Med Sci (Paris) .2003 Oct; 19 (10): 976-80; Mehere, P. et al., Tyrosine aminotr nsferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.Protein Cell.2010 Nov; 1 (11): 1023-32; incorporated in its entirety herein by reference).

  Type 1 tyrosinemia refers to a disordered form caused by a lack of fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) activity. The lack of FAH activity in type 1 tyrosinemia accumulates the metabolite fumaryl acetoacetate, leading to cellular activities such as apoptosis, mutagenesis, aneuploidy and mitogenesis.

  Type 2 tyrosinemia refers to a disordered form caused by a lack of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity. TAT is involved in the reversible transamination of other aromatic amino acids including tyrosine and, in particular, but not limited to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (pHPP).

  In one embodiment, a patient with tyrosinemia may be administered a composition comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the rare liver disease or disorder of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA may encode a peptide, protein or fragment thereof such as, but not limited to, FAH or TAT.

  In one embodiment, type 1 tyrosine blood by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of FAH. Can treat the disease. In another embodiment, type 1 tyrosine by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 985-987. Can treat blood.

  In one embodiment, type 2 tyrosine blood by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of a rare liver disease or disorder that encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of TAT. Can treat the disease. In another embodiment, by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NO: 1356. Type 2 tyrosinemia can be treated.

Hemochromatosis In one embodiment, the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention may be used to treat hemochromatosis. As used herein, the term “hemochromatosis” refers to a disorder or condition characterized by iron overload that can result from a genetic defect. Symptoms of hemochromatosis include, but are not limited to, cirrhosis, hyperpigmentation, hypopituitar function, diabetes and / or arthritis. Characterize the type of disease using genetic defects that cause hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis type 1 is caused by gene mutation of the HFE gene. Type 2A and type 2B are due to mutations in the HFE2 gene and the HAMP gene, respectively. Hemochromatosis type 1 symptoms are usually seen until adulthood, whereas hemochromatosis type 2A and 2B symptoms are usually seen in childhood (Papanikolau, G. et al., Hepcidin in iron overdisorders). Blood May 2005; 105 (10): 4103-5; Nandar, W. et al., HFE gene variants in iron in the brain.J Nutr.2011 April 1; 141 (4): 729S-739S; F. et al., Non-HFE haemochromatosis.World J Gastroenterol.2007 Sep 21; 13 (35): 4690-8; Incorporated).

  In one embodiment, a patient with hemochromatosis may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA is not particularly limited, but peptides, proteins such as HFE2, HAMP, solute transporter family 40, member 1 (SLC40A1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) Or it may encode a fragment thereof.

  In one embodiment, hemochromatosis 1 by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of HFE. Can treat the mold. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1038-1050 is administered. Hemochromatosis type 1 can be treated.

  In one embodiment, the hemochroma is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of HFE2 or HAMP. Tosis type 2 can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1051-1057, 1067 or 1068. Hemochromatosis type 2 can be treated by administering the product.

  In one embodiment, the hemochroma is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a TFR2 or SLC40A1 peptide, protein or fragment thereof. Can treat tosis. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1290-1296 or 1323-1326. Hemochromatosis can be treated by administering the product.

Glycogenosis In one embodiment, a rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention may be used to treat type IV glycogenosis. As used herein, the term “glycogen” or “GSD” refers to a biological disorder characterized by defects in glycogen synthesis and / or degradation. In some embodiments, GSD includes, but is not limited to, type 4 GSD, also known as Anderson's disease, branching enzyme deficiency, amylopectinosis and glycogen branching enzyme deficiency. Type IV GSD results from the loss of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) encoded by the GBE1 gene and causes the production of abnormal glycogen that can become cytotoxic. Despite variations due to the expression of tissue-specific isoforms, patients with classic liver type IV GSD appear healthy at birth but develop cirrhosis soon after birth, usually with liver failure by 5 months of age ( Ozen, H., Glycogen storage diseases: new perspectives. World J Gastroenterol. 2007 May 14; 13 (18): 2541-53; which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, GSD patients may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. Rare liver disease or liver disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA is not particularly limited and encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof such as glucan (1,4-α-), branching enzyme 1 (GBE1) It can be.

  In one embodiment, type IV GSD is administered by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a GBE1 peptide, protein or fragment thereof. Can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1010-1012 is administered. Can treat type IV GSD.

Fanconcystinosis In one embodiment, rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention may be used to treat fanconcystinosis. As used herein, the term “cystinosis” refers to a disease characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cystine within the lysosome. Renal disease that inhibits reabsorption of metabolites into the bloodstream and instead passes it into the urine is the most common cause of Fanconi syndrome. Cystine is produced through a disulfide bond between two cysteine residues. The lysosome is the site where proteins are digested by hydrolysis, and cystine accumulation in the lysosome relies on transporter-mediated transport that releases cystine. Cystinosine, encoded by the CTNS gene, is a seven-transmembrane protein that binds cystine within the lysosome and cooperates with other proteins to promote cystine removal from the lysosome. Individuals with a severe deficiency in cystinosine function are affected between 6 and 12 months of age, resulting in renal and metabolic complications including loss of water and electrolytes. Usually, renal failure is seen by the age of 10. The currently used therapy uses cysteamine, a drug that can cleave the cystine molecule and remove it from the lysosome (Kalatzis, V. et al., Cysteinosis: from gene gene to disease. Nephrial Dial Transplant. 2002 Nov. 17 (11): 1883-6; the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference).

  In one embodiment, a patient with hemochromatosis may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. The rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA may encode a peptide, protein or fragment thereof such as, but not limited to, cystinosin, lysosomal cysteine transporter (CTNS).

  In one embodiment, fanconcystinosis is achieved by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a CTNS peptide, protein or fragment thereof. Can be treated. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 938-941 is administered. Can treat fanconicystinosis.

Farber Lipogranulomatosis In one embodiment, the rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotides, primary constructs or mmRNA of the present invention may be used to treat Farber lipogranulomatosis. As used herein, “Farber lipogranulomatosis (Farber's lipogranomatosis)” or “Farber disease” refers to a lysosomal storage disease identified in 1957 by Sidney Faber. This disease is caused by a defect in the enzyme, ceramindase, encoded by the N-acyl sphingosine amide hydrolase (acid ceramidase) 1 (ASAH1) gene. When this enzyme is deficient, intracellular ceramide is not normally decomposed into sphingosine and fatty acids, and abnormal accumulation of ceramide occurs, resulting in disease symptoms. Symptoms are usually seen early in infancy, but may occur later. In a typical form of the disease, symptoms develop within the first few weeks of life, with joint deformities, the presence of subcutaneous nodules and hoarseness. Patients may also have other neurological deficits and usually die during childhood. Patients with mild neurological impairment may survive up to their 40s. There is currently no treatment available for Farber lipogranulomatosis (Ekici, B. et al., Farber disease: A clinical diagnosis. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2012 May; 7 (2): 154-5; Farber, S .; Lipogranulomatosis; a new lipo-glycoprotein storage disease. J Mt Sinai Hosp NY 1957 Nov-Dec; 24 (6): 816-37, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, a patient with hemochromatosis may be administered a composition comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of the invention. A rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof such as, but not limited to, N-acyl sphingosine amide hydrolase (acid ceramidase) 1 (ASAH1). possible.

  In one embodiment, a Faber lipogranuloma by administering a composition of the invention comprising at least one polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA of a rare liver disease or disorder that encodes a peptide, protein or fragment thereof of ASAH1 Can treat the disease. In another embodiment, a composition of the invention comprising at least one rare liver disease or disorder polynucleotide, primary construct or mmRNA encoding a peptide, protein or fragment thereof comprising SEQ ID NOs: 1171-1175 is administered. Can treat fanconicystinosis.

Wound Management The polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the present invention may be used for wound treatment, eg, treatment of wounds that exhibit delayed healing. Provided herein are methods comprising administration of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to manage wound treatment. The methods herein may further comprise a step that is performed either before, simultaneously with, or after administration of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. For example, the wound bed may need to be cleaned and prepared to facilitate wound healing and desirably to obtain wound closure. Several strategies can be used to promote wound healing and achieve wound closure, including but not limited to: (i) necrotic tissue removal (optionally repeated), sharp Necrotic tissue removal (surgical removal of dead or infected tissue from wounds), optionally chemical necrotic tissue removal agents such as enzymes to remove necrotic tissue, (ii) provide a moist and warm environment to the wound And wound dressing to promote tissue repair and healing.

  Examples of materials used in formulating a wound dressing include, but are not limited to: hydrogels (eg, AQUASORB®; DOUDERM®), hydrocolloids ( For example, AQUACEL®; COMFEEL®), foams (eg, LYOFOAM®; SPYROSORB®), and alginate (eg, ALGISITE®; CURASORB®) )), (Iii) Additional growth factors to stimulate cell division and proliferation and promote wound healing, eg human recombinant platelet derived growth approved by the FDA for the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers Factor, becaprelmin (REGRANEX gel (registered trader) )), (Iv) clean, in order to obtain a coating of wounds that do not heal, soft tissue wound dressing, ie may require skin grafts. Examples of skin grafts that can be used for soft tissue coating include, but are not limited to: autologous skin grafts, rod skin grafts, skin substitutes made by biotechnology (eg, APLIGRAF ( DERMAGRAFT (registered trademark)).

  In certain embodiments, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention comprises a hydrogel (eg, AQUASORB®; DOUDERM®), hydrocolloid (eg, AQUACEL®); COMFEEL (Registered trademark)), foams (eg, LYOFOAM®; SPYROSORB®), and / or alginate (eg, ALGISITE®; CURASORB®) Also good. In certain embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention is an autologous skin graft, rod skin graft, or bioengineered skin substitute (eg, APLIGRAF®; DERMAGRAFT ( May be used with skin grafts, including but not limited to. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA may be applied with a wound dressing formulation and / or skin graft, or such as, but not limited to, dipping or spraying. It may be applied separately except in a non-limiting manner.

  In some embodiments, a composition for wound management comprises an antimicrobial polypeptide (eg, an antibacterial polypeptide) and / or a polynucleotide encoding an antiviral polypeptide, a primary construct, or mmRNA. But you can. The precursor or partially or fully processed form of the antimicrobial polypeptide may be encoded. The composition may be formulated for administration using a bandage (eg, an adhesive bandage). The antimicrobial and / or antiviral polypeptide may be intermixed with the dressing composition, or may be applied separately, for example by dipping or spraying.

Production of Antibodies In one embodiment of the invention, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can encode antibodies and fragments of such antibodies. These may be produced by any one of the methods described herein. The antibody may be any of the different subclasses or isotypes of immunoglobulin, or any of the other subclasses, including but not limited to IgA, IgG, or IgM. Exemplary antibody molecules and fragments that can be prepared in accordance with the present invention include, but are not limited to, immunoglobulin molecules, substantially intact immunoglobulin molecules, and portions of immunoglobulin molecules that can contain a paratope. Such portions of the antibody that may contain a paratope include, but are not limited to, Fab, Fab ′, F (ab ′) 2 , F (v) and portions known in the art.

  A polynucleotide of the invention encodes a variant antibody polypeptide that may have a certain identity with a reference polypeptide sequence or may have binding characteristics that are similar or not similar to a reference polypeptide sequence. Can do.

  The antibody obtained by the method of the present invention may be a chimeric antibody comprising a non-human antibody-derived variable region (s) sequence derived from an immunized animal and a human antibody-derived constant region (s) sequence. . In addition, they are also humanized antibodies, including the complementarity determining region (CDR) of non-human antibodies derived from immunized animals and the framework regions (FR) and constant regions derived from human antibodies. obtain. In another embodiment, the methods provided herein can be useful for improving the yield of antibody protein products in a cell culture process.

Managing Infection In one embodiment, a subject is associated with microbial infection (eg, bacterial infection) and / or microbial or viral infection in a subject by administering a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encoding an antimicrobial polypeptide. A method for treating or preventing a disease, disorder, or condition, or a symptom thereof, is provided. The administration may be combined with an antibacterial agent (eg, an antibacterial agent), such as an antibacterial polypeptide or small molecule antibacterial compound described herein. Antibacterial agents include, but are not limited to, antibacterial agents, antiviral agents, antifungal agents, antiprotozoal agents, antiparasitic agents, and antiprion agents.

  The agents can be administered simultaneously, eg, in a combined unit dose (eg, providing simultaneous delivery of both agents). Agents can also be administered at specified time intervals, such as but not limited to intervals of minutes, hours, days or weeks. In general, agents can be bioavailable, eg, detectable, in parallel in a subject. In some embodiments, the agents may be administered at essentially the same time, eg, two unit dosages administered simultaneously, or a combined unit dosage of the two agents. In other embodiments, the agents may be delivered in separate unit dosages. The agents may be administered in any order or by one or more preparations containing two or more agents. In preferred embodiments, at least one administration of one of the agents, eg, the first agent, is minutes, 1, 2, 3, or 4 hours of the other agent, eg, the second agent. Or within one or two days. In some embodiments, the combination produces a synergistic result, eg, greater than an additive result, eg, at least 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500% of the additive result. Can be achieved.

Conditions associated with bacterial infection Diseases, disorders, or conditions that may be associated with bacterial infection include abscess, actinomycosis, acute prostatitis, Aeromonas hydrophila, annual grass ryegrass poisoning, anthrax, gonococcal purpura, fungus , Bacterial gastroenteritis, Bacterial meningitis, Bacterial pneumonia, Bacterial vaginosis, Bacterial related skin condition, Bartonellosis, BCG tumor, Botryomyces, Botulism, Brazilian purpura, Brodie abscess, Brucellosis , Buruli ulcer, Campylobacterosis, Caries, Carion disease, Feline scratching disease, Cellulitis, Chlamydia infection, Cholera, Chronic bacterial prostatitis, Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, Clostridium necrotizing enterocolitis, Periodontal-endodontic Lesions (combined periodontological-endontic regions), bovine lung disease, diphtheria, diphtheria stomatitis Erichiosis, erysipelas, epiglottitis (piglottis), erysipelas, Fitz-Hugh Curtis syndrome, flea-mediated spot fever, rotosis (infectious foot dermatitis), Garre sclerosing osteomyelitis, gonorrhea, inguinal granuloma, human Granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic erythematosis, hundred days'couff, impetigo, late congenital syphilitic eye disease, legionellosis, remière syndrome, lei disease (leprosy), leptospirosis, listeria Disease, Lyme disease, lymphadenitis, nasal polyp, meningococcal disease, meningococcal sepsis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, mycobacterium complex (MAI), mycoplasma pneumonia, necrotizing muscle Meningitis, nocardiosis, water cancer (noma) (water cancer or gangrenous stomatitis), umbilitis Orbital cellulitis, osteomyelitis, severe infection after splenectomy (OPSI), sheep brucellosis, pasteurella disease, periorbital cellulitis, pertussis (whooping cough), plague, pneumococcal pneumonia, pot disease, direct Enteritis, Pseudomonas infection, Parrot disease, Pythemia, Pyogenic myositis, Q fever, recurrent fever (recurrent fever), rheumatic fever, Rocky mountain spot fever (RMSF), rickettsiosis, salmonellosis, scarlet fever, sepsis, Serratia infection, Bacterial dysentery, southern tick-associated rash illness, staphylococcal exfoliation syndrome, streptococcal pharyngitis, pool granulomas, porcine brucellosis, syphilis, syphilitic aortitis, tetanus, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), trachoma, burning, tropical ulcer, tuberculosis, barbarian , Typhoid fever, typhus, urogenital tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, waterhouse Friedrichsen syndrome, pseudotuberculosis (yersinia) disease, and yersinia disease, It is not limited to these. Other diseases, disorders, and / or conditions associated with bacterial infection include, for example, Alzheimer's disease, anorexia nervosa, asthma, atherosclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, autoimmune disease Bipolar disorder, cancer (eg colorectal cancer, gallbladder cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gastric cancer), chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, coronary heart disease, dementia, depression, Guillain Valley syndrome, visceral fat syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myocardial infarction, obesity, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, schizophrenia, stroke, obstructive thromboangitis (Burger's disease), and Tourette syndrome Can be included.

Bacterial pathogens The bacteria described herein can be gram positive or gram negative. Bacterial pathogens include Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella parthasis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella avoltas, Brucella canis, Brucella meritensis, Brucella swiss, Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamydia Pneumoniae, chlamydia trachoma tis, chlamydophila shitassi, clostridium botulinum, clostridium difficile, clostridium perfringens, clostridium tetani, coagulase-negative staphylococci, corynebacterium diphtheria, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, enterococcal fesium Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli O157: H7, entero Species, Francisella turransis, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Leptospira interrogans, Listeria monocytogenes, Moraxella catarralis, Mycobacterium lepremy, Bacteria tuberculosis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoe, Neisseria meningitidis, Preteus mirabilis, Proteus sp.・ Serratia marcesens Shigella flexneri, Shigella Sonei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermides, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactia, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyomae piogne piogne piogne pioma Examples include, but are not limited to, cholerae and Yersinia pestis. Bacterial pathogens include bacteria that cause resistant bacterial infections such as clindamycin resistant Clostridium difficile, fluoroquinolone resistant Clostridium difficile, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecalis, multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium, multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) may also be included.

Combination of antibiotics In one embodiment, the modified mRNA of the invention may be administered in combination with one or more antibiotics. These include acnelox, ambisome, amoxicillin, ampicillin, augmentin, avelox, azithromycin, bactroban, betadine, betanovate, blephamide, cefaclor, cefadroxyl, cefdinir, cefepime, cefix, cefoxicepofo Cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefzil, cephalexin, cefazolin, ceptaz, chloramphenicol, chlorhexidine, chloromycetin, closig, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamel Lindamycin, Clindatech (Cli datech), cloxacillin, colistin, cotrimoxazole, demeclocycline, diclocil, dicloxacillin, doxycycline, duricef, erythromycin, furamazine, floxin, flamisetin u, fudine u , Fusidic, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, gemifloxacin, iloson, iodo, lavaquin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, maxaquin, mefoxin, meronemu, minocycline, moxifloxacin, moxifloxacin , Neosporine, netromycin ( etromycin), nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, norilet, floxacin, omnicef, ospamox, oxytetracycline, paraxin, penicillin, pneumovac, polyfaxin, polyfaxin, povidone , Rifaximin, rifinah, limactan, rocefin, roxithromycin, ceromycin, soframycin, sparfloxacin, staflex, tagosid, tetracycline, tetradox, tetralysal T Tobramycin, Tobramycin, Trecator, Taigacil, Vancosin, Velosef, Vibramycin, Xifaxan, Zagam, Zitotek, Zoderm, Zimmer, Zimmer, Zimmer For example, but not limited to.

Antibacterial agents Exemplary antibacterial agents include aminoglycosides (eg, amikacin (AMIKIN®), gentamicin (GARAMYCIN®), kanamycin (KANTREX®), neomycin (MYCIFRADIN®) , Netilmycin (NETROMYCIN®), tobramycin (NEBCIN®), paromomycin (HUMATIN®), ansamycin (eg, geldanamycin, herbimycin), carbacephem (eg, Loracarbide (LORABID ( Registered trademark)), carbapenem (eg, Eltapenem (INVANZ®), doripenem (DORIBAX®), imipenem / cilastatin (PRIMAXIN®) )), Meropenem (MERREM®), cephalosporins (first generation) (eg, cephadroxyl (DURICEF®), cefazolin (ANCEF®), cephalothin or cephalothin (KEFLIN) (Registered trademark)), cephalexin (KEFLEX®), cephalosporins (second generation) (eg, cefaclor (CECLOR®), cefamandol (MANDOL®), cefoxitin (MEFOXIN) (Registered trademark)), cefprozil (CEFZIL (registered trademark)), cefuroxime (CEFTIN (registered trademark), ZINNAT (registered trademark)), cephalosporins (third generation) (for example, cefixime (SUPRAX (registered trademark)) Cefdinir (OMNICEF (registered trademark), CEFDIEL (registered trademark)), cefditoren (SPECTRACEF (registered trademark)), cefoperazone (CEFOBID (registered trademark)), cefotaxi (CLAFORAN (registered trademark)), cefpodoxime (VANTIN (registered trademark)) , Ceftazidime (FORTAZ®), ceftibutene (CEDAX®), ceftizoxime (CEFIZOX®), ceftriaxone (ROCEPHIN®), cephalosporins (fourth generation) (for example, , Cefepime (MAXIPIME®), cephalosporins (fifth generation) (eg, ceftbiprole (ZEFTERA®)), glycopeptides (eg, teicoplanin (TARGOCID) Registered trademark)), vancomycin (VANCOCIN®), teravancin (VIBATIV®), lincosamide series (eg, clindamycin (CLEOCIN®), lincomycin (LINCOCIN®), lipo Peptides (eg, daptomycin (CUBICIN®), macrolides (eg, azithromycin (ZITROMAX®, SUMMADED®, ZITROCIN®), clarithromycin (BIAXIN®) , Dirithromycin (DYNABAC®), erythromycin (ERYTHOCIN®, ERYTHROPED®), roxithromycin, troleandomycin (TAO®) Standard)), tethromycin (KETEK (registered trademark)), spectinomycin (TROBICIN (registered trademark)), monobactam series (for example, aztreonam (AZACTAM (registered trademark)), nitrofuran (for example, furazolidone (registered with FUROXONE (registered trademark)) Trademark)), nitrofurantoin (MACRODANTIN (registered trademark), MACROBID (registered trademark)), penicillin series (eg, amoxicillin (NOVAMOX (registered trademark), AMOXIL (registered trademark)), ampicillin (PRINCIPEN (registered trademark)), Azulocillin, carbenicillin (GEOCILLIN®), cloxacillin (TEGOOPEN®), dicloxacillin (DYNAPEN®), flucloxacillin (FLOXAPEN) Registered trademark)), mezlocillin (MEZLIN (registered trademark)), methicillin (STAPHCILLIN (registered trademark)), nafcillin (UNIPEN (registered trademark)), oxacillin (PROSTAPHLIN (registered trademark)), penicillin G (PENTIDS (registered trademark)) , Penicillin V (PEN-VEE-K®), piperacillin (PIPRACIL®), temocillin (NEGABAN®), ticarcillin (TICAR®), combinations of penicillin (eg, amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid (AUGMENTIN®), ampicillin / sulbactam (UNASYN®), piperacillin / tazobactam (ZOSYN®), ticarcillin / clavulanate (TIMEENTI) (Registered trademark)), polypeptides (for example, bacitracin, colistin (COLY-MYCIN-S (registered trademark)), polymyxin B, quinolones (for example, ciprofloxacin (CIPRO (registered trademark), CIPROXIN (registered trademark)) CIPROBAY (registered trademark), enoxacin (PENETREX (registered trademark)), gatifloxacin (TEQUIN (registered trademark)), levofloxacin (LEVAQUIN (registered trademark)), lomefloxacin (MAXAQUIN (registered trademark)), moxifloxacin (AVELOX (registered trademark)), nalidixic acid (NEGGRAM (registered trademark)), norfloxacin (NOROXIN (registered trademark)), ofloxacin (FLOXIN (registered trademark), OCUFLOX (registered trademark)), trovafloxaci (TROVAN (registered trademark)), grepafloxacin (RAXAR (registered trademark)), sparfloxacin (ZAGAM (registered trademark)), temafloxacin (OMNIFLOX (registered trademark)), sulfonamides (for example, mafenide ( SULFAMYLON (registered trademark), sulfonamidochrysidine (PROTONOSIL (registered trademark)), sulfacetamide (SULAMYD (registered trademark), BLEPH-10 (registered trademark)), sulfadiazine (MICRO-SULFON (registered trademark)), sulfadiazine silver ( SILVADENE (registered trademark), sulfamethizole (THIOSULFIL FORTE (registered trademark)), sulfamethoxazole (GANTANOL (registered trademark)), sulfanilimide (sulfanilimid) e), sulfasalazine (AZULFIDINE®), sulfafurazole (GANTRISIN®), trimethoprim (PROLOPRIM®), TRIMPEX®), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimo) Xazole) (TMP-SMX) (BACTRIM®, SEPTRA®), tetracyclines (eg, demeclocycline (DECLOMYCIN®), doxycycline (VIBRAMYCIN®), minocycline (MINOCIN) (Registered trademark)), oxytetracycline (TERRAMYCIN (registered trademark)), tetracycline (SUMYCIN (registered trademark), ACHROMYCIN (registered trademark) V, STECL N®), drugs against mycobacteria (eg, clofazimine (LAMPRENE®), dapsone (AVLOSULFON®), capreomycin (CAPASTAT®), cycloserine (SEROMYCIN®) ), Ethambutol (MYAMBUTOL®), ethiamide (TRECATOR®), isoniazid (I. N. H. (Registered trademark)), pyrazinamide (ALDINAMIDE (registered trademark)), rifampin (RIFADIN (registered trademark), RIMACTANE (registered trademark)), rifabutin (MYCOBUTIN (registered trademark)), rifapentine (PRIFTIN (registered trademark)), streptomycin , As well as others (eg, arsphenamine (SALVARSAN®), chloramphenicol (CHLOROMYCETIN®), fosfomycin (MONUROL®), fusidic acid (FUCIDIN®), linezolid ( ZYVOX (registered trademark)), metronidazole (FLAGYL (registered trademark)), mupirocin (BACTROBAN (registered trademark)), platencimycin, quinupristin / dalfopristi (SYNERCID (registered trademark)), rifaximin (XIFAXAN (registered trademark)), thianphenicol, tigecycline (TIGACYL (registered trademark)), tinidazole (TINDAMAX (registered trademark), FASIGYN (registered trademark)), It is not limited to these.

Conditions Associated with Viral Infection In another embodiment, a polynucleotide encoding a primary construct, or an mRNA anti-viral agent, eg, in combination with an antiviral agent, eg, an antiviral polypeptide or small molecule antiviral agent described herein. Treating a viral infection and / or a disease, disorder, or condition associated with a viral infection, or a symptom thereof, in a subject by administering a viral polypeptide, eg, an antiviral polypeptide described herein A method of doing or preventing is provided.

  Diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with viral infection include acute fever pharyngitis, pharyngeal conjunctival fever, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, infant gastroenteritis, coxsackie infection, infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt lymphoma, acute hepatitis, chronic Hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, primary HSV-1 infection (eg, gingival stomatitis in children, tonsillitis and pharyngitis in adults, keratoconjunctivitis), latent HSV-1 infection (eg, cold sores and herpes simplex), primary HSV-2 infection, latent HSV-2 infection, aseptic meningitis, infectious mononucleosis, giant cell inclusion body disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, primary humoral lymphoma, AIDS, influenza , Reye syndrome, measles, postinfectious encephalomyelitis, epidemic parotitis, hyperplastic epithelial lesions (eg, vulgaris, flatness, plantar and anogenital warts, laryngeal papilloma, warts) Skin development abnormalities), cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, croup, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, cold, gray leukitis, rabies, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, influenza-like syndrome, severe bronchitis with pneumonia, German measles , Congenital rubella, chickenpox and herpes zoster.

Viral pathogens Viral pathogens include adenovirus, coxsackie virus, dengue virus, encephalitis virus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 , Cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus type 8, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza virus, measles virus, mumps virus, human papilloma virus, parainfluenza, poliovirus, rabies virus, respiratory multinuclear virus, rubella virus, varicella-zoster Viruses, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus include but are not limited to these. Viral pathogens also include viruses that cause resistant viral infections.

Antiviral Agents Exemplary antiviral agents include abacavir (ZIAGEN®), abacavir / lamivudine / zidovudine (trizivir®), acyclovir or acyclovir (CYCLOVIR®), HERPEX (Registered trademark), ACIVIR (registered trademark), ACIVIRAX (registered trademark), ZOVIRAX (registered trademark), ZOVIR (registered trademark), adefovir (Preveon (registered trademark), Hessera (registered trademark)), amantadine (SYMMETREL (registered trademark)) Trademark)), amprenavir (AGENERASE (registered trademark)), ampligen, arbidol, atazanavir (REYATAZ (registered trademark)), boceprevir, sid Fovir, Darunavir (PREZISTA®), Delavirdine (RESCRIPTOR®), didanosine (VIDEOX®), Docosanol (ABREVA®), Edoxine, Efavirenz (SUSTIVA®), STOCRIN ( Registered trademark)), emtricitabine (EMTRIVA (registered trademark)), emtricitabine / tenofovir / efavirenz (ATRIPLA (registered trademark)), enfuvirtide (FUZEON (registered trademark)), entecavir (BARACLUDE (registered trademark), ENTAVIR (registered trademark)) , Famciclovir (FAMVIR®), fomivirsen (VITRAVENE®), fosamprenavir (LEXIVA®), TELZI (Registered trademark), foscarnet (FOSCAVIR (registered trademark)), phosphonet, ganciclovir (CYTOVENE (registered trademark), CYMEVEN (registered trademark), VITRASERT (registered trademark)), GS9137 (ELVITEGRAVIR (registered trademark)), Imiquimod (ALDARA (registered trademark), ZYCLARA (registered trademark), BESELNA (registered trademark)), Indinavir (CRIXIVAN (registered trademark)), Inosine, Inosine Planovex (IMUNOVIR (registered trademark)), Type I interferon, Type II Interferon, type III interferon, kutapressin (NEXAVIR®), lamivudine (ZEFFIX®, HEPTOVIR®, EPI IR (registered trademark), lamivudine / zidovudine (COMBIVIIR (registered trademark)), lopinavir, loviride, marabilok (SELZENTRY (registered trademark), CELSENTRI (registered trademark)), methisazone, MK-2048, moloxidine, nelfinavir ( VIRACEPT (registered trademark), nevirapine (VIRAMUNE (registered trademark)), oseltamivir (TAMIFLU (registered trademark)), peginterferon α-2a (PEGASYS (registered trademark)), penciclovir (DENAVIR (registered trademark)), peramivir, pleconaril , Podophyllotoxin (CONDYLOX®), raltegravir (ISENTRESS®), ribavirin (COPEGUs®, REBETOL) (Registered trademark), RIBASPHERE (registered trademark), VILONA (registered trademark) ANDVIRAZOLE (registered trademark), rimantadine (FLUMADINE (registered trademark)), ritonavir (NORVIR (registered trademark)), pyramidine (pyramidine), saquinavir (registered trademark) Trademark), FORTOVASE (registered trademark), stavudine, tea tree oil (melaleuca oil), tenofovir (VIREAD (registered trademark)), tenofovir / emtricitabine (TRUVADA (registered trademark)), tipranavir (APTIVUS (registered trademark)) ), Trifluridine (VIROPIC® (registered trademark)), tromantazine (VIRU-MERZ (registered trademark)), valacyclovir (VALTREX (registered trademark)) , Valganciclovir (VALCYTE®), bicrivirok, vidarabine, viramidine, sarcitabine, zanamivir (RELENZA®), and zidovudine (AZT), RETROVIS®, RETROVIS® ), But is not limited thereto.

Conditions associated with fungal infections Diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with fungal infections include aspergillosis, blastosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mycomas, paracoccidioidomycosis, and foot ringworm However, it is not limited to these. Furthermore, individuals with immunodeficiency are particularly susceptible to diseases caused by fungal genera such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, and Pneumocystis. Other fungi are called so-called dermatophytic fungi and horny horny fungi that can attack the eyes, nails, hair, and especially the skin, which is a variety of ringworms such as foot tinea Causes a condition. Fungal spores are also a major cause of allergies, and a wide range of fungi from different taxa can induce allergic reactions in some people.

Fungal pathogens Fungal pathogens include Ascomycota (eg, Fusarium oxysporum, Pneumocystis jirobesi, Aspergillus, Coccidioides imitis / Posadasi, Candida albicans), Basidiomycetes (eg, Philobadiella neoformans, Trichosporon), microsporidia (e.g., Encephalitozoon clicli, Enterositozone Zoenii), and sub-Keobi (e.g., Mucor circinoroides), Rhizopus oryzae, and Lichthemia corymb, It is not limited to these.

Antifungal agents Exemplary antifungal agents include polyene antifungal agents (eg, natamycin, rimocidin, Philippines, nystatin, amphotericin B, candicin, hamycin), imidazole antifungal agents (eg, miconazole (MICATIN)) (Registered trademark), DAKTARIN (registered trademark), ketoconazole (NIZORAL (registered trademark), FUNGORAL (registered trademark), SEBIZOLE (registered trademark)), clotrimazole (LOTRIMIN (registered trademark), LOTRIMIN (registered trademark) AF, CANESTEN (registered trademark), econazole, omoconazole, bifonazole, butconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxyconazole, sertaconazole (ERTACZO Registered trademark)), sulconazole, thioconazole), triazole antifungal agents (eg, albaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, isabconazole, labconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terconazole), thiazole antifungal agents (eg, abafungin)), allylamine (Eg, terbinafine (LAMISIL®), naphthifine (NAFTIN®), butenafine (LOTRIMIN® ultra), echinocandin (eg, anidurafungin, caspofungin, micafungin), and others ( For example, polygodial, benzoic acid, ciclopirox, tolnaftate (TINACTIN (registered trademark), DESENEX (registered trademark) , AFTATE (registered trademark)), undecylenic acid, flucytosine or 5-fluorocytosine, griseofulvin, haloprogin, sodium bicarbonate, allicin) include, but are not limited to.

Conditions associated with protozoal infections Diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with protozoal infections include amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, African sleeping sickness, American sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis (Kala Azar), baritidiosis, toxoplasmosis, Examples include, but are not limited to, malaria, acanthamoeba keratitis, and babesiosis.

Protozoan pathogens Protozoan pathogens include Shigella amoeba, Giardia lambila, Trichomonas spp., Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Donovan leishmania, Colon barantodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium, and Rat babesia However, it is not limited to these.

Antiprotozoal agents Exemplary antiprotozoal agents include eflorunitin, furazolidone (FUROXONE®, DEPENDAL-M®), meralsoprole, metronidazole (FLAGYL®), ornidazole, paromomycin sulfate (HUMATIN®), pentamidine, pyrimethamine (DARAPRIM®), and tinidazole (TINDAMAX®, FASIGYN®), but are not limited to these.

Conditions associated with parasitic infections Diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with parasitic infections include acanthamoeba keratitis, amebiasis, roundworm, babesiosis, baritidiosis, Baylisasciasis, Chagas disease, Liver fluke, cocryomia, cryptosporidiosis, scoliosis, medinomatosis, echinococcosis, elephant disease, helminthiasis, hepatic disease, hypertrophic fluke, filariasis, giardiasis, jaw-and-mouth disease, membrane-like streak Insect disease, isosporiasis, Katayama fever, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, malaria, Yokokawa fluke, fly larva, onchocercosis, lice parasitism, scabies, schistosomiasis, sleep disease, feline nematode, rhinomatosis , Toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinosis, and trichinosis, but are not limited to these.

Parasitic pathogens Parasitic pathogens include Acanthamoeba, Anisakis, Roundworm, Cow flies, Colonic barantidium, Nanjing insects, Tapeworms, Helminths, Cochliomyia hominiborax, Shigella amoeba, Liver rambling flagellates, Helminths, Leish Mania, nasophagosa, liver fluke, loa filamentous, pulmonary fluke, helminth, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, dung beetle, mite, tapeworm, toxoplasma, trypanosoma, whipworm, bancroft However, it is not limited to these.

Anti-parasitic agents Exemplary anti-parasitic agents include antinematodes (eg, mebendazole, pyrantelpamoate, thiabendazole, diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin), antiestodes (eg, niclosamide, praziquantel, Albendazole), antitrematodes (e.g., praziquantel), antiamebics (e.g., rifampin, amphotericin B), and antiprotozoal agents (e.g., meralsoprolol, eflornithine, metronidazole, tinidazole) For example, but not limited to.

Conditions associated with prion infection Diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with prion infection include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD), atypical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) , Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), Gerstman-Streisler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), lethal familial insomnia (FFI), Kool disease, scrapie , Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), chronic wasting disease (CWD), feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), exogenous ungulate encephalopathy (EUE), and spongiform encephalopathy However, it is not limited to these.

Anti-prion agents Exemplary anti-prion agents include, but are not limited to, flupirtine, pentosan polysulfate, quinacrine, and tetracyclic compounds.

Regulation of immune response Avoidance of immune response
As described herein, a useful feature of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the present invention is the ability to reduce, escape or avoid a cell's innate immune response. In one embodiment, when delivered to a cell, induced by a reference compound, eg, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention, or an unmodified polynucleotide corresponding to a different polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. Provided herein are polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs that encode a polypeptide of interest that result in an immune response from a host that is reduced compared to the response that is produced. As used herein, a “reference compound” is any molecule or substance that, when administered to a mammal, results in an innate immune response with a known degree, level, or amount of immune stimulation. The reference compound need not be a nucleic acid molecule and need not be any of the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA of the invention. Thus, measurement of avoidance, evasion, or failure of induction of an immune response by a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is any compound or substance known to elicit such a response Can be shown by comparing with

  The term “innate immune response” generally includes cellular responses to exogenous single-stranded nucleic acids of viral or bacterial origin, including the expression and release of cytokines, particularly interferons, and the induction of cell death. . As used herein, an innate immune response or interferon response can be cytokine expression, cytokine release, general inhibition of protein synthesis, general destruction of cellular RNA, upregulation of key histocompatibility molecules, and / or It functions at the single cell level causing induction of apoptotic death, apoptosis, anti-growth, and induction of gene transcription of genes involved in natural and adaptive immune cell activation. Some genes induced by type I IFN include PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA), OAS (2 ', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase), RNase L, and Mx protein. PKR and ADAR result in inhibition of translation initiation and RNA editing, respectively. OAS is a dsRNA-dependent synthetase that activates the endoribonuclease RNase L to degrade ssRNA.

  In some embodiments, the innate immune response comprises expression of a type I or type II interferon, and the expression of the type I or type II interferon is not in contact with a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. It is not increased more than 2-fold compared to the cell reference.

  In some embodiments, the innate immune response comprises expression of one or more IFN signature genes, wherein the one or more IFN signature genes are not in contact with a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. It does not increase more than 3 times compared to the cell reference.

  In some situations, it may be beneficial to eliminate intracellular innate immune responses, but the present invention, when administered, is substantially reduced without completely eliminating such responses ( Provided are polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs that result in an immune response that includes (substantially low) interferon signaling.

  In some embodiments, the immune response is 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, compared to the immune response induced by the reference compound. 95%, 99%, 99.9%, or more than 99.9% lower. The immune response itself can be measured by determining the level of type 1 interferon expression or activity, or the expression of interferon-regulated genes such as toll-like receptors (eg, TLR7 and TLR8). Reduction of the innate immune response can also be measured by measuring the level of cell death reduced according to one or more administrations to the cell population. For example, cell death is 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or more than 95% less than the frequency of cell death observed with the reference compound. In addition, cell death may be 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% of cells in contact with the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. Or it may affect less than 0.01%.

  In another embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention is significantly less immunogenic than an unmodified in vitro synthetic RNA molecule polynucleotide or primary construct having the same sequence, or a reference compound. As used herein, “significantly less immunogenic” refers to a detectable decrease in immunogenicity. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fold decrease in immunogenicity. In another embodiment, the term refers to a reduction such that an effective amount of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be administered without inducing a detectable immune response. In another embodiment, the term refers to a decrease such that the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be repeatedly administered without eliciting sufficient immune response to detectably reduce expression of the recombinant protein. Point to. In another embodiment, the reduction is such that the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be repeatedly administered without eliciting sufficient immune response to eliminate detectable expression of the recombinant protein. is there.

  In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is two times less immunogenic than its unmodified counterpart or reference compound. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by a factor of 3. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by a factor of 5. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced 7-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced 10-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by 15-fold. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a factor. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by 50-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by 100-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by 200-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced by 500-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced 1000-fold. In another embodiment, the immunogenicity is reduced 2000-fold. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by another multiple.

