JP2014199174A - Biomass boiler - Google Patents

Biomass boiler Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2014199174A
JP2014199174A JP2013145750A JP2013145750A JP2014199174A JP 2014199174 A JP2014199174 A JP 2014199174A JP 2013145750 A JP2013145750 A JP 2013145750A JP 2013145750 A JP2013145750 A JP 2013145750A JP 2014199174 A JP2014199174 A JP 2014199174A
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Prior art keywords
hot water
biomass boiler
combustion chamber
combustion
chamber
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JP2013145750A
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JP5706478B2 (en
Inventor
伸一 中村
Shinichi Nakamura
伸一 中村
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株式会社オーケー社鹿児島
O-K-Kagoshima:Kk
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B80/00Combustion apparatus characterised by means creating a distinct flow path for flue gases or for non-combusted gases given off by the fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B60/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel burns essentially without moving
    • F23B60/02Combustion apparatus in which the fuel burns essentially without moving with combustion air supplied through a grate
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L15/00Heating of air supplied for combustion
    • F23L15/04Arrangements of recuperators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters having heat generating means, e.g. boiler, flow- heater, water-storage heater
    • F24H1/22Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating
    • F24H1/24Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water mantle surrounding the combustion chamber or chambers
    • F24H1/26Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water mantle surrounding the combustion chamber or chambers the water mantle forming an integral body
    • F24H1/28Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water mantle surrounding the combustion chamber or chambers the water mantle forming an integral body including one or more furnace or fire tubes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters having heat generating means, e.g. boiler, flow- heater, water-storage heater
    • F24H1/22Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating
    • F24H1/40Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water tube or tubes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters having heat generating means, e.g. boiler, flow- heater, water-storage heater
    • F24H1/22Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating
    • F24H1/44Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with combinations of two or more of the types covered by groups F24H1/24 - F24H1/40, e.g. boilers having a combination of features covered by F24H1/24 - F24H1/40
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H9/00Details
    • F24H9/0084Combustion air preheating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2211/00Flue gas duct systems
    • F23J2211/10Balanced flues (combining air supply and flue gas exhaust)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D2200/00Heat sources or energy sources
    • F24D2200/16Waste heat
    • F24D2200/18Flue gas recuperation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24DDOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR
    • F24D2220/00Components of central heating installations excluding heat sources
    • F24D2220/08Storage tanks
    • Y02E20/348

Abstract

[PROBLEMS] To make hot water stably by using biomass fuel such as soot to increase thermal efficiency and to stably burn for a long time.
A hot water tank (3) is formed so as to surround a combustion chamber (9) of a combustion furnace (2) for burning biomass. A smoke exhaust port 21 is provided in the back wall 9d of the combustion chamber 9 so that the upper edge 21a is at a position equal to or less than ½ of the height of the combustion chamber 9, and is provided through the hot water chamber 10 of the hot water tank 3. The smoke cylinder 5 is configured to exhaust the smoke. The tubular body 4 is detachably disposed in the upper part of the combustion chamber 9, and the warm water heated together with the warm water in the water heating chamber 10 is stored in the heat storage tank 7 with increased thermal efficiency. The outer walls of the heat storage tank 7 and the hot water tank 3 are made of a shirasu board 24 having heat insulation properties so that the temperature of the hot water can be kept constant for a long time.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a biomass boiler that uses biomass resources as fuel. More specifically, the present invention relates to a biomass boiler that produces hot water by burning biomass resources such as firewood, wood pellets, chips, thinned wood, and agricultural waste.

  In recent years, with the emission of a large amount of carbon dioxide due to the use of fossil fuels, attempts have been made to reduce the occurrence of this as much as possible in order to prevent this environmental destruction. Since fossil fuels have limited reserves, efforts are being made to convert them into renewable energy, and research and development are underway. Biomass resources also mean the reuse of resources that are wasted, and using them for combustion as a representative example has led to a reduction in the use of fossil fuels.

  As a biomass resource combustion apparatus, it has been used for a long time as represented by wood-burning stove and is well known. Fuels mainly made of wood are not suitable for industrial use because they are weak in thermal power and not stable in quality per unit mass compared to fossil fuels. Moreover, if the combustion performance equivalent to that of fossil fuel is required, the cost is inevitably increased and it is not popular. However, there are many resources in Japan as renewable energy. In particular, timber is an energy source that can be continuously obtained anywhere by planting trees.

  Therefore, using these biomass resources as much as possible and contributing to environmental conservation is taken up as a key technology from the viewpoint of global environmental conservation. For this reason, it is required to replace biomass fuel as much as possible even if it depends on conventional fossil fuel. As an example, in the agricultural field, the use of biomass fuel instead of oil is partly implemented for temperature management of greenhouses.

  Because of this use, biomass boilers are attracting attention and used as an energy facility using biomass fuel, and have also been improved. As an example of a biomass boiler, for example, an apparatus for warming water in an aquarium by burning wood pellets such as chisel, pruned branches, and wood ends is known (see, for example, Patent Document 1). Similarly, an apparatus having a configuration in which wood pellets are used as fuel, combustion gas is generated, a smoke pipe is disposed in a boiler body, and warmed is known (for example, see Patent Document 2).

  Associated with this apparatus is also an apparatus for supplying wood pellets. In addition, there is also known a device that uses a soot as a fuel to heat the hot water pipe body and enable combustion for a long time by continuous supply of soot to achieve warm water (for example, Patent Document 3). reference). Many other boilers that can be applied with biomass fuel with a small scale are configured to make hot water using a gas burner (see, for example, Patent Documents 4 and 5).

