JP2015193880A - Method for manufacturing power module substrate having heat sink - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing power module substrate having heat sink Download PDF

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JP2015193880A
JP2015193880A JP2014071880A JP2014071880A JP2015193880A JP 2015193880 A JP2015193880 A JP 2015193880A JP 2014071880 A JP2014071880 A JP 2014071880A JP 2014071880 A JP2014071880 A JP 2014071880A JP 2015193880 A JP2015193880 A JP 2015193880A
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heat sink
power module
plating
circuit layer
module substrate
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JP6273971B2 (en
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中林 明
Akira Nakabayashi
明 中林
加藤 浩和
Hirokazu Kato
浩和 加藤
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三菱マテリアル株式会社
Mitsubishi Materials Corp
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for manufacturing a power module substrate having a heat sink, capable of preventing plating formation to a heat sink to allow partial plating to a circuit layer.SOLUTION: The method for manufacturing a power module substrate having a heat sink, capable of joining a heat sink made of copper to a power module substrate including a circuit layer made of aluminum and laminated on one surface of a ceramic substrate and a metal layer made of aluminum and laminated on the other surface and forming an electroless nickel-plating film on the circuit layer comprises: a heat sink joining step of forming a joint body having the heat sink joined to the metal layer of the power module substrate; and a plating step of immersing the joint body into an electroless nickel plating solution in the state that a positive potential of 0.1 V or more and 1.5 V or less is applied to the heat sink to form an electroless nickel-plating film on the circuit layer.

Description

  The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a power module substrate with a heat sink used in a semiconductor device that controls a large current and a high voltage.

  A conventional power module substrate is known in which a circuit layer made of aluminum is laminated on one surface of a ceramic substrate, and a metal layer made of aluminum is laminated on the other surface. Moreover, it is set as the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink by joining a heat sink to the metal layer of this board | substrate for power modules. Then, an electronic component such as a semiconductor chip is soldered on the circuit layer, and a power module is manufactured.

  In this type of power module substrate with a heat sink, the surface of the circuit layer is subjected to plating in order to improve solder wettability and enhance the bondability with electronic components. Thus, in order to perform plating only on one of the circuit layer and the metal layer arranged with the ceramic substrate interposed therebetween, the masking portion is partially masked on the portion where plating is not desired. It has been practiced to partially plate by preventing the formation of plating.

As such a masking technique, a method of forming a masking material such as a semiconductor resist in a portion for preventing the formation of plating is common, but as described in Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2, There is known a method that uses energization without using a masking material.
In Patent Document 1, an electric current having a polarity opposite to that of the plating solution is passed through a plate-like metal in which another metal plate (II) is disposed via an insulating layer on at least one side of the main surface of the metal plate (I). It is described that the electroless plating is partially applied to the metal plate (II).
Further, in Patent Document 2, in order to perform partial plating only on the first aluminum electrode plate among the first and second aluminum electrode layers sandwiching the insulating layer, the second aluminum electrode layer is used for preventing zinc precipitation. It is described that a zinc-substituted film is formed only on the first aluminum electrode layer by performing a zincate process in a state where a potential is applied, and only the first aluminum electrode layer is formed by performing an electroless plating process thereafter. An electroless nickel coating is formed on the substrate.

Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2003-183842 JP 2012-237038 A

  By the way, when nickel plating is formed on a circuit layer made of aluminum, the power module substrate is immersed in an electroless nickel plating solution. In this case, when an electroless nickel plating solution using hypophosphite such as sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent is used as the electroless nickel plating solution, there is no catalytic activity of copper against the reducing agent. Does not cause a spontaneous plating reaction. For this reason, in a power module substrate with a heat dissipation plate in which a heat dissipation plate made of copper is joined to a power module substrate in which a metal layer made of aluminum is laminated on the other surface of the ceramic substrate, it is immersed in an electroless nickel plating solution. By performing the plating process, it is possible to avoid the formation of the plating on the heat sink and to form the plating only on the circuit layer made of aluminum. However, in a power module substrate with a heat sink, in which an aluminum metal layer and a copper heat sink are joined, the heat sink is made of copper, not only on the circuit layer but also on the surface of the heat sink. The problem is that plating is formed.

  This invention is made in view of such a situation, and provides the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink which prevents the plating formation to a heat sink and enables the partial plating to a circuit layer. For the purpose.