  Methods for determining immunogenicity are well known in the art and include, for example, cytokines (eg, IL-12, IFNα, TNF-α, RANTES, MIP-1α or β, IL-6, IFN-β , Or IL-8), measuring the expression of DC activation markers (eg, CD83, HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86), or measuring the ability to act as an adjuvant for an adaptive immune response To do.

  The polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the present invention that contain combinations of modifications taught herein may have superior properties that make them more suitable as therapeutics.

  The “all or nothing” model in the art has been determined to be terribly inadequate to explain the biological phenomena associated with the therapeutic utility of modified mRNA. In order to improve protein production, the inventors consider the nature of the modification or combination of modifications, the percentage of modification, so as to determine the effect and risk profile of a particular modified mRNA. It was confirmed that more than cytokines or metrics could be tested.

  In one aspect of the invention, a method for determining the effectiveness of a modified mRNA compared to unmodified comprises the measurement and analysis of one or more cytokines whose expression is induced by administration of an exogenous nucleic acid of the invention. . These values are compared to the administration of unmodified nucleic acids or to standard metrics such as cytokine response, poly IC, R-848 or other standards known in the art.

  One example of a standard metric developed herein is the administration of modified nucleic acids or modified nucleic acids at the level or amount of encoded polypeptide (protein) produced in a cell, tissue, or organism. Is a measure of the ratio of one or more levels or amounts (or panels) of cytokines whose expression is induced in a cell, tissue, or organism as a result of contact. Such a ratio is referred to herein as a protein: cytokine ratio or “PC” ratio. The higher the PC ratio, the higher the effect of the modified nucleic acid (polynucleotide encoding the protein to be measured). Preferred PC ratios with cytokines of the present invention may be greater than 1, greater than 10, greater than 100, greater than 1000, greater than 10,000, or more. Modified nucleic acids having a higher PC ratio than modified nucleic acids of different or unmodified constructs are preferred.

  The PC ratio can be further evaluated by the percentage of modification present in the polynucleotide. For example, normalized to 100% modified nucleic acid, cytokine (or risk) function or protein production as a cytokine profile can be determined.

  In one embodiment, the invention relates to any particular modified polynucleotide over the percentage of chemistry, cytokines, or modifications by comparing the PC ratio of the modified nucleic acid (polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA). , Primary constructs, or methods for determining the relative effects of mmRNA.

  MmRNA containing various levels of nucleobase substitutions can be produced that maintain increased protein production and reduced immunostimulatory potential. The relative percentage of any modified nucleotide relative to its naturally occurring nucleotide counterpart may vary during the IVT reaction (eg, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.1 0.01% 5-methylcytidine use vs cytidine; 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.1, 0.01% pseudouridine or N1-methyl-pseudouridine use vs uridine ). It is also possible to make mRNAs that utilize different ratios (eg, different ratios of pseudouridine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine) by using two or more different nucleotides for the same base. The mRNA can also be made in a mixed ratio at more than one “base” position, such as 5 methylcytidine / cytidine and pseudouridine / N1-methyl-pseudouridine / uridine ratios at the same time. Using modified mRNAs with altered ratios of modified nucleotides can be beneficial in reducing possible exposure to chemically modified nucleotides. Finally, positional introduction of modified nucleotides into the mRNA that regulates either protein production or immunostimulatory potential, or both is also possible. The ability of such mRNA to demonstrate these improved properties can be assessed in vitro (using an assay such as the PBMC assay described herein), and the mRNA encoded protein It can also be evaluated in vivo through measurement of both production and mediators of innate immune recognition such as cytokines.

  In another embodiment, the relative immunogenicity of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA and its unmodified counterpart is the same as the given amount of unmodified nucleotide or reference compound. This can be determined by determining the amount of polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA required to trigger one. For example, if a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is twice as many as a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is unmodified if it is required to elicit the same response. Two times less immunogenic than nucleotides or reference compounds.

  In another embodiment, the relative immunogenicity of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA and its unmodified counterpart is such that administration of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to the same amount of unmodified nucleotide or reference compound. Determined by determining the amount of cytokine secreted in response to (eg, IL-12, IFNα, TNF-α, RANTES, MIP-1α or β, IL-6, IFN-β, or IL-8) Is done. For example, if one-half cytokine of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is secreted, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is two times less immunogenic than the unmodified nucleotide. In another embodiment, the background level of stimulation is subtracted prior to calculating immunogenicity in the above method.

  Also provided herein are methods for performing titration, reduction or elimination of an immune response within a cell or population of cells. In some embodiments, the cells are contacted with different doses of the same polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA and the dose response is evaluated. In some embodiments, cells are contacted with several different polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA at the same or different doses to determine the optimal composition for producing the desired effect. With respect to the immune response, the desired effect may be to avoid, escape or reduce the cellular immune response. The desired effect can also be to change the efficiency of protein production.

  The polynucleotides, temporary constructs and / or mmRNAs of the invention may be used to reduce immune responses using the methods described in International Publication No. WO2013003475, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Activation of immune responses: vaccines Furthermore, certain modified nucleosides, or combinations thereof, activate an innate immune response when introduced into a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention. Such activating molecules are useful as adjuvants when combined with polypeptides and / or other vaccines. In certain embodiments, the activating molecule contains a translatable region encoding a polypeptide sequence that is useful as a vaccine, thus providing the ability to be a self-adjuvant.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA of the invention can encode an immunogen. Delivery of a polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA encoding an immunogen can activate an immune response. By way of non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA encoding an immunogen can be delivered to a cell to induce multiple natural response pathways (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). , See International Publication No. WO2012006377). As another non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA encoding an immunogen of the present invention can be delivered to a vertebrate at a dose large enough to be immunogenic to the vertebrate ( See International Publication Nos. WO2012006372 and WO2012006369, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can encode a polypeptide sequence for a vaccine, which may further comprise an inhibitor. Inhibitors can impair antigen presentation and / or inhibit various pathways known in the art. As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNAs of the invention may be used in vaccines in combination with inhibitors that can impair antigen presentation (each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). (See International Publication Nos. WO202099225 and WO202089338, which are incorporated into the document).

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can be a self-replicating RNA. Self-replicating RNA molecules can improve the efficiency of RNA delivery and expression of the encapsulated gene product. In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can include at least one modification described herein and / or known in the art. In one embodiment, the self-replicating RNA can be designed such that the self-replicating RNA does not induce the production of infectious viral particles. By way of non-limiting example, self-replicating RNAs may be designed by the methods described in US Publication No. US20110300205 and International Publication No. WO2011005799, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  In one embodiment, a self-replicating polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can encode a protein that can generate an immune response. By way of non-limiting example, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can be a self-replicating mRNA that can encode at least one antigen (each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). US 20110300205, and International Publication Nos. WO2011005799, WO2013006838, and WO2013006842).

  In one embodiment, a self-replicating polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can be formulated using methods described herein or known in the art. By way of non-limiting example, self-replicating RNA may be formulated for delivery by the method described in Geall et al (Non-volatile delivery of self-amplifying RNA vaccines, PNAS 2012; PMID: 2908294).

  In one embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can encode an amphiphilic and / or immunogenic amphiphilic peptide.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA formulation of the invention may further comprise an amphiphilic and / or immunogenic amphiphilic peptide. As non-limiting examples, polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA comprising amphipathic and / or immunogenic amphipathic peptides, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It may be formulated as described in US20115025037 and International Publication Nos. WO2010009277 and WO2010009065.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention can be immunostimulatory. By way of non-limiting example, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA can encode all or part of a positive sense or negative sense strand RNA viral genome, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , International Publication No. WO2012092569 and US Publication No. US20120177001). In another non-limiting example, an immunostimulatory polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention is formulated using administration excipients described herein and / or known in the art. (See International Publication Nos. WO20120268295 and US Publication No. US20120213812, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

  In one embodiment, the response of a vaccine formulated by the methods described herein can be improved by the addition of various compounds to induce a therapeutic effect. By way of non-limiting example, a vaccine formulation may include an MHCII binding peptide or a peptide having a similar sequence to an MHCII binding peptide (WO20102027365, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). No. WO20111031298, and US Publication No. US20120070493, US20111011965). As another example, a vaccine formulation may include modified nicotine compounds that are capable of generating an antibody response to nicotine residues in a subject (WO20102061717 and WO each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). See U.S. Publication No. US20120114677).

Naturally occurring variants In another embodiment, polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNA are used to improve disease modification, including increased biological activity, improved patient prognosis, or protective function, etc. Variants of naturally occurring proteins with activity can be expressed. Many such modified genes have been described in mammals (Nadeau, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2003 13: 290-295; Hamilton and Yu, PLO Genet., All incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. 2012; 8: e100444; Corder et al., Nature Genetics 1994 7: 180-184). Examples in humans include apo E2 protein, apo AI mutant protein (Apo AI Milano, Apo AI Paris), hyperactive factor IX protein (factor IX Padua Arg338Lys), transthyretin mutation Body (TTR Thr119Met). Expression of apoE2 (cys112, cys158) reduces the susceptibility to other possible conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease, thereby reducing other apoE isoforms (apoE3 (cys112, arg158) And Apo E4 (arg112, arg158)) have been shown to confer protection (Corder et al., Nature Genetics 1994 7: 180-, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). 184, Seripa et al., Rejuvenation Res. 2011 14: 491-500, Liu et al. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 9: 106-118). Expression of the apoA-I variant was accompanied by reduced cholesterol (deGoma and Rader, 2011 Nature Rev Cardio 8: 266-271, Nissen et al., All incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 2003 JAMA 290: 2292-2300). The amino acid sequence of Apo AI in a particular population was changed to cysteine in Apo AI Milano (Arg173 was changed to Cys) and in ApoAI Paris (Arg151 was changed to Cys) It was done. A Factor IX mutation at position R338L (FIX Padua) results in a Factor IX protein with increased activity about 10-fold (Simoni et al., N, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Engl J Med. 2009 361: 1671-1675, Finn et al., Blood. 2012 120: 4521-4523, Cantor et al., Blood. 2012 120: 4517-20). Mutations of transthyretin at position 104 or 119 (Arg104His, Thr119Met) have also been shown to provide protection for patients who also have a Val30Met mutation that results in disease (all incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). Saraiva, Hum Mutat. 2001 17: 493-503, DATA BASE ON TRANSHYRETIN MUTATIONS http://www.ibmc.up.pt/mjsariva/trmut.html). Differences in clinical findings and symptom severity in Portuguese and Japanese Met30 patients with Met119 and His104 mutants, respectively, are apparent protective effects expressed by non-pathogenic variants that give the molecule additional stability (Coelho et al. 1996 Neurodisorders (Suppl) 6: S20, Terazaki et al. 1999. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 264: 365-370, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). Modified mRNAs encoding these protected TTR alleles can be expressed in patients with TTR amyloidosis, thereby reducing the effects of pathogenic variant TTR proteins.

Major groove interaction partner As described herein, the expression "major groove interaction partner" detects an RNA ligand through interaction, eg, binding, with a major groove surface of a nucleotide or nucleic acid, and Refers to an RNA recognition receptor that responds. Thus, an RNA ligand comprising a modified nucleotide or nucleic acid, such as a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA described herein, reduces interaction with the major groove binding partner and thus reduces the innate immune response.

  Exemplary major groove interactions, such as binding partners, include but are not limited to the following nucleases and helicases: Within the membrane, TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) 3, 7, and 8 can respond to single- and double-stranded RNA.In the cytoplasm, DEX (D / H ) Members of the helicase and ATPase superfamily 2 classes can sense RNA that initiates antiviral responses, including RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene). I) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) Other examples include laboratories of genetics and physiology y) 2 (LGP2), a protein containing a HIN-200 domain, or a protein containing a helicase domain.

Targeting pathogenic organisms or disease cells Pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, protozoa, helminths, or cancer cells using polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA encoding cytostatic or cytotoxic polypeptides, etc. Provided herein are methods for targeting diseased cells. Preferably, the introduced mRNA comprises modified nucleosides or other nucleic acid sequence modifications that have been translated exclusively or preferentially in the target pathogenic organism to reduce the potential off-target effects of treatment. Such methods are useful for removing pathogenic organisms found in any biomaterial, including blood, semen, ova, and transplant materials including embryos, tissues, and organs, or killing diseased cells. is there.

Bioprocessing The methods provided herein can be useful for improving protein product yields in cell culture processes. In cell cultures containing multiple host cells, introduction of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA described herein results in increased protein production efficiency compared to the corresponding unmodified nucleic acid. Such increased protein production efficiencies may include, for example, increased cell transfection, increased protein translation from polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA, reduced nucleolysis, and / or reduced host cell innate immune response. Can be demonstrated by Protein production can be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and protein activity can be measured by various functional assays known in the art. Protein production can be produced in a continuous or batch-fed mammalian process.

  In addition, it is useful to optimize the expression of a specific polypeptide, particularly a protein variant of a reference protein with known activity, in a potential subject cell line or collection of cell lines. is there. In one embodiment, contacting each of the plurality of target cell types with a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encoding a polypeptide of interest by providing and independently of the plurality of target cell types. This provides a method for optimizing the expression of the polypeptide of interest in the target cell. Cells can be transfected with two or more polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA simultaneously or sequentially.

  In certain embodiments, multiple rounds of the methods described herein can be used to obtain cells with increased expression of one or more nucleic acids or proteins of interest. For example, a cell may be transfected with one or more polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA encoding a nucleic acid or protein of interest. Cells are isolated according to the methods described herein before being subjected to a further round of transfection with one or more other nucleic acids encoding the nucleic acid or protein of interest before being isolated again. Also good. The method comprises a protein complex, a nucleic acid or protein in the same or related biological pathway, a nucleic acid or protein acting upstream or downstream of each other, a nucleic acid or protein having a function of regulating, activating or suppressing each other, function or It may be useful to produce cells that have increased expression of nucleic acids or proteins that depend on each other for activity or share homology.

  Furthermore, the protein production efficiency can be increased by changing the culture conditions. Subsequently, the presence and / or level of the polypeptide of interest in multiple target cell types can be detected and / or quantified and optimized by selecting efficient target cells and cell culture conditions for polypeptide expression. to enable. Such methods are particularly useful when the polypeptide contains one or more post-translational modifications or has substantial tertiary structure, often a situation that complicates efficient protein production. .

  In one embodiment, the cells used in the methods of the invention can be cultured. The cells can be cultured in suspension or as an adherent culture. The cells can be cultured in a variety of containers including, but not limited to, bioreactors, cell bags, wave bags, culture plates, flasks, and other containers well known to those skilled in the art. The cells can be cultured in IMDM (Invitrogen, Cat # 12440-53) or any other suitable medium, including but not limited to known composition medium formulations. In addition, ambient conditions suitable for cell culture such as temperature and atmospheric composition are well known to those skilled in the art. The methods of the invention can be used with any cell suitable for use in protein production.

  The present invention provides for repeated introduction (eg, transfection) of a modified nucleic acid into a target cell population, for example, in vitro, ex vivo, in situ, or in vivo. For example, contacting the same cell population can be repeated one or more times (such as 2, 3, 4, 5, or more than 5 times). In some embodiments, the step of contacting the cell population with the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is repeated several times to be sufficient to achieve a predetermined efficiency of protein translation in the cell population. Assuming that nucleic acid modification provided frequent reduced cytotoxicity of the target cell population, as provided herein, repetitive transfection is performed in a diverse set of cell types and within diverse tissues. Achievable.

In one embodiment, the bioprocessing methods of the invention can be used to produce antibodies or functional fragments thereof. A functional fragment can include a Fab, Fab ′, F (ab ′) 2 , Fv domain, scFv, or bispecific antibody. They can be variable in any region including the complementarity determining region (CDR). In one embodiment, there is complete diversity in the CDR3 region. In another embodiment, the antibody is substantially conserved except within the CDR3 region.

  Regardless of whether the source is human pathogenic or non-human, antibodies can be made that bind to or associate with any biomolecule. Pathogens can be present in non-human mammals, clinical specimens, or commercial products such as cosmetics or pharmaceutical materials. They can also bind to any specimen or sample, including clinical specimens or tissue samples from any organism.

  In some embodiments, the contacting step is at a frequency selected from the group consisting of 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 84 hours, 96 hours, and 108 hours, and Repeated multiple times at concentrations of less than 20 nM, less than 50 nM, less than 80 nM, or less than 100 nM. The composition can also be administered at less than 1 mM, less than 5 mM, less than 10 mM, less than 100 mM, or even less than 500 mM.

  In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is 50 molecules per cell, 100 molecules / cell, 200 molecules / cell, 300 molecules / cell, 400 molecules / cell, 500 molecules / cell, 600 molecules / cell. It is added in an amount of cells, 700 molecules / cell, 800 molecules / cell, 900 molecules / cell, 1000 molecules / cell, 2000 molecules / cell, or 5000 molecules / cell.

  In other embodiments, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is 0.01 fmol / 106 cells, 0.1 fmol / 106 cells, 0.5 fmol / 106 cells, 0.75 fmol / 106 cells, 1 fmol / 106 cells, 2 fmol. / 106 cells, 5 fmol / 106 cells, 10 fmol / 106 cells, 20 fmol / 106 cells, 30 fmol / 106 cells, 40 fmol / 106 cells, 50 fmol / 106 cells, 60 fmol / 106 cells, 100 fmol / 106 cells, 200 fmol / 106 cells, 300 fmol / 106 cells, 400 fmol / 106 cells, 500 fmol / 106 cells, 700 fmol / 106 cells, 800 fmol / 106 cells, 900 fmol / 106 cells, and 1 pmol / 106 cells It is added at a concentration selected from the group consisting of.

  In some embodiments, the production of the biological product therein can be measured by one or more of parameters selected from the group consisting of cell density, pH, oxygen level, glucose level, lactate level, temperature, and protein production. Detected by monitoring various bioprocess parameters. Protein production can be measured as specific productivity (SP) (concentration of a product such as a polypeptide that is heterologously expressed in solution) and can be expressed in mg / L or g / L. As a method, specific productivity may be expressed in pg / cell / day. An increase in SP can refer to an absolute or relative increase in the concentration of product produced under two pre-determined conditions (eg, when compared to a control that has not been treated with the modified mRNA (s)). .

Cells In one embodiment, the cells are selected from the group consisting of mammalian cells, bacterial cells, plants, microorganisms, algae and fungal cells. In some embodiments, the cell is a mammalian cell, such as, but not limited to, a human, mouse, rat, goat, horse, rabbit, hamster, or bovine cell. In a further embodiment, the cells are HeLa, NS0, SP2 / 0, KEK 293T, Vero, Caco, Caco-2, MDCK, COS-1, COS-7, K562, Jurkat, CHO-K1, DG44, CHOK1SV, CHO-S, Huvec, CV-1, Huh-7, NIH3T3, HEK293, 293, A549, HepG2, IMR-90, MCF-7, U-20S, Per. It can be derived from a cell line including but not limited to C6, SF9, SF21, or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

  In certain embodiments, the cells are, but are not limited to, chrysosporium cells, Aspergillus cells, Trichoderma cells, dictiosterium cells, Candida cells, Saccharomyces cells, Schizosaccharomyces cells, and Penicillium cells, It is a fungal cell.

  In certain embodiments, the cells are bacterial cells such as, but not limited to, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, or BL21 cells. Primary and secondary cells transfected by the methods of the invention can be obtained from a variety of tissues, including but not limited to all cell types that can be maintained in culture. For example, primary and secondary cells that can be transfected by the methods of the present invention include fibroblasts, keratinocytes, epithelial cells (eg, mammary epithelial cells, intestinal epithelial cells), endothelial cells, glial cells, neuronal cells, blood cells These include, but are not limited to, forming elements (eg, lymphocytes, bone marrow cells), muscle cells, and precursors of these somatic cell types. Primary cells can also be obtained from donors of the same species or another species (eg, mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, cow, bird, sheep, goat, horse).

Purification and isolation One skilled in the art should be able to determine the method used to purify or isolate the protein of interest from cultured cells. In general, this is done through capture methods using affinity binding or non-affinity purification. If the protein of interest is not secreted by the cultured cells, then the cultured cells should be lysed before purification or isolation. Contains cell culture medium components in the present invention and cell culture additives such as antifoam compounds and other nutrients and nutritional supplements, cells, cell debris, host cell proteins, DNA, viruses, etc. An uncleaned cell culture medium may be used. The process can take place in the bioreactor itself. The fluid can either be pre-conditioned to the desired stimulus, such as pH, temperature, or other stimulus characteristics, or the fluid can be adjusted in response to the addition of the polymer (s). Or, the polymer (s) may be added to a carrier liquid that is appropriately adjusted to the parameters required for the stimulation conditions required to solubilize the polymer in the fluid. The fluid can be used to circulate the polymer completely and then a stimulus can be applied (changes in pH, temperature, salt concentration, etc.) to remove the desired protein and polymer (s) precipitate from the solution. it can. The polymer and the desired protein (s) can be separated from the remaining fluid and optionally washed one or more times to remove any trapped or loosely bound contaminants. The desired protein is then recovered from the polymer (s), such as by elution. Preferably, elution can be performed under conditions such that the polymer remains in its precipitated form and retains any impurities therein during the selected elution of the desired protein. The polymer and protein and any impurities may be solubilized in a new fluid, such as water or buffer, and the protein has an affinity, ion that has a protein preference and selectivity over that of the polymer or impurity. It can be recovered by exchange, hydrophobicity, or some other type of chromatography or the like. The eluted protein can then be collected and, if appropriate, subjected to further processing steps, either batch-like steps or continuous flow-through steps.

  In another embodiment, the expression of a particular polypeptide, particularly a protein variant of a reference protein with known activity, is optimized in a potential subject cell line or collection of cell lines. It can be useful. In one embodiment, a target cell is targeted by providing a plurality of target cell types and independently contacting each of the plurality of target cell types with a modified mRNA encoding a polypeptide. Methods are provided for optimizing polypeptide expression. Furthermore, the protein production efficiency can be increased by changing the culture conditions. Subsequently, the presence and / or level of the polypeptide of interest in multiple target cell types is detected and / or quantified, and the selection of efficient target cells and cell culture conditions for expression of the polypeptide of interest results in Enable optimization. Such methods can be useful when the polypeptide of interest contains one or more post-translational modifications or has substantial tertiary structure, which often complicates efficient protein production. .

Protein recovery The protein of interest can preferably be recovered from the culture medium as a secreted polypeptide or, if expressed without a secretion signal, from the host cell lysate. It may be necessary to purify the protein of interest from other recombinant proteins and host cell proteins in a manner that provides a substantially uniform regulation of the protein of interest. Cells and / or particulate cell debris can be removed from the culture medium or lysate. Then, for example, fractionation on an immunoaffinity or ion exchange column, ethanol precipitation, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), SEPHADEX® chromatography, chromatography on silica or a cation exchange resin such as DEAE. The desired product can be purified from contaminant soluble proteins, polypeptides and nucleic acids. Methods for purifying proteins that are heterologously expressed by host cells are well known in the art.

  Using the methods and compositions described herein, produce a protein that can attenuate or block an endogenous agonist biological response and / or antagonize a receptor or signaling molecule in a mammalian subject. can do. For example, IL-12 and IL-23 receptor signaling is associated with chronic autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease. It can be enhanced in inflammatory diseases (Kikly K, Liu L, Na S, Sedgwich JD (2006) Cur. Opin. Immunol. 18 (6): 670-5). In another embodiment, the nucleic acid encodes an antagonist of a chemokine receptor. The chemokine receptors CXCR-4 and CCR-5 are required for HIV to enter host cells (Arenzana-Seisdedos F et al, (1996) Nature. Oct 3; 383 (6599): 400).

Gene Silencing The polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs described herein are useful for silencing (ie, preventing or significantly reducing) the expression of one or more target genes in a cell population. It is. A polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA that encodes a polypeptide of interest capable of directing sequence-specific histone H3 methylation is targeted via translation of the polypeptide and histone H3 methylation and subsequent heterochromatin formation The gene is introduced into a cell in a population under conditions such that gene transcription is reduced. In some embodiments, the silencing mechanism is performed on a cell population present in a mammalian subject. As a non-limiting example, a useful target gene is a mutant Janus kinase-2 family member in which a mammalian subject expresses a mutant target gene that suffers from a myeloproliferative disease that is the result of abnormal kinase activity. is there.

  Polynucleotides, primary constructs, and co-administration of mmRNA and RNAi agents are also provided herein.

Regulation of biological pathways Rapidly translated polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNAs introduced into cells provide the desired mechanism for modulating target biological pathways. Such modulation includes antagonism or agonism of a given pathway. In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA are localized within the cell, and the polypeptide can be translated intracellularly from the polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA, wherein the polypeptide is By contacting the cell with an effective amount of a composition comprising a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encoding a polypeptide of interest under conditions that inhibit the activity of the polypeptide function in the biological pathway. Methods are provided for antagonizing the biological pathways of Exemplary biological pathways are those that are deficient in autoimmune or inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, colitis, or Crohn's disease. In particular, antagonism of the IL-12 and IL-23 signaling pathways is particularly useful (Kikly K, Liu L, Na S, Sedgwick JD (2006) Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18 (6): 670-). See 5)).

  Further provided are polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA encoding chemokine receptor antagonists. Chemokine receptors CXCR-4 and CCR-5 are required, for example, for HIV to enter host cells (Arenzana-Seisdedos F et al, (1996) Nature. Oct 3; 383 (6599): 400. ).

  Alternatively, the nucleic acid can be localized in the cell and the recombinant polypeptide can be translated from the nucleic acid into the cell, such that the recombinant polypeptide induces activity of the polypeptide function in the biological pathway. Under conditions, a method is provided for stimulating a biological pathway within a cell by contacting the cell with an effective amount of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encoding a recombinant polypeptide. Exemplary stimulated biological pathways include pathways that regulate cell fate decisions. Such stimulation is reversible or irreversible.

Expression of ligands or receptors on the cell surface In some aspects and embodiments of the embodiments described herein, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA described herein may be used on the surface of a cell. A ligand or ligand receptor can be expressed (eg, a homing moiety). The ligand or ligand receptor moiety that is bound to the cell surface allows the cell to have the desired biological interaction with the tissue or agent in vivo. A ligand is an antibody, antibody fragment, aptamer, peptide, vitamin, carbohydrate, protein or polypeptide, receptor, such as a cell surface receptor, adhesion molecule, glycoprotein, sugar residue, therapeutic agent, drug, glycosaminoglycan, Or any combination thereof. For example, the ligand may be an antibody that recognizes a cancer cell-specific antigen, providing a cell that can interact preferentially with tumor cells and allowing tumor-specific localization of the modified cells. Since preferred ligands can interact with target molecules on the outer surface of the treated tissue, the ligand can confer the ability of the cell composition to accumulate in the treated tissue. Ligands that have limited cross-reactivity with other tissues are generally preferred.

  In some cases, the ligand can act as a homing moiety that allows the cell to target a specific tissue or interact with a specific ligand. Such homing moieties include: Fv fragments, single chain Fv (scFv) fragments, Fab ′ fragments, F (ab ′) 2 fragments, single domain antibodies, camelized antibodies and antibody fragments, humanized antibodies and antibodies Fragments, and any member of a specific binding pair, antibody, monoclonal antibody, or derivative or analog thereof, including but not limited to the multivalent variants described above: disulfide stabilized Fv fragments, scFv tandems Monospecific or bispecific antibodies such as ((SCFV) 2 fragments), typically scFvs that are covalently linked or stabilized (ie, leucine zipper or helix stabilized) Bispecific antibodies, trispecific antibodies (tribodies), or tetraspecific antibodies (tetrabodies) that are fragments , Without limitation, multivalent binding reagent; and for example, aptamers, receptors, and fusion proteins, but may include other homing moieties, but not limited to.

  In some embodiments, the homing moiety can be a surface-bound antibody that can allow adjustment of cell targeting specificity. This is particularly useful because highly specific antibodies can be produced against the desired epitope of the desired targeting site. In one embodiment, multiple antibodies are expressed on the surface of a cell, and each antibody can have a different specificity for a desired target. Such an approach can increase the binding power and specificity of the homing interaction.

  One of ordinary skill in the art can select any homing moiety based on the desired localization or function of the cell, e.g., an estrogen receptor ligand such as tamoxifen can cause the estrogen receptor to increase the cell on the cell surface. Can be targeted to estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells with body number. Other non-limiting examples of ligand / receptor interactions include CCRI (eg for the treatment of inflamed joint tissue or brain in rheumatoid arthritis and / or multiple sclerosis), CCR7, CCR8 (eg lymph Targeting node tissue), CCR6, CCR9, CCR10 (eg to target intestinal tissue), CCR4, CCR10 (eg to target skin), CXCR4 (eg generally enhanced play) HCELL (eg for the treatment of inflammation and inflammatory disorders, bone marrow), α4β7 (eg for targeting intestinal mucosa), VLA-4 / VCAM-1 (eg targeting endothelium) Is mentioned. In general, any receptor involved in targeting (eg, cancer metastasis) can be utilized in the applications of the methods and compositions described herein.

Cell lineage regulation Methods are provided for inducing changes in cell fate in target mammalian cells. The target mammalian cell may be a progenitor cell and the change may involve driving differentiation into the lineage or blocking such differentiation. Alternatively, the target mammalian cell may be a differentiated cell, and cell fate changes may promote such dedifferentiation, such as driving dedifferentiation into pluripotent precursor cells, or dedifferentiation of cancer cells into cancer stem cells. Including blocking differentiation. In situations where a change in cell fate is desired, an effective amount of mRNA encoding a cell fate-inducing polypeptide is introduced into the target cell under conditions such that the change in cell fate is induced. In some embodiments, the modified mRNA is useful for reprogramming a subpopulation of cells from a first phenotype to a second phenotype. Such reprogramming may be temporary or permanent. Optionally, reprogramming induces target cells to assume an intermediate phenotype.

  In addition, the methods of the present invention provide for high efficiency transfection, the ability to re-transfect cells, and the appropriateness of the amount of recombinant polypeptide produced in the target cell, resulting in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Is particularly useful for generating Furthermore, the use of iPS cells generated using the methods described herein is expected to have a reduced incidence of teratoma formation.

  Also provided are methods for reducing cell differentiation in a target cell population. For example, a target cell population containing one or more precursor cell types under conditions such that the polypeptide is translated and reduces precursor cell differentiation, an effective amount of a polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide, Contacting the primary construct and the composition with mmRNA. In a non-limiting embodiment, the target cell population comprises damaged tissue or tissue that has undergone surgical treatment in a mammalian subject. The precursor cells are, for example, stromal precursor cells, neural precursor cells, or mesenchymal precursor cells.

  In a specific embodiment, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encoding one or more differentiation factors Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx4 is provided. These mRNA generating factors are introduced into fibroblasts, driving reprogramming into cardiomyocytes. Such reprogramming can be performed in vivo by contacting mRNA-containing patches or other materials with damaged heart tissue to facilitate cardiac redifferentiation. Such a process promotes cardiomyocyte development as opposed to fibrosis.

Mediating Cell Death In one embodiment, a polynucleotide (eg, primary construct or mmRNA composition) is used to increase the expression of a cell death receptor, a cell death receptor ligand, or a combination thereof, thereby increasing the expression of a cell (eg, Apoptosis in cancer cells). This method can be used to induce cell death in any desired cell and has particular utility in the treatment of cancer in which the cells escape natural apoptotic signals.

  Apoptosis converges in response to a final effector mechanism consisting of multiple interactions between several “cell death receptors” and their ligands belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor / ligand superfamily Can be induced by these independent signaling pathways. The best characterized cell death receptors are CD95 (“Fas”), TNFRI (p55), cell death receptor 3 (DR3 or Apo3 / TRAMO), DR4, and DR5 (Apo2-TRAIL-R2) ). The final effector mechanism of apoptosis can be the activation of a series of proteinases designed as caspases. Activation of these caspases results in a series of vital cell proteins and cell death. The molecular mechanism of cell death receptor / ligand-induced apoptosis is well known in the art. For example, Fas / FasL-mediated apoptosis is induced by the binding of three FasL molecules that induce trimerization of the Fas receptor via the C-terminal death domain (DD), which in turn is the adapter protein FADD (death Mobilize Fas-related protein with domain) and caspase-8. Oligomer formation of this trimolecular complex, Fas / FAIDD / caspase 8, results in proteolytic cleavage of the enzyme precursor caspase 8 to active caspase 8, which in turn is downstream of other caspases 3 containing proteolysis. By activating caspases, the apoptotic process is initiated. Death ligands are generally apoptotic when formed within a trimer or higher order structure. With respect to monomers, they can serve as anti-apoptotic agents by competing with trimers for binding to cell death receptors.

In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA composition encodes a cell death receptor (eg, Fas, TRAIL, TRAMO, TNFR, TLR, etc.). By transfection of polynucleotides, primary constructs, and mmRNA, cells made to express a cell death receptor are susceptible to cell death induced by ligands that activate the receptor. Similarly, for example, a cell made to express a death ligand on its surface induces cell death at the receptor when the transfected cell is contacted with a target cell. In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA composition encode a death receptor ligand (eg, FasL, TNF, etc.). In another embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA composition encode a caspase (eg, caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, etc.). In cases where cancer cells often show failure to properly differentiate into a non-proliferative or controlled proliferative form, in another embodiment, the synthetic polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA composition comprise the cell death receptor and its Encodes both appropriate activating ligands. In another embodiment, the synthetic polynucleotide, primary construct, and mmRNA composition, when expressed in a cancer cell, such as a cancer stem cell, renders the cell non-pathogenic or non-self-regenerating phenotype (eg, reduced cell growth rate, or induced to differentiate into reduced cell division, etc.), or the cells dormant cell stage (e.g., encodes a differentiation factor that induces in G 0 telogen).

  For those skilled in the art, the use of apoptosis inducing techniques may require that the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA be appropriately targeted to, for example, tumor cells, so as to prevent unwanted widespread cell death. I understand that. Thus, delivery mechanisms that recognize cancer antigens (eg, binding ligands or antibodies that target liposomes etc.) can be used so that the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is expressed only in cancer cells.

Cosmetic Use In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, and / or mmRNA can be used for the treatment, amelioration, or prevention of a cosmetic condition. Such conditions include pressure ulcers, rosacea, scars, hemorrhoids, eczema, shingles, psoriasis, age-related stains, nevus, dry skin, octopus, rashes (eg, diaper rash, rashes), scabies, itch Measles, warts, insect bites, vitiligo, dandruff, freckles, and general signs of aging.

VI. Kits and Device Kits The present invention provides a variety of kits for conveniently and / or effectively performing the methods of the present invention. Typically, the kit is an amount and / or number of components sufficient to allow the user to perform multiple treatment (s) and / or perform multiple experiments on the subject. including.

  In one aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising a molecule of the invention (polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA). In one embodiment, the kit includes one or more functional antibodies or functional fragments thereof.

  The kit can be for protein production, including a first polynucleotide comprising a translatable region, a primary construct, or mmRNA. The kit may further comprise packaging and instructions for forming a pharmaceutical composition and / or a delivery agent. The delivery agent may include saline, buffer, lipidoid, or any delivery agent disclosed herein.

  In one embodiment, the buffer may include sodium chloride, calcium chloride, phosphate, and / or EDTA. In another embodiment, the buffer is saline, saline containing 2 mM calcium, 5% sucrose, 5% sucrose containing 2 mM calcium, 5% mannitol, 5% mannitol containing 2 mM calcium, Ringer Lactate, sodium chloride, sodium chloride containing 2 mM calcium and mannose, including but not limited to (see, eg, US Publication No. 20120258046, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). In further embodiments, the buffer may be precipitated or lyophilized. The amount of each component can be varied to allow for a consistent, reproducible high concentration saline or simple buffer formulation. The components can also be altered to increase the stability of the modified RNA over a period of time and / or in a buffer under a variety of conditions. In one aspect, the invention provides a polynucleotide comprising a translatable region that is provided in an amount effective to produce a protein encoded by the desired amount of translatable region when introduced into a target cell, A protein comprising a primary construct, or mRNA, a second polynucleotide comprising an inhibitory nucleic acid, provided in an amount effective to substantially inhibit a cell's innate immune response, and packaging and instructions. A kit for production is provided.

  In one aspect, the invention provides for production of a protein comprising a polynucleotide comprising a translatable region, a primary construct, or mmRNA, wherein the polynucleotide exhibits reduced degradation by a cellular nuclease, and packaging and instructions. Provide kit.

  In one aspect, the present invention is suitable for translating a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA comprising a translatable region and a translatable region of a first nucleic acid, wherein the polynucleotide exhibits reduced degradation by a cellular nuclease. A kit for protein production comprising a mammalian cell is provided.

  In one embodiment, protein C levels can be measured by immunoassay. The assay may be purchased and can be purchased from BioMerieux, Inc. (Durham, NC), Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL), Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc. (Malvern, PA), BIOPORTO (R) Diagnostics A / S (Gentofte, Denmark), USCN (R) Life Science Inc. (Houston, TX), or any number of sources, including Roche Diagnostics Corporation (Indianapolis, IN). In this embodiment, the assay can be used as a modified mRNA molecule or in response to its administration to assess the level of protein C or an active or variant thereof delivered.

Device The present invention provides a device that can incorporate a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA encoding a polypeptide of interest. These devices contain reagents for synthesizing polynucleotides in formulations that can be immediately delivered to a subject in need thereof, such as a human patient, in a stable formulation. Non-limiting examples of such polypeptides of interest include growth factors and / or angiogenesis stimulating factors for wound healing, peptide antibacterial agents to facilitate infection control, and newly identified Antigens for rapidly stimulating the immune response against the virus.

  Devices can also be used with the present invention. In one embodiment, the device is used to assess the level of protein administered in the form of modified mRNA. The device may include blood, urine, or other biofluidic tests. It can be a large or small decentralized tabletop device that includes an automated central lab platform. It can be a point of care or handheld device. In this embodiment, for example, protein C or APC can be quantified before, during, or after treatment with a modified mRNA that encodes protein C (its zymogen), APC, or any variant thereof. . Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a serogen protease zymogen or precursor that plays an important role in the control of blood coagulation and the generation of fibrinolytic activity in vivo. It is synthesized in the liver as a single-chain polypeptide, but undergoes post-translational processing that yields a double-stranded intermediate. Its intermediate form of protein C is converted from the amino terminus of the heavy chain to the active form known as “activated protein C” (APC) via thrombin-mediated cleavage of the 12 residue peptide from the amino terminus of the molecule. . The device may be useful in drug discovery efforts as a companion diagnostic test associated with protein C or APC therapy such as sepsis or severe sepsis. Early studies suggested that APC had the ability to reduce mortality in severe sepsis. Following this research line, clinical studies led to FDA approval of one compound, activated drotrecogin alpha (recombinant protein C). However, at the end of 2011, following the results of the PROWESS-SHOCK trial, which showed that it did not meet the primary endpoint of a statistically significant reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality in patients with septic shock, This drug was recovered from all markets. The present invention provides modified mRNA molecules that can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis, severe sepsis, and septicemia that overcome the previous challenges or problems associated with increased protein expression efficiency in mammals.

  In some embodiments, the device is self-contained and optionally capable of wireless telecommunications to obtain instructions for synthesis and / or analysis of the generated polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. is there. The device is capable of mobile synthesis of at least one polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA, and preferably unlimited different polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mmRNA. In certain embodiments, the device can be transported by one or a few individuals. In other embodiments, the device is adjusted to fit a tabletop or desk. In other embodiments, the device is adjusted to fit in a suitcase, backpack, or similar sized object. In another embodiment, the device may be a point of care or handheld device. In a further embodiment, the device is adjusted to fit in a car such as a passenger car, transporter or ambulance, or a military vehicle such as a tank or troop transport. The information necessary to generate the modified mRNA encoding the polypeptide of interest is present in a computer readable medium present on the device.

  In one embodiment, the device can be used to assess the level of protein administered in the form of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. The device may include blood, urine, or other biofluidic tests.