Utility Model Registration No. 3144474 Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 60-170509 JP 2009-144945 A Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 3-115348 JP 2008-190843 A

  As described above, the use of biomass fuel requires less thermal power than fossil fuel when using biomass such as firewood. In order to ensure stable hot water, it is necessary to continuously supply biomass fuel to the combustion chamber at present. Wood pellets that have been compressed and compressed are a fuel that can be supplied automatically, so they are used as a resource to eliminate the above-mentioned drawbacks to some extent. However, there is a limit to the thermal power compared to fossil fuels. .

  In addition, since this wood pellet has a higher density than ordinary wood, the amount of heat per unit weight is large, so the above disadvantages are alleviated to some extent. However, in order to make the remaining material, waste material, and the like into a wood pellet, mechanical equipment such as a wood chipper and a compression machine is required, and energy costs for operating these are also required. For this reason, the cost is inevitably higher than that of general materials. For this reason, there is a demand for an apparatus that can be operated at low cost by using normal wood that is inexpensive and capable of withstanding long-time operation, obtaining warm water at a constant temperature.

  In order to change the waste material and the like into wood pellets, as described above, a certain cost is generated, and some restrictions are imposed on fuel procurement. Biomass fuel can be used in its natural form without processing when it is used in a field suitable for its use, especially in the small-scale energy field, and is inexpensive and can be procured in any region. There are advantages. Thus, the boiler of the form from which warm water is made efficiently is desired while ensuring stable hot water for a long time. The present invention has been made based on the background as described above, and achieves the following objects.

  An object of the present invention is to provide a biomass boiler that does not require replenishment of biomass fuel for a long time and can stably obtain hot water. Another object of the present invention is to provide a biomass boiler that uses thermal efficient biomass as fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a biomass boiler of biomass fuel with good maintainability.

In order to achieve the above object, the present invention employs the following means.
The biomass boiler of the present invention 1 is
A combustion furnace (2) having a combustion chamber (9) for burning biomass;
A hot water tank that is disposed on the side surface and the upper portion of the combustion furnace (2) and that is heated by the combustion in the combustion chamber (9) to produce hot water and also serves as a hot water chamber (10) for storing hot water (3) and
It is arranged at the back (9d) of the shed that feeds the biomass into the combustion chamber (9) and at the lower part of the combustion chamber (9), and the upper edge (21a, 50a) of the opening is the combustion chamber (9) A smoke exhaust port (21, 50) which is an opening for exhausting the exhaust gas generated by the combustion disposed at a position of 1/2 or less of the height of
A smoke cylinder (5, 70) having a lower portion connected to the smoke exhaust port (21) and extending through the hot water chamber (10) to the upper portion;
From the heat exchange tube (4) disposed in the upper part of the combustion chamber (9), connected to the water heating chamber (10) and exchanging heat with the heat of the combustion chamber (9) to produce hot water. Become.

The biomass boiler according to the second aspect of the present invention is the first aspect of the present invention, wherein the hot water in the hot water chamber (10) and the hot water in the heat exchange tube (4) are merged and stored via the pipe (16). A heat storage tank (7) managed as follows is provided in association with the hot water tank (3).
A biomass boiler according to a third aspect of the present invention is the first or second aspect of the present invention, wherein the heat exchange pipe (4) is supplied with hot water via a pipe connection portion (4c, 4d) disposed near the outer wall of the combustion chamber. It is connected to the pipe and the discharge pipe in a detachable manner, and is configured to be removable from the mouth.

A biomass boiler according to a fourth aspect of the present invention is the first or second aspect of the present invention, wherein the bottom part (10a) of the combustion chamber (9) is from the combustion chamber (9) side. It is formed in the shape of a convex parabolic curved surface or a cylindrical surface.
The biomass boiler according to the fifth aspect of the present invention is the biomass boiler according to the first or second aspect of the present invention, wherein the blower (6) forcibly sends air to generate a flow of combustion gas in order to enhance the combustion effect in the combustion chamber (9). It is characterized in that it is arranged in association with 2).

The biomass boiler of the sixth aspect of the present invention is the first or second aspect of the present invention, in which the fins (40, 41) for heat exchange are provided in the bottom surface portion (10a) of the water heater chamber (10) and the smoke tube portion (5). It is characterized by that.
The biomass boiler of the present invention 7 is characterized in that, in the present invention 1 or 2, the height of the upper edge (50a) coincides with the height of the bottom surface of the combustion chamber (9).

The biomass boiler of the present invention 8 is characterized in that, in the present invention 1 or 2, the smoke cylinder (70) is installed at a predetermined angle in the vertical direction from the smoke outlet (21a).
The biomass boiler of the ninth aspect of the present invention is characterized in that, in the first or second aspect of the present invention, a shirasu board material (75) and a stone (76) are arranged at the bottom (9c) of the combustion chamber (9).

The biomass boiler of the present invention 10 is characterized in that, in the present invention 2, outer walls of the hot water tank (3) and the heat storage tank (7) are formed by a shirasu board (24).
The biomass boiler according to the eleventh aspect of the present invention is characterized in that, in the second aspect of the present invention, a water supply pump (18, 19) for supplying hot water from the hot water tank (3) and the heat storage tank (7) is provided in the pipe.

The biomass boiler of the present invention 12 is characterized in that, in the present invention 8, an intermediate part of the smoke cylinder (70) is divided, and an intermediate smoke cylinder (72) is detachably attached therebetween. To do.
The biomass boiler according to the thirteenth aspect of the present invention is characterized in that, in the twelfth aspect of the present invention, the intermediate smoke cylinder (72) has a filter (74) that collects dust in the flue gas.