When a power module board with a heat sink, in which a heat sink made of copper is bonded to a metal layer made of aluminum, is immersed in an electroless nickel plating solution, the sides other than the joint surfaces on both sides of the metal layer are electroless. By contact with the nickel plating solution, an electroless plating reaction occurs in the aluminum portion. At this time, it was found that the plating reaction spreads because the potential of the copper portion of the nearby heat sink becomes negative (minus), and the plating reaction occurred on the entire surface of the heat sink by the same mechanism as galvanic initiation.
Therefore, the manufacturing method of the power module substrate with a heat sink according to the present invention is the following solution.

  The present invention bonds a heat sink made of copper to a power module substrate having a circuit layer made of aluminum laminated on one surface of a ceramic substrate and a metal layer made of aluminum laminated on the other surface. Then, a method for manufacturing a power module substrate with a heat sink, wherein an electroless nickel plating film is formed on the circuit layer, wherein a joined body is formed by bonding the heat sink to the metal layer of the power module substrate. A step of joining the heat sink, and an electroless nickel plating film on the circuit layer by immersing the joined body in an electroless nickel plating solution in a state where a positive potential of 0.1 V to 1.5 V is applied to the heat sink And a plating treatment process for forming the film.

The plating reaction to the heat sink can be suppressed by immersing the joined body in the electroless nickel plating solution with a positive potential of 0.1 V or more and 1.5 V or less applied to the heat sink. Therefore, it is possible to prevent plating from being formed on the heat sink without requiring complicated work such as masking treatment to the heat sink, and an electroless nickel plating film is applied only to the circuit layer through a simplified process. Can be formed. In addition, an electroless plating reaction may occur in the aluminum portion on the side surface of the metal layer, but it is very slight and does not cause a problem in use.
If the applied potential to the heat sink is less than 0.1 V, it is difficult to completely prevent the electroless nickel plating from being deposited on the heat sink. On the other hand, when the voltage applied to the heat sink exceeds 1.5V, copper anodic dissolution may occur.
Further, the method of applying a potential to the heat sink may be either a constant current or a constant voltage, but is preferably performed at a constant voltage. This is because, when performing at a constant voltage, it is not necessary to consider the surface area for each size of the heat sink in order to make the current density constant, and the operation becomes simple.

The power module substrate with a heat sink of the present invention includes a zincate treatment step of immersing the joined body in a zincate solution after the heat sink joining step and before the plating treatment step to coat the surface of the circuit layer with zinc.
By performing the zincate treatment, the adhesion between the circuit layer and the plating film can be improved.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to prevent plating from being formed on the heat sink without requiring complicated work by masking treatment, and it is possible to form partial plating on the circuit layer through a simplified process. .

It is a flowchart which shows the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink of this invention. It is a schematic diagram explaining the plating process process of the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink of this invention. It is sectional drawing of the board | substrate for power modules manufactured by the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink of this invention.

Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described.
FIG. 3 shows a power module 100 using the power module substrate 1 with a heat sink manufactured according to the present invention. The power module substrate 1 with a heat sink includes a power module substrate 10 and a heat sink 30 bonded to the power module substrate 10.

  The power module substrate 10 includes a ceramic substrate 11, a circuit layer 12 laminated on one surface of the ceramic substrate 11, and a metal layer 13 laminated on the other surface of the ceramic substrate 11. 11, the circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13 are brazed. And the heat sink 30 with a heat sink is comprised by joining the heat sink 30 to the surface of the metal layer 13 of this board | substrate 10 for power modules. Note that an electronic component 20 such as a semiconductor chip is soldered to the surface of the circuit layer 12 (on the circuit layer 12) of the power module substrate 1 with a heat sink, thereby forming the power module 100.

The ceramic substrate 11 prevents electrical connection between the circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13, and includes AlN (aluminum nitride), Si 3 N 4 (silicon nitride), Al 2 O 3 (alumina), and the like. The ceramic material is formed in a rectangular shape and has a thickness of 0.2 mm to 1 mm, for example.
The circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13 are formed of pure aluminum having a purity of 99.00% by mass or more, an aluminum alloy, or an aluminum alloy having a purity of 95% by mass or more such as A3003 material, and has a thickness of, for example, 0.1 mm to 5 mm. Usually, it is formed in a rectangular shape smaller than the ceramic substrate 11. The circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13 are brazed to the ceramic substrate 11 with a brazing material such as an Al—Si, Al—Ge, Al—Cu, Al—Mg, or Al—Mn alloy. Is done.
Further, the circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13 are bonded to the ceramic substrate 11 by punching them into a desired outer shape by pressing, or after joining a flat plate to the ceramic substrate 11, a desired shape is obtained by etching. Either an outer shape or a method can be employed.

  As a preferable combination example of each member in the power module substrate 10 of the present embodiment, the ceramic substrate 11 is AlN having a thickness of 0.635 mm, and the circuit layer 12 is a pure aluminum plate having a thickness of 0.4 mm (purity 99.99 mass). % 4N-Al), the metal layer 13 is formed of an aluminum plate having a thickness of 0.4 mm.