  In some embodiments, the device is capable of communication (eg, wireless communication) using a database of nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences. The device includes at least one sample block for inserting one or more sample containers. Such sample containers can accept liquids or other forms of any number of materials such as template DNA, nucleotides, enzymes, buffers, and other reagents. The sample container can also be heated or cooled by contact with the sample block. The sample block is generally in communication with a device base having one or more electronic controllers for at least one sample block. The sample block preferably includes a heating module, which is a heating module that is capable of heating and / or cooling the sample container and its components to a temperature above about −20 ° C. to + 100 ° C. The device base is in communication with a voltage source, such as a battery or an external voltage source. The device also includes means for storing and dispensing materials for RNA synthesis.

  Optionally, the sample block includes a module for separating the synthesized nucleic acids. Alternatively, the device includes a separation module operably coupled to the sample block. Preferably, the device includes a means for analyzing the synthesized nucleic acid. Such analyzes include sequence identity (as demonstrated by hybridization, etc.), absence of unwanted sequences, integrity measurements of synthesized mRNA (such as by microfluidic viscosity measurements combined with spectrophotometry). As well as the concentration and / or potency (such as by spectrophotometry) of the modified RNA.

  In certain embodiments, the device is combined with a means for detection of pathogens present in biological material obtained from a subject, such as the IBIS PLEX-ID system for microbial identification (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL). It is done.

  Devices suitable for use in intradermal delivery of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein include US Pat. No. 4,886,499, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. No. 5,190,521, No. 5,328,483, No. 5,527,288, No. 4,270,537, No. 5,015,235, No. 5, 141, 496 and 5,417, 662 and the like. The intradermal composition limits the effective penetration length of the needle into the skin, such as the device described in PCT Publication No. WO 99/34850 and its functional equivalents, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Can be administered by device. A jet injection device that delivers a liquid composition to the dermis via a liquid jet injector and / or via a needle that punctures the stratum corneum and produces a jet that reaches the dermis is preferred. Jet injection devices are described, for example, in US Pat. Nos. 5,480,381, 5,599,302, 5,334,144, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 5,993,412, 5,649,912, 5,569,189, 5,704,911, 5,383,851, 893,397, 5,466,220, 5,339,163, 5,312,335, 5,503,627, 5,064,413, No. 5,520,639, No. 4,596,556, No. 4,790,824, No. 4,941,880, No. 4,940,460, and PCT Publication No. WO 97 / 37705 and WO97 / 13537 It is. Ballistic powder / particle delivery devices that use compressed gas to accelerate the vaccine in powder form and reach the dermis through the outer skin layer are preferred. Alternatively, or in addition, a conventional syringe can be used with the classic mantoo method of intradermal administration.

  In some embodiments, the device may be a pump or comprise a catheter for administration of a compound or composition of the invention across the blood brain barrier. Such devices include, but are not limited to, pressurized olfactory delivery devices, iontophoresis devices, multilayer microfluidic devices, and the like. Such a device may be portable or stationary. They may be implantable in the body or anchored externally to the body, or a combination thereof.

  An administration device may be used to deliver a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention according to a single, multiple, or divided dosing regime taught in the present invention. Such devices are described below.

  Methods and devices known in the art for multiple administrations to cells, organs, and tissues are contemplated for use with the methods and compositions disclosed herein as embodiments of the present invention. The These include, for example, methods and devices having hybrid devices that use multiple needles, such as lumens or catheters, and devices that utilize heat, current, or radiation drive mechanisms.

  In accordance with the present invention, these multiple dose devices may be utilized to deliver single doses, multiple doses, or divided doses as contemplated herein.

  Methods for delivering therapeutic agents to solid tissue are described by Bahrami et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20110230839, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Bahrami, a series of needles are incorporated into the device to deliver substantially the same amount of fluid at any point within the solid tissue along the length of each needle.

  A device for delivering biological material across biological tissue has been described by Kodgule et al., E.g., taught in U.S. Patent Publication No. 20110172610, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated. According to Kodgule, a plurality of hollow microneedles made from one or more metals and having an outer diameter of about 200 microns to about 350 microns and a length of at least 100 microns are incorporated into the device, and peptides, proteins, Deliver carbohydrates, nucleic acid molecules, lipids, and other pharmaceutically active ingredients or combinations thereof.

  Delivery probes for delivery of therapeutic agents to tissues are described by Gunday et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 201110270184, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. . According to Gunday, multiple needles are incorporated into the device, and the device moves the attached capsule between the activated and inactivated positions and forces the drug out of the capsule through the needle.

  Multi-injection medical devices are described by Assaf and are taught, for example, in US Patent Publication No. 20110218497, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Assaf, a plurality of needles are incorporated into the device, the device comprising a chamber connected to one or more of the needles and means for continuously replenishing the chamber with medical fluid after each infusion. Have.

  In one embodiment, the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly via at least three needles, simultaneously or within 60 minutes, to three different, optionally adjacent sites (eg, Administration to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 sites simultaneously, or within 60). Divided doses can be administered simultaneously to adjacent tissue using the devices described in US Patent Publication Nos. 20110230839 and 20110218497, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  An at least partially implantable system for injecting a substance into a patient's body, specifically a penile erection stimulation system, has been described by Forsell, e.g., taught in U.S. Patent Publication No. 201110196198. Are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Forsell, multiple needles are incorporated into the device, and the device is implanted with one or more housings adjacent to the patient's left and right clitoral corpus cavernosum. A reservoir and pump are also implanted to deliver the drug through the needle.

  Methods for transdermal delivery of therapeutically effective amounts of iron have been described by Berenson, for example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20100130910, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It is. According to Berenson, multiple needles can be used to create multiple microchannels in the stratum corneum to enhance transdermal delivery of ionic iron on iontophoretic patches.

  A method for delivery of biological material across biological tissue has been described by Kodgule et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 201110196308, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It is. According to Kodgule, a plurality of biodegradable microneedles containing therapeutically active ingredients are incorporated into the device to deliver proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acid molecules, lipids, and other pharmaceutically active ingredients, or combinations thereof.

  A transdermal patch comprising a botulinum toxin composition has been described by Donovan, for example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 200802220020, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Donovan, multiple needles are incorporated into the patch to deliver botulinum toxin beneath the stratum corneum through the needle protruding through the stratum corneum of the skin without rupturing the blood.

  A small disposable drug reservoir or patch pump that can hold approximately 0.2-15 mL of liquid formulation is placed on the skin and the formulation is continuously subcutaneously using a thin needle (eg, 26-34 gauge). Can be delivered to. As a non-limiting example, a patch pump is a spring-loaded 50 mm × 76 mm × 20 mm with a 30-34 gauge needle (BD ™, Microinfuser, Franklin Lakes NJ), a 2 mL reservoir used for drug delivery such as insulin 41 mm × 62 mm × 17 mm (OMNIPOD®, Insulation Corporation Bedford, Mass.) Or 43-60 mm diameter, 10 mm thickness (PATCHPUMP®, Steady Med Therapeutics, San Francisco, with a 0.5-10 mL reservoir, CA). Further, the patch pump can be battery powered and / or rechargeable.

  A cryoprobe for administration of an active agent to a site of cryotherapy has been described by Toubia, for example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20080140061, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated. According to Toubia, multiple needles are incorporated into the probe, which receives the active agent into the chamber and administers the agent to the tissue.

  Methods for treating or preventing inflammation or promoting healthy joints have been described by Stock et al., E.g., taught in U.S. Patent Publication No. 20090155186, which is incorporated herein by reference. The entirety is incorporated herein. According to Stock, multiple needles are incorporated into a device to administer a composition containing a signaling modulator compound.

  A multi-site infusion system has been described by Kimmell et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20120025659, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Kimmell, multiple needles are incorporated into the device through which the drug is delivered into the stratum corneum.

  A method for delivering interferon to the intradermal compartment has been described by Dekker et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20050181033, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Dekker, multiple needles with outlets with an exposed height of 0-1 mm are incorporated into the device, which delivers the substance at a depth of 0.3 mm-2 mm, thereby allowing pharmacokinetics and Improve bioavailability.

  Methods for delivering genes, enzymes, and biopharmaceuticals to tissue cells are described by Desai, for example, taught in US Patent Publication 20030073908, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated into. According to Desai, multiple needles are incorporated into a device that is inserted into the body to deliver drug fluid through the needles.

  A method for treating arrhythmias using fibroblasts is described by Lee et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20040005295, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It is. According to Lee, multiple needles are incorporated into the device to deliver fibroblasts to a local region of tissue.

  Methods for treating brain tumors using magnetically controlled pumps have been described by Shachar et al., For example, as taught in US Pat. Nos. 7,799,012 (Methods) and 7,7999016 (Devices), and their contents. Are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Shachar, multiple needles are incorporated into the pump, which pushes the drug treatment through the needles at a controlled rate.

  Methods for treating bladder dysfunction in female mammals have been described by Versi et al., For example, as taught in US Pat. No. 8,029,496, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated into. According to Versi, a series of microneedles is incorporated into the device and delivers the therapeutic agent directly through the needle and into the bladder trigone of the bladder.

Microneedle transdermal delivery devices have been described by Angel et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,364,568, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Angel, multiple needles are incorporated into the device, and the device transports material into the body surface through the needles inserted into the surface from different directions. The micro-needle transdermal delivery device may be a solid microneedle system or a hollow microneedle system. As a non-limiting example, a solid microneedle system has a capacity of up to 0.5 mg with 300-1500 solid microneedles per cm 2 at a height of about 150-700 μm coated with drug. Can do. Microneedles penetrate the stratum corneum and remain on the skin for a short duration (eg, 20 seconds to 15 minutes). In another example, a hollow microneedle system delivers a liquid formulation with 15-20 microneedles per cm 2 that has a volume of up to 3 mL and is approximately 950 μm high. The microneedle penetrates the skin and allows the liquid formulation to flow from the device into the skin. The hollow microneedle system can be consumed in 1-30 minutes depending on the formulation volume and viscosity.

  Subcutaneous infusion devices are described by Dalton et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,150,726, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Dalton, multiple needles are incorporated into the device and deliver fluid through the needles to the subcutaneous tissue.

  Devices and methods for intradermal delivery of vaccines and gene therapy agents through microcannulas are described by Mikszta et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,473,247, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference. Are incorporated herein in their entirety. According to Mitszta, at least one hollow microneedle is incorporated into the device and delivers the vaccine to the subject's skin at a depth of 0.025 mm to 2 mm.

  Methods for delivering insulin are described by Pettis et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,722,595, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Pettis, two needles are incorporated into the device, the first needle is less than 2.5 mm deep to deliver insulin to the intradermal compartment, and the second needle delivers insulin to the intradermal compartment Thus, at a depth of more than 2.5 mm and less than 5.0 mm, both needles are inserted into the skin essentially simultaneously.

  Dermal infusion delivery under suction is described by Kochamba et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,896,666, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Kochamba, a plurality of needles relatively adjacent to each other are incorporated into the device to inject fluid under the skin layer.

  A device for removing or delivering material through the skin is described by Down et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,607,513, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Embedded in the book. According to Down, multiple skin permeation members are incorporated into the device, have a length of about 100 microns to about 2000 microns, and are about 30-50 gauge.

  Devices for delivering substances to the skin are described by Palmer et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,537,242, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. . According to Palmer, a series of microneedles is incorporated into the device, using a pull assembly to enhance contact between the needle and the skin, resulting in a more uniform delivery of the substance.

  Perfusion devices for local drug delivery are described by Zamoyski, for example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,468,247, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Zamoski, multiple hypodermic needles are incorporated into a device that injects the contents of the hypodermic syringe into the tissue when the hypodermic syringe is retracted.

  A method for enhanced transport of drugs and biomolecules across tissue by improving the interaction between microneedles and human skin has been described by Prausnitz et al., Eg, US Pat. 743, 211, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Prausnitz, a plurality of microneedles can be incorporated into the device, and the device can exhibit a stronger, less deformable surface on which the microneedles are applied.

  Devices for intra-organ administration of pharmaceutical agents are described by Ting et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,077,251, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It is. According to Ting, a plurality of needles having side openings for augmented administration are incorporated into the device, and the device removes the pharmaceutical agent from the reservoir by extending and retracting the needle from and into the needle chamber. Push into the needle and inject the drug into the target organ.

  Multiple needle holders and subcutaneous multichannel infusion ports have been described by Brown, for example, taught in US Pat. No. 4,695,273, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It is. According to Brown, a plurality of needles on a needle holder are inserted through the septum of an infusion port and communicate with an isolated chamber in the infusion port.

  A double hypodermic syringe is described by Horn, for example, taught in US Pat. No. 3,552,394, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Horn, the two needles incorporated in the device are spaced apart by less than 68 mm and may be of different styles and lengths, thus allowing the injection to be performed at different depths.

  A syringe having a plurality of needles and a plurality of fluid compartments is described by Hershberg, for example, taught in US Pat. No. 3,572,336, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. It is. According to Hershberg, multiple needles can be incorporated into a syringe with multiple fluid compartments to simultaneously administer incompatible drugs that cannot be mixed into a single injection.

  A surgical instrument for intradermal injection of fluid has been described by Elicu et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 2,588,623, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated into. According to Eliscu, multiple needles are incorporated into the device to inject fluid into the skin with a wider dispersion.

  A device for the simultaneous delivery of substances to the ducts in multiple breasts is described by Hung, for example taught in EP 1818017, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated into. According to Hung, multiple lumens are incorporated into the device and inserted through the orifice of the ductal network to deliver fluid to the ductal network.

  A catheter for the introduction of drugs into the tissue of the heart or other organs is described by Tkebuchava, for example, taught in International Publication No. WO200006138109, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated. According to Tkebuchava, two curved needles are incorporated that enter the organ wall in a flat trajectory.

  A device for delivering pharmaceutical agents has been described by Mckay et al., For example, taught in International Publication No. WO2006118804, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Mckay, multiple needles with multiple orifices on each needle are incorporated into the device to facilitate local delivery to tissue such as the internal disc space of the spinal disc.

  A method for delivering an immunomodulator directly into the intradermal space in mammalian skin has been described by Pettis, for example, taught in International Publication No. WO2004020014, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Incorporated in the description. According to Pettis, multiple needles are incorporated into the device and deliver substances through the needles to a depth of 0.3 mm to 2 mm.

  Methods and devices for administering substances into at least two compartments of the skin for systemic absorption and improved pharmacokinetics have been described by Pettis et al., E.g., taught in International Publication No. WO2003094995, The contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Pettis, multiple needles having a length of about 300 μm to about 5 mm are incorporated into the device and delivered simultaneously to the intradermal and subcutaneous tissue compartments.

  A drug delivery device having a needle and roller has been described by Zimmerman et al., For example, taught in International Publication No. WO2012006259, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Zimmerman, a plurality of hollow needles located within a roller are incorporated into the device, and the contents in the reservoir are delivered through the needle as the roller rotates.

  Drug delivery devices such as stents known in the art are taught, for example, in US Pat. No. 8,333,799, US Publication Nos. US20060020329, US20040172127, and US2000161032, each of which The contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. The polynucleotide, primary construct, mmRNA formulations described herein can be delivered using a stent. Further, the stents used herein can deliver multiple polynucleotides, primary constructs, and / or mmRNAs and / or formulations with the same or different delivery rates. Non-limiting examples of stent manufacturers include: CORDIS® (Miami, FL) (CYPHER®), Boston Scientific Corporation (Natick, MA) (TAXUS®), Medtronic (Minneapolis) , MN) (ENDEAVOUR®), and Abbott (Abbott Park, IL) (XIENCE V®).

Methods and devices utilizing catheters and / or lumens Methods and devices using catheters and lumens can be used to administer the mRNA of the invention in single, multiple, or divided dosing schedules. Such methods and devices are described below.

  Catheter-based delivery from skeletal myoblasts to damaged myocardium has been described by Jacoby et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20060263338, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Incorporated in the description. According to Jacobi, a plurality of needles are incorporated into the device, at least a portion of which is inserted into a blood vessel and delivers the cellular composition through the needles to a local region of the subject's heart.

  A device for treating asthma with neurotoxins has been described by Deem et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 200602225742, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. . According to Deem, multiple needles are incorporated into the device through which neurotoxins are delivered into the bronchial tissue.

  Methods for administering multi-component therapies are described by Nayak, for example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,699,803, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Nayak, multiple infusion cannulas may be incorporated into the device and a depth slot for controlling depth may be included, where the therapeutic substance is delivered into the tissue.

  A surgical device for severing a channel and delivering at least one therapeutic agent into a desired region of tissue is described by McIntyre et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 8,012,096, The contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to McIntyre, multiple needles are incorporated into the device, which dispenses therapeutic agents into the area of tissue surrounding the channel and is particularly well suited for transmyocardial revascularization surgery.

  Methods for treating bladder dysfunction in female mammals have been described by Versi et al., For example, as taught in US Pat. No. 8,029,496, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated into. According to Versi, a series of microneedles is incorporated into the device and delivers the therapeutic agent directly through the needle and into the bladder trigone of the bladder.

  Devices and methods for delivering fluid to a flexible biological barrier have been described by Yeshurun et al., For example, US Pat. Nos. 7,998,119 (devices) and 8,007,466 (methods). The contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. According to Yeshurun, the microneedles on the device penetrate and extend into the flexible biological barrier and fluid is injected through the pores of the hollow microneedles.

  Bonner et al. Have described a torso-positioned method for injecting a substance into a region of heart tissue having an epicardial surface and having an epicardium, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 7,628,780, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Bonner, the device has an elongate shaft and a distal injection head for maneuvering a needle into tissue and injecting a pharmaceutical agent through the needle into tissue.

  A device for sealing a puncture wound is described by Nielsen et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,972,358, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Nielsen, multiple needles are incorporated into the device to deliver an occlusive agent into the tissue surrounding the puncture tract.

  Methods for myogenesis and angiogenesis are described by Chiu et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,551,338, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. . According to Chiu, 5-15 needles having a maximum diameter of at least 1.25 mm and a length effective to provide a puncture depth of 6-20 mm are incorporated into the device, inserted near the myocardium, and extrinsic Vascular angiogenesis or myogenic factor is supplied to the myocardium through a conduit in at least a portion of the needle.

  A method for treating prostate tissue has been described by Bolmsj et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,524,270, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Bolmsj, a device that includes a catheter inserted through the urethra has at least one hollow end that is extendable into the surrounding prostate tissue. Astringents and analgesics are administered into the prostate tissue through its ends.

  A method for infusing fluid into an intraosseous site has been described by Findlay et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,761,726, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. . According to Findlay, a plurality of needles capable of penetrating a hard shell of material covered with a layer of soft material are incorporated into the device to deliver fluid at a defined distance down from the hard shell of that material.

  A device for injecting drugs into the vessel wall has been described by Vigil et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 5,713,863, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Incorporated. According to Vigil, multiple injectors are placed on each of the flexible tubes in the device, through the multi-lumen catheter for infusion into the vessel wall and into and out of the flexible tubes. Introduce drug fluid into

  A catheter for delivering therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents to tissue surrounding a body passage is described by Faxon et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 5,464,395, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference. Are incorporated herein in their entirety. According to Faxon, at least one needle cannula is incorporated into the catheter and delivers the desired drug to the tissue through the needle protruding out of the catheter.

  Balloon catheters for delivering therapeutic agents are described by Orr, for example, taught in International Publication No. WO20120024871, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Orr, multiple needles are incorporated into the device to deliver therapeutic agents to different depths in the tissue. In another embodiment, a drug eluting balloon may be used to deliver the formulations described herein. Drug eluting balloons are used in target lesion applications such as, but not limited to, tortuous vessel lesions, bifurcation lesions, femoral / popliteal lesions, and in-stent restenosis to treat lesions under the knee. obtain.

  A device for delivering a therapeutic agent (e.g., polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA) to tissue placed around a lumen has been described by Perry et al., E.g., taught in U.S. Patent Publication No. US20130012239, These contents are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. According to Perry, the catheter has a balloon, which can be coated with a therapeutic agent by methods known in the art and described by Perry. When the balloon is inflated, the therapeutic agent contacts the surrounding tissue. The device may further include a heat source for changing the temperature of the coating on the balloon to release a therapeutic agent to the tissue.

Methods and Devices that Utilize Currents Methods and devices that utilize currents can be used to deliver the mRNA of the present invention in accordance with single, multiple, or divided dosing regimens taught herein. Such methods and devices are described below.

  An electrocollagen-guided therapeutic device is described by Marquez and is taught, for example, in US Patent Publication No. 20090137945, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Marquez, multiple needles are incorporated into the device, repeatedly puncturing the skin and drawing a portion of the material that is initially applied to the skin into the skin portion.

  An electrokinetic system has been described by Etheredge et al., For example, taught in US Patent Publication No. 20070185432, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Etherege, microneedles are incorporated into the device and an electric current drives the drug through the needle to the targeted treatment site.

  An iontophoretic device is described by Matsumura et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,437,189, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Matsumura, multiple needles can be incorporated into the device to deliver the ionizable drug into the body at a faster rate or with higher efficiency.

  Intradermal delivery of bioactive agents by needleless injection and electroporation has been described by Hoffmann et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 7,171,264, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Incorporated herein. According to Hoffmann, one or more needleless injectors are incorporated into the electroporation device, and the combination of needleless injection and electroporation is sufficient to introduce the drug into skin, muscle, or mucosal cells. It is.

  A method for intracellular delivery via electropermeabilization has been described by Lundkvist et al., For example, taught in US Pat. No. 6,625,486, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. The entirety is incorporated herein. According to Lundkvist, a pair of needle electrodes is incorporated into the catheter. The catheter is located within the body lumen followed by the needle electrode for permeation into the tissue surrounding the lumen. The device then introduces a drug through at least one of the needle electrodes and applies an electric field at the needle electrode, allowing the drug to pass through the cell membrane and into the cells at the treatment site.

  A delivery system for transcutaneous immunization has been described by Levin et al., For example, taught in International Publication No. WO2006003659, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Levin, multiple electrodes are incorporated into the device and electrical energy is applied between the electrodes, creating microchannels in the skin to facilitate transdermal delivery.

  A method for delivering RF energy into the skin has been described by Schomacker, e.g. taught in International Publication No. WO2011163264, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. According to Schomacker, multiple needles are incorporated into the device, and the needles are depressurized to induce contact with the plate so that RF energy is inserted into the skin through the hole on the plate and delivered.

VII. Definitions At various places in the present specification, substituents of compounds of the present disclosure are disclosed in groups or in ranges. This disclosure is specifically intended to include any and all individual subcombinations of members of such groups and ranges. For example, the term “C 1-6 alkyl” is specifically intended to individually disclose methyl, ethyl, C 3 alkyl, C 4 alkyl, C 5 alkyl, and C 6 alkyl.

  About: As used herein, the term “about” means +/− 10% of the recited value.

  Administered in combination: As used herein, the terms “administered in combination” or “administered in combination” refer to two or more drugs, or the effect of each drug on the patient, overlapping It is meant to be administered to a subject within some interval. In some embodiments, they are administered within about 60, 30, 15, 10, 5, or 1 minute of each other. In some embodiments, administration of the agents is spaced sufficiently close to each other so that a combined (eg, synergistic) effect is achieved.

  Animal: As used herein, the term “animal” refers to any member of the animal kingdom. In some embodiments, “animal” refers to a human at any stage of development. In some embodiments, “animal” refers to a non-human animal in any stage of development. In certain embodiments, the non-human animal is a mammal (eg, a rodent, mouse, rat, rabbit, monkey, dog, cat, sheep, cow, primate, or pig). In some embodiments, animals include, but are not limited to, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and helminths. In some embodiments, the animal is a transgenic animal, a genetically engineered animal, or a clone.

  Antigen of interest or desired antigen: As used herein, the term “antigen of interest” or “desired antigen” refers to the antibodies described herein, as well as fragments, variants, It includes proteins and other biomolecules provided herein that are immunospecifically bound by variants and variants. Examples of antigens of interest include insulin, insulin-like growth factor, hGH, tPA, interleukin (IL), eg IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) such as interferon (IFN) α, IFNβ, IFNγ, IFNω, or IFNτ, TNFα and TNFβ, TNFγ, TRAIL; G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF, MCP-1, and VEGF, etc. However, it is not limited to these.

  Approximate: As used herein, the term “approximately” or “about” as applied to one or more values of interest refers to a value that is similar to a defined reference value. In certain embodiments, the term “approximately” or “about” is defined separately, or unless specified otherwise from context, in either direction of the defined reference value (greater than or less than that). 25%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 11%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6% Refers to a range of values falling within 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, or less (unless such numbers exceed 100% of possible values).

  Associated with: As used herein, when used with respect to two or more moieties, “associated with”, “complexed”, “linked”, “coupled” And the term “tethered” are either directly or via one or more additional moieties that serve as linking agents, where the moieties are physically associated or bound to each other. It is meant that the part forms a structure that is sufficiently stable to remain physically associated under the conditions in which the structure is used, eg, physiological conditions. “Meetings” do not have to go through a strictly direct covalent chemical bond. It may also indicate sufficiently stable ionic or hydrogen bonding or hybridization-based binding properties so that the “associated” entity remains physically associated.

  Bifunctional: As used herein, the term “bifunctional” refers to any substance, molecule, or moiety that is capable of maintaining at least two functions. This function may achieve the same result or different results. The structure that provides this function may be the same or different. For example, a bifunctional modified RNA of the present invention can encode a cytotoxic peptide (first function), while a nucleoside comprising a coding RNA is itself cytotoxic (second function). is there. In this example, delivery of the bifunctional modified RNA to cancer cells not only results in a peptide or protein molecule that can ameliorate or treat the cancer, but in the unlikely event that degradation occurs instead of translation of the modified RNA. Would deliver the cytotoxic payload of the nucleoside to the cell.

  Biocompatibility: As used herein, the term “biocompatibility” refers to a living cell, tissue, organ, or system with little or no risk of injury, toxicity, or rejection by the immune system. And is compatible.

  Biodegradable: As used herein, the term “biodegradable” means capable of being broken down into harmless products by the action of living beings.

  Biologically active: As used herein, the expression “biologically active” refers to the characteristics of any substance that is active in biological systems and / or organisms. For example, a substance that has a biological effect on an organism when administered to the organism is considered biologically active. In certain embodiments, a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention is biologically active or biologically relevant, even a small portion of the polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA. If it mimics the activity considered to be, it can be considered biologically active.

  Chemical terms: The following provides definitions of various chemical terms from “acyl” to “thiol”.

  As used herein, the term “acyl” refers to a hydrogen or alkyl group, as defined herein, (eg, a hydrogen or alkyl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through a carbonyl group, as defined herein. Haloalkyl group) and is exemplified by formyl (ie, carboxaldehyde group), acetyl, propionyl, butanoyl and the like. Exemplary unsubstituted acyl groups contain 1-7, 1-11, or 1-21 carbons. In some embodiments, the alkyl group is further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

As used herein, the term “acylamino” refers to an acyl group, as defined herein, that is attached to the parent molecular group through an amino group, as defined herein (ie, -N (R N1 ) -C (O) -R, wherein R is H or an optionally substituted C 1-6 , C 1-10 , or C 1-20 alkyl group. And R N1 is as defined herein). Exemplary unsubstituted acylamino groups have 1 to 41 carbons (eg, 1 to 7, 1 to 13, 1 to 21, 2 to 7, 2 to 13, 2 to 21, or 2 to 41 carbons). Including. In some embodiments, the alkyl group is further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein, and / or the amino group is —NH 2 or —NHR N1 . Wherein R N1 is independently OH, NO 2 , NH 2 , NR N2 2 , SO 2 OR N 2 , SO 2 R N 2 , SOR N 2 , alkyl, or aryl, and each R N2 is H , Alkyl, or aryl.

As used herein, the term “acyloxy” refers to an acyl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through an oxygen atom (ie, —O—C (O)). -R, wherein R is H or an optionally substituted C 1-6 , C 1-10 , or C 1-20 alkyl group. Exemplary unsubstituted acyloxy groups contain 1 to 21 carbons (eg, 1 to 7 or 1 to 11 carbons). In some embodiments, the alkyl group is further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein, and / or the amino group is —NH 2 or —NHR N1 . Wherein R N1 is independently OH, NO 2 , NH 2 , NR N2 2 , SO 2 OR N 2 , SO 2 R N 2 , SOR N 2 , alkyl, or aryl, and each R N2 is H , Alkyl, or aryl.

As used herein, the term “alkaryl” refers to an aryl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through an alkylene group, as defined herein. Represent. Exemplary unsubstituted alkaryl groups are from 7 to 30 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, C 1-10 alk-C 6-10 aryl, or C 1-20 alk-C 7-16 or 7-20 carbons, such as 6-10 aryl). In some embodiments, the alkylene and aryl can each be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined herein for the respective group. Other groups following the prefix “alk-” are defined in the same way, where “alk” refers to C 1-6 alkylene unless otherwise noted, and the chemical structure attached is as defined herein. As defined in

  The term “alkcycloalkyl” is defined as an alkylene group as defined herein (eg, an alkylene group of 1 to 4, 1 to 6, 1 to 10, or 1 to 20 carbons). Represents a cycloalkyl group as defined herein attached to a parent molecular group. In some embodiments, each alkylene and cycloalkyl can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined herein for the respective group.

  As used herein, the term “alkenyl”, unless otherwise specified, contains 2 to 20 carbons (eg, 2-6 or 2 to 2) containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. 10 carbon), a monovalent straight or branched chain group, exemplified by ethenyl, 1-propenyl, 2-propenyl, 2-methyl-1-propenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, etc. . Alkenyl includes both cis and trans isomers. An alkenyl group is 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents independently selected from amino, aryl, cycloalkyl, or heterocyclyl (eg, heteroaryl) as defined herein, or Optionally substituted with any of the exemplary alkyl substituents described in.

The term “alkenyloxy” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —OR, wherein R is a C 2-20 alkenyl group (eg, C 2-6 or C 2-10 alkenyl) unless otherwise specified. is there. Exemplary alkenyloxy groups include ethenyloxy, propenyloxy, and the like. In some embodiments, the alkenyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents (eg, hydroxy groups) as defined herein.

The term “alkheteroaryl” refers to a heteroaryl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular group through an alkylene group, as defined herein. Exemplary unsubstituted alkheteroaryl groups are 2 to 32 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alk-C 1-12 heteroaryl, C 1-10 alk-C 1-12 heteroaryl, or C 1-20 Arc -C 1-12 heteroaryl such as 2~22,2~18,2~17,2~16,3~15,2~14,2~13, or 2 to 12 carbons). In some embodiments, the alkylene and heteroaryl can each be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined herein for the respective group. An alkheteroaryl group is a subset of an alkheterocyclyl group.

The term “alkheterocyclyl” represents a heterocyclyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular group through an alkylene group, as defined herein. Exemplary unsubstituted alkheterocyclyl groups have 2 to 32 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alk-C 1-12 heterocyclyl, C 1-10 alk-C 1-12 heterocyclyl, or C 1-20 alk-C 2-12, 2-18, 2-17, 2-16, 3-15, 2-14, 2-13, or 2-12 carbons, such as 1-12 heterocyclyl). In some embodiments, the alkylene and heterocyclyl can each be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined herein for the respective group.

The term “alkoxy” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —OR, where R is a C 1-20 alkyl group (eg, C 1-6 or C 1-10 alkyl) unless otherwise specified. . Exemplary alkoxy groups include methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy (eg, n-propoxy and isopropoxy), t-butoxy and the like. In some embodiments, the alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein (eg, hydroxy or alkoxy).

The term “alkoxyalkoxy” represents an alkoxy group substituted with an alkoxy group. Exemplary unsubstituted alkoxyalkoxy groups are 2-40 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alkoxy-C 1-6 alkoxy, C 1-10 alkoxy-C 1-10 alkoxy, or C 1-20 alkoxy-C 2-12 or 2-20 carbons, such as 1-20 alkoxy). In some embodiments, each alkoxy group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

The term “alkoxyalkyl” refers to an alkyl group substituted with an alkoxy group. Exemplary unsubstituted alkoxyalkyl groups are 2 to 40 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alkoxy-C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-10 alkoxy-C 1-10 alkyl, or C 1-20 alkoxy-C 2-12 or 2-20 carbons, such as 1-20 alkyl). In some embodiments, the alkyl and alkoxy can each be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined herein for the respective group.

As used herein, the term “alkoxycarbonyl” represents an alkoxy as defined herein attached to the parent molecular group through a carbonyl atom (eg, —C (O) —OR). Where R is H or an optionally substituted C 1-6 , C 1-10 , or C 1-20 alkyl group. Exemplary unsubstituted alkoxycarbonyl contains 1 to 21 carbons (eg, 1 to 11 or 1 to 7 carbons). In some embodiments, the alkoxy group is further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

As used herein, the term “alkoxycarbonylalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, substituted with an alkoxycarbonyl group, as defined herein (eg, —O— Alkyl-C (O) -OR, wherein R is an optionally substituted C 1-6 , C 1-10 , or C 1-20 alkyl group). Exemplary unsubstituted alkoxycarbonylalkoxy is 3 to 41 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alkoxycarbonyl-C 1-6 alkoxy, C 1-10 alkoxycarbonyl-C 1-10 alkoxy, or C 1-20 alkoxy such as carbonyl -C 1-20 alkoxy, including 3~10,3~13,3~17,3~21 or 3-31 carbons). In some embodiments, each alkoxy group is independently further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents (eg, hydroxy groups) as described herein.

As used herein, the term “alkoxycarbonylalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, substituted with an alkoxycarbonyl group, as defined herein (eg, -alkyl- C (O) —OR where R is an optionally substituted C 1-20 , C 1-10 , or C 1-6 alkyl group. Exemplary unsubstituted alkoxycarbonylalkyl is 3 to 41 carbons (eg, C 1-6 alkoxycarbonyl-C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-10 alkoxycarbonyl-C 1-10 alkyl, or C 1-20 alkoxy carbonyl -C 1-20 alkyl, etc. including a 3~10,3~13,3~17,3~21 or 3-31 carbons). In some embodiments, each alkyl and alkoxy group is independently further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents (eg, hydroxy groups) as described herein.

As used herein, the term “alkyl” refers to saturated groups of both 1-20 (eg, 1-10 or 1-6) carbon straight and branched chain, unless otherwise specified. Including. Alkyl groups are illustrated by way of example by methyl, ethyl, n- and iso-propyl, n-, sec-, iso-, and tert-butyl, neopentyl, etc., and are independently selected from the group consisting of: May be optionally substituted with 1, 2, 3 substituents, or in the case of alkyl groups of 2 or more carbons with 4 substituents: (1) C 1-6 alkoxy; (2 ) C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl; (3) amino as defined herein (eg, unsubstituted amino (ie, —NH 2 ) or substituted amino (ie, —N (R N1 ) 2 ), wherein R N1 is as defined for amino); (4) C 6-10 aryl-C 1-6 alkoxy; (5) azide; (6) halo; (7) (C 2-9 heterocyclyl) oxy; (8) Hydroxy; (9 Nitro; (10) oxo (e.g., carboxaldehyde, or an acyl); (11) C 1-7 spirocyclyl; (12) thioalkoxy; (13) thiol; (14) -CO 2 R A '( wherein, R A ' Is (a) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl), (b) C 2-20 alkenyl (eg, C 2-6 alkenyl), (c) C 6-10 aryl, (d ) hydrogen, (e) C 1-6 alk -C 6-10 aryl, (f) amino -C 1-20 alkyl, (g) - (CH 2 ) s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ′ polyethylene glycol (wherein s1 is an integer of 1 to 10 (eg, 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg, 0 to 4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6 Is an integer of 1 to 10), R 'is H or C 1-20 alkyl), and (h) -NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2) s3 NR N1 amino-polyethylene glycol (wherein s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4) and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg C 1-6 is an integer from 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10) and each R N1 is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted (Selected from the group consisting of alkyl)); (15) —C (O) NR B ′ R C ′ wherein each of R B ′ and R C ′ is independently (a) hydrogen , (B) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 (Selected from the group consisting of aryl); (16) —SO 2 R D ′ where R D ′ is (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, (c) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl and (d) selected from the group consisting of hydroxy); (17) —SO 2 NR E ′ R F ′ wherein R E ′ and R F ′ each Are independently selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl. (18) -C (O) R G ′ (wherein R G ′ is (a) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl), (b) C 2-20 alkenyl ( For example, C 2-6 alkenyl), (c) C 6-10 aryl, (d) hydrogen, (e) C 1-6 alk -C 6-10 A Lumpur, (f) amino -C 1-20 alkyl, (g) - (CH 2 ) in polyethylene glycol (equation s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ', s1 is 1 to 10 (For example, 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (for example, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1-10), R ′ is H or C 1-20 alkyl), and (h) —NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2 ) s3 NR N1 amino-polyethylene glycol (wherein s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4) and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg 0 ~ 4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10) Each R N1 is independently hydrogen or is optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl)); (19) -NR H ′ C (O) R I ′ (wherein R H ′ is selected from the group consisting of (a1) hydrogen and (b1) C 1-6 alkyl, and R I ′ is (a2) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1- 6 alkyl), (b2) C 2-20 alkenyl (eg, C 2-6 alkenyl), (c2) C 6-10 aryl, (d2) hydrogen, (e2) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl , (f2) amino -C 1-20 alkyl, (g2) - (CH 2 ) in polyethylene glycol (equation s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ', s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g. , 1-6 or 1-4), each of s2 and s3 Is independently 0-10 (e.g., 0~4,0~6,1~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer of, R 'is H or C 1-20 alkyl And (h2) -NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2 ) s3 NR N1 amino-polyethylene glycol wherein s1 is 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10). And each R N1 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen or optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl); (20) —NR J ′ C ( O) oR K '(wherein, R J' is, (a1) from the group consisting of hydrogen and (b1) C 1-6 alkyl Is-option, R K 'is, (a2) C 1-20 alkyl (e.g., C 1-6 alkyl), (b2) C 2-20 alkenyl (e.g., C 2-6 alkenyl), (c2) C 6- 10 aryl, (d2) hydrogen, (e2) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, (f2) amino-C 1-20 alkyl, (g2)-(CH 2 ) s2 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) s1 (CH 2 ) s3 OR ′ polyethylene glycol (wherein s1 is an integer of 1 to 10 (eg, 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10) (e.g., 0~4,0~6,1~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer of, R 'is H or C 1-20 alkyl), and (h2) -NR N1 (CH 2) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2) s 3 NR N1 amino-polyethylene glycol wherein s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4) and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg , 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10), each R N1 is independently hydrogen or optionally substituted C 1- Selected from the group consisting of 6 alkyl)); and (21) amidine. In some embodiments, each of these groups can be further substituted as described herein. For example, the alkylene group of C 1 -alkaryl can be further substituted with an oxo group, resulting in the respective aryloyl substituent.

As used herein, the terms “alkylene” and the prefix “alk-” refer to a saturated divalent hydrocarbon group derived from a straight or branched chain saturated hydrocarbon by the removal of two hydrogen atoms. And is exemplified by methylene, ethylene, isopropylene, and the like. The terms “C xy alkylene” and the prefix “C xy alk-” represent alkylene groups having x to y carbons. Exemplary values for x are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; exemplary values for y are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 , 16, 18, or 20 (eg, C 1-6 , C 1-10 , C 2-20 , C 2-6 , C 2-10 , or C 2-20 alkylene). In some embodiments, the alkylene can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein for an alkyl group.