  Since the biomass boiler of the present invention is based on using wood-based biomass, which is a natural material in which fuel is not mainly processed, as it is, fuel cost can be reduced. In addition, a hot water chamber, which is also a hot water tank, is arranged above the combustion chamber of the biomass boiler, and the lower surface of the hot water chamber forms a parabolic surface or an arc surface. In addition, since the hot water is produced by the heat exchange pipe which is a meandering pipe disposed at the upper part of the combustion chamber, the combustion heat can be effectively conducted to the water in the water heating chamber. At the same time, the smoke cylinder was disposed through the hot water chamber, so that heat could be recovered from the exhaust gas, and the thermal efficiency increased.

  In addition, smoke is discharged from the combustion chamber to the smoke cylinder from the lower position of the combustion chamber, and excessive combustion is suppressed and combustion for a long time is possible. These configurations made it possible to increase the thermal efficiency. Furthermore, the thermal storage tank which stores a warm water adjacent to a boiler main body was provided, and the outer wall of this thermal storage tank and a warm water tank was made into the heat-insulating shirasu board. For this reason, hot water having a stable temperature for a long time was obtained. Furthermore, since the heat exchange tube can be easily separated from the combustion chamber and removed, the cleaning maintenance can be easily performed.

FIG. 1 is a front view showing the overall configuration of the biomass boiler of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a side view showing the overall configuration of the biomass boiler of the present invention. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line AA of FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line BB in FIG. FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line CC of FIG. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line DD in FIG. FIG. 7 is a configuration diagram in which a suction type blower is provided on the outlet side of the smoke cylinder. FIG. 8 is a partial cross-sectional view of a configuration in which fins are provided on the bottom of the water heating chamber and the smoke cylinder in another embodiment. FIG. 9 is a configuration diagram in which the upper edge portion of the smoke exhaust port is made to coincide with the bottom surface of the combustion chamber in another embodiment. FIG. 10 is a configuration diagram in which a fan for releasing warm water heat is provided in the upper part of the heat storage tank in another embodiment. FIG. 11: is the front view which showed the structural example at the time of inclining and attaching a smoke cylinder in other embodiment. 12 is a view taken in the direction of arrow X in FIG.

  Next, an embodiment of the biomass boiler of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. The outline of the main body of the biomass boiler 1 is as follows: a combustion furnace 2, a hot water tank 3 arranged at the upper part and side part of the combustion furnace 2, and a pipe body arranged inside the combustion furnace 2 and above the combustion chamber 9 (Water pipe) 4, a smoke cylinder (chimney) 5 for flue gas connected to the combustion furnace 2, a blower 6 for sending combustion air to the combustion furnace 2, and the like. A heat storage tank 7 is disposed adjacent to the main body of the biomass boiler 1 via a pipe. The heat storage tank 7 is connected to the hot water tank 3 and the pipe body 4. In this example, stainless steel or steel plate was used as the material of the members constituting these.

  Although the biomass boiler 1 can be applied to a fuel that uses all biomass fuels, mainly wood, as fuel, the following description is based on the case where firewood 8 is used as fuel. In this biomass boiler 1, a fire 8 is introduced into a combustion chamber 9 composing a combustion furnace 2 and burned to make hot water in a hot water chamber 10 of a hot water tank 3, and the hot water is heated in an agricultural greenhouse, It is used for drying. This biomass boiler 1 is not intended for use in a large-scale facility. In this embodiment, water heated to less than 100 ° C. is referred to as hot water.

  On the front surface of the combustion furnace 2, an opening / closing door 11, which is a shed, is provided on a boiler main body with a hinge so as to be opened and closed. When burning the biomass fuel in the combustion furnace 2, the operator grips the knob (not shown) at the top of the open / close door 11, swings it downward to open the combustion chamber 9, and opens the soot 8 from this opening. It is manually put into the combustion chamber 9. The two-dot chain line shown in FIG. 1 indicates the position of the open / close door 11 when it is opened. The soot 8 is preferably a thick log material in order to maintain long-time combustion. As shown in the figure, the combustion chamber 9 is surrounded by a metal plate (stainless steel plate, steel plate, etc.) of the water heating chamber 10 and an outer wall surrounded by a wall made of a heat insulating material. The combustion heat of the soot 8 is transferred to the ceiling 9 a (see FIG. 4) and the side wall 9 b of the combustion chamber 9, so that hot water is produced in the water heating chamber 10.

  A rooster 12 is disposed at the bottom 9 c of the combustion chamber 9. The rooster 12 is also referred to as a grate, and is placed on the bottom portion 9c of the combustion chamber 9 when burning the soot 8, and is generally a plate material or a net having iron through holes, slits, or the like. It was made. The rooster 12 is detachably placed for easy cleaning and replacement. Soot 8 is introduced into the upper surface of the rooster 12 and combusts, and the lower portion of the bottom portion 9c is formed by dividing a space portion. The space 6 is provided with a pipe 6a for supplying air. The pipe 6a is provided with a plurality of nozzle holes 6b for ejecting air.

  As shown in FIG. 3, the air ejected from the nozzle hole 6b to the combustion chamber 9 is blown from the blower 6 connected to the pipe 6a. This blown air promotes soot combustion. Although it is necessary to cut off heat including the bottom portion 9c where the lower rooster 12 is disposed, the biomass boiler 1 uses a heat-resistant shirasu board for the bottom portion 9c, the shed, the outer wall, and the like. This shirasu board is known in various forms due to the difference in function, and all of them have fire resistance and heat insulation.

