JP2014106854A - Automatic driving vehicle control apparatus and method - Google Patents

Automatic driving vehicle control apparatus and method Download PDF

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JP2014106854A
JP2014106854A JP2012260877A JP2012260877A JP2014106854A JP 2014106854 A JP2014106854 A JP 2014106854A JP 2012260877 A JP2012260877 A JP 2012260877A JP 2012260877 A JP2012260877 A JP 2012260877A JP 2014106854 A JP2014106854 A JP 2014106854A
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automatic driving
vehicle
driver
satisfied
means
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JP2012260877A
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Takuro Oshida
拓郎 押田
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Toyota Infotechnology Center Co Ltd
株式会社トヨタIt開発センター
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve safety of automatic driving control of a vehicle.SOLUTION: An automatic driving vehicle control apparatus includes: detection means for acquiring at least any of vehicle traveling state, vehicle surrounding state, and driver state; automatic driving means for automatically driving a vehicle; and determination means for determining whether a condition for automatic driving is satisfied or not. The determination means determines that the automatic driving condition is not satisfied when detection accuracy of the detection means does not satisfy a predetermined criterion. When the determination means determines that the automatic driving condition is not satisfied during automatic driving, a warning is given to a driver to cancel automatic driving preferably. Safe zone calculation means is provided for periodically calculating a stop spot where the vehicle can be safely stopped, during automatic driving. When the driver does not cancel the automatic driving against the warning to cancel the automatic driving, the vehicle is guided to the stop spot to stop it preferably.

Description

  The present invention relates to an automatic driving vehicle control apparatus that performs automatic driving of a vehicle and a control method thereof.

  Conventionally, a system for automatically driving a vehicle is known. In Patent Document 1, in order to ensure that the driver is in a state where manual operation is possible immediately in an emergency even during automatic driving, if the driver does not hold the steering wheel, automatic driving cannot be continued. to decide.

  Further, in Patent Document 2, when it is necessary to switch from automatic driving to manual driving, it is determined whether the driver is awake or sleeping, and if it is a sleeping state, the driver is guided to a shelter.

JP 2008-273521 A JP 2002-163799 A

  In the determination based on whether or not the steering wheel is gripped as in Patent Document 1 and only based on the driver's arousal state as in Patent Document 2, the determination as to whether or not automatic driving can be performed safely is low.

  An object of this invention is to provide the technique which can ensure the safety during automatic driving | operation.

  In order to achieve the above object, in the present invention, automatic driving control of a vehicle is performed by the following means or processing.

  An automatic driving vehicle control device according to the present invention includes a detection unit that acquires at least one of a traveling state of a vehicle, a surrounding state of the vehicle, and a state of a driver, an automatic driving unit that automatically drives the vehicle, and automatic driving. Determination means for determining whether or not a condition for performing the operation is satisfied, and the determination means satisfies a condition for performing automatic driving when the detection accuracy of the detection means does not satisfy a predetermined standard. Judge that it is not.

  Examples of detection means for acquiring the traveling state of the vehicle include a GPS device, a vehicle speed sensor, an acceleration sensor, and a steering angle sensor. Various sensors such as millimeter wave radar, a camera that captures the outside of the vehicle, vehicle-to-vehicle communication means, and the like can be given as examples of sensors that acquire the surrounding situation of the vehicle. Examples of the sensor that acquires the driver's state include a biological information sensor that acquires biological information such as a heartbeat, and a camera that captures the driver's facial expression and pupil.

  These sensors are not always capable of performing accurate sensing, and detection accuracy decreases when information cannot be acquired or a detection error increases depending on the situation. If the accuracy of the information obtained from the sensor decreases, automatic operation cannot be performed safely. Therefore, the condition for performing automatic operation when the detection accuracy of the detection means becomes lower than a predetermined reference as in the present invention. Therefore, it is possible to ensure the safety of automatic driving.

  In the present invention, the automatic driving means notifies the driver to cancel the automatic driving when the determining means determines that the conditions for performing the automatic driving are not satisfied during the automatic driving. Is preferable. In the present invention, it is also preferable to start the automatic operation only when it is determined by the determination means that the conditions for performing the automatic operation are satisfied.

  In this way, automatic operation can be executed only when automatic operation can be performed safely, and manual operation can be performed when automatic operation cannot be performed safely.