  As used herein, the term “alkylsulfinyl” refers to an alkyl group attached to the parent molecular group through an —S (O) — group. Exemplary unsubstituted alkylsulfinyl groups are 1-6, 1-10, or 1-20 carbons. In some embodiments, the alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  As used herein, the term “alkylsulfinylalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, substituted with an alkylsulfinyl group. Exemplary unsubstituted alkylsulfinylalkyl groups are 2-12, 2-20, or 2-40 carbons. In some embodiments, each alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  As used herein, the term “alkynyl” refers to 2 to 20 carbon atoms (eg, 2 to 4, 2 to 6, or 2 to 10 carbons) containing a carbon-carbon triple bond. ) In the form of monovalent straight chain or branched groups, and is exemplified by ethynyl, 1-propynyl and the like. An alkynyl group is 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents independently selected from aryl, cycloalkyl, or heterocyclyl (eg, heteroaryl) as defined herein, or as described herein Optionally substituted with any of the following exemplary alkyl substituents.

The term “alkynyloxy” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —OR, wherein R is a C 2-20 alkynyl group (eg, C 2-6 or C 2-10 alkynyl) unless otherwise specified. is there. Exemplary alkynyloxy groups include ethynyloxy, propynyloxy, and the like. In some embodiments, the alkynyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein (eg, hydroxy groups).

As used herein, the term “amidine” refers to the group —C (═NH) NH 2 .

As used herein, the term “amino” refers to —N (R N1 ) 2 wherein each R N1 is independently H, OH, NO 2 , N (R N2 ). 2 , SO 2 OR N 2 , SO 2 R N 2 , SOR N 2 , N-protecting group, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy, aryl, alkaryl, cycloalkyl, alkcycloalkyl, carboxyalkyl, sulfoalkyl, heterocyclyl (eg, Heteroaryl), or alkheterocyclyl (eg, alkheteroaryl), each of these listed R N1 groups may be optionally substituted as defined herein for each group, or 2 One of R N1 combine to form a heterocyclyl or N-protecting group, each R N2 are, independently, H, alkyl, The other is an aryl. An amino group of the invention can be unsubstituted amino (ie, —NH 2 ) or substituted amino (ie, —N (R N1 ) 2 ). In preferred embodiments, the amino is —NH 2 or —NHR N1 , wherein R N1 is independently OH, NO 2 , NH 2 , NR N2 2 , SO 2 OR N 2 , SO 2 R N2. , SOR N2 , alkyl, carboxyalkyl, sulfoalkyl, or aryl, and each R N2 can be H, C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl), or C 6-10 aryl.

As used herein, the term “amino acid” refers to a molecule having a side chain, an amino group, and an acidic group (eg, a carboxy group of —CO 2 H or a sulfo group of —SO 3 H). To the parent molecular group by side chains, amino groups, or acidic groups (eg, side chains). In some embodiments, the amino acid is attached to the parent molecular group through a carbonyl group, and the side chain or amino group is attached to the carbonyl group. Exemplary side chains include optionally substituted alkyl, aryl, heterocyclyl, alkaryl, alkheterocyclyl, aminoalkyl, carbamoylalkyl, and carboxyalkyl. Exemplary amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, hydroxynorvaline, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, norvaline, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, pyrrolidine, selenocysteine, Serine, taurine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine are included. The amino acid group is optionally selected from 1, 2 and 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of: or in the case of amino acids of 2 or more carbons, 4 substituents. May be substituted: (1) C 1-6 alkoxy; (2) C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl; (3) amino as defined herein (eg, unsubstituted amino (ie, —NH 2 ) or Substituted amino (ie, —N (R N1 ) 2 , where R N1 is as defined for amino); (4) C 6-10 aryl-C 1-6 alkoxy; (5) azide (6) halo; (7) (C 2-9 heterocyclyl) oxy; (8) hydroxy; (9) nitro; (10) oxo (eg carboxaldehyde or acyl); (11) C 1-7 spirocyclyl; (12) Thioalkoxy (13) thiol; (14) —CO 2 R A ′ (wherein R A ′ is (a) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl), (b) C 2-20 alkenyl. (Eg, C 2-6 alkenyl), (c) C 6-10 aryl, (d) hydrogen, (e) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, (f) amino-C 1-20 alkyl, (g) - (CH 2) in polyethylene glycol (equation s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 oR ', s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1-4) Each of s2 and s3 is independently an integer of 0-10 (eg, 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10), and R ′ is H Or is C 1-20 alkyl), and (h) -NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (amino CH 2) s3 NR N1 - polyethylene glycol (wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1-4) is an integer of, each of s2 and s3 are independently Each of R N1 is independently hydrogen, or an integer from 0 to 10 (eg, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10), or (Selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl)); (15) —C (O) NR B ′ R C ′ wherein each of R B ′ and R C ′ is Independently selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl. ); (16) —SO 2 R D ′ wherein R D ′ is (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl. (C) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, and (d) selected from the group consisting of hydroxy); (17) —SO 2 NR E ′ R F ′ (where R E ′ And R F ′ are each independently (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl. (18) -C (O) R G ′ (wherein R G ′ is (a) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl), (b) C 2-20 alkenyl (eg, C 2-6 alkenyl), (c) C 6-10 aryl, (d) hydrogen, (e) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, (f) amino-C 1-20 alkyl, (g) - polyethylene of (CH 2) s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ' Ren glycol (wherein s1 is an integer of 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (eg 0 to 4, 0) ~6,1~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer of,, R 'is H or C 1-20 alkyl), and (h) -NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2 ) s3 NR N1 amino-polyethylene glycol (wherein s1 is an integer from 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), each of s2 and s3 being , Independently, is an integer from 0-10 (eg, 0-4, 0-6, 1-4, 1-6, or 1-10), and is each R N1 independently hydrogen? or it is selected from the group consisting of C 1-6 alkyl) which is optionally substituted); (19) - R H 'C (O) R I' ( wherein, R H 'is selected from the group consisting of (a1) hydrogen and (b1) C 1-6 alkyl, R I' is (a2) C 1- 20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl), (b2) C 2-20 alkenyl (eg, C 2-6 alkenyl), (c2) C 6-10 aryl, (d2) hydrogen, (e2) C 1 1- 6 alk -C 6-10 aryl, (f2) amino -C 1-20 alkyl, (g2) - (CH 2 ) in polyethylene glycol (equation s2 (OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 OR ', s1 is an integer of 1 to 10 (for example, 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (for example, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4). , 1-6 or 1-10) is an integer of,, R 'is, H or C 1-20 a Kill at a), and (h2) -NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2) a s3 NR N1 amino - polyethylene glycol (wherein, s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1 to 6 or 1 to 4), and each of s2 and s3 is independently 0 to 10 (for example, 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10). And each R N1 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen or optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl)); (20) —NR J ′ C (O) OR K ′ wherein R J ′ is selected from the group consisting of (a1) hydrogen and (b1) C 1-6 alkyl, and R K ′ is (a2) C 1-20 alkyl ( For example, C 1-6 alkyl), (b2) C 2-20 alkenyl (e.g., C 2-6 Alkenyl), (c2) C 6-10 aryl, (d2) hydrogen, (e2) C 1-6 alk -C 6-10 aryl, (f2) amino -C 1-20 alkyl, (g2) - (CH 2 ) (polyethylene glycol (wherein the OCH 2 CH 2) s1 (CH 2) s3 oR ', s1 is 1 to 10 (e.g., 1-6 or 1 to 4) s2 is an integer of, each of s2 and s3 Is independently an integer from 0 to 10 (eg 0 to 4, 0 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 6, or 1 to 10), and R ′ is H or C 1-20 alkyl. And (h2) -NR N1 (CH 2 ) s2 (CH 2 CH 2 O) s1 (CH 2 ) s3 NR N1 amino-polyethylene glycol wherein s1 is 1 to 10 (eg 1 to 6 or an integer from 1 to 4), s2 and s Each is independently 0-10 (e.g., 0~4,0~6,1~4,1~6 or 10) is an integer, and each R N1 is independently hydrogen Or an optionally substituted C 1-6 alkyl)); and (21) amidine. In some embodiments, each of these groups can be further substituted as described herein.

As used herein, the term “aminoalkoxy” represents an alkoxy group, as defined herein, substituted by an amino group, as defined herein. Alkyl and amino each have 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein for each group (eg, CO 2 R A ′ , where R A ′ is (a) C 1 -6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, (c) hydrogen, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, eg, selected from the group consisting of carboxy)) obtain.

As used herein, the term “aminoalkyl” represents an alkyl group, as defined herein, that is substituted with an amino group, as defined herein. Alkyl and amino each have 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein for each group (eg, CO 2 R A ′ , where R A ′ is (a) C 1 -6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, (c) hydrogen, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl, eg, selected from the group consisting of carboxy)) obtain.

As used herein, the term “aryl” refers to a monocyclic, bicyclic, or polycyclic carbocyclic ring system having one or two aromatic rings, such as phenyl, naphthyl 1,2-dihydronaphthyl, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthyl, anthracenyl, phenanthrenyl, fluorenyl, indanyl, indenyl, etc., as an example, independently selected from the group consisting of: It may be optionally substituted with 2, 3, 4, or 5 substituents: (1) C 1-7 acyl (eg, carboxaldehyde); (2) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1- 6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkoxy -C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl -C 1-6 alkyl, amino -C 1-6 alkyl, azido -C 1-6 alkyl, (mosquito Bo carboxaldehyde) -C 1-6 alkyl, halo -C 1-6 alkyl (e.g., perfluoroalkyl), hydroxy -C 1-6 alkyl, nitro -C 1-6 alkyl or C 1-6 thioalkoxy -C, 1-6 alkyl); (3) C 1-20 alkoxy (e.g., C 1-6 alkoxy such as perfluoroalkoxy); (4) C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl, (5) C 6-10 aryl; (6) (7) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl; (8) azide; (9) C 3-8 cycloalkyl; (10) C 1-6 alk-C 3-8 cycloalkyl; ) halo; (12) C 1-12 heterocyclyl (e.g., C 1-12 heteroaryl); (13) (C 1-12 heterocyclyl) oxy; (14) hydroxy; (15) d B; (16) C 1-20 thioalkoxy (e.g., C 1-6 thioalkoxy); (17) - (CH 2) q CO 2 R A '( wherein, q is an integer from 0 to 4 R A ′ is selected from the group consisting of (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, (c) hydrogen, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl. (18)-(CH 2 ) q CONR B ′ R C ′ (wherein q is an integer of 0 to 4, R B ′ and R C ′ are (a) hydrogen, (b) Independently selected from the group consisting of C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl); (19)-(CH 2 ) q SO 2 R D ′ , wherein q is an integer from 0 to 4, and R D ′ is (a) alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, and (C) selected from the group consisting of alk-C 6-10 aryl); (20)-(CH 2 ) q SO 2 NR E ′ R F ′ (wherein q is an integer of 0-4) Each of R E ′ and R F ′ is independently (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk- (Selected from the group consisting of C 6-10 aryl); (21) thiol; (22) C 6-10 aryloxy; (23) C 3-8 cycloalkoxy; (24) C 6-10 aryl-C 1 -6 alkoxy; (25) C 1-6 alk -C 1-12 heterocyclyl (e.g., C 1-6 alk -C 1-12 heteroaryl); (26) C 2-20 alkenyl; and (27) C 2 -20 alkynyl. In some embodiments, each of these groups can be further substituted as described herein. For example, C 1 - alkaryl or C 1 - alk heterocyclylalkyl alkylene group creel can be further substituted by an oxo group, can result in the respective aryloyl and (heterocyclyl) Oil substituent.

As used herein, the term “arylalkoxy” represents an alkaryl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through an oxygen atom. Exemplary unsubstituted alkoxyalkyl groups are from 7 to 30 carbons (eg, C 6-10 aryl-C 1-6 alkoxy, C 6-10 aryl-C 1-10 alkoxy, or C 6-10 aryl-C 7-16 or 7-20 carbons, such as 1-20 alkoxy). In some embodiments, the arylalkoxy group can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  The term “aryloxy” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —OR ′, where R ′ is an aryl group of 6 to 18 carbons unless otherwise specified. In some embodiments, the aryl group can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  As used herein, the term “aryloyl” refers to an aryl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through a carbonyl group. Exemplary unsubstituted aryloyl groups are those of 7-11 carbons. In some embodiments, the aryl group can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

The term “azido” represents a —N 3 group, which may also be represented as —N═N═N.

  As used herein, the term “bicyclic” refers to a structure having two rings that can be aromatic or non-aromatic. Bicyclic structures include a spirocyclyl group, as defined herein, and two rings that share one or more bridges, such bridges having one atom, or two, three, Or a chain containing more atoms. Exemplary bicyclic groups include bicyclic carbocyclyl groups (the first and second rings are carbocyclyl groups as defined herein); bicyclic aryl groups (first and second thereof). The ring is an aryl group as defined herein; a bicyclic heterocyclyl group (the first ring is a heterocyclyl group and the second ring is a carbocyclyl (eg aryl) or heterocyclyl ( A bicyclic heteroaryl group (wherein the first ring is a heteroaryl group and the second ring is a carbocyclyl (eg, aryl) or heterocyclyl (eg, heteroaryl) ) Group. In some embodiments, bicyclic groups can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined herein for cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, and aryl groups.

As used herein, the terms “carbocyclic” and “carbocyclyl” refer to an optionally substituted C 3-12 unit , in which a ring, which may be aromatic or non-aromatic, is formed by a carbon atom. Refers to a cyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic structure. Carbocyclic structures include cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and aryl groups.

As used herein, the term “carbamoyl” refers to —C (O) —N (R N1 ) 2 , wherein the meaning of each R N1 is “amino” provided herein. In the definition of "."

  As used herein, the term “carbamoylalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, that is substituted by a carbamoyl group, as defined herein. The alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

As used herein, the term “carbamyl” refers to a carbamate group having the structure —NR N1 C (═O) OR or —OC (═O) N (R N1 ) 2 , wherein each The meaning of R N1 is found in the definition of “amino” provided herein, where R is alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkcycloalkyl, aryl, alkaryl, heterocyclyl (eg, as defined herein) , Heteroaryl), or alkheterocyclyl (eg, alkheteroaryl).

  As used herein, the term “carbonyl” refers to a C (O) group, which may also be represented as C═O.

  The term “carboxaldehyde” refers to an acyl group having the structure —CHO.

As used herein, the term “carboxy” means —CO 2 H.

  As used herein, the term “carboxyalkoxy” represents an alkoxy group, as defined herein, substituted by a carboxy group, as defined herein. Alkoxy groups can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein for alkyl groups.

  As used herein, the term “carboxyalkyl” represents an alkyl group, as defined herein, that is substituted by a carboxy group, as defined herein. The alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

  As used herein, the term “cyano” refers to a —CN group.

The term “cycloalkoxy” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —OR, wherein R is a C 3-8 cycloalkyl group, as defined herein, unless otherwise specified. Cycloalkyl groups can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein. Exemplary unsubstituted cycloalkoxy groups are 3-8 carbons. In some embodiments, the cycloalkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

As used herein, the term “cycloalkyl” refers to a monovalent saturated or unsaturated non-aromatic cyclic hydrocarbon group of 3-8 carbons, unless otherwise specified, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl , Cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, bicyclo [2.2.1. It is shown as an example by heptyl and the like. When a cycloalkyl group contains one carbon-carbon double bond, the cycloalkyl group can be referred to as a “cycloalkenyl” group. Exemplary cycloalkenyl groups include cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl, and the like. The cycloalkyl groups of the present invention can be optionally substituted with: (1) C 1-7 acyl (eg, carboxaldehyde); (2) C 1-20 alkyl (eg, C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkoxy-C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl-C 1-6 alkyl, amino-C 1-6 alkyl, azido-C 1-6 alkyl, (carboxaldehyde) -C 1-6 Alkyl, halo-C 1-6 alkyl (eg, perfluoroalkyl), hydroxy-C 1-6 alkyl, nitro-C 1-6 alkyl, or C 1-6 thioalkoxy-C 1-6 alkyl); C 1-20 alkoxy (eg, C 1-6 alkoxy such as perfluoroalkoxy); (4) C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl; (5) C 6-10 aryl; (6) Amino; (7) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl; (8) Azide; (9) C 3-8 cycloalkyl; (10) C 1-6 alk-C 3-8 cycloalkyl (11) halo; (12) C 1-12 heterocyclyl (eg, C 1-12 heteroaryl); (13) (C 1-12 heterocyclyl) oxy; (14) hydroxy; (15) nitro; (16) C 1-20 thioalkoxy (eg, C 1-6 thioalkoxy); (17)-(CH 2 ) q CO 2 R A ′ (wherein q is an integer of 0 to 4, and R A ′ is (Selected from the group consisting of: (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, (c) hydrogen, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl); ) - (CH 2) q CONR B 'R C' ( wherein, q is 0 Is 4 integer, R B ', and R C' is, (a) hydrogen, (b) C 6-10 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk -C 6 Selected independently from the group consisting of -10 aryl); (19)-(CH 2 ) q SO 2 RD ′ (wherein q is an integer from 0 to 4 and RD ′ is ( a) selected from the group consisting of C 6-10 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, and (c) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl); (20)-(CH 2 ) q SO 2 NR E ′ R F ′ (wherein q is an integer from 0 to 4 and each of R E ′ and R F ′ independently represents (a) hydrogen, (b) C 6-10 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 is selected from the group consisting of alk -C 6-10 aryl); (21) thio Le; (22) C 6-10 aryloxy; (23) C 3-8 cycloalkoxy; (24) C 6-10 aryl -C 1-6 alkoxy; (25) C 1-6 alk -C 1-12 Heterocyclyl (eg, C 1-6 alk-C 1-12 heteroaryl); (26) oxo; (27) C 2-20 alkenyl; and (28) C 2-20 alkynyl. In some embodiments, each of these groups can be further substituted as described herein. For example, C 1 - alkaryl or C 1 - alk heterocyclylalkyl alkylene group creel can be further substituted by an oxo group, can result in the respective aryloyl and (heterocyclyl) Oil substituent.

  As used herein, the term “diastereomers” refers to stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another and are not superimposable on top of one another.

  As used herein, an “effective amount” of an agent as used herein is an amount sufficient to produce beneficial or desired results, eg, clinical results, and thus “effective amount” Depends on the context in which it is applied. For example, in the context of administering an agent that treats cancer, an effective amount of the agent can be used to treat cancer as defined herein, for example, compared to a response obtained without administration of the agent. An amount sufficient to achieve.

  As used herein, the term “enantiomer” means at least 80% (ie, at least 90% of one enantiomer and at most 10% of the other enantiomer), preferably at least It means each individual optically active form of the compounds of the invention having an optical purity or enantiomeric excess (as determined by standard methods in the art) of 90%, more preferably at least 98%.

  As used herein, the term “halo” represents a halogen selected from bromine, chlorine, iodine, or fluorine.

As used herein, the term “haloalkoxy” refers to an alkoxy group, as defined herein, that is substituted by a halogen group (ie, F, Cl, Br, or I). Haloalkoxy may be substituted with 1, 2, 3 halogens or, in the case of alkyl groups of 2 or more carbons, 4 halogens. Haloalkoxy groups include perfluoroalkoxy (eg, —OCF 3 ), —OCHF 2 , —OCH 2 F, —OCCl 3 , —OCH 2 CH 2 Br, —OCH 2 CH (CH 2 CH 2 Br) CH 3 , And -OCHICH 3 are included. In some embodiments, the haloalkoxy group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein for alkyl groups.

As used herein, the term “haloalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, that is substituted with a halogen group (ie, F, Cl, Br, or I). Haloalkyl may be substituted with 1, 2, 3 halogens or, in the case of alkyl groups of 2 or more carbons, 4 halogens. The haloalkyl group, perfluoroalkyl (e.g., -CF 3), - CHF 2 , -CH 2 F, -CCl 3, -CH 2 CH 2 Br, -CH 2 CH (CH 2 CH 2 Br) CH 3, and -CHICH 3 is included. In some embodiments, the haloalkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein for the alkyl group.

  As used herein, the term “heteroalkylene” refers to an alkylene as defined herein, wherein one or two of the constituent carbon atoms are each replaced by nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. Refers to the group. In some embodiments, the heteroalkylene group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein for the alkylene group.

  As used herein, the term “heteroaryl” refers to a subset of heterocyclyl as defined herein that is aromatic, ie, they are within a monocyclic or polycyclic ring system. Contains 4n + 2 π electrons. Exemplary unsubstituted heteroaryl groups can be 1 to 12 (e.g., 1 to 11, 1 to 10, 1 to 9, 2 to 12, 2 to 11, 2 to 10, or 2 to 9 carbons) It is. In some embodiments, the heteroaryl is substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as defined for heterocyclyl groups.

As used herein, the term “heterocyclyl” refers to 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, unless otherwise specified. Represents a 5-, 6-, or 7-membered ring. The 5-membered ring has 0-2 double bonds, and the 6- and 7-membered rings have 0-3 double bonds. Exemplary unsubstituted heterocyclyl groups are those of 1 to 12 (eg, 1 to 11, 1 to 10, 1 to 9, 2 to 12, 2 to 11, 2 to 10, or 2 to 9 carbons). is there. The term “heterocyclyl” refers to a heterocyclic compound having a bridged polycyclic structure in which one or more carbon and / or heteroatoms bridge two non-adjacent members of a monocyclic ring, eg, a quinuclidinyl group Also represents. The term “heterocyclyl” refers to any one of the above heterocyclic rings, one, two, or three carbocyclic rings such as an aryl ring, cyclohexane ring, cyclohexene ring, cyclopentane ring, cyclopentene ring, or Includes bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic groups fused to another monocyclic heterocyclic ring such as indolyl, quinolyl, isoquinolyl, tetrahydroquinolyl, benzofuryl, benzothienyl, and the like. Examples of fused heterocyclyl include tropane and 1,2,3,5,8,8a-hexahydroindolizine. Heterocycles include pyrrolyl, pyrrolinyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolidinyl, imidazolyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, pyridyl, piperidinyl, homopiperidinyl, pyrazinyl, piperazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, oxazolyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, , Thiomorpholinyl, thiazolyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolyl, isothiazolidinyl, indolyl, indazolyl, quinolyl, isoquinolyl, quinoxalinyl, dihydroquinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, cinolinyl, phthalazinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolyl , Furyl, thienyl, thiazolidinyl, isothiazolyl, tri Zolyl, tetrazolyl, oxadiazolyl (eg, 1,2,3-oxadiazolyl), purinyl, thiadiazolyl (eg, 1,2,3-thiadiazolyl), tetrahydrofuranyl, dihydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, dihydrothienyl, dihydroindolyl, dihydro Quinolyl, tetrahydroquinolyl, tetrahydroisoquinolyl, dihydroisoquinolyl, pyranyl, dihydropyranyl, dithiazolyl, benzofuranyl, isobenzofuranyl, benzothienyl and the like, wherein one or more double bonds are reduced, Including their dihydro and tetrahydro forms that are replaced by hydrogen. Still other exemplary heterocyclyls include 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-oxazolyl; 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-imidazolyl; 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 -Oxo-1H-pyrazolyl (eg 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-phenyl-5-oxo-1H-pyrazolyl); 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxo-1H- Imidazolyl (eg 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxo-5-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-imidazolyl); 2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl (Eg 2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl); 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1H-triazolyl (eg 4 5-dihydro-3-methyl-4-amino-5-oxo-1H-triazolyl); 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxopyridinyl (eg 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro) 2,6-dioxo-3,3-diethylpyridinyl); 2,6-dioxo-piperidinyl (eg, 2,6-dioxo-3-ethyl-3-phenylpiperidinyl); 1,6-dihydro -6-oxopyridinyl; 1,6-dihydro-4-oxopyrimidinyl (eg 2- (methylthio) -1,6-dihydro-4-oxo-5-methylpyrimidin-1-yl); 3,4-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxopyrimidinyl (eg, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxo-3-ethylpyrimidinyl); 1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-pyri Dinyl (eg, 1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-3-ethylpyridazinyl); 1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-1,2,4-triazinyl (eg, 1,6-dihydro-5) -Isopropyl-6-oxo-1,2,4-triazinyl); 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-indolyl (eg 3,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H- Indolyl and 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-3,3′-spiropropane-1H-indol-1-yl); 1,3-dihydro-1-oxo-2H-iso-indolyl; 1,3-dihydro -1,3-dioxo-2H-iso-indolyl; 1H-benzopyrazolyl (eg 1- (ethoxycarbonyl) -1H-benzopyrazolyl); 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benz Midazolyl (eg 3-ethyl-2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazolyl); 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-benzoxazolyl (eg 5-chloro-2,3-dihydro -2-oxo-benzoxazolyl); 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-benzoxazolyl; 2-oxo-2H-benzopyranyl; 1,4-benzodioxanyl; 1,3-benzodioxa 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo, 4H-1,3-benzothiazinyl; 3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-quinazolinyl (eg 2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo -3H-quinazolinyl); 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxo-3H-quinazolyl (eg, 1-ethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxyl) So-3H-quinazolyl); 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-7H-purinyl (eg, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo -7H-purinyl); 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-1H-purinyl (for example, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo- 1H-purinyl); 2-oxobenz [c, d] indolyl; 1,1-dioxo-2H-naphtho [1,8-c, d] isothiazolyl; and 1,8-naphthylenedicarboxamide. Further heterocycles include 3,3a, 4,5,6,6a-hexahydro-pyrrolo [3,4-b] pyrrol-1- (2H) -yl, and 2,5-diazabicyclo [2.2.1]. ] Heptan-2-yl, homopiperazinyl (or diazepanyl), tetrahydropyranyl, dithiazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, oxepanyl, thiepanyl, azocanyl, oxecanyl, and thiocanyl. Heterocyclic groups have the formula:
Including the group

E ′ is selected from the group consisting of —N— and —CH—, and F ′ is —N═CH—, —NH—CH 2 —, —NH—C (O) —, —NH—, —CH = N -, - CH 2 -NH -, - C (O) -NH -, - CH = CH -, - CH 2 -, - CH 2 CH 2 -, - CH 2 O -, - OCH 2 -, - Selected from the group consisting of O- and -S-, and G 'is selected from the group consisting of -CH- and -N-. Any of the heterocyclyl groups referred to herein may be optionally substituted with 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of: Good: (1) C 1-7 acyl (eg carboxaldehyde); (2) C 1-20 alkyl (eg C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 alkoxy-C 1-6 alkyl, C 1-6 Alkylsulfinyl-C 1-6 alkyl, amino-C 1-6 alkyl, azido-C 1-6 alkyl, (carboxaldehyde) -C 1-6 alkyl, halo-C 1-6 alkyl (eg, perfluoroalkyl), Hydroxy-C 1-6 alkyl, nitro-C 1-6 alkyl, or C 1-6 thioalkoxy-C 1-6 alkyl); (3) C 1-20 alkoxy (eg, perfluoroa C 1-6 alkoxy such as alkoxy); (4) C 1-6 alkylsulfinyl, (5) C 6-10 aryl; (6) amino, (7) C 1-6 alk -C 6-10 aryl; ( 8) azide; (9) C 3-8 cycloalkyl; (10) C 1-6 alk-C 3-8 cycloalkyl; (11) halo; (12) C 1-12 heterocyclyl (eg, C 2-12 (13) (C 1-12 heterocyclyl) oxy; (14) hydroxy; (15) nitro; (16) C 1-20 thioalkoxy (eg, C 1-6 thioalkoxy); (CH 2 ) q CO 2 R A ′ (wherein q is an integer of 0 to 4, and R A ′ is (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10 aryl, (c ) hydrogen, and (d) C 1-6 alk -C 6- 0 is selected from the group consisting of aryl); (18) - (CH 2) q CONR B 'R C' ( wherein, q is an integer of 0 to 4, R B ', and R C' is Independently selected from the group consisting of (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl, and (d) C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl); (19)-(CH 2 ) q SO 2 RD ′ (wherein q is an integer of 0 to 4, RD ′ is (a) C 1-6 alkyl, (b) C 6-10. Aryl, and (c) selected from the group consisting of C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl); (20)-(CH 2 ) q SO 2 NR E ′ R F ′ where q is Each of R E ′ and R F ′ is independently (a) hydrogen, (b) C 1-6 alkyl, (c) C 6-10 aryl. And (d) selected from the group consisting of C 1-6 alk-C 6-10 aryl); (21) thiol; (22) C 6-10 aryloxy; (23) C 3-8 cycloalkoxy (24) arylalkoxy; (25) C 1-6 alk-C 1-12 heterocyclyl (eg, C 1-6 alk-C 1-12 heteroaryl); (26) oxo; (27) (C 1- 12 heterocyclyl) imino; (28) C 2-20 alkenyl; and (29) C 2-20 alkynyl. In some embodiments, each of these groups can be further substituted as described herein. For example, C 1 - alkaryl or C 1 - alk heterocyclylalkyl alkylene group creel can be further substituted by an oxo group, can result in the respective aryloyl and (heterocyclyl) Oil substituent.

  As used herein, the term “(heterocyclyl) imino” refers to a heterocyclyl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through an imino group. In some embodiments, the heterocyclyl group can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  As used herein, the term “(heterocyclyl) oxy” refers to a heterocyclyl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through an oxygen atom. In some embodiments, the heterocyclyl group can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  As used herein, the term “(heterocyclyl) oil” refers to a heterocyclyl group, as defined herein, attached to the parent molecular group through a carbonyl group. In some embodiments, the heterocyclyl group can be substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituent groups as defined herein.

  As used herein, the term “hydrocarbon” refers to a group consisting solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

  As used herein, the term “hydroxy” refers to an —OH group.

  As used herein, the term “hydroxyalkenyl” refers to an alkenyl group, as defined herein, substituted by 1 to 3 hydroxy groups, provided that more than one hydroxy group. Is not bound to a single carbon atom of the alkyl group, which is exemplified by dihydroxypropenyl, hydroxyisopentenyl and the like.

  As used herein, the term “hydroxyalkyl” represents an alkyl group, as defined herein, substituted by 1 to 3 hydroxy groups, provided that more than one hydroxy group. Is not bound to a single carbon atom of the alkyl group, which is exemplified by hydroxymethyl, dihydroxypropyl and the like.

  As used herein, the term “isomer” means any tautomer, stereoisomer, enantiomer, or diastereomer of any of the compounds of the invention. The compounds of the present invention can have one or more chiral centers and / or double bonds, and thus double bond isomers (ie, geometric E / Z isomers) or diastereomers (eg, enantiomers). It will be appreciated that it can exist as stereoisomers, such as isomers (ie, (+) or (−)) or cis / trans isomers). In accordance with the present invention, the chemical structures depicted herein, and therefore the compounds of the present invention, are all of the corresponding stereoisomers, ie, stereoisomerically pure forms (eg, geometrically pure, enantiomerically Both pure and diastereomerically pure) and enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures such as racemates. Enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures of the compounds of the present invention can be used for chiral phase gas chromatography, chiral phase high performance liquid chromatography, crystallization of compounds as chiral salt complexes, or crystallization of compounds in chiral solvents, etc. These components can typically be resolved into their component enantiomers or stereoisomers. Enantiomers and stereoisomers can also be obtained from stereoisomerically or enantiomerically pure intermediates, reagents and catalysts by well-known asymmetric synthesis methods.

  As used herein, the term “N-protected amino” refers to an amino group, as defined herein, attached to one or two N-protecting groups, as defined herein. .

As used herein, the term “N-protecting group” refers to a group intended to protect an amino group against undesired reactions during synthetic procedures. N-protecting groups that are commonly used, are incorporated herein by reference, Greene, "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis," 3 rd Edition (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999) which is incorporated herein by reference. N protecting groups include formyl, acetyl, propionyl, pivaloyl, t-butylacetyl, 2-chloroacetyl, 2-bromoacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, trichloroacetyl, phthalyl, o-nitrophenoxyacetyl, α-chlorobutyryl, benzoyl, Acyl, aryloyl, or carbamyl groups, such as 4-chlorobenzoyl, 4-bromobenzoyl, 4-nitrobenzoyl, and chiral auxiliaries such as protected or unprotected D, L, or D, alanine, leucine, phenylalanine Sulfonyl-containing groups such as benzenesulfonyl and p-toluenesulfonyl; benzyloxycarbonyl, p-chlorobenzyloxycarbonyl, p-methoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, p-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl 2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl, p-bromobenzyloxycarbonyl, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 2,4-dimethoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 4-methoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 2- Nitro-4,5-dimethoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 1- (p-biphenylyl) -1-methylethoxycarbonyl, α, α-dimethyl-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl Oxycarbonyl, benzhydryloxycarbonyl, t-butyloxycarbonyl, diisopropylmethoxycarbonyl, isopropyloxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl, methoxycarbonyl, allyloxycarbonyl, 2,2,2 -Carbamate-forming groups such as trichloroethoxycarbonyl, phenoxycarbonyl, 4-nitrophenoxycarbonyl, fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl, cyclopentyloxycarbonyl, adamantyloxycarbonyl, cyclohexyloxycarbonyl, phenylthiocarbonyl, benzyl, triphenylmethyl, benzyloxy Alkaryl groups such as methyl and silyl groups such as trimethylsilyl are included. Preferred N protecting groups are formyl, acetyl, benzoyl, pivaloyl, t-butylacetyl, alanyl, phenylsulfonyl, benzyl, t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc), and benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz).

As used herein, the term “nitro” refers to a —NO 2 group.

  As used herein, the term “oxo” refers to ═O.

  As used herein, the term “perfluoroalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, in which each hydrogen radical attached to the alkyl group is replaced by a fluoride radical. Perfluoroalkyl groups are exemplified by trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like.

  As used herein, the term “perfluoroalkoxy” represents an alkoxy group, as defined herein, in which each hydrogen radical attached to the alkoxy group is replaced by a fluoride radical. Perfluoroalkoxy groups are shown by way of example by trifluoromethoxy, pentafluoroethoxy and the like.

As used herein, the term “spirocyclyl” refers to a C 2-7 alkylene diradical in which both ends are attached to the same carbon atom of the parent group to form a spirocyclic group, and also both ends are the same. Represents a C 1-6 heteroalkylene diradical bonded to a carbon atom. The heteroalkylene radical forming the spirocyclyl group can contain 1, 2, 3, or 4 heteroatoms independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. In some embodiments, the spirocyclyl group contains 1-7 carbons except for the carbon atom to which the diradical is attached. The spirocyclyl groups of the present invention may be optionally substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents provided herein as optional substituents for cycloalkyl and / or heterocyclyl groups.

  As used herein, the term “stereoisomer” refers to all the possible different isomeric forms as well as stereotypes that a compound (eg, a compound of any formula described herein) may have. Refers to conformational forms, in particular all possible stereochemical and conformational isomerism forms, all diastereomers, enantiomers and / or conformers of the basic molecular structure. Some compounds of the invention may exist as different tautomeric forms, all of the latter being included within the scope of the invention.

As used herein, the term “sulfoalkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined herein, that is substituted by a sulfo group of —SO 3 H. In some embodiments, the alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

As used herein, the term “sulfonyl” refers to a —S (O) 2 — group.

  As used herein, the term “thioalkaryl” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —SR, where R is an alkaryl group. In some embodiments, the alkaryl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

  As used herein, the term “thioalkheterocyclyl” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —SR, where R is an alkheterocyclyl group. In some embodiments, the alkheterocyclyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

  As used herein, the term “thioalkoxy” refers to a chemical substituent of formula —SR, where R is an alkyl group as defined herein. In some embodiments, the alkyl group can be further substituted with 1, 2, 3, or 4 substituents as described herein.

The term “thiol” represents a —SH group.
Compound: As used herein, the term “compound” is intended to include all stereoisomers, geometric isomers, tautomers, and isotopes of the depicted structures.

  The compounds described herein can be asymmetric (eg, having one or more stereocenters). All stereoisomers, such as enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended unless otherwise specified. Compounds of the present disclosure that contain asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms can be isolated in optically active or racemic forms. Methods regarding how to prepare optically active forms from optically active starting materials are known in the art, such as by decomposition of racemic mixtures or by stereoselective synthesis. Many geometric isomers of olefins, C═N double bonds, and the like can also be present in the compounds described in this invention, and all such stable isomers are contemplated in this disclosure. Cis and trans geometric isomers of the compounds of the present disclosure are described, which can be isolated as a mixture of isomers or as separated isomeric forms.

  The disclosed compounds also include tautomeric forms. The tautomeric form results from the exchange of a single bond with an adjacent double bond and the accompanying transfer of protons. Tautomeric forms include proton tautomers, which are isomeric protonated states with the same empirical formula and total charge. Exemplary proton tautomers include ketone-enol pairs, amide-imidic acid pairs, lactam-lactim pairs, amide-imidic acid pairs, enamine-imine pairs, and two or more positions of the proton in the heterocyclic system. Including 1H- and 3H-imidazole, 1H-, 2H-, and 4H-1,2,4-triazole, 1H- and 2H-isoindole, and 1H- and 2H-pyrazole It is. Tautomeric forms can be in equilibrium or sterically locked into one form by appropriate substitution.

  The compounds of this disclosure also include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the intermediates or final compounds. “Isotopes” refer to atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus. For example, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium.

  The compounds and salts of the present disclosure can be prepared by combining solvates and hydrates with solvents or water molecules by conventional methods.

  Conserved: As used herein, the term “conserved” is a polynucleotide sequence, each residue occurring unchanged at the same position of two or more sequences being compared. Or refers to a nucleotide residue or amino acid residue of a polypeptide sequence. A relatively conserved nucleotide or amino acid is one that is conserved between sequences that are more related than nucleotides or amino acids appearing elsewhere in the sequence.

  In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be “fully conserved” if they are 100% identical to each other. In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be “highly conserved” if they are at least 70% identical, at least 80% identical, at least 90% identical, or at least 95% identical to each other. Is called. In some embodiments, two or more sequences may be about 70% identical, about 80% identical, about 90% identical, about 95%, about 98%, or about 99% identical to each other. Highly conserved. " In some embodiments, two or more sequences are such that they are at least 30% identical to each other, at least 40% identical, at least 50% identical, at least 60% identical, at least 70% identical, at least 80% identical, at least 90% It is said to be “conserved” if it is identical, or at least 95% identical. In some embodiments, two or more sequences are such that they are about 30% identical, about 40% identical, about 50% identical, about 60% identical, about 70% identical, about 80% identical, about 90% to each other. It is said to be “conserved” if it is the same, about 95% identical, about 98% identical, or about 99% identical. Sequence conservation may apply to the entire length of the oligonucleotide or polypeptide, or may apply to a portion, region, or feature thereof.

  Controlled release: As used herein, the term “controlled release” refers to the release profile of a pharmaceutical composition or compound that conforms to a specific release pattern to produce a therapeutic outcome.

  Cyclic or cyclized: As used herein, the term “cyclic” refers to the presence of a continuous loop. The cyclic molecule need not be circular, but can simply be linked to form an unbroken chain of subunits. A circular molecule, such as an engineered RNA or mRNA of the present invention, may be a single unit or multimer, or may include one or more components of a complex or higher order structure.

  Cytostatic: As used herein, “cytostatic” refers to cells (eg, mammalian cells (eg, human cells), bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or these Inhibiting, reducing, or inhibiting the growth, division, or proliferation of the combination.

  Cytotoxicity: As used herein, “cytotoxic” refers to cells (eg, mammalian cells (eg, human cells), bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, prions, or combinations thereof. To kill or cause harmful, toxic, or fatal effects on them.

  Delivery: As used herein, “delivery” refers to an action or mode of delivering a compound, substance, entity, moiety, cargo, or payload.

  Delivery agent: As used herein, “delivery agent” refers to any substance that at least partially facilitates in vivo delivery of a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA to a targeted cell. .

  Destabilized: As used herein, the terms “unstable”, “destabilize”, or “destabilized region” refer to the same region or starting form of a molecule, wild type, Or a region or molecule that is less stable than the natural form.

  Detectable label: As used herein, a “detectable label” is easily detected by methods known in the art, including radiography, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, enzymatic activity, absorbance, etc. Refers to one or more markers, signals, or moieties that are associated with, incorporated with, or associated with. Detectable labels include radioisotopes, fluorophores, chromophores, enzymes, dyes, metal ions, ligands such as biotin, avidin, streptavidin and haptens, quantum dots, and the like. The detectable label may be located at any position in the peptides or proteins disclosed herein. They may be within amino acids, peptides, or proteins, or may be located at the N-terminus or C-terminus.