  Shirasu is a natural product made of volcanic ejecta, mixed with cement, put into a mold, and compressed by a press. In recent years, it has been attracting attention as an environmentally friendly material. This shirasu is lightweight and porous and has the same strength as concrete. The characteristics of Shirasu are light weight, fire resistance and heat insulation. By using this shirasu board also at the bottom portion 9c of the combustion chamber 9, it is possible to prevent excessive heat from being applied to the lower blowing-related members and the floor. In addition, when sending wind naturally instead of forced ventilation, or when using both together, a through-hole is formed in a shirasu board.

  Accordingly, the combustion heat in the combustion chamber 9 is effectively transmitted to the ceiling 9a and the side wall 9b without being transmitted to the bottom. The back surface of the ceiling portion 9a of the combustion chamber 9 is a bottom surface portion 10a of the water heating chamber 10, and the shape of the bottom surface portion 10a is a cylindrical curved surface that is a convex portion on the water heating chamber 10 side. This cylindrical surface is a cylindrical surface extending to the side of the combustion chamber 9. The cylindrical surface may be a curved surface having a parabolic cross section. The formation of the cylindrical curved surface broadens the combustion area of the combustion chamber 9 and at the same time, burns at the center of the combustion chamber 9 (in principle, when it is considered to be combustion at one point or a straight line). The heat uniformly heats the ceiling 9a of the combustion chamber 9 at equal distances mainly by radiant heat. For this reason, if the ceiling part 9a of the combustion chamber 9 is formed in a parabolic shape or a cylindrical surface, the combustion effect and the heat exchange efficiency are enhanced.

  The partition walls that define the lower central portion of the hot water chamber 10 are the same partition walls as the partition walls that define the combustion chamber 9 as shown in FIG. That is, the side wall and the upper outer wall of the combustion chamber 9 have a structure in which the outside of the shape surrounded by the ceiling portion 9a and the side wall portion 9b divides the water heater chamber 10 except for the shed and the bottom portion 9c. Since the combustion chamber 9 is surrounded by the water heating chamber 10, the heat of the combustion chamber can be efficiently transferred to the hot water. A float switch 13 is disposed in the upper part of the water heating chamber 10. The float switch 13 is for adjusting the water level of the water heating chamber 10 by turning on and off the on-off valve for supplying water by the float floating on the liquid level moving up and down according to the water level. . The float switch 13 has a known structure, and the description of the structure and function is omitted. The function of the float switch 13 controls the amount of hot water in the water heating chamber 10 to be constant.

  When the hot water decreases, water is supplied from a public water supply or the like from a water supply unit 14 provided on the wall. On the contrary, when the amount of hot water has increased, the safety relief valve 15 provided at the upper part of the hot water tank 3 is opened, and excess hot water or steam is automatically discharged to the outside. Yes. Further, in the water heating chamber 10, a pipe 16 through which hot water flows out to the upper wall portion is connected to a heat storage tank 7 installed in the vicinity of the biomass boiler 1 through a joint and a connection pipe. Hot water in the upper part of the boiler room 10 of the biomass boiler 1 can be mainly supplied to the heat storage tank 7. In addition, the lower wall portion of the hot water chamber 10 is connected to the heat storage layer 7 by a pipe 17, and low-temperature hot water that is return water from the heat storage tank 7 is returned to the lower portion of the water heater chamber 10.

  A water supply pump 18 for supplying water from the hot water tank 3 to the heat storage tank 7 via the pressure gauge 16a and a water supply pump 19 for supplying water from the heat storage tank 7 to the hot water tank 3 are disposed in this piping path. . Thus, the hot water circulates between the hot water tank 3 and the heat storage tank 7 so that water can be reliably transmitted. When used for an agricultural greenhouse or the like, hot water of a predetermined temperature is supplied from a pipe 20 arranged in the heat storage tank 7. Further, in order to increase the temperature of the hot water in the heat storage tank 7 and maintain a constant temperature state, the tube body 4 is disposed on the ceiling portion 9a side of the combustion chamber 9.

  The tubular body 4 is formed by bending to meander (see FIG. 5). In this example, the tubular body 4 is composed of two tubular bodies 4a and 4b having the same configuration, as shown by arrows in FIG. Hot water having a low temperature or normal temperature water is introduced from one end of each of the tubular bodies 4a and 4b and heated at the top of the combustion chamber 9 to become warm water, and the hot water in the hot water chamber 10 from the other end of each tubular body 4a and 4b. At the same time, the hot water is joined and discharged and supplied to the heat storage tank 7 through each pipe. The shape of the tubular body 4 on the combustion chamber 9 side is a meandering shape in order to increase the surface area for receiving heat. The tube 4 is also a heat exchanger that changes the combustion heat of the combustion chamber 9 into hot water.

  A smoke exhaust port 21 is arranged at the back portion 9d of the combustion chamber 9, that is, the lowermost portion of the open / close door 11 (port) (see FIGS. 3 and 4). A smoke cylinder (chimney) 5 extends through the hot water chamber 10 from the smoke outlet 21 and extends upward. The upper edge 21a of the smoke outlet 21 is at the lower position of the back portion 9d of the combustion chamber 9 (see FIG. 4). That is, as shown by the arrows in FIG. 3, the flame and smoke in the combustion chamber 9 have spread over the entire space of the combustion chamber 9, that is, after staying for a predetermined time, flow downward in the combustion chamber 9. The smoke is discharged outside the combustion chamber 9 through the smoke outlet 21. The position of the upper edge 21 a of the smoke exhaust port 21 is arranged to be about 1/2 or less of the height of the combustion chamber 9. Preferably, the height of the smoke exhaust port 21 is such that the height from the bottom 9c to the upper edge 21a is opened so that the height of the combustion chamber 9 is about 1/3 or less. good.