Moreover, the heat sink 30 is formed of pure copper or copper alloy such as oxygen-free copper or tough pitch copper, and is formed in a flat plate shape with a thickness of 1 mm to 5 mm, for example. The heat sink 30 is bonded to the metal layer 13 of the ceramic substrate 11 by solid phase diffusion bonding.
The shape of the heat sink 30 is not particularly limited, and may be an appropriate one such as a flat plate heat sink formed with the same planar size as the metal layer 13 or a flat plate heat sink formed with fins. Shapes are included.

  And the desired circuit pattern is formed in the circuit layer 12 of the board | substrate 1 for power modules with a heat sink, and the electroless nickel plating film 15 is formed in the surface. The electroless nickel plating film 15 is formed to have a thickness of 1 μm to 9 μm, for example.

Next, the manufacturing method of the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink of this embodiment is demonstrated.
(Power module substrate formation process)
First, the circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13 are laminated on each surface of the ceramic substrate 11 via a brazing material, and the laminated body is heated in a state of being pressurized in the laminating direction to melt the brazing material. 12 and the metal layer 13 are brazed to the ceramic substrate 11 to form the power module substrate 10. Specifically, an Al-7 mass% Si brazing material is used as a brazing material, and the ceramic substrate 11, the circuit layer 12 and the metal layer 13 are brazed by heating to a brazing temperature of, for example, 640 ° C. in a vacuum atmosphere. Join.

(Heat sink joining process)
And the heat sink 30 is made into the state which accumulated the surface of the metal layer 13 of this board | substrate 10 for power modules, and it heated below the eutectic temperature of copper and aluminum in the state pressurized in the lamination direction, and heat sink 30 And the metal layer 13 of the power module substrate 10 are bonded to each other by solid phase diffusion bonding with copper and aluminum diffused to form a joined body S in which the power module substrate 10 and the heat sink 30 are bonded. To do. Specifically, the metal layer 13 of the heat radiating plate 30 and the power module substrate 10 is held in a vacuum atmosphere at a load of 0.3 MPa to 10 MPa, a heating temperature of 400 ° C. or more and less than 548 ° C. for 5 minutes to 240 minutes. And can be joined.

(Plating pretreatment process)
Next, in order to remove impurities such as oil and aluminum oxide existing on the surface of the circuit layer 12, degreasing and alkali etching are performed.

(Jincate treatment process)
Next, before the plating process, in order to ensure adhesion with the circuit layer 12, a zincate process is performed to coat the surface of the circuit layer 12 with zinc (Zn). At this time, the zinc in the zincate solution reacts with the aluminum of the circuit layer 12, so that the aluminum is dissolved and zinc is substituted and deposited on the surface, and a zinc coating is formed on the surface of the circuit layer 12. Specifically, the zincate treatment is performed by immersing the joined body S in the zincate solution for 30 to 60 seconds.
The zincate process may be performed twice or more. Since the zinc coating coated by the first zincate treatment is in a state of large particles, the zinc particles are finely formed by performing the second zincate treatment after the zincate peeling treatment for peeling the zinc coating once. A zinc coating is formed in the state. By forming the zinc coating with fine zinc particles, the adhesion between the circuit layer 12 and the nickel plating can be further improved. In addition, 10 vol%-50 vol% nitric acid can be used for a zincate peeling process. Since the processing time of the zincate peeling treatment is short, the amount of copper dissolved can be suppressed to a very small amount. When it is necessary to reduce the copper elution amount, the zincate peeling treatment can be performed using 10 vol% nitric acid. In this case, the same effect can be obtained.

(Plating process)
Then, by immersing the joined body S after the zincate treatment in an electroless nickel plating solution (NiP plating solution) 60, the zinc coating (Zn) is replaced with nickel (Ni) in the NiP plating solution 60, and the replacement is performed. An electroless nickel plating film 15 is formed on the circuit layer 12 by causing a plating reaction to proceed using the nickel thus prepared as a catalyst. At this time, in order to suppress the plating reaction to the heat sink 30, the joined body S is immersed in the NiP plating solution 60 with a positive potential of 0.1 V or more and 1.5 V or less applied to the heat sink 30. Specifically, as shown in FIG. 2, the radiator plate 30 of the joined body S is connected to the positive electrode of the power source 65, and the electrode 63 is connected to the negative electrode of the power source 65 to bring the radiator plate 30 into an energized state. Is immersed in the NiP plating solution 60 stored in advance in the plating tank 61, and the heat sink 30 is immersed in the NiP plating solution 60 and at the same time a positive potential is applied. Thereby, while the plating reaction to the heat sink 30 to which a positive potential is applied can be suppressed, the electroless nickel plating film 15 can be formed on the circuit layer 12.