  Digestion: As used herein, the term “digestion” means breaking down into smaller pieces or components. When referring to a polypeptide or protein, digestion results in the production of the peptide.

  Distal: As used herein, the term “distal” means located away from the center or away from the point or region of interest.

  Dosing regimen: As used herein, a “dosing regimen” is a regimen of treatment, or a treatment, prevention, or palliative care regimen determined by a physician.

  Dose Split Factor (DSF)-The ratio of PUD for dose split treatment divided by PUD for total daily dose or single unit dose. Values are derived from group comparison of dosing regimens.

  Encapsulation: As used herein, the term “encapsulation” means encapsulating, enclosing or encapsulating.

  Encoded protein cleavage signal: As used herein, "encoded protein cleavage signal" refers to a nucleotide sequence that encodes a protein cleavage signal.

  Operation: As used herein, embodiments of the invention have features or characteristics that differ from the starting molecule, wild-type molecule, or natural molecule, whether they are structural or chemical. When it is designed to be “operated”.

  Exosomes: As used herein, “exosomes” are vesicles secreted by mammalian cells, or complexes involved in RNA degradation.

  Expression: As used herein, “expression” of a nucleic acid sequence refers to one or more of the following events: (1) generation of an RNA template from the DNA sequence (eg, by transcription), ( 2) RNA transcription processing (eg, by splicing, editing, 5 ′ capping, and / or 3 ′ end processing), (3) translation of RNA into a polypeptide or protein, and (4) polypeptide or protein Post-translational modification.

  Feature: As used herein, “feature” refers to a feature, characteristic, or distinctive element.

  Formulation: As used herein, a “formulation” includes at least a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA and a delivery agent.

  Fragment: As used herein, “fragment” refers to a portion. For example, a protein fragment can include a polypeptide obtained by digesting a full-length protein isolated from cultured cells.

  Functional: As used herein, a “functional” biomolecule is a biomolecule in a form that exhibits the properties and / or activities that it is characterized.

  Homology: As used herein, the term “homology” refers to the whole between polymer molecules, such as between nucleic acid molecules (eg, DNA and / or RNA molecules) and / or between polypeptide molecules. It refers to general relevance. In some embodiments, the polymer molecules have at least 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80% of their sequences. %, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 99% are considered “homologous” to each other if they are identical or similar. The term “homologous” necessarily refers to a comparison between at least two sequences (polynucleotide or polypeptide sequences). In accordance with the present invention, the two polynucleotide sequences are such that the polypeptides they encode are at least about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, or even over at least a stretch of at least about 20 amino acids. If it is 99%, it is considered to be homologous. In some embodiments, homologous polynucleotide sequences are characterized by the ability to encode a stretch of at least 4-5 uniquely designated amino acids. For polynucleotide sequences less than 60 nucleotides in length, homology is characterized by the ability to encode a stretch of at least 4-5 uniquely designated amino acids. In accordance with the present invention, two protein sequences are considered homologous if the proteins are at least about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, or 90% identical over at least a stretch of at least about 20 amino acids. .

  Identity: As used herein, the term “identity” refers to between polymer molecules, eg, between oligonucleotide molecules (eg, DNA and / or RNA molecules) and / or between polypeptide molecules. Refers to overall relevance. Calculation of percent identity between two polynucleotide sequences can be performed, for example, by aligning the two sequences for optimal comparison purposes (eg, first and second nucleic acids for optimal alignment). Gaps can be introduced in one or both of the sequences, and non-identical sequences can be ignored for comparison purposes). In certain embodiments, the length of the sequence aligned for comparison purposes is at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80% of the length of the reference sequence. , At least 90%, at least 95%, or 100%. The nucleotide at the corresponding nucleotide position is then compared. When a position in the first sequence is occupied by the same nucleotide as the corresponding position in the second sequence, the molecules are identical at that position. The percent identity between the two sequences is the number of identical positions shared by the sequences, taking into account the number of gaps that need to be introduced for optimal alignment of the two sequences and the length of each gap. It is a function. The comparison of sequences between two sequences and the determination of percent identity can be accomplished using a mathematical algorithm. For example, the percent identity between two nucleotide sequences is calculated according to Computational Molecular Biology, Lesk, A., each incorporated herein by reference. M.M. , Ed. , Oxford University Press, New York, 1988; Biocomputing: Informatics and Genome Projects, Smith, D .; W. , Ed. , Academic Press, New York, 1993, Sequence Analysis in Molecular Biology, von Heinje, G. et al. , Academic Press, 1987, Computer Analysis of Sequence Data, Part I, Griffin, A. et al. M.M. , And Griffin, H .; G. , Eds. , Humana Press, New Jersey, 1994, and Sequence Analysis Primer, Gribskov, M .; and Devereux, J. et al. , Eds. , M Stockton Press, New York, 1991, and the like. For example, the percent identity between two nucleotide sequences can be determined using the algorithm of Meyers and Miller (CABIOS, 1989, 4: 11-17), which is a PAM120 weight residue table, 12 gap length penalties. And is incorporated into the ALIGN program (version 2.0) with a gap penalty of 4. The percent identity between two nucleotide sequences can alternatively be determined by NWSgapdna. It can be determined using the GAP program in the GCG software package using the CMP matrix. Commonly used methods for determining percent identity between sequences include the methods of Carillo, H., incorporated herein by reference. , And Lipman, D.M. , SIAM J Applied Math. 48: 1073 (1988), but not limited thereto. Techniques for determining identity are codified in publicly available computer programs. Exemplary computer software for determining homology between two sequences includes the GCG program package, Devereux, J. et al. , Et al. , Nucleic Acids Research, 12 (1), 387 (1984)), BLASTP, BLASTN, and FASTA, Altschul, S .; F. et al. , J .; Molec. Biol. 215, 403 (1990)), but is not limited thereto.

  Inhibiting expression of a gene: As used herein, the expression “inhibiting expression of a gene” means causing a reduction in the amount of the expression product of the gene. The expression product can be RNA transcribed from a gene (eg, mRNA) or a polypeptide translated from mRNA transcribed from the gene. Typically, a reduction in the level of mRNA results in a reduction in the level of polypeptide translated therefrom. The level of expression may be determined using standard techniques for measuring mRNA or protein.

  In vitro: As used herein, the term “in vitro” is not within an organism (eg, an animal, plant, or microorganism), eg, in a test tube or reaction vessel, in cell culture, in a petri dish, etc. This refers to an event that occurs in an artificial environment.

  In vivo: As used herein, the term “in vivo” refers to an event that occurs in an organism (eg, an animal, plant, or microorganism, or a cell or tissue thereof).

  Isolated: As used herein, the term “isolated” refers to a component of which it is associated (whether in a natural or experimental setting). Refers to a substance or entity separated from at least a portion of Isolated material can have varying levels of purity with respect to the material with which it is associated. Isolated material and / or entities are at least about 10%, about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70% of the other components with which they were initially associated. %, About 80%, about 90%, or more. In some embodiments, the isolated agent is greater than about 80%, greater than about 85%, greater than about 90%, greater than about 91%, greater than about 92%, greater than about 93%, greater than about 94%, > 95%,> 96%,> 97%,> 98%,> 99%, or> 99% pure. As used herein, a substance is “pure” if it is substantially free of other components. Substantially isolated: “Substantially isolated” means that the compound is substantially separated from the environment in which it was formed or detected. Partial separation can include, for example, a composition enriched in the disclosed compounds. For substantial separation, at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, or Compositions containing at least about 99% by weight of a compound of the present disclosure, or a salt thereof, can be included. Methods for isolating compounds and their salts are routine in the art.

  Linker: As used herein, a linker refers to an atomic group of, for example, 10 to 1,000 atoms, such as carbon, amino, alkylamino, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide, sulfonyl, carbonyl, imine, and the like. May consist of but not limited to atoms or groups. The linker can be attached at the first end to a modified nucleoside or nucleotide on the nucleobase or sugar moiety and at the second end to a payload, eg, a detectable agent or therapeutic agent. The linker can also be of sufficient length so as not to interfere with incorporation into the nucleic acid sequence. A linker can be used for any useful purpose, such as to form an mRNA mRNA multimer (eg, via a chain of two or more polynucleotides, primary constructs, or mRNA mRNA molecules) or an mRNA complex. Can be used to administer the payload described in the document. Examples of chemical groups that can be incorporated into the linker include, but are not limited to, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, amide, amino, ether, thioether, ester, alkylene, heteroalkylene, aryl, or heterocyclyl. Each of can be optionally substituted as described herein. Examples of linkers include unsaturated alkanes, polyethylene glycol (eg, ethylene or propylene glycol monomer units such as diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, or tetraethylene glycol), and dextran. Polymers and their derivatives include but are not limited to these. Other examples include cleavable moieties within the linker, such as disulfide bonds (—S—S—) or azo bonds (—N═N—), which can be cleaved using reducing agents or photolysis. However, it is not limited to these. Non-limiting examples of selectively cleavable linkages include, for example, tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP), or amide linkages that can be cleaved by use of other reducing agents and / or photolysis, And, for example, ester linkages that can be cleaved by acidic or basic hydrolysis.

  MicroRNA (miRNA) binding site: As used herein, a microRNA (miRNA) binding site refers to a nucleotide site or region of a nucleic acid transcript to which at least a “seed” region of the miRNA binds.

  Modified: As used herein, “modified” refers to an altered state or structure of a molecule of the invention. Molecules may be modified in a number of ways, including chemical, structural, and functional modifications. In one embodiment, an mRNA molecule of the invention is modified by the introduction of non-natural nucleosides and / or nucleotides, for example when it involves natural ribonucleotides A, U, G, and C. Non-standard nucleotides such as cap structures are not considered “modified” even though they differ from the chemical structure of A, C, G, U ribonucleotides.

  Mucus: As used herein, “mucus” refers to a natural substance that is viscous and contains mucin glycoproteins.

  Naturally occurring: As used herein, “naturally occurring” means existing in the natural world without artificial assistance.

  Non-human vertebrates: As used herein, “non-human vertebrates” include all vertebrates except homosapiens, including wild and domesticated species. Examples of non-human vertebrates include alpaca, banten, bison, camel, cat, cow, deer, dog, donkey, gayal, goat, guinea pig, horse, llama, mule, pig, rabbit, reindeer, sheep, buffalo, and Mammals such as yaks can be mentioned, but are not limited thereto.

  Off-target: As used herein, “off-target” refers to any unintended effect on any one or more targets, genes, or cellular transcripts.

  Open reading frame: As used herein, an “open reading frame” or “ORF” refers to a sequence that does not contain a stop codon within a given reading frame.

  Operatively linked: As used herein, the expression “operably linked” refers to a functional linkage between two or more molecules, constructs, transcripts, entities, moieties, etc. Point to.

  Optionally substituted: As used herein, a phrase of the form “optionally substituted X” (eg, optionally substituted alkyl) is “X, where X is optionally substituted. (Eg, “alkyl, wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted”) is intended to be equivalent. It is not intended to mean that the feature “X” (eg, alkyl) itself is optional.

  Peptide: As used herein, a “peptide” is 50 amino acids or less, eg, about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 amino acids long.

  Paratope: As used herein, “paratope” refers to the antigen-binding site of an antibody.

  Patient: As used herein, a “patient” may seek treatment or require treatment, in need of treatment, undergoing treatment, undergoing treatment, or a particular disease or condition Refers to a subject under the care of a professional trained for.

  Pharmaceutically acceptable: The expression “pharmaceutically acceptable” is used herein to refer to excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic reactions, or other problems or complications within the scope of sound medical judgment. Used to refer to compounds, materials, compositions, and / or dosage forms that are suitable for use in contact with human and animal tissue without being associated with a reasonable benefit / risk ratio.

  Pharmaceutically acceptable excipient: As used herein, the expression “pharmaceutically acceptable excipient” is other than a compound described herein (eg, active A vehicle capable of suspending or dissolving a compound), and any ingredient that has properties that are substantially non-toxic and non-inflammatory in a patient. Excipients include, for example, antiadherents, antioxidants, binders, coating agents, compression aids, disintegrants, pigments (colors), softeners, emulsifiers, fillers (diluted) Agent), thin film forming agent or coating agent, flavoring agent, flavoring agent, glidant (fluidity promoter), lubricant, preservative, printing ink, adsorbent, suspending or dispersing agent, sweetness Agents and water of hydration may be included. Exemplary excipients include, but are not limited to: butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate (secondary), calcium stearate, croscarmellose, cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Citric acid, crospovidone, cysteine, ethylcellulose, gelatin, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, maltitol, mannitol, methionine, methylcellulose, methylparaben, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, povidone, α Starch, propylparaben, retinyl palmitate, shellac, silicon dioxide, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium citrate Um, sodium starch glycolate, sorbitol, starch (corn), stearic acid, sucrose, talc, titanium dioxide, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, and xylitol.

Pharmaceutically acceptable salts: The present disclosure also includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds described herein. As used herein, “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to converting an existing acid or base moiety to its salt form (eg, by reacting the free base with a suitable organic acid). Refers to derivatives of the disclosed compounds wherein the parent compound is modified. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines, alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids, and the like. Not. Typical acid addition salts include acetate, adipate, alginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bisulfate, borate, butyrate, camphorate , Camphor sulfonate, citrate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecyl sulfate, ethane sulfonate, fumarate, glucoheptonate, glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptonate, hexane Acid salt, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydrogen iodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, lactobionate, lactate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonic acid Salt, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oleate, oxalate, palmitate, pamoate, pectinic acid (Pectinate), persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, stearic acid, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, toluenesulfonic acid Salt, undecanoate, valerate and the like. Representative alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salts include sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc., as well as ammonium, tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, ethylamine and the like. , But not limited to, non-toxic ammonium, quaternary ammonium, and amine cations. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure include the conventional non-toxic salts of the parent compound formed, for example, from non-toxic inorganic or organic acids. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure can be synthesized from the parent compound which contains a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. In general, such salts react the free acid or free base form of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two. In general, non-aqueous media such as ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or butanol), or acetonitrile are preferred. A list of suitable salts can be found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17 th ed., Each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. , Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa. 1985, p. 1418, Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use, P.A. H. Stahl and C.I. G. Wermuth (eds.), Wiley-VCH, 2008, and Berge et al. , Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 66, 1-19 (1977).

  Pharmaceutically acceptable solvate: As used herein, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable solvate” refers to a compound of the invention in which a molecule of a suitable solvent is incorporated into the crystal lattice. Means. Suitable solvents are physiologically tolerable at the dosage administered. For example, solvates may be prepared from solutions containing organic solvents, water, or mixtures thereof by crystallization, recrystallization, or precipitation. Examples of suitable solvents include ethanol, water (eg, mono, di, and trihydrate), N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N, N′-dimethylformamide (DMF), N, N′-dimethylacetamide (DMAC), 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMEU), 1,3-dimethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2- (1H) -pyrimidinone ( DMPU), acetonitrile (ACN), propylene glycol, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, 2-pyrrolidone, benzyl benzoate and the like. When water is the solvent, the solvate is referred to as “hydrate”.

  Pharmacokinetics: As used herein, “pharmacokinetics” refers to any one or more properties of a molecule or compound that are involved in determining the fate of a substance administered to a living organism. Pharmacokinetics is divided into several areas, including the extent and rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. This is commonly referred to as ADME, where (A) absorption is the process by which substances enter the blood circulation, and (D) distribution is the dispersion or distribution of substances throughout the body fluid and tissue. Yes, (M) metabolism (or biotransformation) is an irreversible conversion of the parent compound to a daughter metabolite, and (E) excretion (or elimination) refers to the elimination of the substance from the body. In rare cases, some drugs accumulate irreversibly in body tissues.

  Physical chemistry: As used herein, “physical chemistry” means that of or related to physical properties and / or chemical properties.

  Polypeptide per unit drug (PUD): As used herein, PUD or product per unit drug is usually expressed in units of concentration, such as pmol / mL, mmol / mL, divided by measured values in body fluids. Defined as the subdivided portion (usually 1 mg, pg, kg, etc.) of the total daily dose of the product (polypeptide, etc.) as measured in body fluids or tissues.

  Prevent: As used herein, the term “prevent” partially or completely delays the onset of an infection, disease, disorder, and / or condition; a specific infection, disease, disorder, And / or partially delaying the onset of one or more symptoms, features, or clinical signs of a condition; one or more symptoms, features, or of a particular infection, disease, disorder, and / or condition Partially or completely delaying the onset of symptoms; partially or completely delaying the progression of a particular disease, disorder, and / or condition from infection; and / or infection, disease, disorder, and / or Or to reduce the risk of developing a pathology associated with the condition.

  Prodrugs: The present disclosure also includes prodrugs of the compounds described herein. As used herein, a “prodrug” is any substance, molecule, or entity that is in a form belonging to a substance, molecule, or entity that acts as a therapeutic agent through chemical or physical changes. Point to. Prodrugs can be covalently linked or sequestered in some manner and release the active drug or be converted to an active drug moiety before, after, or after administration to a mammalian subject. The Prodrugs can be prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compound in such a way that the modifying moiety is cleaved to the parent compound, either by routine manipulation or in vivo. Prodrugs are compounds in which a hydroxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, or carboxyl group is attached to any group that is cleaved to form a free hydroxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, or carboxyl group, respectively, when administered to a mammalian subject. To do. The preparation and use of prodrugs are both described in T.W. Higuchi and V. Stella, “Pro-drugs as Novel Delivery Systems,” Vol. 14 of the A.E. C. S. See Symposium Series, and Bioreversible Carriers in Drug Design, ed. Edward B. Roche, American Pharmaceutical Association and Pergamon Press, 1987.

  Proliferate: As used herein, the term “proliferate” means to grow, expand or increase, or cause rapid growth, expansion or increase. “Proliferative” means having the ability to proliferate. “Anti-proliferative” means having a property that violates or is inappropriate for growth properties.

  Protein cleavage site: As used herein, a “protein cleavage site” refers to a site where controlled cleavage of an amino acid chain is accomplished by chemical, enzymatic, or photochemical means.

  Protein cleavage signal: As used herein, a “protein cleavage signal” refers to at least one amino acid that flags or marks a polypeptide for cleavage.

  Protein of interest: As used herein, the term “protein of interest” or “desired protein” refers to those provided herein, as well as fragments, variants, variants thereof, And variants.

  Proximal: As used herein, the term “proximal” means located in the center or closer to the point or region of interest.

Pseudouridine: As used herein, pseudouridine refers to the C-glycoside isomer of nucleoside uridine. A “pseudouridine analog” is any modification, variant, isoform, or derivative of pseudouridine. For example, pseudouridine analogs include 1-carboxymethyl-pseudouridine, 1-propynyl-pseudouridine, 1-taurinomethyl-pseudouridine, 1-taurinomethyl-4-thio-pseudouridine, 1-methyl pseudouridine (m 1 ψ), 1-methyl-4-thio-pseudouridine (m 1 s 4 ψ), 4-thio-1-methyl-pseudouridine, 3-methyl-pseudouridine (m 3 ψ), 2-thio-1- Methyl-pseudouridine, 1-methyl-1-deaza-pseudouridine, 2-thio-1-methyl-1-deaza-pseudouridine, dihydropseudouridine, 2-thio-dihydropseudouridine, 2-methoxyuridine, 2- Methoxy-4-thio-uridine, 4-methoxy-pseudouridine, 4-methoxy -2-thio - pseudouridine, Nl-methyl - pseudouridine, 1-methyl-3- (3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) pseudouridine (acp 3 [psi), and 2'-O- methyl - pseudouridine ( ψm), but is not limited to these.

  Purified: As used herein, “purify”, “purified”, “purification” is substantially pure or is an undesirable component, contaminant, admixture, or It means removing imperfections.

  Sample: As used herein, the term “sample” or “biological sample” refers to a subset of its tissue, cell, or component (eg, blood, mucus, lymph, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, Bodily fluids including, but not limited to, saliva, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, urine, vaginal fluid, and semen. Samples include, for example, plasma, serum, spinal fluid, lymph, external skin sections, respiratory tract, intestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, tears, saliva, milk, blood cells, tumors, organs. It can further include a homogenate, lysate, or extract prepared from, but not limited to, a whole organism, or a subset of its tissues, cells, or components, or a fraction or portion thereof. A sample further refers to a medium such as a nutrient broth or gel that may contain cellular components such as proteins or nucleic acid molecules.

  Signal sequence: As used herein, the expression “signal sequence” refers to a sequence that can direct the transport or localization of a protein.

  Single unit dose: As used herein, a “single unit dose” is administered in a single dose / once / single route / single contact point, ie, a single administration event, The dose of any therapeutic agent.

  Similarity: As used herein, the term “similarity” is used between polymer molecules, eg, between polynucleotide molecules (eg, DNA and / or RNA molecules), and / or between polypeptide molecules. Refers to overall relevance. Calculation of percent similarity of polymer molecules with each other can be done similarly to calculation of percent identity, but as understood in the art, calculation of percent similarity takes into account conservative substitutions. Except that.

  Split dose: As used herein, a “split dose” is a split of a single unit dose or a total daily dose into two or more doses.

  Stable: As used herein, “stable” is sufficiently robust to remain after isolation in a useful purity from the reaction mixture, and can preferably be formulated into an effective therapeutic agent. It refers to a compound.

  Stabilized: As used herein, the terms “stabilized”, “stabilized”, “stabilized region” means to stabilize or become stable.

  Subject: As used herein, the term “subject” or “patient” refers to any, to which a composition according to the invention can be administered, eg, for experimental, diagnostic, prophylactic, and / or therapeutic purposes. Refers to the creatures. Typical subjects include animals (eg, mammals such as mice, rats, rabbits, non-human primates, and humans) and / or plants.

  Substantially: As used herein, the term “substantially” refers to a qualitative state that indicates the full range or degree or nearly the full range or degree of a feature or characteristic of interest. If you are an expert in the field of biological technology, it is rare that biological and chemical phenomena complete and / or progress to completion, or achieve or avoid absolute results You will understand that. The term “substantially” is therefore used herein to capture the potential lack of integrity inherent in many biological and chemical phenomena.

  Substantially equal: when used herein as it relates to the time difference between doses, the term means plus / minus 2%.

  Substantially simultaneously: as used herein and when it relates to multiple doses, the term means within 2 seconds.

  An individual who is “affected” by a disease, disorder, and / or condition has been diagnosed with the disease, disorder, and / or condition, or has one or more symptoms of the disease, disorder, and / or condition. Present.

  Susceptible to: An individual “susceptible to” a disease, disorder, and / or condition has not been diagnosed with a disease, disorder, and / or condition, and / or the disease, disorder, and / or condition May have no symptoms, but internally has a tendency to develop the disease or its symptoms. In some embodiments, an individual susceptible to a disease, disorder, and / or condition (eg, cancer) can be characterized by one or more of the following: (1) a disease, disorder, and Genetic mutations associated with the onset of // conditions, (2) genetic polymorphisms associated with the development of diseases, disorders, and / or conditions, (3) proteins and / or associated with diseases, disorders, and / or conditions Increased and / or decreased expression and / or activity of nucleic acids, (4) habits and / or lifestyle associated with the onset of diseases, disorders, and / or conditions, (5) diseases, disorders, and / or conditions Family history and (6) exposure to and / or infection of microorganisms associated with the development of diseases, disorders, and / or conditions. In some embodiments, an individual susceptible to a disease, disorder, and / or condition will develop the disease, disorder, and / or condition. In some embodiments, an individual susceptible to a disease, disorder, and / or condition will not develop the disease, disorder, and / or condition.

  Sustained release: As used herein, the term “sustained release” refers to a pharmaceutical composition or compound release profile that is compatible with a release rate over a specified period of time.

  Synthesis: The term “synthetic” means produced, prepared, and / or manufactured by the human hand. The synthesis of a polynucleotide or polypeptide of the invention or other molecule may be chemical or enzymatic.

  Targeted cell: As used herein, “targeted cell” refers to any one or more cells of interest. The cell can be found in vitro, in vivo, in situ, or in a tissue or organ of an organism. The organism may be an animal, preferably a mammal, more preferably a human, most preferably a patient.

  Therapeutic agent: The term “therapeutic agent” has a therapeutic, diagnostic, and / or prophylactic effect and / or elicits a desired biological and / or pharmacological effect when administered to a subject. Refers to any drug.

  Therapeutically effective amount: As used herein, the term “therapeutically effective amount” when administered to a subject suffering from or susceptible to an infection, disease, disorder, and / or condition A drug to be delivered (eg, a nucleic acid) sufficient to treat, ameliorate, diagnose, prevent, and / or delay the onset of an infection, disease, disorder, and / or condition , Drug, therapeutic agent, diagnostic agent, prophylactic agent, etc.).

  Therapeutically effective outcome: As used herein, the term “therapeutically effective outcome” refers to an infection, disease in a subject suffering from or susceptible to infection, disease, disorder, and / or condition. Means outcome sufficient to treat, ameliorate, diagnose, prevent and / or delay the onset of the disorder, and / or condition.

  Total daily dose: As used herein, a “total daily dose” is the amount given or prescribed in a 24-hour period. It may be administered as a single unit dose.

  Transcription factor: As used herein, the term “transcription factor” refers to a DNA binding protein that regulates transcription of DNA into RNA, eg, by activation or repression of transcription. Some transcription factors provide transcriptional regulation alone, while other transcription factors act in concert with other proteins. Some transcription factors can both activate and repress transcription under certain conditions. In general, a transcription factor binds to a particular target sequence or sequences that are very similar to a particular consensus sequence within the regulatory region of the target gene. Transcription factors can regulate transcription of target genes alone or in combination with other molecules.

  Treat: As used herein, the term “treat” partially or completely alleviates one or more symptoms or characteristics of a particular infection, disease, disorder, and / or condition. Ameliorating, improving, reducing, delaying its onset, inhibiting its progression, reducing its severity, and / or reducing its incidence. For example, “treating” a cancer can refer to inhibiting tumor survival, growth, and / or metastasis. Treatment is for subjects that do not present signs of the disease, disorder, and / or condition and / or for the purpose of reducing the risk of developing a pathology associated with the disease, disorder, and / or condition, and / or disease, disorder. And / or may be administered to a subject who presents only with early signs of the condition.

  Unmodified: As used herein, “unmodified” refers to any substance, compound, or molecule prior to being altered in any manner. Unmodified can refer to the wild-type or natural form of a biomolecule, but not necessarily. A molecule may undergo a series of modifications, whereby each modified molecule can serve as an “unmodified” starting molecule for subsequent modifications.

Equivalents and Ranges Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments according to the invention described herein. The scope of the invention is not intended to be limited to the above description, but rather is intended to be limited as set forth in the appended claims.

  In the claims, articles such as “a”, “an”, and “the” may mean one or more unless specified to the contrary or unless otherwise apparent from the context. . A claim or description that includes “or” between one or more members of a group, unless specified to the contrary or unless otherwise apparent from the context, is one of the members of the group Two or more or all are considered to be satisfied if they are present in, used in, or related to a given product or process. The invention includes embodiments in which exactly one member of the group is present in, employed in, or associated with a given product or process. The present invention includes embodiments in which more than one or all of the members of a group are present in, used in, or related to a given product or process.

  It is also noted that the term “comprising” is intended to be unlimited and allows, but does not require, the incorporation of additional elements or steps. As the term “comprising” is used herein, the term “consisting of” is therefore also encompassed and disclosed.

  Where ranges are given, endpoints are included. Further, unless otherwise specified or otherwise apparent from the context and understanding of one of ordinary skill in the art, values expressed as ranges are intended to be used in different embodiments of the invention, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It is to be understood that any specific value or sub-range, up to one tenth of the lower limit unit of the range, can be taken within the defined range.

  Furthermore, it is to be understood that any particular embodiment of the invention falling within the prior art may be explicitly excluded from any one or more of the claims. Since such embodiments are known to those skilled in the art, they may be excluded even if the exclusion is not explicitly described herein. Whether any particular embodiment (eg, any nucleic acid or protein encoded thereby, any production method, any use method, etc.) of the composition of the present invention is related to the presence of the prior art Nevertheless, it may be excluded from any one or more claims for any reason.

  All cited sources of information, such as references, publications, databases, database entries, and techniques cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference, even if not explicitly stated in the citation. It is. Where there are cited sources of information and conflicting statements in this application, the statements in this application shall prevail.

  Section and table headings are not intended to be limiting.

Example 1. Production of Modified mRNA Modified mRNA (mRNA) according to the present invention can be made using standard laboratory methods and materials. The open reading frame (ORF) of the gene of interest contains a 5 ′ untranslated region (UTR) and / or oligo (dT) sequence that may contain a strong Kozak translation initiation signal for poly A tail template addition. It may be adjacent to an α-globin 3′UTR that may be included. The modified mRNA can be modified to reduce the innate immune response of the cell. Modifications to reduce the response of cells, pseudouridine ([psi) and 5-methyl - cytidine (5meC, 5mC or m 5 C,) may include (respectively, which are incorporated by reference in their entireties herein, Kariko K et al. Immunity 23: 165-75 (2005), Kariko K et al. Mol Ther 16: 1833-40 (2008), Anderson BR et al. NAR (2010)).

  The ORF is DNA2.0 (Menlo Park, CA), etc., but is not limited to various upstream or downstream additions (β-globin, tags, etc.) that can be purchased from optimization services May also contain multiple cloning sites that may have XbaI recognition. Upon receipt of the construct, it can be reconstituted and converted to chemically competent E. coli.

In the present invention, NEB DH5-α competent E. coli is used. Conversion is performed using 100 ng of plasmid according to NEB instructions. The protocol is as follows.
1. Thaw tube of NEB 5-α competent E. coli cells on ice for 10 minutes.
2 Add 1-5 μL containing 1 pg-100 ng of plasmid DNA to the cell mixture. Shake the tube carefully 4-5 times to mix the cells and DNA. Do not vortex.
3 Place the mixture on ice for 30 minutes. Do not mix.
4. Heat shock at 42 ° C for exactly 30 seconds. Do not mix.
5 Place on ice for 5 minutes. Do not mix.
6 Place the room temperature SOC into the mixture with a 950 μL pipette.
7 Place at 37 ° C for 60 minutes. Shake vigorously (250 rpm) or rotate.
8 Warm the selection plate to 37 ° C.
9 Mix the cells thoroughly by shaking and inverting the tube.

  Spread 50-100 μL of each dilution on a selection plate and incubate at 37 ° C. overnight. Alternatively, incubate at 30 ° C. for 24-36 hours or at 25 ° C. for 48 hours.

  A single colony is then used and inoculated with 5 mL of LB growth medium with the appropriate antibiotic and allowed to grow for 5 hours (250 RPM, 37 ° C.). This is then used to inoculate 200 mL of culture medium and grown overnight under the same conditions.

  To isolate the plasmid (up to 850 μg), maxiprep is performed using an Invitrogen PURELINK ™ HiPure Maxiprep Kit (Carlsbad, Calif.) According to the manufacturer's instructions.

To generate cDNA for in vitro transcription (IVT), a plasmid (an example of which is shown in FIG. 3) is first linearized with a restriction enzyme such as XbaI. Typical restriction digests with XbaI include: 1.0 μg plasmid; 1.0 μL 10 × buffer; 1.5 μL XbaI; dH 2 O max 10 μL; 1 hour incubation at 37 ° C. When performed on a laboratory scale (less than 5 μg), the reaction is clarified using Invitrogen's PURELINK ™ PCR Micro Kit (Carlsbad, Calif.) According to manufacturer's instructions. Larger scale purification may need to be performed using products with larger packing volumes, such as Invitrogen's standard PURELINK ™ PCR Kit (Carlsbad, Calif.). After purification, the linearized vector is quantified using NanoDrop and analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm linearization.

  The modified mRNA production methods described herein can be used to produce molecules of all sizes, including long molecules. Using the described method, acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) (3.2 kb), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) (4.7 kb), factor VII (7.3 kb), lysosomal acid lipase (45) .4 kDa), glucocerebrosidase (59.7 kDa), and modified mRNAs of different sized molecules including iduronic acid 2-sulfatase (76 kDa) were generated.

As a non-limiting example, G-CSF can represent a polypeptide of interest. The sequences used for the steps outlined in Examples 1-5 are shown in Table 11. Note that the start codon (ATG) is underlined in each sequence in Table 11.
Table 11. G-CSF sequence

Example 2: PCR for cDNA production
The PCR procedure for cDNA preparation is performed using 2 × KAPA HIFI ™ HotStart ReadyMix by Kapa Biosystems (Woburn, Mass.). This system includes 2 × KAPA ReadyMix 12.5 μL, forward primer (10 uM) 0.75 μL, reverse primer (10 uM) 0.75 μL, template cDNA 100 ng, and dH 2 O diluted to 25.0 μL. The reaction conditions are 95 ° C. for 5 minutes, 98 ° C. for 20 seconds for 25 cycles, then 58 ° C. for 15 seconds, then 72 ° C. for 45 seconds, then 72 ° C. for 5 minutes, then 4 ° C. until completion.

The reverse primer of the present invention incorporates poly T 120 for poly A 120 in the mRNA. Other reverse primers with longer or shorter poly (T) pathways can be used to regulate the length of the poly (A) tail in the mRNA.

  The reaction is clarified (up to 5 μg) using an Invitrogen PURELINK ™ PCR Micro Kit (Carlsbad, Calif.) According to the manufacturer's instructions. Larger scale reactions need to be purified using larger volume products. After purification, the cDNA is quantified using NANODROP ™ and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm that the cDNA is the expected size. The cDNA is then submitted for sequencing analysis before proceeding with an in vitro transcription reaction.

Example 3 In vitro transcription (IVT)
In vitro transcription reactions produce mRNA containing modified nucleotides or modified RNA. The input nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) mixture was made in-house using natural and non-natural NTPs.

Typical in vitro transcription reactions include the following:
1 Template cDNA 1.0 μg
2 10 × transcription buffer (400 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 190 mM MgCl 2, 50 mM DTT, 10 mM spermidine) 2.0 μL
3 Custom NTP (25 mM each) 7.2 μL
4 RNase inhibitor 20U
5 T7 RNA polymerase 3000U
6 dH20 20.0 μL maximum
7 Incubation at 37 ° C for 3-5 hours.

  The crude IVT mixture can be stored overnight at 4 ° C. for cleaning the next day. The original template is then digested using 1 U RNase-free DNase. After 15 minutes incubation at 37 ° C., the mRNA is purified using Ambion's MEGACLEAR ™ Kit (Austin, TX) according to the manufacturer's instructions. This kit can purify up to 500 μg of RNA. After purification, the RNA is quantified using NanoDrop and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm that the RNA is the correct size and that no RNA degradation has occurred.

Example 4 Enzyme capping of mRNA mRNA capping is performed as follows, and the mixture contains 60 μg-180 μg of IVT RNA and up to 72 μL of dH 2 O. The mixture is incubated at 65 ° C. for 5 minutes to denature the RNA and then immediately transferred to ice.

This protocol then consists of 10 × capping buffer (0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 60 mM KCl, 12.5 mM MgCl 2 ) (10.0 μL), 20 mM GTP (5.0 μL), 20 mM S- Adenosylmethionine (2.5 μL), RNase inhibitor (100 U), 2′-O-methyltransferase (400 U), vaccinia capping enzyme (guanylyltransferase) (40 U), dH 20 (up to 28 μL), and 60 μg Incubation for 30 minutes at 37 ° C for RNA or up to 2 hours for 180 μg RNA.

  The mRNA is then purified using Ambion's MEGACLEAR ™ Kit (Austin, TX) according to the manufacturer's instructions. After purification, the RNA is quantified using NANODROP ™ (ThermoFisher, Waltham, Mass.) And analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm that the RNA is the correct size and that RNA degradation has occurred. Make sure not. Alternatively, reverse transcription PCR may be performed on the RNA product to generate a sequenced cDNA.

Example 5 FIG. Poly A tailing reaction If the cDNA does not have poly T, it is necessary to perform a poly A tailing reaction before purifying the final product. This consists of capped IVT RNA (100 μL), RNase inhibitor (20 U), 10 × tailing buffer (0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 2.5 M NaCl, 100 mM MgCl 2 ) (12.0 μL ), 20 mM ATP (6.0 μL), poly A polymerase (20 U), dH 2 O max 123.5 μL, and incubate at 37 ° C. for 30 minutes. If the poly A tail is already present in the transcript, the tailing reaction may be omitted and proceed directly to purification with Ambion's MEGACLEAR ™ kit (Austin, TX) (500 μg maximum). The poly A polymerase is preferably a recombinant enzyme expressed in yeast.

  In the work performed and described herein, the poly A tail is encoded in the IVT template to contain 160 nucleotides in length. However, it should be understood that the progression or completeness of the poly A tailing reaction does not always result in exactly 160 nucleotides. Thus, a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides, eg, about 150-165, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, or 165 is within the scope of the invention.

Example 6 Natural 5 ′ Caps and 5 ′ Cap Analogs 5 ′ capping of modified RNA may be concomitantly completed during the in vitro transcription reaction with the following chemical RNA cap analogs according to the manufacturer's protocol. 'A guanosine cap structure is generated: 3'-O-Me-m7G (5') ppp (5 ') G [ARCA cap], G (5') ppp (5 ') A, G (5') ppp (5 ′) G, m7G (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) A, m7G (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) G (New England BioLabs, Ipswich, Mass.). The 5 ′ capping of the modified RNA can be completed post-transcriptionally using a vaccinia virus capping enzyme to generate a “cap 0” structure: m7G (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) G (New England BioLabs, Ipswich, Mass.). . The cap 1 structure can be generated using both vaccinia virus capping enzyme and 2′-O methyltransferase, yielding m7G (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) G-2′-O-methyl. A cap 2 structure can be generated from the cap 1 structure after 2'-O-methylation of the third nucleotide from the 5 'end using 2'-O methyl-transferase. A cap 3 structure can be generated from the cap 2 structure after 2'-O-methylation of the fourth nucleotide from the 5 'end using 2'-O methyl-transferase. The enzyme is preferably derived from a recombinant source.

  When transfected into mammalian cells, the modified mRNA has a stability of 12-18 hours, or greater than 18 hours, such as greater than 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, or 72 hours.

Example 7 Capping A. Protein Expression Assay A synthetic mRNA encoding human G-CSF containing cDNA ACAP (3′O-Me-m7G (5 ′) ppp (5 ′) G) cap analog or cap 1 structure (cDNA is in SEQ ID NO: 16099) The mRNA sequence shown and fully modified with 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438, and a poly A tail about 160 nucleotides long is contained within the sequence. (Not shown) can be transfected into human primary keratinocytes at equal concentrations. The amount of G-CSF secreted into the culture medium can be assayed by ELISA at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after transfection. Synthetic mRNAs that secrete higher levels of G-CSF in the medium correspond to synthetic mRNAs that have a more highly translationally competent cap structure.

B. Purity analysis synthesis Synthetic mRNA encoding human G-CSF containing an ARCA cap analog or a crude synthetic product of cap 1 structure (cDNA is shown in SEQ ID NO: 16099, at 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and at each uridine site. The mRNA sequence fully modified with pseudouridine substitution is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438, and a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence) using purified agarose-urea gel electrophoresis or HPLC analysis. Can be compared. Synthetic mRNA with a single aggregated band by electrophoresis corresponds to a higher purity product compared to synthetic mRNA with multiple or streaked bands. Synthetic mRNA with a single HPLC peak also corresponds to a higher purity product. A more efficient capping reaction results in a purer mRNA population.

C. Cytokine analysis Synthetic mRNA encoding human G-CSF containing an ARCA cap analog or cap 1 structure (cDNA is shown in SEQ ID NO: 16099, complete with 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site. The modified mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438, and a poly A tail about 160 nucleotides long is not shown in the sequence) can be transfected into human primary keratinocytes at multiple concentrations. The amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-β secreted into the culture medium can be assayed by ELISA at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after transfection. Synthetic mRNAs that secrete higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the medium correspond to synthetic mRNAs that have an immune activation cap structure.