  It is not good in terms of smoke emission efficiency to arrange the smoke outlet 21 at a low position in the combustion chamber 9. However, the time during which the combustion gas stays in the combustion chamber 9 becomes longer, so that the heat exchange efficiency is improved and excessive combustion is suppressed. The smoke cylinder 5 penetrates the hot water chamber 10 and passes hot heat, so that heat is radiated from the wall surface by heat transfer or the like to exchange heat with the hot water in the hot water chamber 10. The hot water is heated from the smoke cylinder 5 in addition to the direct heating from the combustion chamber 9 by the bottom surface portion 10 a of the water heating chamber 10. After all, the smoke cylinder 5 has a function of releasing the combustion gas (smoke) generated from the combustion chamber 9 into the atmosphere and a function of a heat exchanger. The tubular body 4 is disposed so as to penetrate the side surface of the water heating chamber 10 (see FIG. 3). That is, the pipe material 22 that penetrates the water heating chamber 10 is fixed across the combustion chamber 9 where the tube body 4 is installed and the outer wall of the main body (see FIG. 5).

  Both ends of the pipe body 4, that is, an inflow portion and an outflow portion of water or hot water are inserted into the pipe material 22. Both end portions are configured to have a length protruding outside the main body outer wall, and the both end portions form joint portions 4c and 4d for connection to other pipes. The tube 4 arranged on the combustion chamber 9 side has a meandering shape as shown in FIG. 5, and the heat receiving area is increased by this meandering, so that the heat in the combustion chamber 9 can be efficiently recovered. It is. Hot water is supplied to the tubular body 4 from the heat storage tank 7, heated by the meandering portion 4 e, and then sent to the heat storage tank 7.

  The tubular body 4 is fixed and supported in the joints 4 c and 4 d and the pipe material 22, and the end portion of the meandering portion 4 e is supported and fixed to the ceiling portion 9 a of the combustion chamber 9 by a support member 23. The tubular body 4 can be said to be a heat exchanger functionally. The tubular body 4 is configured to be removable for maintenance. That is, when the pipe body 4 needs to be cleaned for maintenance, the screw-structure joint portions 4c and 4d can be opened, and the pipe body 4 can be easily separated from the piping system.

  By doing so, the end portion of the tube body 4 is made into a tube state having only a male screw portion, and the tube body 4 is pulled out to the opening / closing door 11 side of the combustion chamber 9 so as to pass through the support member 23 and the pipe material 22. be able to. As the biomass burns, for example, carbonized fats and oils of pine are attached to the pipe body 4 and adhere to the pipe body 4 together with the ceiling portion 9 a of the combustion chamber 9. For this reason, the combustion chamber 9 needs to be periodically cleaned. Making the tube body 4 easily removable is effective by facilitating this cleaning operation. After the cleaning is completed, the pulled-out operation is reversed and attached to the main body, and fixed to the joint portions 4c and 4d of the pipe.

As described above, the heat storage tank 7 is disposed adjacent to the biomass boiler 1. The heat storage tank 7 is for holding and storing a constant temperature of hot water heated by the biomass boiler 1. The outer wall of the heat storage chamber 7 is composed of a shirasu board 24. The shirasu board 24 is also used on the outer wall of the hot water tank 3 of the biomass boiler 1. The shirasu board 24 has the above-described characteristics. In particular, the heat storage chamber 7 is effective for maintaining warm water at a constant temperature by utilizing heat insulation.

  This constant temperature is, for example, 80 ° C. Since the temperature of the hot water in the boiler room 10 of the biomass boiler 1 is not constant depending on the combustion state, the use of the hot water in this state causes a problem. In particular, for use in a greenhouse or the like, it is desired that the hot water temperature is constant. The biomass boiler body and the heat storage tank 7 are connected by the pipes 16 and 17 as described above, and the water supply pumps 18 and 19 for water supply are also interposed in the intermediate part.

  That is, hot water from the hot water chamber 10 and the pipe body 4 flows into the pipe 7 a at the inlet of the heat storage tank 7 through the pipe 16 in the hot water state and is stored in the heat storage tank 7. On the other hand, the hot water cooled from the heat storage tank 7 is caused to flow out from the pipe 7b arranged in the lower part to the pipe 17 of the hot water chamber 10 through the pump 19. The warm water that has flowed out is heated again in the tubular body 4 and the hot water chamber 10, and is stored in the heat storage tank 7 through the above-described path. That is, the hot water circulates through the water heating chamber 10, the tube body 4 and the heat storage chamber 7.

  The hot water in the heat storage tank 7 is thus warm water with improved thermal efficiency. The hot water stored in the heat storage chamber 7 is controlled at a constant temperature by a temperature sensor (not shown), and when the temperature becomes higher than necessary, it means that the temperature of the water heating chamber 10 is high. Therefore, water is supplied from the water supply unit 14 provided in the upper part of the water heating chamber 10. As described above, the amount of hot water in the water heating chamber 10 is controlled by detecting the water level of the float switch 13 so that a certain amount or more of hot water is not filled.