In this case, if the applied potential to the heat sink 30 is less than 0.1 V, it is difficult to completely prevent plating deposition on the heat sink 30. On the other hand, when the applied voltage to the heat sink 30 exceeds 1.5V, there is a possibility that anodic dissolution of copper may occur.
The method of applying a potential to the heat sink 30 may be either a constant current or a constant voltage, but is preferably performed at a constant voltage. This is because when the operation is performed at a constant voltage, it is not necessary to consider the surface area for each size of the radiator plate 30 in order to make the current density constant, and the operation becomes simple.

  Note that the electronic component 20 is soldered to the upper surface of the circuit layer 12 on the power module substrate 1 with a heat sink, in which the electroless nickel plating film 15 is formed on the circuit layer 12, and the electronic component 20, the circuit layer 12, Are connected with bonding wires or the like, and the power module 100 is manufactured.

  As described above, in the method for manufacturing the power module substrate of the present embodiment, the joined body S is immersed in the NiP plating solution 60 with a positive potential of 0.1 V or more and 1.5 V or less applied to the heat sink 30. By making it, the plating reaction to the heat sink 30 can be suppressed. Therefore, it is possible to prevent plating from being formed on the heat sink 30 without requiring a complicated operation such as masking the heat sink 30, and only the circuit layer 12 is electrolessly nickel plated by a simplified process. A coating 15 can be formed. Therefore, the power module substrate 1 with a heat sink can be efficiently manufactured, and productivity can be improved.

In addition, this invention is not limited to the thing of the structure of the said embodiment, In a detailed structure, it is possible to add a various change in the range which does not deviate from the meaning of this invention.
For example, although the NiP plating solution is used in the above embodiment, the present invention is not limited to this, and a NiB plating solution or other electroless nickel plating solution can be used.

  Moreover, you may perform a desmut process before a zincate process process. The desmutting treatment is a treatment for removing insoluble matters such as alloy metals other than aluminum and oxides generated when the circuit layer 12 is alkali-etched. The desmut treatment can be performed by immersing in 10 vol% to 50 vol% nitric acid at room temperature for 10 seconds to 120 seconds. Since the desmut treatment is short in processing time, the amount of copper dissolved can be suppressed to a very small amount. When it is necessary to reduce the copper elution amount, desmut treatment can be performed using 10 vol% nitric acid. In this case, the same effect can be obtained.

In order to confirm the effect of this invention, the sample of the board | substrate for power modules with a heat sink of the example of this invention and a comparative example was produced.
The power module substrate constituting each power module substrate with a heat sink is a circuit layer and metal layer (circuit layer and metal layer made of 4N-Al) on both sides of a ceramic substrate (60 mm × 60 mm × 0.635 mmt) made of AlN. Both were formed by brazing and joining 58 mm × 58 mm × 0.4 mmt) with an Al—Si brazing material. Next, a resist ink was printed and etched with a ferrous chloride solution to form a circuit in the circuit layer.
Next, a heat radiating plate (20 mm × 80 mm × 3 mmt) made of oxygen-free copper was bonded to the metal layer of the obtained power module substrate by solid phase diffusion bonding to produce a bonded body of each sample.

And the electroless nickel plating film to each sample was produced in the procedure shown below.
First, degreasing was performed to remove oil adhering to the surface of the circuit layer. Then, in order to remove the aluminum oxide film in the circuit layer, an alkali etching treatment was performed.

Next, a desmut treatment was performed on the joined body after the alkali etching treatment. The desmut treatment was performed by immersing the joined body in 50 vol% nitric acid (room temperature) for 30 seconds.
And the zincate process was performed twice in order to ensure the adhesiveness of a plating film and a circuit layer to the joined body which finished the desmut process.
The first zincate treatment was performed by immersing the joined body in a zincate solution (Uemura Kogyo Co., Ltd .: AZ-301-3X, 25 ° C.) for 1 minute. Next, after performing the zincate peeling process, the second zincate process was performed. The second zincate treatment was performed by immersing the joined body in the same zincate solution as the first zincate treatment for 30 seconds. Moreover, the zincate peeling process was performed by immersing in 50 vol% nitric acid (room temperature) for 30 seconds.