D. Capping reaction efficiency Synthetic mRNA encoding human G-CSF containing ARCA cap analog or cap 1 structure (cDNA is fully modified by 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site shown in SEQ ID NO: 16099) The cleaved mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438 in each cytosine, and a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides in length is not shown in the sequence) after nuclease treatment of the capped mRNA by LC-MS. Can be analyzed. Nuclease treatment of capped mRNA results in a mixture of free nucleotides detectable by LC-MS and capped 5′-5-triphosphate cap structures. The amount of capped product on the LC-MS spectrum can be expressed as a percentage of total mRNA from the reaction and will correspond to the capping reaction efficiency. A cap structure with higher capping reaction efficiency will have a higher amount of capped product by LC-MS.

Example 8 FIG. Agarose gel electrophoresis of modified RNA or RT PCR products Individual modified RNAs (200-400 ng in 20 μL volume) or reverse transcribed PCR products (200-400 ng) were purified from non-denaturing 1.2% agarose E-gel (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) wells and run for 12-15 minutes according to manufacturer's protocol.

Example 9 Nanodrop Modified RNA Quantification and UV Spectral Data Modified RNA in TE buffer (1 μL) is used for Nanodrop UV absorbance readings to quantify the yield of each RNA from in vitro transcription reactions.

Example 10 Formulation of Modified mRNA Using Lipidoids Modified mRNA (mmRNA) is formulated for in vitro experiments by mixing mmRNA and lipidoid at a set ratio prior to addition to cells. In vivo formulations may require the addition of additional components to promote circulation throughout the body. In order to test the ability of these lipidoids to form particles suitable for work in vivo, the standard formulation process used for siRNA-lipidoid formulations was used as a starting point. The initial mmRNA-lipidoid formulation can consist of particles composed of 42% lipidoid, 48% cholesterol, and 10% PEG, allowing further optimization of the ratio. After the formation of the particles, mRNA is added and integrated with the complex. Encapsulation efficiency is determined using a standard dye exclusion assay.

Materials and Methods of Examples 11-15 Lipid synthesis Six lipids, DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, 98N12-5, C12-200, and DLin-MC3-DMA are formulated in the art to formulate with modified RNA. Was synthesized by the method outlined in DLin-DMA and precursors were prepared as described in Heyes et. al, J. et al. Synthesized as described in Control Release, 2005, 107, 276-287. DLin-K-DMA and DLin-KC2-DMA, and precursors were obtained from Sample et. al, Nature Biotechnology, 2010, 28, 172-176. 98N12-5 and the precursor were prepared according to Akinc et. al, Nature Biotechnology, 2008, 26, 561-569.

  C12-200 and precursors were prepared according to Love et. al, PNAS, 2010, 107, 1864-1869. 2-Epoxydodecane (5.10 g, 27.7 mmol, 8.2 eq) was added to a vial containing Amine 200 (0.723 g, 3.36 mmol, 1 eq) and a stir bar. The vial was sealed and warmed to 80 ° C. The reaction was stirred at 80 ° C. for 4 days. The mixture was then purified by silica gel chromatography using a gradient of pure dichloromethane (DCM) to DCM: MeOH 98: 2. The target compound was further purified by RP-HPLC to give the desired compound.

  DLin-MC3-DMA and precursor were synthesized according to the procedure described in WO2010054401, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Dilinoleylmethanol (1.5 g, 2.8 mmol, 1 eq), N, N-dimethylaminobutyric acid (1.5 g, 2.8 mmol, 1 eq), DIPEA (0.73 mL, 4. eq) in 10 mL DMF. A mixture of 2 mmol, 1.5 eq), and TBTU (1.35 g, 4.2 mmol, 1.5 eq) was stirred at room temperature for 10 h. The reaction mixture was then diluted in ether and washed with water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography using a gradient of DCM to DCM: MeOH 98: 2. Subsequently, the target compound was subjected to further RP-HPLC purification (this was done using a YMC-Pack C4 column) to obtain the target compound.

B. Formulation of modified RNA nanoparticles Synthetic lipids, 1,2-distearoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) (Avanti Polar Lipids, Alabaster, AL), cholesterol (Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), and α- [3 ′ A solution of (1,2-dimyristoyl-3-propanoxy) -carboxamido-propyl] -ω-methoxy-polyoxyethylene (PEG-c-DOMG) (NOF, Bouwelven, Belgium) at a concentration of 50 mM in ethanol Prepared and stored at -20 ° C. The lipids were combined to obtain a molar ratio of 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (lipid: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-c-DOMG) and diluted with ethanol to a final lipid concentration of 25 mM. A solution of modified mRNA in water at a concentration of 1-2 mg / mL was diluted in 50 mM sodium citrate buffer at pH 3 to form a stock solution of modified mRNA. Lipid and modified mRNA formulations were prepared by combining synthetic lipid solution and modified mRNA solution at a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 10: 1, 15: 1, 20: 1, and 30: 1. The lipid ethanol solution was rapidly injected into the modified mRNA aqueous solution to obtain a suspension containing 33% ethanol. The solution was injected either manually (MI) or using a syringe pump (SP) (Harvar Pump 33 Dual Syringe Pump Harvard Apparatus Holliston, Mass.).

  In order to remove ethanol and achieve buffer exchange, the formulations were prepared using a Slide-A-Lyser cassette (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Rockford, IL) with a 10 kD molecular weight cut-off (MWCO). Dialyzed twice against phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 200 volumes and pH 7.4. The first dialysis was performed at room temperature for 3 hours and then the formulation was dialyzed overnight at 4 ° C. The resulting nanoparticle suspension was filtered through a 0.2 μm sterilized filter (Sarstedt, N • High b Nitrogen • Mo • 煤 CGermany) into a glass vial and crimp sealed.

C. Formulation Characterization Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern, Worcestershire, UK) was used to determine the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of the modified mRNA nanoparticles when determining particle size. The determination was performed in double PBS and in determination of zeta potential in 15 mM PBS.

  The concentration of the modified mRNA nanoparticle formulation was determined using UV-visible spectroscopy. 100 μL of the formulation diluted in 1 × PBS was added to 900 μL of a 4: 1 (v / v) mixture of methanol and chloroform. After mixing, the absorbance spectrum of the solution was recorded from 230 nm to 330 nm on a DU 800 spectrophotometer (Beckman Coulter, Beckman Coulter, Inc., Brea, Calif.). The concentration of modified RNA in the nanoparticle formulation was calculated based on the attenuation coefficient of the modified RNA used in the formulation and the difference between the absorbance at a wavelength of 260 nm and the baseline at a wavelength of 330 nm.

  Encapsulation of modified RNA with nanoparticles was evaluated using the QUANT-IT ™ RIBOGREEN® RNA assay (Invitrogen Corporation Carlsbad, Calif.). Samples were diluted to a concentration of about 5 μg / mL in TE buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5). 50 μL of diluted sample was transferred to a polystyrene 96 well plate, then either 50 μL of TE buffer or 50 μL of 2% Triton X-100 solution was added. The plate was incubated for 15 minutes at a temperature of 37 ° C. RIBOGREEN® reagent was diluted 1: 100 in TE buffer and 100 μL of this solution was added to each well. Fluorescence intensity was measured using a fluorescence plate reader (Wallac Victor 1420 Multilabel Counter; Perkin Elmer, Waltham, Mass.) At an excitation wavelength of about 480 nm and an emission wavelength of about 520 nm. The fluorescence value of the reagent blank is subtracted from each of the samples, and the ratio (%) of the free modified RNA is determined by dividing the fluorescence intensity of the intact sample (without addition of Triton X-100) (Triton X-10). By the fluorescence value (caused by the addition of

D. In Vitro Incubation Human fetal kidney epithelial (HEK293) and hepatocellular carcinoma epithelial (HepG2) cells (LGC standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) were seeded in 96-well plates (Greiner Bio-one GmbH, Frickenhausen, Germany) The plates were precoated with type 1 collagen. In 100 μL of cell culture medium, HEK293 was seeded at a density of 30,000 cells per well and HepG2 was seeded at a density of 35,000 cells. For HEK293, the cell culture medium is 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, and 1 × nonessential amino acids (Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany), and 1.2 mg / mL sodium bicarbonate (Sigma-Aldrich, (Munich, Germany), DMEM, 10% FCS, for HepG2, the culture medium added 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, and 1 × non-essential amino acids (Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany), MEM (Gibco Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany), 10% FCS mCherry mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439) A poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1) was added in quadruplicate immediately after seeding the cells and incubated, used for in vitro transcription (IVT) The mCherry cDNA with the T7 promoter, 5 ′ untranslated region (UTR), and 3 ′ UTR is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21440. The mCherry mRNA was modified with 5 meC in each cytosine and a pseudouridine substitution in each uridine site.

  Cells were harvested by transferring the culture medium supernatant to 96-well Pro-Bind U bottom plates (Beckton Dickinson GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). Cells were trypsinized with half of trypsin / EDTA (Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany), pooled with each supernatant, and one dose of PBS / 2% FCS (both Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany) /. Fix by adding 5% formaldehyde (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). Samples were then subjected to flow cytometer measurements on a LSRII cytometer (Beckton Dickinson GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) using a 532 nm excitation laser and a 610/20 filter for PE-Texas Red. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of all events and the standard deviation of 4 independent wells are presented for the analyzed samples.

Example 11 Purification of nanoparticle formulations DLin-KC2-DMA and 98N12-5 nanoparticle formulations were tested in HEK293 and HepG2 to determine whether the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) depends on the ratio of lipid to modified RNA and / or purification Judged. Three formulations of DLin-KC2-DMA and two formulations of 98N12-5 were produced to the specifications listed in Table 12 using a syringe pump. The purified sample was purified by SEPHADEX ™ G-25 DNA grade (GE Healthcare, Sweden). Each formulation before and after purification (aP) was tested in a 24-well plate at a concentration of 250 ng modified RNA per well. The percentage of cells positive for the FL4 channel marker (FL4 positive%) when analyzed by flow cytometer for each formulation and background sample, and the MFI of the FL4 channel marker for each formulation and background sample are tabulated. It is shown in FIG. The purified product had a slightly higher MFI than the product tested before purification.
Table 12. Formulation
Table 13. HEK293 and HepG2, 24 wells, 250 ng modified RNA / well

Example 12 Concentration response curves Nanoparticle formulations of 98N12-5 (NPA-005) and DLin-KC2-DMA (NPA-003) were tested at various concentrations and over a wide range of concentrations, FL4 or mCherry (mRNA sequence SEQ ID NO: The MFI of the approximately 160 nucleotide polyA tail is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine). The formulations tested are outlined in Table 14. To determine the optimal concentration of the 98N12-5 nanoparticle formulation, various concentrations of formulated modified RNA (100 ng, 10 ng, 1.0 ng, 0.1 ng, and 0.01 ng per well) Tested in 24-well plate HEK293, the FL4 MFI results for each dose are shown in Table 15. Similarly, to determine the optimal concentration of a nanoparticulate formulation of DLin-KC2-DMA, various concentrations of formulated modified RNA (250 ng 100 ng, 10 ng, 1.0 ng, 0.1 ng, and 0.01 ng) was tested in HEK293 in a 24-well plate and the FL4 MFI results for each dose are shown in Table 16. DLin-KC2-DMA nanoparticle formulations were also tested in HEK293 in 24-well plates with various concentrations of formulated modified RNA (250 ng, 100 ng, and 30 ng per well) and the FL4 MFI results are shown in Table 17. Show. A dose of 1 ng / well for 98N12-5 and a dose of 10 ng / well for DLin-KC2-DMA were found to be similar to background FL4 MFI.

Use a flow cytometer with a filter set optimized for the detection of mCherry expression to determine how similar the concentration is to the background, and the results with increased sensitivity compared to background levels Could get. Analyzing doses of 25 ng / well, 0.25 ng / well, 0.025 ng / well, and 0.0025 ng / well for 98N12-5 (NPA-005) and DLin-KC2-DMA (NPA-003) The mCherry MFI was determined. As shown in Table 18, concentrations of 0.025 ng / well and lower are similar to the background MFI level of mCherry which is about 386.125.
Table 14. Formulation
Table 15. HEK293, NPA-005, 24 wells, n = 4
Table 16. HEK293, NPA-003, 24 wells, n = 4
Table 17. HEK293, NPA-003, 24 wells, n = 4
Table 18. Concentration and MFI

Example 13 Manual Injection and Syringe Pump Formulations Two formulations, DLin-KC2-DMA and 98N12-5, were prepared by manual injection (MI) and syringe pump injection (SP) and analyzed with background samples to show different formulations of mCherry ( The MFI of the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; the polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine). Table 19 shows that the syringe pump formulation had a higher MFI compared to a manual infusion formulation with the same lipid and lipid / RNA ratio.
Table 19. Formulation and MFI

Example 14 Lipid Nanoparticle Formulations DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, 98N12-5, C12-200, and DLin-MC3-DMA formulations were prepared at 60 ng / well or 62.5 ng / well on HEK293 plates. Incubate for 24 hours at a concentration of wells, 62.5 ng / well on a plate of HepG2 cells, and for each formulation mCherry (sequence is SEQ ID NO: 21439; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) was determined. The formulations tested are outlined in Table 20 below. As shown in Table 21 for 60 ng / well and Tables 22, 23, 24, and 25 for 62.5 ng / well, the formulations of NPA-003 and NPA-018 have the highest mCherry MFI, The NPA-008, NPA-010, and NPA-013 formulations are most similar to the mCherry MFI values of the background samples.
Table 20. Formulation
Table 21. HEK293, 96 wells, 60 ng modified RNA / well
Table 22. HEK293, 62.5 ng / well
Table 23. HEK293, 62.5 ng / well
Table 24. HepG2, 62.5 ng / well
Table 25. epG2, 62.5 ng / well

Example 15. In Vivo Formulation Studies Rodents (n = 5) are administered a single dose of a formulation containing modified mRNA and lipid intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Modified mRNA to be administered to rodents is G-CSF (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1), erythropoietin (EPO) (The mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1), Factor IX (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; about 160 nucleotides The polyA tail is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1), or mCherry (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; the polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5' cap, Selected from caps 1). The erythropoietin cDNA with T7 promoter, 5 ′ untranslated region (UTR), and 3 ′ UTR used for in vitro transcription (IVT) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21441 and SEQ ID NO: 21442.

  Each formulation is also of DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, 98N12-5, C12-200, DLin-MC3-DMA, reLNP, ATUPLEX®, DACC, and DBTC. Contains a lipid selected from one. Rodents are injected with 100 μg, 10 μg, or 1 μg of formulated modified mRNA and samples are taken at specified time intervals.

  Serum from rodents administered a preparation containing human G-CSF modified mRNA was measured by specific G-CSF ELISA, and serum from mice administered human factor IX modified RNA was analyzed for specific factor IX. Analyze by factor ELISA or chromogenic assay. Livers and spleens from mice dosed with mCherry modified mRNA are analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). As a control, a group of mice is not injected with any formulation, their sera and tissues are collected and analyzed by ELISA, FACS, and / or IHC.

A. Time course A formulation containing at least one modified mRNA is administered to a rodent and the time course of protein expression of the administered formulation is studied. Rodents are bled at designated time intervals before and after administration of the modified mRNA preparation to determine protein expression and total blood count. Samples are also taken from the administration site of rodents to which the modified mRNA preparation has been administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly to determine protein expression in the tissue.

B. Dose response A rodent is administered a formulation containing at least one modified mRNA and the dose response of each formulation is determined. Rodents are bled at designated time intervals before and after administration of the modified mRNA preparation to determine protein expression and total blood count. In addition, rodents are sacrificed and the effect of the modified mRNA preparation on internal tissues is analyzed. Samples are also taken from the administration site of rodents to which the modified mRNA preparation has been administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly to determine protein expression in the tissue.

C. Toxicity To rodents are administered formulations containing at least one modified mRNA and the toxicity of each formulation is studied. Rodents are bled at designated time intervals before and after administration of the modified mRNA preparation to determine protein expression and total blood count. In addition, rodents are sacrificed and the effect of the modified mRNA preparation on internal tissues is analyzed. Samples are also taken from the administration site of rodents to which the modified mRNA preparation has been administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly to determine protein expression in the tissue.

Example 16 PLGA microsphere formulation Optimization of parameters used in the formulation of PLGA microspheres allows for adjustable release rate and high encapsulation efficiency while maintaining the integrity of the modified RNA encapsulated in the microsphere can do. Parameters such as, but not limited to, particle size, recovery, and encapsulation efficiency can be optimized to achieve an optimal formulation.

A. Synthesis of PLGA microspheres Polylactic acid glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres were synthesized from PLGA (Lactel, catalog number B6010-2, intrinsic viscosity 0.55 to 0.75, LA: GA with 50:50), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). (Sigma, catalog number 348406-25G, MW 13-23k), dichloromethane, and water were used to synthesize using a water / oil / water double emulsification method known in the art. Briefly, 0.1 mL of water (W1) was added to 2 mL of PLGA dissolved in dichloromethane (DCM) (O1) at a PLGA concentration range of 50-200 mg / mL. The W1 / O1 emulsion was homogenized at a speed of 4 (about 15,000 rpm) for 30 seconds (IKA Ultra-Turrax Homogenizer, T18). The W1 / O1 emulsion was then added to 100-200 mL of 0.3-1% PVA (W2) and homogenized for 1 minute at various rates. The formulation was allowed to stir for 3 hours and then washed by centrifugation (20-25 minutes, 4,000 rpm, 4 ° C.). The supernatant was discarded and the PLGA pellet was resuspended in 5-10 mL of water and this was repeated twice. The average particle size of each formulation (representing 20-30 particles) was determined by microscopic inspection after washing. Table 26 shows that increasing PLGA concentration resulted in larger particle size microspheres. A PLGA concentration of 200 mg / mL resulted in an average particle size of 14.8 μm, 100 mg / mL at 8.7 μm and 50 mg / mL PLGA at an average particle size of 4.0 μm.
Table 26. Change in PLGA concentration

Table 27 shows that decreasing the homogenization speed from 5 (about 20,000 rpm) to speed 4 (about 15,000 rpm) resulted in an increase in particle size from 14.8 μm to 29.7 μm.
Table 27. Change in homogenization speed

Table 28 shows that by increasing the volume of W2 (ie, increasing the W2: O1 ratio from 50: 1 to 100: 1), the average particle size was slightly reduced. Changing the PVA concentration from 0.3 to 1% by weight had little effect on the size of the PLGA microspheres.
Table 28. Change in volume and concentration of W2

B. Encapsulation of modified mRNA Modified G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine Fully modified) was dissolved in water at a concentration of 2 mg / mL (W3). Three batches of PLGA microsphere formulations were made as described above according to the following parameters: 0.1 mL W3 at 2 mg / mL, 1.6 mL O1 at 200 mg / mL, 160 mL W2 at 1%, and the first. One emulsion (W3 / O1) is homogenized at speed 3 and the second emulsion (W3 / O1 / W2) is homogenized at speed 5. After washing by centrifugation, the formulation was frozen in liquid nitrogen and then lyophilized for 3 days. To test the encapsulation efficiency of the formulation, the lyophilized material was deformed in DCM for 6 hours and then extracted into water overnight. The concentration of modified RNA in the sample was then determined by OD260. Encapsulation efficiency was calculated by taking the actual amount of modified RNA and dividing by the starting amount of modified RNA. The three batches tested had an encapsulation efficiency of 59.2, 49.8, and 61.3.

C. Integrity of Modified mRNA Encapsulated in PLGA Microspheres Modified Factor IX mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; (Fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) is dissolved in water at various concentrations (W4) to change the percent weight loaded (mg modified RNA / mg PLGA * 100) in the formulation and increase encapsulation efficiency Judged. Using the parameters in Table 29, the first emulsion (W4 / O1) has a homogenization rate of 4 and the second emulsion (W4 / O1 / W2) has a homogenization rate of 5 for four different batches of PLGA micro A sphere formulation was made.
Table 29. Parameters of Factor IX PLGA microsphere formulation

After lyophilization, PLGA microspheres were weighed into 2 mL Eppendorf tubes to correspond to approximately 10 μg of modified RNA. Lyophilization was found not to destroy the overall structure of the PLGA microspheres. Increasing amounts of modified RNA were added to the samples to increase the fill weight percent (wt%) of the PLGA microspheres. PLGA microspheres were formulated by adding 1.0 mL DCM to each tube and then shaking the sample for 6 hours. For extraction of modified RNA, 0.5 mL of water was added to each sample and the samples were shaken overnight, after which the concentration of modified RNA in the sample was determined by OD260. To determine the recovery rate of the extraction process, unformulated Factor IX modified RNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap; Cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine (deformulation control) was added in DCM and subjected to the deformulation process. Table 30 shows sample loading and encapsulation efficiency. All encapsulation efficiency samples were normalized to the deformulated control.
Table 30. Fill weight percent and encapsulation efficiency
D. Release studies of modified mRNA encapsulated in PLGA microspheres

  With factor IX modified RNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; approximately 160 nucleotides poly A tail not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) Formulated PLGA microspheres were de-formulated as described above and the integrity of the extracted modified RNA was determined by automated electrophoresis (Bio-Rad Experion). The extracted modified mRNA was compared against the unformulated modified mRNA and the deformulated control to study the integrity of the encapsulated modified mRNA. As shown in FIG. 4, most of the modified RNAs are batch identifiers A, B, C, and D, deformulated controls (deformulated controls), and unformulated controls (non-formulated controls). About was intact.

E. Protein expression of modified mRNA encapsulated in PLGA microspheres Factor IX modified RNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; PLGA microspheres formulated with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) were formulated as described above and protein expression of the extracted modified RNA was determined by in vitro transfection assay. HEK293 cells were triple-transfected with 250 ng of Factor IX modified RNA complexed with RNAiMAX (Invitrogen).

Factor IX-modified RNA was diluted to a concentration of 25 ng / μL in nuclease-free water, and RNAiMAX was diluted 13.3 times in serum-free EMEM. An equal volume of diluted modified RNA and diluted RNAiMAX were mixed together and placed at room temperature for 20-30 minutes. Subsequently, 20 μL of the transfection mixture containing 250 ng of Factor IX modified RNA was added to 80 μL of cell suspension containing 30,000 cells. Cells were incubated for 16 hours in a humidified 37 ° C./5% CO 2 cell culture incubator and then the cell culture supernatant was collected. The protein expression of factor IX in the cell supernatant was analyzed in particular by an ELISA kit for factor IX (Molecular Innovations, catalog number HFIXKT-TOT) and the protein expression is shown in Table 31 and FIG. In all PLGA microsphere batches tested, Factor IX modified RNA remained active and expressed Factor IX protein after formulation into PLGA microspheres and subsequent de-formulation.
Table 31. Protein expression

F. Release studies of modified mRNA encapsulated in PLGA microspheres Factor IX modified RNA (the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; PLGA microspheres formulated with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) were resuspended in water to a PLGA microsphere concentration of 24 mg / mL. After resuspension, 150 μL of PLGA microsphere suspension was aliquoted into Eppendorf tubes. Samples continued to be incubated and shaken at 37 ° C. during the course of the study. Triplicate samples were taken at 0.2, 1, 2, 8, 14, and 21 days. To determine the amount of modified RNA released from the PLGA microspheres, the sample was centrifuged, the supernatant was removed, and the concentration of modified RNA in the supernatant was determined by OD260. The percent release shown in Table 32 was calculated based on the amount of total modified RNA in each sample. After 31 days, 96% of the Factor IX modified RNA was released from the PLGA microsphere formulation.
Table 32. Percent release

G. Particle size reproducibility of PLGA microspheres Three batches of Factor IX modified RNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; 5 -Fully modified with methylcytosine and pseudouridine) PLGA microspheres were made using the same conditions as described for Batch D shown in Table 29 (0.4 mL W4 at 4 mg / mL, 200 mg / mL 2.0 mL O1, 1% 200 mL W2, and W4 / O1 / W2 emulsions are homogenized at speed 5). Filtration was incorporated prior to centrifugation to improve the homogeneity of the PLGA microsphere suspension. After stirring for 3 hours, all the formulated material was passed through a 100 μm nylon mesh sieve (Fisherbrand Cell Strainer, catalog number 22-363-549) to remove large aggregates prior to centrifugation. After washing with water and resuspending, 100-200 μL PLGA microsphere samples were used for formulation particle size measurement by laser diffraction (Malvern Mastersizer 2000). The particle size of the sample is shown in Table 33.
Table 33. Particle size summary

  The results of three PLGA microsphere batches with filtration were compared to PLGA microsphere batches made under the same conditions without filtration. Incorporating a filtration step prior to washing reduced the average particle size and showed a consistent particle size distribution among the three PLGA microsphere batches.

H. Serum stability of Factor IX PLGA microspheres Factor IX mRNA RNA in buffer (TE) or 90% serum (Se) (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; approximately 160 nucleotides polyA tail within sequence Not completely shown; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine), or factor IX mRNA in PLGA in buffer, 90% serum, or 1% serum, buffer, Incubation was performed in 90% serum or 1% serum at an mRNA concentration of 50 ng / μL in a total volume of 70 μL. Samples were removed at 0, 30, 60, or 120 minutes. 25 μL of 4 × proteinase K buffer (0.4 mL of 1 M TRIS-HCl pH 7.5, 0.1 mL of 0.5 M EDTA, 0.12 mL of 5 M NaCl, and 0.4 mL of 10% SDS) and 8 μL of proteinase RNase was inactivated by proteinase K digestion at 55 ° C. for 20 minutes by adding K at 20 mg / mL. Factor IX mRNA was precipitated (250 μL of 95% ethanol was added for 1 hour, centrifuged at 13 krpm for 10 minutes, the supernatant was removed, and 200 μL of 70% ethanol was pelleted prior to analysis with the bioanalyzer. And centrifuged again at 13 krpm for 5 minutes, the supernatant removed and the pellet resuspended in 70 μL of water) or extracted from PLGA microspheres (centrifuged at 13 krpm for 5 minutes, top The supernatant is removed, the pellet is washed with 1 mL of water, centrifuged at 13 krpm for 5 minutes, the supernatant is removed, 280 μL of dichloromethane is added to the pellet, shaken for 15 minutes, 70 μL of water is added, and then Shake for 2 hours to remove the aqueous phase). PLGA microspheres protect Factor IX modified mRNA from degradation in 90% and 1% serum for 2 hours. Factor IX modified mRNA is completely degraded in 90% serum at the start.

Example 17. In vivo studies of lipid nanoparticles G-CSF (cDNA with T7 promoter, 5 ′ untranslated region (UTR), and 3 ′ UTR used for in vitro transcription is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21437. The mRNA sequence is SEQ ID NO: 21438. A poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) and factor IX (used for in vitro transcription, T7 A cDNA with promoter, 5′UTR, and 3′UTR is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21443. The mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) modified m RNA was formulated as lipid nanoparticles (LNP) using a syringe pump method. LNP has a final lipid molar ratio of 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (DLin-KC2-DMA: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-c-DOMG) with a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 20: 1. Formulated with The formulations listed in Table 34 were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation.
Table 34. Formulation

  The LNP formulation was administered intravenously to mice (n = 5) at a modified mRNA dose of 100, 10, or 1 μg. Mice were sacrificed 8 hours after dosing. Serum was collected from mice administered G-CSF or factor IX modified mRNA preparations by cardiac puncture. Protein expression was determined by ELISA.

There was no significant weight loss (<5%) in the G-CSF or Factor IX groups. Protein expression of G-CSF or Factor IX administration groups was determined from standard curves by ELISA. Serum samples were diluted (about 20-2500 times for G-CSF and about 10-250 times for Factor IX) to ensure that the sample was within the linear range of the standard curve. As shown in Table 35, G-CSF protein expression as determined by ELISA was approximately 17, 1200, and 4700 ng / mL for the 1, 10, and 100 μg dose groups, respectively. As shown in Table 36, Factor IX protein expression as determined by ELISA was approximately 36, 380, and 3000-11000 ng / mL for the 1, 10, and 100 μg dose groups, respectively.
Table 35. G-CSF protein expression
Table 36. Factor IX protein expression

As shown in Table 37, the above-described LNP formulations are administered intravenously (IV) lipoplex formulations of the same dosage of modified mRNA, and intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneously of the same dose of modified mRNA in saline. (SC) Has an increase of about 10,000 to 100,000 fold in protein production compared to administration. As used in Table 37, the symbol “about (˜)” means about.
Table 37. Protein production

Materials and Methods of Examples 18-23 G-CSF (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; 5-methyl Fully modified with cytosine and pseudouridine) and EPO (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine The modified mRNA was formulated as lipid nanoparticles (LNP) using a syringe pump method. LNP has a final lipid molar ratio of 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (DLin-KC2-DMA: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-c-DOMG) with a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 20: 1. Formulated with The formulations listed in Table 38 were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation.
Table 38. Formulation

Example 18 In vivo studies of lipid nanoparticles using modified mRNA LNP formulations shown in Table 38 (above) were administered intravenously (IV), muscle to rats (n = 5) at a single modified mRNA dose of 0.05 mg / kg. Administration was internal (IM) or subcutaneous (SC). Control rats (n = 4) were untreated. Rats were bled 2 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 96 hours, and after they were administered a G-CSF or EPO modified mRNA preparation, and protein expression was determined by ELISA. Rats administered intravenously with EPO-modified mRNA were also bled on day 7.

As shown in Table 39, EPO protein expression in rats administered intravenously with modified EPO mRNA was detectable until day 5 was reached. G-CSF in rats administered intravenously with modified G-CSF mRNA was detectable up to 7 days. Subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of EPO modified mRNA was detectable up to at least 24 hours, and G-CSF modified mRNA was detectable up to at least 8 hours. In Table 39, “OSC” refers to the value that was outside the standard curve, and “NT” means untested.
Table 39. Protein expression of G-CSF and EPO

Example 19. In vivo studies over time The LNP formulations shown in Table 38 (above) were administered intravenously (IV) to mice (n = 5) at a single modified mRNA dose of 0.5, 0.05, or 0.005 mg / kg. Administered. Mice were bled 8 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 6 days after administration of G-CSF or EPO modified mRNA preparations, and protein expression was determined using ELISA.

As shown in Table 40, EPO and G-CSF protein expression in mice administered intravenously with modified mRNA reached 72 hours in mice administered 0.005 mg / kg and 0.05 mg / kg modified mRNA. In mice administered with EPO-modified mRNA, detection was possible until day 6 was reached. In Table 40, “>” means larger than that, and “ND” means not detected.
Table 40. Protein expression

Example 20. In vivo studies of LNP formulations in rodents LNP formulations in mice The LNP formulations shown in Table 38 (above) were administered intravenously (IV) to mice (n = 4) at a single modified mRNA dose of 0.05 mg / kg or 0.005 mg / kg. There were also three untreated control mouse groups (n = 4). Mice were bled 2 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after administration of G-CSF or EPO modified mRNA preparations to determine protein expression. Protein expression of G-CSF and EPO was determined using ELISA.

As shown in Table 41, EPO and G-CSF protein expression in mice reached at least 48 hours in mice that received a modified RNA dose of 0.005 mg / kg, and a dose of 0.05 mg / kg. It was detectable up to 72 hours in mice receiving the modified RNA. In Table 41, “OSC” refers to the value that was outside the standard curve, and “NT” means untested.
Table 41. Protein expression in mice

B. LNP formulations in rodents The LNP formulations shown in Table 38 (above) are administered intravenously (IV) to rats (n = 4) at a single modified mRNA dose of 0.05 mg / kg. There is also an untreated control rat group (n = 4). Rats are bled 2 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 14 days after administration of G-CSF or EPO modified mRNA preparations to determine protein expression. Protein expression of G-CSF and EPO is determined using ELISA.

Example 21. Early time course study of LNP The LNP formulations shown in Table 38 (above) were administered intravenously to mammals at a single modified mRNA dose of 0.5 mg / kg, 0.05 mg / kg, or 0.005 mg / kg ( IV), intramuscular (IM), or subcutaneous (SC). The control mammal group is untreated. Blood was collected 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, and / or 2 hours after administration of the modified mRNA LNP preparation to the mammal, and the ELISA was used. Determine protein expression. In addition, blood is collected from the mammal and the total blood count such as granulocyte level and red blood cell count is determined.

Example 22. In vivo study of non-human primates.
A non-human primate (NHP) as an intravenous bolus infusion (IV) over about 30 seconds using a hypodermic needle that can be attached to a syringe / abbocath or butterfly as needed with the LNP formulation shown in Table 38 (above) ) (Cynomolgus monkey) (n = 2). NHP was administered a single modified mRNA IV dose of 0.05 mg / kg EPO or G-CSF, or 0.005 mg / kg EPO at a dosage of 0.5 mL / kg. Blood was collected 5-6 days before NHP was dosed with the modified mRNA LNP formulation to determine protein expression in serum and baseline total blood count. After administration of the modified mRNA preparation, blood was collected in NHP at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours to determine protein expression. NHP whole blood counts were also determined 24 and 72 hours after dosing. Protein expression of G-CSF and EPO was determined by ELISA. NHP urine was collected throughout the course of the experiment and analyzed to assess clinical stability. After administering G-CSF or EPO modified mRNA preparations to NHP, samples were taken from them and protein expression was determined using ELISA. Non-human primate clinical chemistry, hematology, urinalysis, and cytokines were also analyzed.

As shown in Table 42, EPO protein expression in NHP dosed with 0.05 mg / kg is detectable up to 72 hours, and at doses of 0.005 mg / kg EPO formulation up to 48 hours It can be detected. In Table 42, “<” means less than a given value. G-CSF protein expression was observed up to 24 hours after administration of the modified mRNA preparation. Preliminarily, increased levels of granulocytes and reticulocytes were seen in NHP after administration of the modified mRNA formulation.
Table 42. Protein expression in non-human primates

Example 23. In vivo study of non-human primates on G-CSF and EPO The LNP formulation shown in Table 38 (above) is administered to non-human primates (NHP) (cynomolgus monkey) (n = 2) as intravenous infusion (IV) did. NHP was administered a single modified mRNA IV dose of 0.5 mg / kg, 0.05 mg / kg, or 0.005 mg / kg G-CSF or EPO at a dosage of 0.5 mL / kg. Blood was collected before NHP was dosed with the modified mRNA LNP formulation to determine protein expression in serum and baseline total blood count. After administration of the G-CSF modified mRNA preparation, blood was collected into NHP at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours to determine protein expression. After administration of the EPO-modified mRNA preparation, blood was collected into NHP at 8, 24, 48, 72 hours, and 7 days to determine protein expression.

  Samples taken after administration of G-CSF or EPO modified mRNA formulations to NHP were analyzed by ELISA to determine protein expression. Neutrophil and reticulocyte counts were also determined before administration of G-CSF or EPO formulation, 24 hours, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 18 days after administration.

As shown in Table 43, G-CSF protein expression was not detected beyond 72 hours. In Table 43, “<39” refers to a value lower than the detection lower limit of 39 pg / mL.
Table 43. G-CSF protein expression

As shown in Table 44, EPO protein expression was not detected beyond 7 days. In Table 44, “<7.8” refers to a value lower than the detection lower limit of 7.8 pg / mL.
Table 44. EPO protein expression

As shown in Table 45, there was an increase in neutrophils in all G-CSF groups compared to pre-dose levels.
Table 45. Pharmacological effects of G-CSF mRNA in NHP

As shown in Table 46, all EPO groups had an increase in reticulocytes from 3 to 14/18 days after dosing compared to reticulocyte levels 24 hours after dosing.
Table 46. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on neutrophil count

As shown in Tables 47-49, administration of EPO-modified RNA had an effect on other erythropoiesis parameters, including hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and red blood cell (RBC) counts.
Table 47. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on hemoglobin
Table 48. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on hematocrit
Table 49. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on erythrocytes

As shown in Tables 50 and 51, administration of modified RNA had an effect on serum chemistry parameters including alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST).
Table 50. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on alanine transaminase
Table 51. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on aspartate transaminase

As shown in Table 52, administration of lipid nanoparticles-formulated modified RNA at a high dose (0.5 mg / kg) caused an increase in cytokine or interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) after administration of the modified mRNA. It was.
Table 52. Pharmacological effects of EPO mRNA on alanine transaminase

Example 24. Study of intramuscular and / or subcutaneous administration in non-human primates Modified EPO mRNA in saline (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap; Cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) or G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) were administered intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (SC) to non-human primates (cynomolgus monkeys) (NHP). A single modified mRNA dose of 0.05 mg / kg or 0.005 mg / kg was at a dosage of 0.5 mL / kg. Non-human primates are bled 5-6 days prior to dosing to determine serum protein concentration and baseline total blood count. After administration of the modified mRNA preparation, blood is drawn into NHP at 8, 24, 48, 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days to determine protein expression. Protein expression of G-CSF and EPO is determined by ELISA. NHP whole blood counts are also determined 24 hours, 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after administration. Urine is collected from NHP over the course of the entire experiment and analyzed to assess clinical stability. Tissue near the injection site is also collected and analyzed to determine protein expression.

Example 25. Transport of modified mRNA To determine the localization and / or transport of modified mRNA, studies can be conducted as follows.

  SiRNA and modified mRNA LNP formulations are formulated according to methods known in the art and / or described herein. The LNP formulation can include at least one modified mRNA that can encode a protein such as G-CSF, EPO, Factor VII, and / or any protein described herein. The formulation can be administered locally into the muscle of a mammal using intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. The dose of modified mRNA and the size of the LNP can vary to determine transport to the mammalian body and / or to assess the impact on biological responses such as but not limited to inflammation. obtain. The mammal can be bled at different times to determine the expression of the protein encoded by the administered mRNA present in the serum, and / or to determine the total blood count in the mammal.

  For example, a modified mRNA encoding Factor VII that is expressed in the liver and secreted into the serum can be administered intramuscularly and / or subcutaneously. At the same time or prior to the modified mRNA administration, siRNA is administered to knock out endogenous factor VII. Factor VII resulting from intramuscular and / or subcutaneous injection of modified mRNA in the blood is administered and measured. In addition, the level of Factor VII in the tissue near the injection site is also measured. When Factor VII is expressed in the blood, there is transport of modified mRNA. If factor VII is expressed in the tissue but not in the blood, only local expression of factor VII is present.

Example 26. Formulation of Multiple Modified mRNAs LNP formulations of modified mRNA are formulated according to methods known in the art and / or described herein or known in the art. The LNP formulation may include at least one modified mRNA that may encode a protein such as G-CSF, EPO, thrombopoietin, and / or any protein described herein. The at least one modified mRNA can include 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 modified mRNA molecules. Formulations containing at least one modified mRNA can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously in single or multiple dosage regimens. Biological samples, such as but not limited to blood and / or serum, can be collected and analyzed at various time points before and / or after administration of at least one modified mRNA formulation. After administration of a formulation containing at least one modified mRNA encoding a protein to a mammal, expression of the protein in a biological sample of 50-200 pg / mL would be considered biologically effective.