  The management of the hot water is the same in the heat storage tank 7, and the amount of hot water is controlled by detecting the water level of the float switch 25 provided in the upper part of the heat storage tank 7. When the hot water in the heat storage tank 7 is frequently used, the amount of hot water in the water heating chamber 10 is also reduced, so that water is supplied in the same manner. Conversely, when the temperature of the hot water in the heat storage chamber 7 is low, it means that the combustion heat is insufficient, so that soot is supplied to enhance the combustion state.

  Since it was set as such a structure, if it is an allowable temperature range, even if the combustion state of the combustion chamber 9 deteriorates, warm water can hold | maintain constant temperature in the thermal storage tank 7 for a long time. The provision of the heat storage tank 7 as described above is that the heat storage tank 7 serves as a buffer for hot water, and even if the combustion in the combustion chamber 9 temporarily disappears or falls, an appropriate hot water state is maintained within an allowable temperature range. It can be held. As a result, even if biomass fuel is not continuously added manually for a long time, the same effect as maintaining the temperature of warm water by continuous administration of fuel, which has been conventionally performed, can be obtained.

(Other embodiment 1)
FIG. 7 shows another embodiment of the blower. This is an example in which the blower 30 is arranged on the smoke exhaust outlet side of the smoke cylinder 5. This blower 30 discharges exhaust gas from the combustion chamber 9 to the outside of the combustion chamber 9 and is a dust collector using a centrifugal force called a cyclone for removing dust composed of fine particles contained in the smoke. It is a blower for. The flue gas from the combustion chamber 9 is forcibly sucked and discharged. The flue gas is taken into the centrifugal force purification unit 30a of the blower 30, and the dust in the flue gas is removed by centrifugal force, and the flue gas is purified to be harmless gas and discharged from the discharge port 30b to the atmosphere. . The removed dust is taken out from the lower collection unit 30c and disposed of. By providing this blower 30 at the smoke exhaust outlet, the exhaust gas is harmless and discharged into the atmosphere, so that it is a form that further considers environmental conservation.

(Other embodiment 2)
FIG. 8 shows a form for increasing the boiling efficiency. In this configuration, a plurality of plate-like fins 40 are provided in the vertical direction on the curved bottom surface portion 10 a of the water heating chamber 10. In addition to the plate-like fins 40, a plurality of disc-like fins 41 are also provided in the vertical direction on the outside of the smoke cylinder 5 disposed through the hot water chamber 10. Since these fins 40 and 41 are made of metal, the hot water area of the hot water chamber 10 is widened, and the hot water efficiency is further increased by heat exchange by heat radiation from these fins 40 and 41, thereby obtaining a large amount of hot water. I can do it.

(Other embodiment 3)
FIG. 9 shows a form in which the upper edge 50 a of the smoke outlet 50 of the combustion chamber 9 is arranged at the same height as the position of the bottom 9 c of the combustion chamber 9. With the above-described configuration, the smoke exhaust port 21 is configured by cutting a part of the side wall lower portion of the water heating chamber 10 in terms of structure, but the side wall of the combustion chamber 9 of the structure of this embodiment is , All become combustion walls corresponding to the water heating chamber 10. That is, the combustion heat of the combustion chamber 9 is transmitted to the entire surface of the ceiling portion 9a and the side wall portion 9b, except for the throat and the bottom portion 9c, and is effectively transmitted to the water heating chamber 10 by transmission, radiation, and convection. It will be. However, the arrangement structure of the smoke exhaust port 50 is preferably one in which a blower for exhausting smoke is disposed on the side of the smoke exhaust port 50 because the smoke exhaust efficiency is poor.

(Other embodiment 4)
FIG. 10 shows a configuration example in which a fan device 60 is mounted on the upper part of the heat storage tank 7. The heat storage tank 7 is disposed in a greenhouse or the like, and the fan device 60 generates warm air. For this reason, equipment such as piping for heat exchange is not necessary, and there is an advantage that heat can be directly used. It is effective because the heat storage tank 7 is installed in the greenhouse house and the space efficiency is good when generating warm air.

  There is also another usage form of the fan device 60. When the hot water temperature in the heat storage tank 7 is high, the fan device 60 is operated to lower the temperature. That is, the hot water is circulated between the fin-like flowing water pipe 60a provided in the fan device 60 and the heat storage tank 7 through the pipes 61 and 62 as shown by arrows in the drawing, and the fan 60b of the fan device 60 is obtained. The air is blown by rotating to cool the hot water to an appropriate temperature. As described above, the fan device 60 can also be used as hot air blown by the fan 60b while cooling the hot water in the heat storage tank 7.

(Other embodiment 5)
FIG. 11 and FIG. 12 are diagrams of a configuration example in which a smoke cylinder 70 which is a smoke exhaust pipe is installed in an inclined state with respect to the combustion furnace 2. That is, as shown in the figure, this example has a predetermined angle from the upper edge 21a of the above-described smoke outlet 21, that is, in a state where the center line of the smoke cylinder 70 is inclined at an acute angle with respect to the vertical line. FIG. 3 is a configuration diagram in which a smoke cylinder body 70 is inclined and attached so as to protrude from the back surface of the furnace 2 to the outside of the combustion furnace 2. The flue gas flows as indicated by the arrows shown in FIG. 11 and is discharged in the form of being sucked in the direction of the center line of the smoke cylinder 70. Biomass fuel such as soot 8 is charged into the combustion chamber 9 and burned, and the water in the tubular body 4 and the hot water tank 3 disposed at the upper position of the combustion chamber 9 is warmed in the water heating chamber 10. The configuration for adjusting the amount of water supplied to the hot water chamber 10 by the float switch 13 disposed in the hot water chamber 10 is the same as that described above.