  Further, in the present invention, a map information storage means for storing map information, and a stop point at which the vehicle can be safely stopped based on the map information and the vehicle running state and the surrounding situation of the vehicle acquired from the detection means. Safety point calculation means for periodically calculating, and the automatic driving means, when the driver does not cancel the automatic driving even if a notification for urging the cancellation of the automatic driving is given, the vehicle is set to the stop point It is also preferable to guide and stop.

  The safe point calculation means calculates the stop point according to, for example, the traveling speed of the vehicle, the number of lane changes necessary to reach a safe stop candidate, the number of surrounding vehicles, and the like. It is preferable.

  As mentioned above, since the stop point is calculated periodically according to the traveling state of the host vehicle and the surrounding situation of the vehicle, if the driver does not respond to the notification to cancel the automatic driving, a safe place The process of stopping the vehicle can be started immediately.

  In addition, this invention can be grasped | ascertained as an automatic driving vehicle control apparatus provided with at least one part of the said means. Moreover, it can also be grasped as an automatic driving vehicle control method having at least a part of processing performed by the above means, and a program for realizing this method in a computer. Each of the above means and processes can be combined with each other as much as possible to constitute the present invention.

  According to the present invention, safety during automatic driving can be ensured.

It is a figure which shows the structure of an automatic driving vehicle control apparatus. It is a figure which shows the function structure of automatic operation control ECU. It is a flowchart which shows the flow of a process when an automatic driving function is OFF. It is a flowchart which shows the flow of a process when an automatic driving | operation function is ON.

  Exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings.

<Device configuration>
FIG. 1 shows a configuration of an automatic driving vehicle control apparatus 1 according to the present embodiment. The automatic driving vehicle control device 1 is a device that is mounted on a vehicle, automatically controls the vehicle, and moves the vehicle without an operation by a driver (driver). The automatic driving vehicle control device 1 according to the present embodiment performs a determination as to whether or not automatic driving control is possible, and processing when it is determined that automatic driving cannot be performed safely but the driver does not switch to manual driving. There are features.

As shown in FIG. 1, the automatic driving vehicle control device 1 includes a surrounding situation acquisition sensor 10, a vehicle running state acquisition sensor 20, a driver state acquisition sensor 30, a map information storage unit 40, an automatic driving control ECU 50, an input unit 60, and an output. The unit 70 is provided.

The surrounding situation acquisition sensor 10 is a sensor group for recognizing the state in which the vehicle is placed, and includes a GPS device 11, an in-vehicle communication device 12, a front / side sensor 13, and a navigation system. 14. GPS (Global Positioning System)
The device 11 receives GPS signals from a plurality of GPS satellites, and measures the position of the host vehicle. The GPS device 11 improves positioning accuracy when the number of receivable GPS signals is large. The in-vehicle communication device 12 is a communication device for performing vehicle-to-vehicle communication with other vehicles and road-to-vehicle communication with roadside devices. The front / side sensor 13 is a millimeter wave radar, ultrasonic sonar, or the like, and detects the position and moving speed of an object such as a vehicle, a pedestrian, a store, or an obstacle around the host vehicle. The navigation system 14 displays the position of the host vehicle on the map or guides the route to the destination based on the position information obtained from the GPS device 11 and the map information. Here, some specific examples of sensors for recognizing the environment in which the vehicle is placed have been described. However, in addition to those described here, it is possible to recognize the environmental state using various sensors such as an in-vehicle camera. it can.

  The vehicle running state acquisition sensor 20 is a sensor group for recognizing what kind of operation the vehicle is performing, and includes a rudder angle sensor 21, a vehicle speed sensor 22, a blinker sensor 23, and a light sensor 24. The steering angle sensor 21 is a sensor that detects the steering angle of the host vehicle. The vehicle speed sensor 22 is a sensor that detects the traveling speed of the host vehicle. The blinker sensor 23 is a sensor that detects the direction indicated by the direction indicator of the host vehicle. The light sensor 24 is a sensor that detects on / off of the light of the host vehicle. In addition, any sensor for detecting the operation state of the vehicle, such as a brake, a gear, and a wiper, may be used.

  The driver state acquisition sensor 30 is a sensor group for detecting the state of the driver. The driver state is, for example, an ECU that detects a state of sleepiness, driving aside, excited, or calm. The driver state acquisition sensor 30 has an in-vehicle camera 31 and detects the state of the driver by detecting the line of sight, the direction of the face, the movement of the eyeball and the face, etc. by image recognition. In addition to the camera, the state of the driver may be detected by using a sound collection microphone that acquires sound in the vehicle, a biological sensor provided on the steering wheel, an electroencephalogram sensor, or the like.