Example 27. Study of polyethylene glycol ratio Formulation and Characterization of PEG LNP Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) were formulated using a syringe pump method. LNP, total lipid and modified G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine In a 20: 1 weight ratio). The molar ratio range of the formulations is shown in Table 53.
Table 53. Molar ratio

Two PEG lipids, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol (PEG-DMG, NOF catalog number SUNBRIGHT® GM-020) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol, methoxy Polyethylene glycol (PEG-DSG, NOF catalog number SUNBRIGHT® GS-020) was tested at 1.5 or 3.0 mol%. After formation of LNP and encapsulation of modified G-CSF mRNA, LNP formulations were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation rate and the results are shown in Table 54.
Table 54. Characterization of LNP formulations
B. In vivo screening of PEG LNP

The PEG LNP formulation described in Table 55 was administered intravenously to mice (n = 5) at a dose of 0.5 mg / kg. Serum was collected from mice 2 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 8 days after administration of the formulation. Serum was analyzed by ELISA to determine G-CSF protein expression and expression levels are shown in Table 55. The LNP formulation using PEG-DMG exhibited substantially higher levels of protein expression than the LNP formulation using PEG-DSA.
Table 55. Protein expression

Example 28. Cationic lipid formulation study A. Formulation and Characterization of Cationic Lipid Nanoparticles Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) were formulated using a syringe pump method. LNP was formulated at a 20: 1 total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio. The final lipid molar ratio ranges for cationic lipids, DSPC, cholesterol, and PEG-c-DOMG are outlined in Table 56.
Table 56. Molar ratio

A modified RNA in 25 mM lipid solution in ethanol and 50 mM citrate at pH 3 was mixed resulting in spontaneous vesicle formation. After stabilizing the vesicles in ethanol, ethanol was removed and buffer exchange by dialysis was performed. LNP was then characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation rate. Table 57 shows that EPO-modified mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638 has a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides within the sequence using DLin-MC3-DMA, DLin-DMA, or C12-200 as the cationic lipid. Not shown; 5 'cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) or G-CSF modified mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides) Is not shown in the sequence; the characterization of LNP encapsulated 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) is described.
Table 57. Characterization of cationic lipid formulations

B. In vivo screening of cationic LNP formulations The formulations of cationic lipid formulations described in Table 57 were administered intravenously to mice (n = 5) at a dose of 0.5 mg / kg. Serum was collected from mice at 2, 24, 72 hours, and / or 7 days after administration of the formulation. Serum was analyzed by ELISA to determine EPO or G-CSF protein expression and expression levels are shown in Table 58.
Table 58. Protein expression

  Toxicity was confirmed in mice administered LNP formulations with cationic lipids C12-200 (NPA-075-1 and NPA-076-1), which are dull hair, atrophic behavior, and greater than 10% Because of symptoms such as weight loss, he was sacrificed in 24 hours. C12-200 was expected to be more toxic but also had a high level of expression in a short period of time. The cationic lipids DLin-DMA (NPA-073-1 and NPA-074-1) had the lowest expression among the three cationic lipids tested. DLin-MC3-DMA (NPA-071-1 and NPA-072-1) showed good expression by day 3 and exceeded background samples for EPO formulations until day 7.

Example 29. Protein Expression Screening Method A. Electrospray ionization A biological sample that can contain a protein encoded by a modified RNA administered to a subject is prepared and used for electrospray ionization (ESI) using 1, 2, 3, or 4 mass analyzers. Analyze according to manufacturer's protocol. Biological samples can also be analyzed using a tandem ESI mass spectrometry system.
The pattern of protein fragments, or total protein, is compared to a known control for a given protein and the identity is determined by comparison.

B. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption / Ionization A biological sample that can contain a protein encoded by a modified RNA administered to a subject is prepared and analyzed according to the manufacturer's protocol for matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization (MALDI).

  The pattern of protein fragments, or total protein, is compared to a known control for a given protein and the identity is determined by comparison.

C. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry-Mass spectrometry)
A biological sample that can contain the protein encoded by the modified RNA is treated with a trypsin enzyme to digest the protein contained therein. The resulting peptide is analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC / MS / MS). Peptides are fragmented into a mass spectrometer and a characteristic pattern is generated that can be matched with a protein sequence database via a computer algorithm. Digested samples can be diluted to obtain 1 ng or less starting material for a given protein. Biological samples containing simple buffer backgrounds (eg water or volatile salts) are suitable for direct solution digestion and more complex backgrounds (eg surfactants, non-volatiles) Salt, glycerol) requires an additional purification step to facilitate sample analysis.

  The pattern of protein fragments, or total protein, is compared to a known control for a given protein and the identity is determined by comparison.

Example 30. FIG. In Vivo Studies of Lipid Nanoparticles mCherry mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21444; about 160 nucleotides poly A tail is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; completely with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine Modification) was formulated as lipid nanoparticles (LNP) using a syringe pump method. LNP is a final lipid molar ratio of 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (DLin-KC2-DMA: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-c-DOMG) with a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 20: 1 was formulated. The mCherry formulations listed in Table 59 were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation.
Table 59. mCherry formulation

  LNP formulation was administered intravenously to mice (n = 5) at a modified mRNA dose of 100 μg. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours after dosing. Livers and spleens from mice administered mCherry modified mRNA preparations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot, or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

  Liver histology showed uniform mCherry expression throughout the section, while untreated animals did not express mCherry. In addition, Western blot was used to confirm the expression of mCherry in treated animals, but mCherry was not detected in untreated animals. Tubulin was used as a control marker, which was detected in both treated and untreated mice, indicating that normal protein expression in hepatocytes was not affected.

  In addition, FACS and IHC were also performed on the spleens of mCherry and untreated mice. All white blood cell populations were negative in mCherry expression by FACS analysis. In addition, by IHC, there was no difference that can be observed in the spleen in the spleen between mCherry-treated mice and untreated mice.

Example 31. Syringe pump in vivo studies mCherry modified mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1), lipid nanoparticles using the syringe pump method Formulated as (LNP). LNP is a final lipid molar ratio of 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (DLin-KC2-DMA: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-c-DOMG) with a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 20: 1. Formulate with 1. mCherry formulations are characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation.

  LNP formulations are administered intravenously to mice (n = 5) at a modified mRNA dose of 10 or 100 μg. Mice are sacrificed 24 hours after dosing. Liver and spleen from mice dosed with mCherry modified mRNA formulations are analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot, and / or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

Example 32. In vitro and in vivo expression In vitro expression in human cells using lipidoid formulations The ratio of mmRNA to lipidoid used to test for in vitro transfection is experimentally tested at different lipidoid: mRNA ratios. Previous studies with siRNA and lipidoids used 2.5: 1, 5: 1, 10: 1, and 15: 1 lipidoid: siRNA weight: weight ratios. Considering the longer length of mRNA as compared to siRNA, lower lipidoid and mRNA weight: weight ratios may be effective. In addition, for comparison purposes, mRNAs using RNAIMAX ™ (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) or TRANSIT-mRNA (Mirus Bio, Madison, WI) cationic lipid delivery vehicles were also formulated.

  A lipidoid formulated luciferase that expresses the desired protein product (IVT cDNA sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1, fully modified with 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site), green fluorescent protein (GFP) (IVT cDNA sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 21447; mRNA sequence is The approximately 160 nucleotide poly A tail shown in SEQ ID NO: 21448 is not shown in the sequence and is completely modified with 5 ′ cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site), G -CS mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1), and EPO mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; about 160 The poly A tail of the nucleotide is not shown in the sequence; the ability of 5 'cap, cap 1), luminescence for luciferase expression, flow cytometry for GFP expression, and secretion of G-CSF and erythropoietin (EPO) It can be confirmed by ELISA.

B. In Vivo Expression After Intravenous Infusion Systemic intravenous administration of the formulation is performed with a variety of different lipidoids including but not limited to 98N12-5, C12-200, and MD1.

  Lipidoid formulations containing mmRNA are injected intravenously into animals. Expression of the protein encoded by the modified mRNA (mmRNA) is assessed in blood taken from animals and / or samples of other organs such as liver and spleen. Performing a single intravenous administration study will allow for the evaluation of the desired product expression scale, dose response, and shelf life.

  In one embodiment, a lipidoid formulation of 98N12-5, C12-200, MD1, and other lipidoids is applied to an animal luciferase, green fluorescent protein (GFP), mCherry fluorescent protein, secreted alkaline phosphatase (sAP), Used for delivery of human G-CSF, human factor IX, or human erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA. As described above, after formulating mmRNA with lipids, animals are divided into groups and from saline formulations, or luciferase, GFP, mCherry, sAP, human G-CSF, human factor IX, and human EPO. Accept any of the lipidoid formulations containing one of the various selected mRNAs. Prior to injection into animals, the mRNA-containing lipidoid formulation is diluted in PBS. The animal is then administered a single dose of formulated mmRNA in a dose range from 10 mg / kg to as low as 1 ng / kg, preferably in the range of 10 mg / kg to 100 ng / kg, 20 grams of mice will depend on the animal's body weight, such as receiving a maximum of 0.2 mL of formulation (dosing based on mmRNA per kg body weight). Serum, tissue, and / or tissue lysates are obtained after administration of the mRNA-lipidoid formulation and the level of product encoded by the mRNA is determined at a single and / or a range of time intervals. The ability of lipidoid formulated luciferase, GFP, mCherry, sAP, G-CSF, Factor IX, and EPO mmRNA to express the desired protein product, luminescence for luciferase expression, flow site for GFP expression and mCherry expression Measurement of enzyme activity for metric, sAP, or secretion of G-CSF, factor IX, and / or EPO is confirmed by ELISA.

  Further studies on multi-dose regimens were also performed to determine maximal expression of mRNA and to assess saturation of expression driven by mRNA (by giving a control and active mRNA mRNA formulation simultaneously or sequentially) The feasibility of repeated drug administration is determined (by determining whether mRNA levels are affected by factors such as immunogenicity, given the mRNA at doses separated by weeks or months). Assessment of the physiological function of proteins such as G-CSF and EPO is also determined by analysis of samples from the animals tested and detecting increases in granulocyte and red blood cell counts, respectively. The activity of expressed protein products such as Factor IX in animals can also be assessed via analysis of the effects of Factor IX enzyme activity (activated partial thromboplastin time assay) and clotting time.

C. In vitro expression after intramuscular and / or subcutaneous injection Evaluate the use of lipidoid formulations to deliver oligonucleotides containing mRNA via the intramuscular or subcutaneous injection route so far There is a need. Intramuscular and / or subcutaneous infusion of mmRNA is evaluated to determine if the mRNA-containing lipidoid formulation can provide both local and systemic expression of the desired protein.

  98N12- containing an mRNA selected from luciferase, green fluorescent protein (GFP), mCherry fluorescent protein, secreted alkaline phosphatase (sAP), human G-CSF, human factor IX, or human erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA 5, C12-200, and MD1 lipidoid formulations are injected intramuscularly and / or subcutaneously into animals. The expression of the protein encoded by the mRNA is assessed both in muscle or subcutaneous tissue and systemically in blood and other tissues such as the liver and spleen. Single dose studies allow assessment of the magnitude of desired product expression, dose response, and shelf life.

  Animals are divided into groups and receive either a saline formulation or a formulation containing modified mRNA. Prior to injection, the mRNA-containing lipidoid formulation is diluted in PBS. The animals are administered a single intramuscular dose of formulated mmRNA in the dose range as low as 50 mg / kg to 1 ng / kg, preferably in the range of 10 mg / kg to 100 ng / kg. The maximum dose for intramuscular administration in mice is approximately 1 mg of mRNA or as low as 0.02 ng mRNA in the intramuscular injection into the hind limbs of mice. For subcutaneous administration, the animals are administered a single subcutaneous dose of formulated mmRNA in the low dose range of 400 mg / kg to 1 ng / kg, preferably in the range of 80 mg / kg to 100 ng / kg. The maximum dose for subcutaneous administration in mice is approximately 8 mg mmRNA or as low as 0.02 ng mRNA.

  For 20 gram mice, the maximum volume of a single intramuscular injection is 0.025 mL and for a single subcutaneous injection is a maximum of 0.2 mL. The optimal dose of mmRNA administered is calculated from the animal's body weight. At various time points after administration of the mRNA-lipidoid, serum, tissue, and tissue lysate are obtained to determine the level of product encoded by the mRNA. Lipidoid formulated luciferase, green fluorescent protein (GFP), mCherry fluorescent protein, secreted alkaline phosphatase (sAP), human G-CSF, human factor IX, or human erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA that expresses the desired protein product Is confirmed by luminescence for luciferase expression, flow cytometry for GFP and mCherry expression, enzyme activity for sAP, and ELISA for secretion of G-CSF, factor IX, and erythropoietin (EPO).

  Further studies on multi-dose regimens will also be performed to determine maximal expression using mmRNA and to evaluate the saturation of expression driven by mmRNA (by giving a control and an active mmRNA formulation simultaneously or sequentially). Determine the feasibility of repeated drug administration (given) given the mRNA in weeks or months away, and then determine whether the expression level is affected by factors such as immunogenicity By). Studies using multiple subcutaneous or intramuscular injections at one time are also utilized to increase drug exposure of mRNA and improve protein production. Analyzes of physiological functions of proteins such as GFP, mCherry, sAP, human G-CSF, human factor IX, and human EPO, analyzes samples from the animals tested, and changes in granulocyte and / or red blood cell counts Is determined by detecting. The activity of expressed protein products such as Factor IX in animals can also be assessed via analysis of the effects of Factor IX enzyme activity (activated partial thromboplastin time assay) and clotting time.

Example 33. Bifunctional mRNA
Using the teachings and synthetic methods described herein, modified RNAs are bifunctional, thereby encoding one or more cytotoxic protein molecules and also synthesized using cytotoxic nucleosides. Design and synthesize as you do.

  Administration of the bifunctional modified mRNA is accomplished using either saline or a lipid carrier. When administered, the bifunctional modified mRNA is translated to produce the encoded cytotoxic peptide. When the delivered modified mRNA is degraded, cytotoxic nucleosides that also provide a therapeutic benefit to the subject are released.

Example 34. Transfection of modified mRNA A. Reverse Transfection For experiments performed in 24-well collagen-coated tissue culture plates, keratinocytes are seeded at a cell density of 1 × 10 5 . For experiments performed in 96-well collagen-coated tissue culture plates, keratinocytes are seeded at a cell density of 0.5 × 10 5 . For each modified mRNA (mmRNA) to be transfected, a modified mRNA: RNAIMAX ™ is prepared as described and within the cell number species period, eg, 6 hours, before the cells attach to the tissue culture plate. Mix with cells in a multiwell plate.

B. Forward transfections Seed keratinocytes at a cell density of 0.7 × 10 5 in 24 well collagen-coated tissue culture plates. For 96-well collagen-coated tissue culture plates, keratinocytes are seeded at a cell density of 0.3 × 10 5 . Keratinocytes are grown to over 70% confluency over 24 hours. For each modified mRNA (mmRNA) to be transfected, a modified mRNA: RNAIMAX ™ is prepared as described, and cells are plated in multiwell plates for 24 hours after cell seeding and attachment to tissue culture plates. Transfect.

C. Modified mRNA translation screening: G-CSF ELISA
Keratinocytes are grown at greater than 70% confluence in EPILIFE medium with Supplement S7 from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). Keratinocytes were reverse transfected with 300 ng chemically modified mRNA (mmRNA) complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen. Another set of keratinocytes was forward transfected with 300 ng of modified mRNA complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen. The modified mRNA: RNAIMAX ™ complex is first formed by incubating RNA in a 5-fold volume dilution with supplement-free EPILIFE® medium for 10 minutes at room temperature.

  In the second vial, RNAIMAX ™ reagent was incubated with supplement-free EPILIFE® medium for 10 minutes in a 10-fold volume dilution. The RNA vial was then mixed with the RNAIMAX ™ vial and incubated at room temperature for 20-30 minutes before being added to the cells in a drop-wise fashion. The concentration of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) secreted into the culture medium is determined in triplicate for each chemically modified mRNA 18 hours after transfection.

Secretion of human G-CSF from transfected human keratinocytes is quantified using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen or R & D Systems (Minneapolis, Minn.) According to the manufacturer's recommended instructions.
D. Modified mRNA dose and duration: G-CSF ELISA

  Keratinocytes are grown at greater than 70% confluence in EPILIFE® medium with Supplement S7 from Invitrogen. Keratinocytes are reverse transduced with either 0 ng, 46.875 ng, 93.75 ng, 187.5 ng, 375 ng, 750 ng, or 1500 ng of modified mRNA complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). Perfect. Modified mRNA: RNAIMAX ™ complexes are formed as described. The concentration of human G-CSF secreted into the culture medium is determined in triplicate for each concentration of each modified mRNA at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after transfection. Human G-CSF secretion from transfected human keratinocytes is quantified using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen or R & D Systems according to the manufacturer's recommended instructions.

Example 35. Divided dose studies A study using multiple subcutaneous or intramuscular injection sites in a single was designed and performed to investigate means to increase drug exposure of mmRNA and improve protein production. In addition to detecting the expressed protein product, assessment of the physiological function of the protein was also determined through analysis of samples from the animals tested.

  Surprisingly, it has been found that split dosing of mRNA leads to a higher protein production and phenotypic response than that provided by single unit or multiple dosing schemes.

Single unit dose, multiple dose, and split dose experimental designs are designed in human erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA administered in buffer alone (mRNA is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; an approximately 160 nucleotide polyA tail is sequenced) Not shown in; with use of 5 'cap, cap 1). Dosing vehicle (F buffer) consists of 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM CaCl 2 , 2 mM Na + -phosphate (1.4 mM sodium monophosphate; 0.6 mM dibasic sodium phosphate), and 0.5 mM Of EDTA, pH 6.5. The pH was adjusted with sodium hydroxide and the final solution was sterilized by filtration. The mRNA was modified with 5 meC at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site.

  Animals (n = 5) were injected IM (intramuscularly) with a single unit dose of 100 μg. For multiple doses, two schedules were used: 3 doses of 100 μg and 6 doses of 100 μg. For the split dosing scheme, two schedules were used: 3 doses at 33.3 μg and 6 doses of 16.5 μg mmRNA. Control dosing involved the use of buffer only at 6 doses. Control mmRNA is luciferase mmRNA dosed 6 times at 100 μg (the IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, the polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence 5 'Cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and fully modified with pseudouridine substitutions at each uridine site). Blood and muscle tissue was evaluated 13 hours after injection.

Human EPO protein was measured in mouse serum 13 hours after single, multiple or split intramuscular dosing of EPO mRNA in buffer. Seven groups of mice (n = 5 mice per group) were treated and evaluated. The results are shown in Table 60.
Table 60. Split dose study

  The division factor is defined as the product per unit drug divided by the single dose product (PUD) per unit drug. For example, in treatment group 2, the product (EPO) value of 0.28 per unit drug (mmRNA) is divided by a single dose product of 0.14 per unit drug. The result is 2. Similarly, for example, for treatment group 4, the product (EPO) value of 1.1 per unit drug (mmRNA) is divided by a single dose product of 0.14 per unit drug. The result is 7.9. As a result, the dose division factor (DSF) can be used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a divided dose regimen. DSF should be equal to 1 for any single dose of the total daily dose. Thus, any DSF greater than this value in a split dose regimen shows improved efficacy.

  Studies are conducted to determine dose response trends, injection site effects, and injection timing effects. In these studies, dose response results are determined using various doses that are 1 μg, 5 μg, 10 μg, 25 μg, 50 μg, and values in between. A 100 μg total dose divided dose includes 1.6 μg, 4.2 μg, 8.3 μg, 16.6 μg, or a value equal to administration of the selected total dose and a total dose of 3 or 6 doses.

  The injection site is selected from the limb or any body surface that exhibits a sufficient area suitable for injection. This may also include selection of the injection depth to target the dermis (intradermal), epithelium (epidermis), subcutaneous tissue (SC), or muscle (IM). Injection angles vary based on the targeted delivery site, injections targeting the intradermal site are 10 to 15 degrees from the surface of the skin surface, and for subcutaneous injections 20 from the surface of the skin surface. It is ˜45 degrees, and is substantially an angle of 60-90 degrees for intramuscular injection.

Example 36. Quantification in Exosomes The number and localization of the mRNA of the present invention can be determined by measuring the amount (initial, time-lapse or on a residual basis) in the isolated exosome. In this study, the mRNA is typically codon-optimized and the sequence is distinct from the endogenous mRNA, so the level of mRNA is determined by Gibbing's content, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. The method of PCT / IB2009 / 005878 is used to quantify relative to endogenous levels of natural or wild type mRNA.

  In these studies, the method first isolates exosomes or vesicles, preferably from the body fluids of patients already treated with a polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA of the invention, and then mRNA microarray, qRT- Measure the level of polynucleotide, primary construct, or mmRNA in the exosome by one of the other methods for RNA measurement in the art, including PCR or suitable antibody or immunohistochemistry methods. Is done by.

Example 37. Effect of Modified mRNA on Cell Viability, Cytotoxicity, and Apoptosis This experiment demonstrates the cell viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis of distinctly different modified mRNAs transfected in vitro into human keratinocyte cells. Keratinocytes are grown at greater than 70% confluence in EPILIFE® medium with human keratinocyte growth supplement without hydrocortisone from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). Keratinocytes are reverse-transfected with 0 ng, 46.875 ng, 93.75 ng, 187.5 ng, 375 ng, 750 ng, 1500 ng, 3000 ng, or 6000 ng of modified mRNA complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen. A modified mRNA: RNAIMAX ™ complex is formed. The concentration of human G-CSF secreted into the culture medium is determined in triplicate for each concentration of each modified mRNA at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after transfection. Human G-CSF secretion from transfected human keratinocytes is quantified using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen or R & D Systems according to the manufacturer's recommended instructions.

  Cell viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis were measured at 0, 12, 48, 96, and 192 hours of transfection using the APOTOX-GLO ™ kit from Promega (Madison, WI) according to the manufacturer's instructions. We will measure later.

Example 38. Detection of cellular innate immune response to modified mRNA using ELISA assay Human tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), human interferon β (IFN-β) secreted from human keratinocyte cells transfected in vitro, and An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is tested for detection of cellular innate immune responses. Keratinocytes are grown at greater than 70% confluence in EPILIFE® medium with human keratinocyte growth supplement without hydrocortisone from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). Secreted TNF-α keratinocytes can be labeled with 0 ng, 93.75 ng, l87.5 ng, 375 ng, 750 ng, 1500 ng, or 3000 ng of chemically modified mRNA (as described, in complex with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen mmRNA) is reverse transfected in triplicate. TNF-α secreted into the culture medium is measured 24 hours after transfection for each chemically modified mRNA using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen according to the manufacturer's protocol.

  IFN-β secreted into the same culture medium is measured 24 hours after transfection for each chemically modified mRNA using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen according to the manufacturer's protocol. The concentration of human G-CSF secreted into the same culture medium is measured 24 hours after transfection for each chemically modified mRNA. Human G-CSF secretion from transfected human keratinocytes is quantified using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen or R & D Systems (Minneapolis, Minn.) According to the manufacturer's recommended instructions. These data indicate that by measuring the exemplary type 1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-β, which modified mRNA (mmRNA) compared to natural and other chemically modified polynucleotides or reference compounds, It shows whether a decrease in the innate immune response of a cell can be induced.

Example 39. Assay of Cell Growth Induced by Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Modified mRNA Human keratinocytes were cultured in EPILIFE® medium with Supplement S7 from Invitrogen, 24 well collagen-coated TRANSWELL®. (Coming, Lowell, MA) Grow in co-cultured tissue culture plates with greater than 70% confluence. Keratinocytes are reverse-transfected with 750 ng of the chemically modified mRNA (mmRNA) shown complexed with RNAIMAX from Invitrogen as described. Modified mRNA: RNAIMAX complexes are formed as described. The keratinocyte medium is changed 6-8 hours after transfection. 42 hours after transfection, a 24 well TRANSWELL® plate insert with a 0.4 μm pore semipermeable polyester membrane was transferred to a culture plate containing keratinocytes transfected with human G-CSF modified mRNA. Put in.

Kasumi-1 cells or KG-1 (0.2 × 10 5 cells), which are human myeloblasts, are seeded in insert wells and cell proliferation is performed in a 96-well plate in a volume of 100-120 μL in a CyQuant Direct Cell Proliferation Assay. Quantify using Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA 42 hours after the start of co-culture. Myeloblast proliferation induced by modified mRNA encoding human G-CSF is expressed as percent cell proliferation normalized to untransfected keratinocyte / myeloblast co-culture control wells. The concentration of human G-CSF secreted in both keratinocyte and myeloblast inserted co-culture wells is measured in duplicate for each modified mRNA 42 hours after the start of co-culture. Human G-CSF secretion is quantified using an ELISA kit from Invitrogen according to the manufacturer's recommended instructions.

  Human G-CSF modified mRNA transfected into human keratinocyte feeder cells and untransfected human myeloblasts are detected by RT-PCR. Total RNA from sample cells is extracted and lysed using the RNEASY® kit (Qiagen, Valencia, Calif.) According to the manufacturer's instructions. Extracted total RNA was modified with the PROTOSCRIPT® M-MuLV Taq RT-PCR kit (New England BioLabs, Ipswich, Mass.) Using human G-CSF specific primers according to the manufacturer's instructions. -RT-PCR for specific amplification of G-CSF. RT-PCR products are visualized by 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis.

Example 40: Co-culture assay Modified mRNA composed of chemically distinct nucleotides encoding human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cell growth of transfected non-competent cells in a co-culture environment. Can irritate. Co-culture includes highly transfectable cell types such as human keratinocytes and transfected non-competent cell types such as white blood cells (WBC). Modified mRNA encoding G-CSF is transfected into highly transfectable cells, allowing G-CSF protein production and secretion into the extracellular environment, where G-CSF is paracrine-like. In a manner, it acts to stimulate and proliferate leukocytes expressing the G-CSF receptor. Use expanded WBC populations to treat patients with compromised immunity or partially reconstruct the WBC populations of immunosuppressed patients, thereby reducing the risk of opportunistic infections Can do. In another embodiment, a highly transfectable cell, such as a fibroblast, supports and stimulates the growth, maintenance, or differentiation of difficult-to-transfect embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Transfect growth factors.

Example 41: Human IgG Antibody Detection Assay Example 1 ELISA detection of human IgG antibody This example is for human IgG ELISA derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human fetal kidney (HEK, HER-2 negative) 293 cells transfected with human IgG modified mRNA (mmRNA). explain. Human fetal fetal kidney (HEK) 293 is grown in CD293 medium with L-glutamine supplement from Invitrogen until reaching 80-90% confluence. CHO cells are grown in CD CHO medium with supplements of L-glutamine, hypoxanthine, and thymidine. In one embodiment, 2 × 10 6 cells are transfected with 24 μg of modified mRNA complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen in a 75 cm 2 culture flask from Corning in 7 mL of medium. In another embodiment, 80,000 cells are transfected in a 24-well plate with 1 μg of modified mRNA complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen. Modified mRNA: RNAIMAX ™ complexes are formed by incubating mmRNA in a 5-fold dilution with either CD293 or CD CHO medium in a vial for 10 minutes at room temperature. In the second vial, RNAIMAX ™ reagent is incubated with CD293 medium or CD CHO medium for 10 minutes at room temperature in a 10-fold volume dilution. The mRNA mRNA vial is then mixed with the RNAIMAX ™ vial and incubated at room temperature for 20-30 minutes before being added dropwise to CHO or HEK cells. Store the culture supernatant at 4 degrees Celsius. For 24 μg mmRNA transfection, the concentration of human IgG secreted into the culture medium is measured 12, 24, 36 hours after transfection, and 1 μg mmRNA transfection is measured at 36 hours. Secretion of trastuzumab from transfected HEK293 cells is quantified using an ELISA kit from Abcam (Cambridge, MA) according to the manufacturer's recommended instructions. The data show that the mRNA of a humanized IgG antibody (such as trastuzumab) can be translated in HEK cells and that trastuzumab is secreted from the cell and released into the extracellular environment. Furthermore, the data show that transfection of cells with tramuzumab-encoding mRNA for production of secreted proteins can be extended to bioreactors or large-scale cell culture conditions.

B. Western detection of human IgG antibody produced by modified mRNA Co-transfect 1 μg each of heavy and light chains of trastuzumab modified mRNA (mmRNA) into CHO-K1 cells of Western blot. CHO cells are grown using standard protocols in 24-well plates. Cell supernatant or cell lysate is harvested 24 hours after transfection, separated on a 12% SDS-Page gel and transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane using IBOT® from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). Cells are first complexed with a rabbit polyclonal antibody and human IgG conjugated to DYLIGHT594 (ab96904, abcam, Cambridge, MA), and a second complex of Rb IgG conjugated to goat polyclonal antibody and alkaline phosphatase. Incubate with the body. Following incubation, the antibody is detected using Novex® alkaline phosphatase chromogenic substrate from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.).

C. Cellular immunostaining of trastuzumab and rituximab produced by the modified mRNA CHO-K1 cells are co-transfected with 10 ng each of the heavy and light chains of either trastuzumab or rituximab. Cells are grown in F-12K medium and 10% FBS from GIBCO® (Grand Island, NY). Cells are fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5-10 minutes at room temperature, and cells are washed 3 times with PBS at room temperature. Trastuzumab and rituximab staining is performed with a rabbit polyclonal antibody against human IgG conjugated to DYLIGHT® 594 (ab96904, abcam, Cambridge, Mass.) According to the manufacturer recommended dilution. Nuclear DNA staining is performed using DAPI dye from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). Trastuzumab and rituximab proteins are translated and localized in the cytoplasm after transfection of the modified mRNA. Photographs are taken 13 hours after transfection.

D. Trastuzumab and rituximab combined immunoblot assay produced by the modified mRNA Trastuzumab and rituximab are detected using a bound immunoblot detection assay. Various concentrations (100 ng / μL to 0 ng / μL) of ErB2 peptide (ab40048, abeam, Cambridge, MA), trastuzumab and CD20 peptide antigens (ab97360, abeam, Cambridge, MA), rituximab antigen, 12% SDS- Run on Page gel and transfer to membrane using iBlot from Invitrogen. Membranes are incubated for 1 hour with each cell supernatant from CHO-K1 cells co-transfected with 500 ng each of trastuzumab or rituximab heavy and light chains. The membrane is blocked with 1% BSA and a secondary anti-human IgG antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase (abcam, Cambridge, MA) is added. Antibody detection is performed using the NOVEX alkaline phosphatase chromogenic substrate from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.). The data shows that humanized IgG antibodies generated from the modified mRNA can recognize and bind to their respective antigens.

E. Cell Proliferation Assay Compare the antiproliferative properties of trastuzumab produced by modified mRNA (mmRNA) using the SK-BR-3 cell line, an adherent cell derived from human breast cancer, that overexpresses the HER2 / neu receptor can do. Various concentrations of purified trastuzumab and trastuzumab generated from the modified mRNA are added to the cell culture and their effects on cell proliferation are assessed in triplicate cytotoxicity and viability assays.

Example 42 Bulk Transfection of Modified mRNA into Cell Culture A. Cationic Lipid Delivery Vehicle RNA transfection is performed using RNAIMAX ™ (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) or TRANSIT-mRNA (Mirus Bio, Madison, WI) cationic lipid delivery vehicle. RNA and reagents are first diluted in Opti-MEM basal medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). 100 ng / μL of RNA is diluted 5-fold, and 5 μL of RNAIMax is diluted 10-fold per 1 μg of RNA. The diluted components are pooled and incubated for 15 minutes at room temperature before being dispensed into the culture medium. For transfection of TRANSIT-mRNA, 100 ng / μL of RNA was diluted 10-fold in Opti-MEM, BOOST reagent was added (at a concentration of 2 μL per μg of RNA), and TRANSIT-mRNA was added (2 μL of RNA per μg of RNA). In concentration), the RNA-lipid complex is then delivered to the culture medium after 2 minutes incubation at room temperature. RNA transfection was performed in Nutristem xenofree hES medium (Stemgent, Cambridge, MA) for induction of RiPS, Dermal Cell Basal Medium plus Keratinocyte Growth Kit in Dermal Cell Basal Medium Keratinocyte Kit for keratinocyte experiments All other experiments are performed in Opti-MEM with 2% FBS. Successful introduction of modified mRNA (mmRNA) into a host cell can be monitored using a variety of known methods such as fluorescent markers such as green fluorescent protein (GFP). Successful transfection of the modified mRNA can also be determined by measuring the protein expression level of the target polypeptide, for example, by Western blot or immunocytochemistry. Similar methods can be applied to larger scales expanded to multiple liter (5-10,000 L) culture formats according to similar RNA-lipid complex ratios.

B. Electroporation delivery of exogenous synthetic mRNA transcripts Electroporation parameters designed to transfect MRC-5 fibroblasts with in vitro synthetic modified mRNA (mmRNA) transcripts and specifically detect exogenous transcripts Optimize by measuring transfection efficiency by quantitative RT-PCR using the prepared primers. In a standard electroporation cuvette with a 2 mm gap, discharge a 150 μF capacitor stored in F to 2.5 × 10 6 cells suspended in 50 μL Opti-MEM (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.). Is sufficient for repeated delivery of more than 10,000 copies of modified mRNA transcripts per cell as determined using standard curve methods while maintaining high viability (> 70%). Further experiments may reveal that the voltage required to efficiently transfect cells with mmRNA transcripts can depend on the cell density during electroporation. Cell density was varied from 1x10 6 cells l / 50 [mu] L to a density of 2.5 × 10 6 cells / 50 [mu] L, to transfect cells with similar efficiency as measured by transcript copies per cell is 110V~145V is necessary. Large multi-liter (5-10,000 L) electroporation can be performed (Li et al. 2002) similar to the large-scale flow electroporation strategy and similar to the method described in the constraints above. Geng et al., 2010).

Example 43: In vivo delivery using lipoplexes Lipoplex of human EPO modified RNA 100 μg of modified human erythropoietin mRNA (mRNA is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1) (EPO; fully modified 5 -Methylcytosine; formulation containing N1-methyl-pseudouridine) was lipoplexed with 30% by volume of RNAIMAX ™ in 50-70 μL (Lipoplex-h-Epo-46; 2nd generation or Gen2) Intramuscular delivery to 4 C57 / BL6 mice. The other group served as a control group containing 100 μg modified luciferase mRNA, and lipoplexed modified luciferase mRNA (lipoplex-luc) lipoplexed with 30 vol% RNAiMAX ™ (IVT cDNA sequence The mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; the poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence. 5 'cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine in each cytosine and pseudo in each uridine site. Mice that received injections of (fully modified with uridine substitutions) or mice that received injections of formulation buffer as a negative control at a dose of 65 μL. Serum was collected from each mouse 13 hours after intramuscular injection and the amount of human EPO protein in the mouse serum was measured by human EPO ELISA. The results are shown in Table 61.
Table 61. Human EPO production (intramuscular injection route)

B. Human G-CSF modified RNA lipoplex Modified human G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1) (5-methyl Two forms of G-CSF fully modified with cytosine and pseudouridine (G-CSF) or G-CSF fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine (G-CSF-N1) A formulation containing 100 μg of one of these was lipoplexed with 30% by volume RNAIMAX ™, and C57 / BL6 mice were 150 μL intramuscular (IM) and 150 μL subcutaneous (SC) , And 225 μL were delivered intravenously (IV).

  Three control groups include 100 μg modified luciferase mRNA (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 ′ cap. , Cap 1, 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and fully substituted with pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site) intramuscularly (Luc-unsp IM), or 150 μg modified luciferase mRNA intravenously (Luc-unsp IV), or 150 μL of formulation buffer was administered either intramuscularly (buffer IM). Six hours after administration of the preparation, serum was collected from each mouse, and human G-CSF protein in the mouse serum was measured by human G-CSF ELISA. The results are shown in Table 62.

These results show that both 5-methylcytosine / pseudouridine and 5-methylcytosine / N1-methyl-pseudouridine modified human G-CSF mRNA can be administered via a lipoplex formulation via an intravenous or intramuscular route of administration. It shows that when delivered, it can result in specific human G-CSF protein expression in serum.
Table 62. Human G-CSF in serum (IM, IV, SC injection route)

C. Comparison of human G-CSF modified RNA lipoplexes Modified human G-CSF mRNA (G-CSF-) liposomally formed with 30% by volume of RNAIMAX ™ with 5-methylcytosine (5mc) and pseudouridine (ψ) modifications Gen1-lipoplex), modified human G-CSF mRNA with 5mc and ψ modifications in saline (G-CSF-Gen1-saline), N1-5 lipoplexed with 30% by volume of RNAIMAX ™ -Modified human G-CSF mRNA with methylcytosine (N1-5mc) and ψ modification (G-CSF-Gen2-lipoplex), modified human G-CSF mRNA with N1-5mc and ψ modification in saline (G -CSF-Gen2-saline), 30 volume% RNAIMAX ( 100 μg of either a modified luciferase having a 5 mc and ψ modification (Luc-lipoplex) that is lipoplexed with the trademark), or a modified luciferase mRNA having a 5 mc and ψ modification in saline (Luc-saline) Formulations are delivered intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (SC), and control groups for each method of administration are given 80 μL doses of formulation buffer (F buffer) to C57 / BL6 mice. It was. At 13 hours post injection, serum and tissue from the injection site were collected from mice and analyzed by G-CSF ELISA to compare human G-CSF protein levels. The results of human G-CSF protein in mouse serum obtained from intramuscular administration and the results of subcutaneous administration are shown in Table 63.

These results indicate that 5-methylcytosine / pseudouridine and 5-methylcytosine / N1-methyl-pseudouridine modified human G-CSF mRNA is intramuscular or subcutaneous, regardless of whether it is a saline or lipoplex formulation. It shows that when delivered by the route of administration, it can result in specific human G-CSF protein expression in the serum. As shown in Table 63, 5-methylcytosine / N1-methyl-pseudouridine modified human G-CSF mRNA is generally increased compared to 5-methylcytosine / pseudouridine modified human G-CSF mRNA. G-CSF protein production is shown.
Table 63. Human G-CSF protein in mouse serum

D. Comparison of mCherry modified RNA lipoplexes Intramuscular and subcutaneous administration Modified mCherry mRNA lipoplexed with 30% by volume of RNAIMAX ™ (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is in sequence Not shown; formulations containing 100 μg of either 5 ′ cap, cap 1) or modified mCherry mRNA in saline are delivered intramuscularly and subcutaneously to mice. Formulation buffer is also administered to groups of control mice either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Mouse injection sites are collected 17 hours after injection for sectioning to determine the cell type (s) involved in protein production.

Intravitreal administration 10 μg of either RNAIMAX ™ and lipoplex-modified mCherry mRNA, modified mCherry mRNA in formulation buffer, RNAMAX ™ and lipoplex-modified luciferase mRNA, or modified luciferase in formulation buffer The formulation contained can be administered to rats by intravitreal injection (IVT) at a dosage of 5 μL / eye. Formulation buffer is also administered by IVT to control rat groups at a dosage of 5 μL / eye. Treated rat eyes are collected 18 hours after injection for sectioning and lysis to determine if the mRNA can be effectively delivered to the eye in vivo, resulting in protein production, and The cell type (s) involved in protein production in vivo can be determined.

Intranasal administration 30 volume% RNAIMAX ™ and modified mCherry mRNA lipoplexed, saline modified mCherry mRNA, 30 volume% RNAIMAX ™ and lipoplexed modified luciferase mRNA, or saline A formulation containing 100 μg of any modified luciferase mRNA is delivered intranasally. Formulation buffer is also administered intranasally to the control group. Approximately 13 hours after instillation, lungs can be collected for sectioning (for those that have received mCherry mRNA) or homogenization (for those that have received luciferase mRNA). These samples are used to determine whether mmRNA can be effectively delivered to the lung in vivo and result in protein production, and further to determine the cell type (s) involved in protein production in vivo. can do.