About the joined body after a zincate process, the heat sink was pinched | interposed with the clip made from SUS304, and it connected to the positive electrode of the constant voltage power supply. Moreover, the negative electrode of the constant voltage power source was connected to a 5 mm diameter rod made of SUS304 as a cathode, and was previously immersed in a plating solution. And the electroless nickel plating film was formed by immersing the joined body connected to the constant voltage power supply in the plating solution in the state which supplied with electricity to the heat sink.
The plating solution is low phosphorus type (Meltex Enplate: NI-246, Ni 5.7 g / L, pH 6.7, 80 ° C.), medium phosphorus type (Nimden Uemura Kogyo: NPR-4, Ni 5.0 g / L). , PH 4.6, 80 ° C.), and NiB type (Uemura Kogyo Belnickel, Ni 6.7 g / L, pH 6.6, 60 ° C.) was used for plating. In addition, the plating film thickness was set to 5 μm in all cases, and was set to 16 minutes for the low phosphorus type, 26 minutes for the medium phosphorus type, and 60 minutes for the NiB type.

And about each sample produced in this way, "elution of a heat sink" and "plating precipitation to a heat sink" were evaluated.
Evaluation of “dissipation of the heat sink” was performed by measuring the Cu concentration in the plating solution after the plating process on each sample by an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (Optima 3000XL manufactured by Perkin Elmer). And about what the Cu density | concentration in a plating solution shall be 0.1 mg / L or less, it evaluates as "(circle)" as what does not elute copper of a heat sink, and about the Cu density | concentration exceeding 0.1 mg / L Was evaluated as “x” because there was copper elution from the heat sink.

The evaluation of “plating deposition on the heat sink” was performed by observing the heat sink of each sample with a scanning electron microscope (S-3400N, 10 kV, manufactured by Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation) with a field of view of 25 times. And what was not confirmed the peak of Ni by EDS was evaluated as "(circle)" as a thing without plating deposition, and the thing in which the peak of Ni was confirmed was evaluated as "x".
Table 1 shows the results.

  As can be seen from Table 1, no plating deposition on the heat sink occurred when the applied voltage was in the range of 0.1 V or more. In addition, it was confirmed that copper elution of the heat radiating plate did not occur when the applied voltage was 1.5 V or less.

  In addition, this invention is not limited to the thing of the structure of the said embodiment, In a detailed structure, it is possible to add a various change in the range which does not deviate from the meaning of this invention.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Power module board | substrate with a heat sink 10 Power module board | substrate 11 Ceramic substrate 12 Circuit layer 13 Heat sink layer 15 Electroless nickel plating film 30 Heat sink 60 Electroless nickel plating solution 61 Plating rod 63 Electrode 65 Power supply 100 Power module S Assembly

Claims (2)

  1.   After joining a heat sink made of copper to a power module substrate comprising a circuit layer made of aluminum laminated on one surface of a ceramic substrate and a metal layer made of aluminum laminated on the other surface, A method for manufacturing a power module substrate with a heat sink, wherein an electroless nickel plating film is formed on a circuit layer, wherein a heat sink bonding step of forming a joined body in which the heat sink is bonded to the metal layer of the power module substrate And plating in which the joined body is immersed in an electroless nickel plating solution while a positive potential of 0.1 V or more and 1.5 V or less is applied to the heat radiating plate to form an electroless nickel plating film on the circuit layer A method for manufacturing a power module substrate with a heat sink, comprising: a processing step.
  2.   2. The heat sink with heat sink according to claim 1, further comprising a zincate treatment step in which the joined body is immersed in a zincate solution after the heat radiation plate joining step and before the plating treatment step to coat the surface of the circuit layer with zinc. A method for manufacturing a power module substrate.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016056389A (en) * 2014-09-05 2016-04-21 Dowaメタルテック株式会社 Plating pretreatment method of Al-Cu conjugate

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2003096573A (en) * 2001-09-21 2003-04-03 Citizen Watch Co Ltd Method for deposition of electroless plating film
JP2008117833A (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-05-22 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Power module substrate, method for manufacturing power module substrate, and power module
JP2013118299A (en) * 2011-12-05 2013-06-13 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Substrate for power module
JP2013214541A (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-17 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Method for manufacturing power module substrate and power module substrate

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2003096573A (en) * 2001-09-21 2003-04-03 Citizen Watch Co Ltd Method for deposition of electroless plating film
JP2008117833A (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-05-22 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Power module substrate, method for manufacturing power module substrate, and power module
JP2013118299A (en) * 2011-12-05 2013-06-13 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Substrate for power module
JP2013214541A (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-17 Mitsubishi Materials Corp Method for manufacturing power module substrate and power module substrate

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016056389A (en) * 2014-09-05 2016-04-21 Dowaメタルテック株式会社 Plating pretreatment method of Al-Cu conjugate

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