  Although the smoke cylinder 70 shown in FIGS. 11 and 12 has a linear configuration in this example, the smoke cylinder 70 may have a curved shape or a bellows type. With the configuration in which the smoke cylinder 70 is inclined in this way, the suction force of smoke from the combustion chamber 9 to the smoke cylinder 70 is increased, that is, the change in the direction of the flow of the combustion gas is reduced, so that the flow of the combustion gas is smooth. Thus, the combustion efficiency can be improved. An opening / closing door 71 is disposed on the back of the combustion chamber 9.

  By disposing the opening / closing door 71, when the combustion is stopped, the opening / closing door 71 can be opened, and the back of the combustion chamber 9 and the smoke cylinder body 70 can be cleaned and the maintenance is facilitated. When the smoke cylinder 70 has this configuration, the smoke cylinder 70 is exposed to the outside from the combustion chamber side. A part of the smoke cylinder 70 penetrates the water heating chamber 10 but protrudes to the outside in the middle. A part of the exposed smoke cylinder 70 has a divided configuration, and an intermediate smoke cylinder 72 is detachably inserted into the divided portion. The intermediate smoke body 72 has flanges 72a at both ends, and is detachably attached to the smoke body 70 and bolts / nuts 73 connected to the flange 72a. The intermediate smoke cylinder 72 is provided with a filter 74.

  By providing this filter 74, tar and the like contained in the flue gas are collected and removed. By comprising in this way, tar, fats and oils, soot, etc. which are contained in flue gas are removed, and flue gas can be made into a clean state and discharged outside. When tar or the like accumulates exceeding the limit of the filter capacity, only the intermediate smoke cylinder 72 is taken out from the smoke cylinder 70 and the filter 74 may be replaced. As a result, the smoke exhaust section can be easily maintained.

  In this embodiment, a shirasu board material 75 is used for the bottom portion 9c of the combustion chamber 9, and a stone 76 is provided on the upper portion of the combustion chamber 9 so that the heat storage property is improved by a double structure. That is, the heat of the combustion chamber 9 is prevented from propagating from the lower part of the combustion furnace 2 to the outside by the shirasu board material 75, and the heat storage of the stone 76 enhances the heat storage effect of the combustion chamber 9 by arranging the stone 76. . As a result, the combustion efficiency is increased.

  Further, the configuration in which a pipe for supplying air is provided in the lower part of the rooster 12 is the same as described above. Two pipes 77 for supplying air are disposed below the rooster 12. As shown in FIG. 12, the nozzle 77 a extending from the flange 72 a protrudes from both sides of the combustion chamber 9 above the rooster 12 and is installed in a direction in which air is ejected toward the center of the combustion chamber 9. Thereby, the combustion efficiency is increased. By adopting the configuration of such an embodiment, the objective and effect of the present invention, that is, a thermal boiler with improved thermal efficiency and stable warm water can be obtained, and a biomass boiler with further improved maintenance can be obtained.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Biomass boiler 2 ... Combustion furnace 3 ... Warm water tank 4 ... Tube 5, 70 ... Smoke cylinder 6 ... Blower 7 ... Thermal storage tank 8 ... Firewood 9 ... Combustion chamber 10 ... Water heater chamber 20a, 50a ... Upper edge 21, 50 ... Smoke vent

In order to achieve the above object, the present invention employs the following means.
The biomass boiler of the present invention 1 is
A combustion furnace (2) having a combustion chamber (9) for burning biomass;
A hot water tank that is disposed on the side surface and the upper portion of the combustion furnace (2) and that is heated by the combustion in the combustion chamber (9) to produce hot water and also serves as a hot water chamber (10) for storing hot water (3) and
It is arranged at the back (9d) of the shed that feeds the biomass into the combustion chamber (9) and at the lower part of the combustion chamber (9), and the upper edge (21a, 50a) of the opening is the combustion chamber (9) A smoke exhaust port (21, 50) which is an opening for exhausting the exhaust gas generated by the combustion disposed at a position of 1/2 or less of the height of
A smoke cylinder (5, 70) having a lower portion connected to the smoke exhaust port (21) and extending through the hot water chamber (10) to the upper portion;
A heat exchange tube (4) disposed in the upper part of the combustion chamber (9), connected to the water heating chamber (10) and exchanging heat with the heat of the combustion chamber (9) to produce hot water; in becomes biomass boiler,
The heat exchange pipe body (4) passes through the outer walls of the combustion chamber and the hot water chamber (10) , and passes through the pipe connection portions (4c, 4d) disposed in the vicinity of the outside of the outer wall. It is detachably connected to the supply pipe and the discharge pipe, and is configured to be removable to the outside from the shed.

  The biomass boiler according to the second aspect of the present invention is the first aspect of the present invention, wherein the hot water in the hot water chamber (10) and the hot water in the heat exchange tube (4) are merged and stored via the pipe (16). A heat storage tank (7) managed as follows is provided in association with the hot water tank (3).

The biomass boiler of the present invention 3 is the ceiling part of the combustion chamber (9) in the present invention 1 or 2, and the bottom surface portion (10a) of the hot water chamber (10) is from the combustion chamber (9) side. It is formed in the shape of a convex parabolic curved surface or a cylindrical surface.
A biomass boiler according to a fourth aspect of the present invention is the biomass boiler according to the first or second aspect of the present invention, wherein the blower (6) forcibly sends air to generate a flow of combustion gas in order to enhance the combustion effect in the combustion chamber (9). It is characterized in that it is arranged in association with 2).