Example 44: In vivo delivery using various lipid ratios Modified mRNA was delivered to C57 / BL6 mice to evaluate various lipid ratios and resulting protein expression. 100 μg modified human EPO mRNA lipoplexed with 10%, 30%, or 50% RNAIMAX ™ (mRNA is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'Cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) 100 μg modified luciferase mRNA lipoplexed with 10%, 30%, or 50% RNAIMAX ™ (IVT cDNA sequence is SEQ ID NO: The mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; the poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence. 5 'cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine at each uridine site. Complete with replacement The formulations of modified), or the formulation buffer, in a single 70μL doses were administered intramuscularly to mice. Serum was collected 13 hours after injection and a human EPO ELISA was performed to determine human EPO protein levels in each mouse. The human EPO ELISA results shown in Table 64 indicate that the modified human EPO expressed in muscle is secreted into the serum for each of the different proportions of RNAIMAX ™.
Table 64. Human EPO protein in mouse serum (IM injection route)

Example 45: Intramuscular and subcutaneous in vivo delivery in mammals Modified human EPO mRNA formulated in formulation buffer (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; approximately 160 nucleotides poly A tail not shown in sequence) 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) were delivered to either C57 / BL6 mice or Sprague-Dawley rats to assess dose dependency on human EPO production . In rats, as described in the dosing table of Table 65, 50 μL of modified human EPO mRNA (h-EPO), modified luciferase mRNA (Luc) (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; The polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides shown in 121446 is not shown in the sequence 5 ′ cap, cap 1, fully modified with 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site), or formulation buffer The solution (F buffer) was injected intramuscularly.

Mice were injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously with 50 μL of modified human EPO mRNA (h-EPO), modified luciferase mRNA (Luc), or formulation buffer (F buffer) as described in the dosing table of Table 66. . At 13 hours after injection, blood was collected and serum was analyzed to determine the amount of human EPO in each mouse or rat. The average and geometric mean in pg / mL for the rat study are also shown in Table 65.
Table 65. Rat study
Table 66. Mouse research

Example 46: Duration of activity after intramuscular delivery in vivo Modified human EPO mRNA formulated in formulation buffer (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence) 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) were delivered to Sprague Dawley rats to determine the duration of the dose response. In rats, 50 μL of modified human EPO mRNA (h-EPO), modified luciferase mRNA (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446 as described in the dosing table of Table 67. A poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 ′ cap, cap 1, fully modified with 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site) (Luc), or formulation buffer The solution (F buffer) was injected intramuscularly. Rats were bled 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after intramuscular injection to determine the concentration of human EPO in the serum at a given time point. The average and geometric mean in pg / mL for this study are also shown in Table 67.
Table 67. Medication table

Example 47: Route of administration Further studies were conducted to investigate dosing using different routes of administration. According to the protocol outlined in Example 35, 4 mice per group were intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), or subcutaneous (SC) according to the dosing schedule outlined in Table 68. Medication was performed. Serum was collected from all mice 13 hours after injection, tissue was collected from the injection site in the intramuscular and subcutaneous groups, and spleen, liver, and kidney were collected from the intravenous group. The results from the intramuscular group and the subcutaneous group are shown in Table 69.
Table 68. Medication table
Table 69. Human EPO protein in mouse serum (IM injection route)

Example 48. Study of Rapid Excretion Lipid Nanoparticles (reLNP) A. Formulation of modified RNA reLNP Synthetic lipids, 1,2-distearoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) (Avanti Polar Lipids, Alabaster, AL), cholesterol (Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), and α- [3'- A solution of (1,2-dimyristoyl-3-propanoxy) -carboxamido-propyl] -ω-methoxy-polyoxyethylene (PEG-c-DOMG) (NOF, Bouwelven, Belgium) is prepared and stored at −20 ° C. To do. The synthetic lipid is selected from DLin-DMA with an internal ester, DLin-DMA with a terminal ester, DLin-MC3-DMA-internal ester, and DLin-MC3-DMA with a terminal ester. The reLNP is combined to give a molar ratio of 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (reLNP: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-c-DOMG). ReLNP and modified mRNA formulations are prepared by combining the lipid solution and modified mRNA solution at a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 10: 1, 15: 1, 20: 1, and 30: 1.

B. Formulation Characterization Using the Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern, Worcestershire, UK), the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of modified mRNA nanoparticles were multiplied by 1 when determining particle size. The determination is made in PBS and in determination of zeta potential in 15 mM PBS.

  UV-visible spectroscopy is used to determine the concentration of the modified mRNA nanoparticle formulation. After mixing, the absorbance spectrum of the solution is recorded from 230 nm to 330 nm on a DU 800 spectrophotometer (Beckman Coulter, Beckman Coulter, Inc., Brea, Calif.). The concentration of modified RNA in the nanoparticle formulation is calculated based on the extinction coefficient of the modified RNA used in the formulation and the difference between the absorbance at a wavelength of 260 nm and the baseline at a wavelength of 330 nm.

  The QUANT-IT ™ RIBOGREEN® RNA assay (Invitrogen Corporation Carlsbad, Calif.) Is used to evaluate the encapsulation of modified RNA by nanoparticles. Samples are diluted and transferred to polystyrene 96-well plates, then either TE buffer or 2% Triton X-100 solution is added. Incubate the plate, dilute RIBOGREEN® reagent in TE buffer and add this solution to each well. Fluorescence intensity is measured using a fluorescence plate reader (Wallac Victor 1420 Multicounter Counter; Perkin Elmer, Waltham, Mass.). The fluorescence value of the reagent blank is subtracted from each of the samples, and the percentage of free modified RNA is determined for the intact sample. Determination is made by dividing the fluorescence intensity by the fluorescence value of the divided sample.

C. In vitro incubation Human fetal kidney epithelial (HEK293) and hepatocellular carcinoma epithelial (HepG2) cells (LGC standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) were seeded in 96-well plates (Greiner Bio-one GmbH, Frickenhausen, Germany) Plates are precoated with type 1 collagen. In 100 μL of cell culture medium, HEK293 is seeded at a cell density of about 30,000 per well and HepG2 at a cell density of about 35,000. mCherry mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1) is added and incubated immediately after seeding the cells. The mCherry cDNA with T7 promoter, 5 ′ untranslated region (UTR), and 3 ′ UTR used for in vitro transcription (IVT) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21440.

  Cells are harvested by transferring the culture medium supernatant to a 96-well Pro-Bind U bottom plate (Beckton Dickinson GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). Cells were trypsinized with half of trypsin / EDTA (Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany), pooled with each supernatant, and one dose of PBS / 2% FCS (both Biochrom AG, Berlin, Germany) /. Fix by adding 5% formaldehyde (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). The sample is then subjected to flow cytometer measurements on an LSRII cytometer (Beckton Dickinson GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) using an excitation laser and a filter for PE-Texas Red. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of all events and the standard deviation of 4 independent wells are presented for the analyzed samples.

D. In Vivo Formulation Studies Mice receive a single dose of a formulation containing modified mRNA and reLNP intravenously. The modified mRNA to be administered to mice is G-CSF (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1), factor IX (mRNA is Shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1), or mCherry (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is Not shown in the sequence; selected from 5 'cap, cap 1).

  Mice are injected with 100 μg, 10 μg, or 1 μg of formulated modified mRNA and sacrificed 8 hours after administration of the formulation. Sera from mice administered with formulations containing human G-CSF modified mRNA were measured by specific G-CSF ELISA, and sera from mice administered human factor IX modified RNA were analyzed with specific factor IX ELISA. Alternatively, analyze by chromogenic assay. Livers and spleens from mice dosed with mCherry modified mRNA are analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). As a control, a group of mice is not injected with any formulation, their sera and tissues are collected and analyzed by ELISA, FACS, and / or IHC.

Example 49. In vitro transfection of VEGF-A Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Isoform A (VEGF-A) modified mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1672; an approximately 160 nucleotide polyA tail is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap , Cap 1) was transfected into human keratinocyte cells via reverse transfection in 24 multiwell plates. Human keratinocyte cells were grown in EPILIFE® medium with Supplement S7 from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.) To reach 50-70% confluence. Cells were modified with mRNAs encoding 0, 46.875, 93.75, 187.5, 375, 750, and 1500 ng of VEGF-A complexed with RNAIMAX ™ from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.) (MmRNA) was transfected. The RNA: RNAIMAX ™ complex was first formed by incubating RNA in a 5-fold volume dilution with supplement-free EPILIFE® medium for 10 minutes at room temperature. In the second vial, RNAIMAX ™ reagent was incubated with supplement-free EPILIFE® medium for 10 minutes in a 10-fold volume dilution. The RNA vial was then mixed with the RNAIMAX ™ vial and incubated at room temperature for 20-30 minutes before being added to the cells in a drop-wise fashion.

MRNA encoding fully optimized VEGF-A transfected into human keratinocyte cells (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1672; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap; Cap 1) includes translational modifications such as natural nucleoside triphosphate (NTP), pseudouridine at each uridine site and 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine site (pseudo-U / 5mC), and N1 at each uridine site. -Methyl-pseudouridine and 5-methylcytosine (N1-methyl-pseudo-U / 5mC) at each cytosine site were included. Cells were transfected with mRNA encoding VEGF-A and the concentration of VEGF-A secreted into the culture medium (ρg / mL) was determined by ELISA from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.) According to the manufacturer's recommended instructions. Using the kit, each of the concentrations was measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after transfection. These data shown in Table 70 and FIGS. 6A, 6B, and 6C indicate that the modified mRNA encoding VEGF-A can be translated in human keratinocyte cells and that VEGF-A is transported from the cell and enters the extracellular environment. Indicates that it will be released.
Table 70. VEGF-A dosing and protein secretion

Example 50. In vivo study of Factor IX Human Factor IX mRNA (Gen1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) formulated in formulation buffer was delivered to mice via intramuscular injection. The results show that serum Factor IX protein was elevated as measured 13 hours after administration.

  In this study, mice (N = 5 for factor IX, N = 3 for luciferase or buffer control), 2 × 100 μg / mouse, 50 μL of factor IX mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622); A poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1), luciferase (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, about 160 nucleotide poly A tail not shown in sequence 5 'cap, cap 1, fully modified with 5-methylcytosine at each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site), or formulation buffer (F buffer) injected intramuscularly did. Mice were bled 13 hours after intramuscular injection to determine the concentration of human polypeptide in serum in pg / mL. The results reveal that administration of Factor IX mRNA resulted in a level of 1600 pg / mL in 13 hours compared to less than 100 pg / mL Factor IX by administration of either luciferase or buffer control. I made it.

Example 51. Multiple site administration: intramuscular and subcutaneous Gen1 or Gen2 (5-methylcytosine (5mc) and pseudouridine (ψ) modifications, G-CSF-Gen1; or N1-5-methylcytosine (N1-5mc) and ψ modifications, Human G-CSF modified mRNA formulated in formulation buffer, modified as any of G-CSF-Gen2) (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides within the sequence Not shown; 5 ′ cap, cap 1) was delivered to mice via intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) injection. Injections were given for 3 days (24 hour intervals), 4 doses daily or 2 x 50 μg (2 sites). Four doses were administered 6 hours prior to blood collection and CBC analysis. For control, the luciferase (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 121446, a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'cap, cap 1, each cytosine. Fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site), or formulation buffer (F buffer). Mice were bled 72 hours after the first mRNA injection (6 hours after the last modified mRNA dose) to determine the effect of human G-CSF encoded by mRNA on neutrophil count. The dosing regimen is shown in Table 71, and the resulting neutrophil count is also shown (1000 units / μL). In Table 71, asterisks (*) indicate statistical significance at p <0.05.

  For intramuscular administration, the data show a 4-fold increase in neutrophil count for Gen1 G-CSF mRNA over the control at day 3 and a 2-fold increase for Gen2 G-CSF mRNA. For subcutaneous administration, the data show a 2-fold increase in neutrophil count over the control at day 3 for Gen2 G-CSF mRNA.

These data indicate that both 5-methylcytidine / pseudouridine and 5-methylcytidine / N1-methyl-pseudouridine-modified mRNA are biologically evident as evidenced by specific increases in blood neutrophil count. It can be active.
Table 71. Dosing regimen

Example 52. Intravenous administration Human G-CSF modification formulated in 10% lipoplex (RNAiMax) with or without 5-methylcytosine (5mc) and pseudouridine (ψ) modification (Gen1) mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1) is injected intravenously (IV) at a dose of 50 μg RNA and a volume of 100 μL Delivered to mice on days 0, 2, and 4. Neutrophils were measured on days 1, 5, and 8. Controls included non-specific mammalian RNA or formulation buffer alone (F buffer). Mice were bled on days 1, 5, and 8 to determine the effect of human G-CSF encoded by modified mRNA that increases neutrophil count. The dosing regimen is shown in Table 72 and the resulting neutrophil count is also shown (1000 units / μL, K / μL).

  For intravenous administration, the data show a 4-5 fold increase in neutrophil count over day control for G-CSF modified mRNA over day 5, but unmodified G-CSF mRNA or non-specific control. Not shown. Blood counts returned to baseline 4 days after the last infusion. No other changes were observed in the leukocyte population.

  In Table 72, asterisks (*) indicate statistical significance at p <0.001 compared to buffer.

These data indicate that when lipoplex formulated 5-methylcytidine / pseudouridine-modified mRNA is delivered via an intravenous route of administration, as evidenced by a specific increase in blood neutrophil count. Indicates that it may be biologically active. Other cell subsets were not significantly altered. Similarly administered unmodified G-CSF mRNA showed no pharmacological effect on neutrophil count.
Table 72. Dosing regimen

Example 53. Saline preparation: intramuscular administration Protein expression Human G-CSF modified mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1) and human EPO mRNA (mRNA sequence is SEQ ID NO: The poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1), G-CSF modified mRNA (modified with 5-methylcytosine (5mc) and pseudouridine (ψ)) and EPO modified mRNA (modified with N1-5-methylcytosine (N1-5mc) and ψ modification) was formulated in formulation buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 2 mM calcium chloride, 2 mM phosphate, 0.5 mM EDTA, pH 6 .5) and mice via intramuscular (IM) injection at a dose of 100 μg Delivered to.

In contrast, the luciferase (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, the poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'cap, cap 1, each cytosine. 5) or fully formulated with pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site) or formulation buffer (F buffer). Mice were bled 13 hours after injection and the concentration of human polypeptide in serum was determined in pg / mL. (In the G-CSF group, human G-CSF in mouse serum was measured, and in the EPO group, human EPO in mouse serum was measured). The data is shown in Table 73.
Table 73. Dosing regimen

B. Dose response Human EPO modified mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) Was formulated in formulation buffer and delivered to mice via intramuscular (IM) injection.

Controls include luciferase (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, approximately 160 nucleotides poly A tail not shown in the sequence, fully modified with 5 'cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) or Formulation buffer (F buffer) was included. Mice were bled 13 hours after injection and the concentration of human polypeptide in serum was determined in pg / mL. Dose and expression are shown in Table 74.
Table 74. Dosing regimen and expression

Example 54. EPO Multiple Dose / Multiple Administration A study using multiple intramuscular injection sites in a single was designed and performed.

  The design of a single multiple dose experiment is human erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA administered in formulation buffer (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1638; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'Cap, cap 1) or G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5' cap, cap 1) was involved. Dosing vehicle (F buffer) was used as a control. EPO and G-CSF modified mRNAs were modified with 5-methylcytosine in each cytosine and pseudouridine substitution at each uridine site.

  Animals (n = 5), ie Sprague Dawley rats, were injected IM (intramuscularly) with a single unit dose of 100 μg (delivered in one thigh). For multiple dosing, 6 doses of 100 μg (delivered to 2 thighs) were used for both EPO and G-CSF mRNA. Control dosing included the use of buffer in a single dose. Human EPO blood levels were assessed 13 hours after infusion.

Human EPO protein was measured in rat serum 13 hours after intramuscular injection. Five groups of rats were treated and evaluated. The results are shown in Table 75.
Table 75. Multiple dose studies

Example 55. Signal sequence exchange studies mRNA encoding human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a poly A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1 ) Were synthesized using a modified nucleotide pseudouridine and 5-methylcytosine (pseudo-U / 5mC). These variants include G-CSF encoding either a wild-type N-terminal secretory signal peptide sequence (MAGGPATQSPMKLMALQLLLLWHSALVTVQEA; SEQ ID NO: 95), or a non-secretory signal peptide sequence, or a secretory signal peptide sequence obtained from other mRNAs. Constructs were included. These are wild-type G-CSF signal peptide sequences of human α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) (MMPSSVSWGILLLAGCLCVPVSLA; SEQ ID NO: 94), human factor IX (FIX) (MQRVNMIMAESPSLITICLLGLYLSATCHFLDHENNKILNRPKR; Proc. No. 96) (MKGSLLLLLVSNLLLQQSVAP; SEQ ID NO: 97) or human albumin (Alb) (MKWVTFISLLFLSSAYSRRGVFRR; SEQ ID NO: 98).

250 ng of the modified mRNA encoding each G-CSF variant was HEK293A (293A in the table), mouse in a 24 well plate containing 300,000 cells in each well using 1 μL of Lipofectamine 2000 (Life Technologies). Myoblasts (MM in the table) (C2C12, CRL-1772, ATCC) and rat myoblasts (RM in the table) (L6 strain, CRL-1458, ATCC) were transfected. Supernatants were collected 24 hours later and secreted G-CSF protein was analyzed by ELISA using a human G-CSF ELISA kit (Life Technologies). The data shown in Table 76 shows that cells transfected with G-CSF mmRNA encoding an albumin signal peptide secrete at least 12-fold more G-CSF protein than its wild-type counterpart.
Table 76. Signal peptide exchange

Example 56. Cytokine research: PBMC
A. Isolation and culture of PBMC 50 mL of human blood from two donors was received from Research Blood Components (Lot KP30928 and KP30931) with heparin sodium tubes. For each donor, blood was pooled, diluted to 70 mL with DPBS (SAFC Bioscience 59331C, lot 071M8408) and aliquoted into two 50 mL conical tubes. 10 mL of Ficoll Paque (GE Healthcare 17-5442-03, lot 10074400) was gently dispensed under the blood layer. The tube was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 30 minutes with low acceleration and braking. The tube was removed and the buffy PBMC layer was gently transferred to a new 50 mL conical tube and washed with DPBS. The tube was centrifuged at 1450 rpm for 10 minutes.

  The supernatant was aspirated and the PBMC pellet was resuspended in 50 mL DPBS and washed. The tube was centrifuged at 1250 rpm for 10 minutes. This wash step was repeated and the PBMC pellet was resuspended in 19 mL Optimem I (Gibco 11058, lot 1072088) and counted. The cell suspension was adjusted to live cells at a concentration of 3.0 × 10 6 cells / mL.

  These cells were then seeded in 5 96 well tissue culture treated round bottom plates (Costar 3799) per donor at 50 μL per well. Within 30 minutes, the transfection mixture was added to each well in an amount of 50 μL per well. Four hours after transfection, the medium was supplemented with 10 μL of fetal calf serum (Gibco 10082, lot 1012368).

B. Transfection preparation mMRNA encoding human G-CSF (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1) ((1) native A luciferase-encoding mRNA (IVT) containing either NTP, (2) 100% substitution with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine, or (3) 100% substitution with 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine The cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, the poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine in each cytosine and each Pseudouridine placement at the uridine site Fully modified) ((1) containing either natural NTP or (2) 100% substitution with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine), and TLR agonist R848 (Invivogen tlrl-r848) in a final volume of 2500 μL In Optimem I was diluted to 38.4 ng / μL.

  Separately, 432 μL of Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen 11668-027, lot 1070962) was diluted with 13.1 mL of Optimem I. In a 96-well plate, nine 135 μL aliquots of each mmRNA, positive control (R-848), or negative control (Optimem I) were added to 135 μL of diluted Lipofectamine 2000. Plates containing the material to be transfected were incubated for 20 minutes. The transfection mixture was then transferred to each human PBMC at 50 μL per well. The plates were then incubated at 37 ° C. At 2, 4, 8, 20, and 44 hours, each plate was removed from the incubator and the supernatant was frozen.

  After removing the last plate, the supernatant was assayed using a human G-CSF ELISA kit (Invitrogen KHC2032) and a human IFN-α ELISA kit (Thermo Scientific 41015-2). Each condition was performed in duplicate.

C. Results The ability of unmodified and modified mRNA (mmRNA) to produce the encoded protein was evaluated over time (G-CSF production), as well as the ability of mRNA to cause innate immune recognition as measured by interferon alpha production. did. The use of in vitro PBMC cultures is a common method for measuring the immunostimulatory capacity of oligonucleotides (Robbins et al., Oligonucleotides 2009 19: 89-102, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety).

  The results were interpolated against the standard curve of each ELISA plate using a four parameter logistic curve fit. Tables 77 and 78 show the average of G-CSF and IFN-α production over time as measured by a specific ELISA from two separate PBMC donors.

In the G-CSF ELISA, the background signal due to Lipofectamine 2000 untreated conditions was subtracted at each time point. Data show that specific production of human G-CSF protein by human peripheral blood mononuclear is 100% substitution with natural NTP, 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine, or 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine. Of G-CSF mRNA containing 100% substitution of. The production of G-CSF is significantly increased by the use of modified mRNA compared to unmodified mRNA, with G-CSF mRNA containing 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine being the highest G-CSF production showed that. With respect to innate immune recognition, unmodified mRNA resulted in significant IFN-α production, but modified mRNA greatly blocked interferon α production. G-CSF mRNA fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine did not substantially increase cytokines, but G-CSF fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine mRNA induced IFN-α, TNF-α, and IP10. A number of other cytokines were not affected by any modification.
Table 77. G-CSF signal
Table 78. IFN-α signal

Example 57. Scope of chemical modification of modified mRNAs Modified nucleotides such as, but not limited to, chemically modified 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine have been shown to reduce innate immune responses and increase RNA expression in mammalian cells. ing. Surprisingly and not previously known, if the amount of chemical modification is less than 100%, the effect that the chemical modification exhibits can be titrated. Previously, complete modification was necessary and sufficient to elicit the beneficial effects of chemical modification, and modifications of less than 100% of mRNA were thought to have little effect. However, it has now been shown that the benefits of chemical modification can be induced by less than complete modification, the effect of which depends on the target, concentration, and modification.

A. Modified RNA transfected into PBMC
G-CSF mRNA modified with 960 ng 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and pseudouridine (pseudo U) or unmodified G-CSF mRNA was transferred to 3 normal blood donors using 0.8 μL Lipofectamine 2000 ( Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from D1, D2, D3) were transfected. G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1) was fully modified with 5 mC and pseudo U (100% Modification) not modified with 5 mC and pseudo U (0% modification), or mRNA contains 50% modification, 25% modification, 10% modification, 5% modification, 1% modification, or 0.1% modification Was partially modified with 5 mC and pseudo U. Control sample luciferase (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5meC and pseudo U) is also G-CSF Expression was analyzed. Lipofectamine 2000, LPS, R-848, luciferase, which is a control sample for TNF-α and IFN-α (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap; Cap 1; fully modified with 5 mC and pseudo) and P (I) P (C) were also analyzed. Supernatants were collected 22 hours after transfection and subjected to ELISA to determine protein expression. The expression of G-CSF is shown in Table 79, and the expression of IFN-α and TNF-α is shown in Table 80. Expression of IFN-α and TNF-α may be a secondary effect by transfection of G-CSF mRNA. Tables 79 and 80 can titrate the amount of chemical modification of G-CSF, IFN-α, and TNF-α when the mRNA is not fully modified, and the titratable tendency is not the same for each subject. Indicates no.
Table 79. G-CSF expression
Table 80. Expression of IFN-α and TNF-α

B. Modified RNA transfected into HEK293
Human fetal kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 30,000 cells per well in 100 μL of cell culture medium. 250 ng modified G-CSF mRNA formulated with RNAiMAX ™ (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.) (MRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; A 5 ′ cap, cap 1) was added to the well. G-CSF was fully modified with 5 mC and pseudo U (100% modification), not modified with 5 mC and pseudo U (0% modification), or mRNA was 75% modified, 50% modified, or 25% modified Was partially modified with 5 mC and pseudo U. Control samples (AK 5/2, mCherry (as shown in SEQ ID NO: 21439; poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5 mC and pseudo U), and not Treatment) was also analyzed. The half-life of G-CSF mRNA fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine is about 8-10 hours. The supernatant is collected after 16 hours and the secreted protein is analyzed by ELISA. Table 81 shows that the amount of chemical modification of G-CSF can be titrated if the mRNA is not fully modified.
Table 81. G-CSF expression

Example 58: In vivo delivery of modified mRNA (mmRNA) Modified RNA was delivered intramuscularly, subcutaneously or intravenously to C57 / BL6 mice and the biodistribution of the modified RNA was assessed using luciferase. The formulation buffer used for all delivery methods was 150 mM sodium chloride, 2 mM calcium chloride, 2 mM Na + -phosphate (1.4 mM monobasic sodium phosphate and 0.6 mM dibasic sodium phosphate. As well as 0.5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), adjusted with sodium hydroxide to reach a final pH of 6.5, then filtered and sterilized. A 1 × concentration was used as the delivery buffer. To create a lipoplexing solution for delivery to mice, 50 μg RNA was equilibrated in delivery buffer at room temperature for 10 minutes in one vial, and 10 μL RNAiMAX ™ was room temperature in the second vial. Equilibrated in delivery buffer for 10 min. After equilibration, the vials were combined and delivery buffer was added until a final volume of 100 μL was reached, which was then incubated at room temperature for 20 minutes. Luciferin was administered to each mouse at 150 mg / kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP) and then imaged during the plateau phase of the luciferin exposure curve, which was 15-30 minutes. To make luciferin, 1 g D-luciferin potassium or sodium salt was dissolved in 66.6 mL distilled phosphate buffer solution (DPBS) without Mg 2+ or Ca 2+ to give a 15 mg / mL solution. . The solution was mixed gently, passed through a 0.2 μm syringe filter, purged with nitrogen, aliquoted, and stored at −80 ° C. while blocking light as much as possible. On the day of dosing, the solution was thawed using a warm bath and gently mixed if luciferin was not dissolved and kept on ice.

  Full body images of each mouse were taken at 2, 8, and 24 hours after dosing. Tissue images and serum were collected from the mice 24 hours after dosing. Mice that received the dose intravenously imaged the liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, perirenal adipose tissue, and thymus. Mice dosed intramuscularly or subcutaneously had liver, spleen, kidney, lung, perirenal adipose tissue, and muscle at the injection site. From whole body images, bioluminescence was measured in units of photons per second for each route of administration and dosing regimen.

A. Intramuscular administration Mice were treated with modified luciferase mRNA fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine (Naked-Luc), lipoplexed modified luciferase mRNA fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine (lipoplex). -Luc) (IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'cap, cap 1, 5 in each cytosine. -Fully modified with methylcytosine and pseudouridine substitutions at each uridine site), lipoplexed modified granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; about 160 nucleotide poly A tail not shown in sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine) (lipoplex-cytokine), or formulation buffer, 50 μL injection for each formulation Intramuscularly (IM) was administered to the right hind limb with a single modified RNA dose of 50 μg in volume and to the left hind limb with a single modified RNA dose of 5 μg at a 50 μL injection volume. The bioluminescence average of the luciferase expression signal for each group at 2, 8, and 24 hours after dosing is shown in Table 82. Bioluminescence showed a positive signal of 5 μg and 50 μg modified RNA formulations with and without lipoplex at the injection site.
Table 82. In vivo biophoton imaging (IM injection route)

B. Subcutaneously administered to mice, either modified luciferase mRNA (Naked-Luc), lipoplexed modified luciferase mRNA (Lipoplex-luc), lipoplexed modified G-CSF mRNA (Lipoplex-G-CSF), or formulation buffer These were administered subcutaneously (SC) at a single modified mRNA dose of 50 μg with an injection volume of 100 μL for each formulation. Table 83 shows the bioluminescence average of the luciferase expression signal for each group at 2, 8, and 24 hours after dosing. Bioluminescence showed a positive signal of 5 μg and 50 μg modified mRNA formulations with and without lipoplex at the injection site.
Table 83. In vivo biophoton imaging (SC injection route)

C. Intravenous administration In mice, modified luciferase mRNA (Naked-Luc), lipoplexed modified luciferase mRNA (Lipoplex-luc), lipoplexed modified G-CSF mRNA (Lipoplex-G-CSF), or formulation buffer Either was administered intravenously (IV) at a single modified mRNA dose of 50 μg with an injection volume of 100 μL for each formulation. The bioluminescence average of spleen luciferase expression signal from each group 2 hours after dosing is shown in Table 84. Bioluminescence showed a positive signal in the spleen of a 50 μg modified mRNA preparation containing lipoplexes.
Table 84. In vivo biophoton imaging (IV injection route)

Example 59. Buffer formulation studies G-CSF modified mRNA in buffer solution (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; N1-pseudouridine and Fully modified with 5-methylcytosine) or Factor IX modified mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1622; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; N1-pseudo Rats are administered intramuscularly (n = 5) with a modified mRNA dose of 200 μg per rat at 50 μL injection volume, as described in Table 85, fully modified with uridine and 5-methylcytosine. The modified mRNA is lyophilized in water for 1-2 days. It is then reconstituted to a target concentration of 6 mg / mL in the buffers listed below. Concentration is determined by OD 260. Samples are diluted to 4 mg / mL in appropriate buffer prior to dosing.

To precipitate the modified mRNA, 3M sodium acetate at pH 5.5 and pure ethanol are added at 1/10 and 4 times the total volume of the modified mRNA, respectively. The material is placed at −80 ° C. for a minimum of 1 hour. The material is then centrifuged at 4000 rpm, 4 ° C. for 30 minutes. The supernatant is removed and the pellet is centrifuged and washed 3 times with 75% ethanol. Finally, the pellet is reconstituted with buffer to a target concentration of 6 mg / mL. Concentration is determined by OD 260. Samples are diluted to 4 mg / mL in appropriate buffer prior to dosing. All samples are prepared by lyophilization unless otherwise specified below.
Table 85. Buffer dosage group

  Serum samples are taken from rats at various time intervals and analyzed for G-CSF or factor IX protein expression using G-CSF and factor IX ELISA.

Example 60. Multiple dose studies Sprague Dawley rats (n = 8) will receive 8 (2 times weekly) intravenous infusions over 28 days. Rats were formulated with 0.5 mg / kg, 0.05 mg / kg, 0.005 mg / kg, or 0.0005 mg / kg luciferase modified mRNA human G-CSF modified mRNA formulated in lipid nanoparticles, saline Inject 0.5 mg / kg human G-CSF modified mRNA in water, 0.2 mg / kg human G-CSF protein Neupogen formulated in lipid nanoparticles or non-translatable human G-CSF modified mRNA . Serum is collected at pre-determined time intervals to express G-CSF protein (8, 24, and 72 hours after the first dose of the week), whole blood count and white blood cell count (first dose of the week). 24 and 72 hours after) and clinical chemistry (24 and 72 hours after the first dose of the week). Rats are sacrificed on day 29, 4 days after the last dose, to assess total blood count, white blood cell count, clinical science, protein expression, and to assess effects on major organs by histopathology and dissection. In addition, on day 29, mice were subjected to antibody assays.

Example 61. LNP in vivo studies Luciferase modified mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; approximately 160 nucleotides poly A tail not shown in sequence 5 ′ cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine Was formulated as lipid nanoparticles (LNP) using a syringe pump method, with the final lipid molar ratio 50: 10: 38.5: 1.5 (DLin-KC2-DMA: DSPC: cholesterol: PEG-DMG) was formulated at a total lipid to modified mRNA weight ratio of 20: 1. As shown in Table 86, luciferase LNP formulations were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation.
Table 86. Luciferase preparation

As outlined in Table 87, luciferase LNP formulations were administered intramuscularly, intravenously and subcutaneously to Balb-C mice (n = 3), and luciferase modified RNA formulated in PBS was administered to mice. It was administered intravenously.
Table 87. Luciferase preparation

Mice that received luciferase LNP formulation intravenously and intramuscularly were imaged at 2, 8, 24, 48, 120, and 192 hours, and mice that received luciferase LNP formulation subcutaneously were administered 2, 8, 24, 48, and Images were taken at 120 hours to determine the luciferase expression shown in Table 88. In Table 88, “NT” means untested. Twenty minutes before imaging, mice were injected intraperitoneally with D-luciferin solution at 150 mg / kg. The animals were then anesthetized and images were acquired using an IVIS Lumina II imaging system (Perkin Elmer). Bioluminescence was measured as the total luminous flux (photons / second) of all mice.
Table 88. Luciferase expression

One mouse that received the LNP formulation intravenously was sacrificed at 8 hours to determine luciferase expression in the liver and spleen. In addition, one mouse administered intramuscularly with the LNP formulation is sacrificed at 8 hours to determine luciferase expression in muscle around the injection site and in the liver and pancreas. As shown in Table 89, expression was seen in both the liver and spleen after intravenous and intramuscular administration, and in the muscle around the intramuscular injection site.
Table 89. Tissue luciferase expression

Example 62. Cytokine research: PBMC
A. Isolation and culture of PBMC 50 mL of human blood from two donors was received from Research Blood Components (Lot KP30928 and KP30931) with heparin sodium tubes. For each donor, blood was pooled, diluted to 70 mL with DPBS (SAFC Bioscience 59331C, lot 071M8408) and aliquoted into two 50 mL conical tubes. 10 mL of Ficoll Paque (GE Healthcare 17-5442-03, lot 10074400) was gently dispensed under the blood layer. The tube was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 30 minutes with low acceleration and braking. The tube was removed and the buffy PBMC layer was gently transferred to a new 50 mL conical tube and washed with DPBS. The tube was centrifuged at 1450 rpm for 10 minutes.

  The supernatant was aspirated and the PBMC pellet was resuspended in 50 mL DPBS and washed. The tube was centrifuged at 1250 rpm for 10 minutes. This wash step was repeated and the PBMC pellet was resuspended in 19 mL Optimem I (Gibco 11058, lot 1072088) and counted. The cell suspension was adjusted to live cells at a concentration of 3.0 × 10 6 cells / mL.

  These cells were then seeded in 5 96 well tissue culture treated round bottom plates (Costar 3799) per donor at 50 μL per well. Within 30 minutes, the transfection mixture was added to each well in an amount of 50 μL per well. Four hours after transfection, the medium was supplemented with 10 μL of fetal calf serum (Gibco 10082, lot 1012368).

B. Transfection Preparation Modified mRNA encoding human G-CSF (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1) ((1) natural NTP, (2) 100% substitution with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine, or (3) 100% substitution with 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine, mRNA encoding luciferase (The IVT cDNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21445; the mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446, the poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'cap, cap 1, 5-methylcytosine in each cytosine. And pseudouridine placement at each uridine site Fully modified with (1) natural NTP or (2) containing either 100% substitution with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine), and TLR agonist R848 (Invivogen tlrl-r848) in a final volume of 2500 μL In Optimem I was diluted to 38.4 ng / μL.

  Separately, 110 μL of Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen 11668-027, Lot 1070962) was diluted with 6.76 mL of Optimem I. In a 96-well plate, nine 135 μL aliquots of each mRNA, positive control (R-848), or negative control (Optimem I) were added to 135 μL of diluted Lipofectamine 2000. Plates containing the material to be transfected were incubated for 20 minutes. The transfection mixture was then transferred to each human PBMC at 50 μL per well. The plates were then incubated at 37 ° C. At 2, 4, 8, 20, and 44 hours, each plate was removed from the incubator and the supernatant was frozen.

  After removing the last plate, the supernatant was assayed using a human G-CSF ELISA kit (Invitrogen KHC2032) and a human IFN-α ELISA kit (Thermo Scientific 41015-2). Each condition was performed in duplicate.

C. Protein and innate immune response analysis The ability of unmodified and modified mRNA to produce the encoded protein is evaluated over time (G-CSF production), as does the ability of mRNA to cause innate immune recognition as measured by interferon alpha production. Evaluated. The use of in vitro PBMC cultures is a common method for measuring the immunostimulatory capacity of oligonucleotides (Robbins et al., Oligonucleotides 2009 19: 89-102).

  The results were interpolated against the standard curve of each ELISA plate using a four parameter logistic curve fit. Tables 90 and 91 show the average of three separate PBMC donors of G-CSF, interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production over time as measured by specific ELISA .

  In the G-CSF ELISA, the background signal due to Lipofectamine 2000 (LF2000) untreated conditions was subtracted at each time point. Data show that specific production of human G-CSF protein by human peripheral blood mononuclear is 100% substitution with natural NTP, 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine, or 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine. Of G-CSF mRNA containing 100% substitution of. The production of G-CSF was significantly increased compared to 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine modified mRNA by the use of 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine modified mRNA.

  With respect to innate immune recognition, the chemical composition of any modified mRNA significantly blocked IFN-α and TNF-α production compared to positive controls (R848, p (I) p (C)), but between chemical compositions There was a significant difference. 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine modified mRNA resulted in low but detectable levels of IFN-α and TNF-α production, while 5-methylcytidine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine modified mRNA were detectable No IFN-α and TNF-α production.

  As a result, in addition to the need to consider more than one cytokine marker of activation of the innate immune response, surprisingly the combination of modifications can result in different levels of cellular responses (protein production and immune activation) It has been determined that it was found. The modification, N1-methyl-pseudouridine, in this study resulted in enhanced protection over the standard 5-methylcytidine / pseudouridine combination, resulting in a 2-fold more protein and almost 150-fold immune response. It has been shown to result in a reduction (TNF-α).

  Given that PBMC contains a large number of innate immune RNA recognition sensors and is capable of protein translation, this provides a useful system for testing the interdependence of these two pathways. It is known that mRNA translation can be adversely affected by activation of such innate immune pathways (Kariko et al. Immunity (2005) 23: 165-175, Warren et al. Cell Stem Cell (2010)). 7: 618-630). Correlation between translation (in this case G-CSF protein production) and cytokine production (in this case exemplified by IFN-α and TNF-α protein production) by using PBMC as an in vitro assay system Can be established. Better protein production correlates with the induction of lower innate immune activation pathways, and new chemical compositions can be advantageously determined based on this ratio (Table 92).

In this study, the PC ratio of the two chemical modifications, pseudouridine and N1-methyl-pseudouridine, both with 5-methylcytosine, is 4742/141 compared to 9944/1 = 9944 of the cytokine IFN-α. = 34. For the cytokine TNF-α, the two chemical compositions have PC ratios of 153 and 1243, suggesting that N1-methyl-pseudouridine is a better modification for both cytokines, respectively. In Tables 90 and 91, “NT” means untested.
Table 90. G-CSF
Table 91. IFN-α and TNF-α
Table 92. G-CSF to cytokine ratio

Example 63. In vitro PBMC study: Percent modification 480 ng G-CSF mRNA modified with 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and pseudouridine (pseudo U) or unmodified G-CSF mRNA using 0.4 μL Lipofectamine 2000 to normal blood Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors (D1, D2, and D3) were transfected. G-CSF mRNA (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21438; polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap, cap 1) was fully modified with 5 mC and pseudo U (100% Modification) Not modified with 5 mC and Pseudo U (0% modification), or partially modified with 5 mC and Pseudo U so that the mRNA contains 75%, 50%, or 25% modification. Control sample luciferase (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; poly-A tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 'cap, cap 1; fully modified with 5meC and pseudo U) is also G-CSF Expression was analyzed. Lipofectamine 2000, LPS, R-848, luciferase, which is a control sample for TNF-α and IFN-α (mRNA sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 21446; a polyA tail of about 160 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence; 5 ′ cap; Cap 1; fully modified with 5 mC and pseudo) and P (I) P (C) were also analyzed. Supernatants were collected 22 hours after transfection and subjected to ELISA to determine protein expression. The expression of G-CSF is shown in Table 93, and the expression of IFN-α and TNF-α is shown in Table 94. Expression of IFN-α and TNF-α may be a secondary effect by transfection of G-CSF mRNA. Tables 93 and 94 can titrate the amount of chemical modification of G-CSF, interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) when the mRNA is not fully modified. The titratable tendency is not the same for each subject.

Using PBMC as an in vitro assay system can establish a correlation between translation (in this case G-CSF protein production) and cytokine production (in this case exemplified by IFN-α protein production). Is possible. Better protein production correlates with the induction of lower innate immune activation pathways, and the rate of chemical composition modification can be advantageously determined based on this ratio (Table 95). As calculated from Tables 93 and 94 and shown in Table 95, complete modification with 5-methylcytidine and ps