A biomass boiler according to a fifth aspect of the present invention is the first or second aspect of the present invention, in which the fins (40, 41) for heat exchange are provided on the bottom surface part (10a) of the water heater chamber (10) and the smoke cylinder part (5). It is characterized by that.
The biomass boiler of the present invention 6 is characterized in that, in the present invention 1 or 2, the height of the upper edge portion (50a) coincides with the height of the bottom surface of the combustion chamber (9).

A biomass boiler according to a seventh aspect of the invention is characterized in that, in the first or second aspect of the invention, the smoke cylinder (70) is configured to be inclined at a predetermined angle in the vertical direction from the smoke outlet (21a).
The biomass boiler according to the present invention 8 is characterized in that, in the present invention 1 or 2, a shirasu board material (75) and stones (76) are arranged at the bottom (9c) of the combustion chamber (9).

The biomass boiler according to the ninth aspect of the invention is characterized in that, in the second aspect of the invention, the outer walls of the hot water tank (3) and the heat storage tank (7) are formed of a shirasu board (24).
The biomass boiler of the tenth aspect of the present invention is characterized in that, in the second aspect of the present invention, a water supply pump (18, 19) for supplying hot water from the hot water tank (3) and the heat storage tank (7) is provided in the pipe.

The biomass boiler of the present invention 11 is characterized in that, in the present invention 7 , an intermediate part of the smoke cylinder (70) is divided and an intermediate smoke cylinder (72) is detachably attached therebetween. To do.
The biomass boiler of the twelfth aspect of the invention is characterized in that, in the eleventh aspect of the invention, the intermediate smoke cylinder (72) has a filter (74) that collects dust in the flue gas.

  As described above, the heat storage tank 7 is disposed adjacent to the biomass boiler 1. The heat storage tank 7 is for holding and storing a constant temperature of hot water heated by the biomass boiler 1. The outer wall of the heat storage chamber 7 is composed of a shirasu board 24. The shirasu board 24 is also used on the outer wall of the hot water tank 3 of the biomass boiler 1. The shirasu board 24 has the above-described characteristics. In particular, the heat storage chamber 7 is effective for maintaining warm water at a constant temperature by utilizing heat insulation.

Claims (13)

  1. A combustion furnace (2) having a combustion chamber (9) for burning biomass;
    A hot water tank that is disposed on the side surface and the upper portion of the combustion furnace (2) and that is heated by the combustion in the combustion chamber (9) to produce hot water and also serves as a hot water chamber (10) for storing hot water (3) and
    It is arranged at the back (9d) of the shed that feeds the biomass into the combustion chamber (9) and at the lower part of the combustion chamber (9), and the upper edge (21a, 50a) of the opening is the combustion chamber (9) A smoke exhaust port (21, 50) which is an opening for exhausting the exhaust gas generated by the combustion disposed at a position of 1/2 or less of the height of
    A smoke cylinder (5, 70) having a lower portion connected to the smoke exhaust port (21) and extending through the hot water chamber (10) to the upper portion;
    A heat exchange tube (4) disposed in the upper part of the combustion chamber (9), connected to the water heating chamber (10) and exchanging heat with the heat of the combustion chamber (9) to produce hot water; Become a biomass boiler.
  2. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1,
    The hot water tank (7) is a hot water tank (7) that joins the hot water in the hot water chamber (10) and the hot water in the heat exchange tube (4) and stores them through the pipe (16) and manages them as hot water at a constant temperature. A biomass boiler characterized by being attached to (3).
  3. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    The heat exchange pipe (4) is detachably connected to a hot water supply pipe and a discharge pipe via pipe connection portions (4c, 4d) disposed in the vicinity of the outer wall of the combustion chamber, A biomass boiler characterized in that it is configured to be removable to the outside.
  4. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    The ceiling portion of the combustion chamber (9) and the bottom surface portion (10a) of the water heating chamber (10) are formed in a parabolic curved surface or a cylindrical surface shape having a convex shape from the combustion chamber (9) side. A biomass boiler characterized by
  5. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    A biomass boiler characterized in that a blower (6) forcibly sending air to generate a flow of combustion gas to increase the combustion effect in the combustion chamber (9) is attached to the combustion furnace (2). .
  6. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    A biomass boiler, wherein fins (40, 41) for heat exchange are provided on a bottom surface portion (10a) of the water heating chamber (10) and the smoke tube portion (5).
  7. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    A biomass boiler characterized in that the height of the upper edge (50a) coincides with the height of the bottom surface of the combustion chamber (9).
  8. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    The biomass boiler characterized in that the smoke cylinder (70) is installed at a predetermined angle in the vertical direction from the smoke outlet (21a).
  9. In the biomass boiler according to claim 1 or 2,
    A biomass boiler characterized in that a shirasu board material (75) and stones (76) are arranged at the bottom (9c) of the combustion chamber (9).
  10. In the biomass boiler according to claim 2,
    The biomass boiler characterized by the outer wall of the said hot water tank (3) and the said thermal storage tank (7) being formed with the shirasu board (24).
  11. In the biomass boiler according to claim 2,
    A biomass boiler characterized in that a water supply pump (18, 19) for supplying hot water from the hot water tank (3) and the heat storage tank (7) is provided in a pipe.
  12. In the biomass boiler according to claim 8,
    A biomass boiler characterized in that an intermediate portion of the smoke cylinder (70) is divided and an intermediate smoke cylinder (72) is detachably attached therebetween.
  13. In the biomass boiler according to claim 12,
    The biomass boiler characterized in that the intermediate smoke cylinder (72) has a filter (74) for collecting dust in the exhaust gas.
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