  The automatic driving control ECU 50 performs automatic driving of the vehicle. Specifically, the vehicle is controlled by determining the surrounding situation from information obtained from various sensors and controlling the accelerator amount, the brake amount, the steering angle, and the like. The automatic operation control ECU 50 also determines whether the conditions for safely performing automatic driving are satisfied, notifies the driver to switch to manual driving when the conditions are not satisfied, If the vehicle does not respond, control is also performed to stop the vehicle safely. Details of these processes performed by the automatic operation control ECU 50 will be described later.

  The input unit 60 is means for inputting from the driver to the automatic operation control ECU 50, and is a button, a switch, a touch screen, or the like. The driver can input commands such as start and stop of automatic driving to the automatic driving control ECU 50 via the input unit 60.

  The output unit 70 is a means for presenting information from the automatic operation control ECU 50 to the driver, and is a display, a speaker, or the like. The automatic operation control ECU 50 presents a notification to the driver via the output unit 70 that notifies that the automatic operation is possible, a notification that the automatic operation cannot be continued, and that prompts the user to switch to the manual operation.

  Hereinafter, the automatic operation control ECU 50 will be described in detail. The ECU is an electronic control unit having an input / output interface with a CPU, ROM, RAM, backup RAM, sensor / actuator and the like. As shown in FIG. 2, the automatic operation control ECU 50 executes a program stored in the ROM so that each of the safety point calculation unit 51, the sensor accuracy determination unit 52, the notification unit 53, the vehicle control unit 54, etc. Operates as a functional unit.

  The safe point calculation unit 51 is a functional unit that calculates a point where the vehicle can be safely stopped based on input information from a sensor or the like during automatic driving control. The calculation of the safety point may be performed every time information is input from the sensor, or may be periodically performed. The safety point calculation unit 51 obtains a distance (stop distance) necessary for stopping. The stop distance is the vehicle speed of the host vehicle obtained from the vehicle speed sensor 21, the current lane position obtained from the GPS device 11 and map information, the surrounding vehicle obtained from the in-vehicle communication device 12, the front / side sensor 13, and the like. It can be determined according to the number of times. Specifically, the stop distance is calculated to be shorter as the vehicle speed of the host vehicle is slower, and the stop distance is calculated to be longer as the vehicle speed is higher. Further, the stop distance is shorter as the traveling lane position is the left lane (in the case of left-hand traffic), and the stop distance is calculated longer as the lane is in the right lane. Further, the smaller the number of vehicles in the vicinity, the shorter the stop distance is calculated, and the larger the number, the longer the stop distance is calculated. The relationship between these parameters and the stop distance is easily stored in advance as a table, but a function expression that defines these relationships may be prepared. Although the stop distance is obtained based on the three parameters here, the stop distance may be obtained based on other parameters.

  Next, the safe point calculation unit 51 searches for a place where the vehicle can be safely stopped in front of the road on which the vehicle is currently traveling from the current position obtained from the GPS device 11 and the map information. At this time, a place where the vehicle can be stopped safely is searched for on the condition that the vehicle is positioned ahead of the stop distance obtained above. For example, a place where the vehicle can be safely stopped is a roadside belt having a sufficient width, an emergency parking belt, a shelter, and the like.

  The safe point calculation unit 51 stores the latitude and longitude of the point where the safe stop is found as described above in the memory.

  The sensor accuracy determination unit 52 is a functional unit for determining whether or not the accuracy of sensor information used by the automatic operation control ECU 50 during automatic operation control is sufficient. If the accuracy of the sensor information is sufficient, it can be said that the conditions for safe automatic operation are satisfied.

  The criterion of whether or not the detection accuracy of each sensor is sufficient may be set as appropriate according to the sensor. Basically, when the sensor information cannot be acquired because the sensor is broken, or when the error of the measured value becomes large due to a large signal-to-noise ratio, etc. It is only necessary that the detection accuracy is insufficient. For example, sensors that use radio signals, radar, etc. (GPS device 11, in-vehicle communication device 12, forward / side sensor 13, etc.) cannot be detected due to bad weather (such as heavy rain or heavy fog) or buildings. Or the accuracy of the detected value is impaired. In addition, the monitoring accuracy of the driver for the sensor that detects the state of the driver is impaired due to the collapse of the driver's posture.

The sensor accuracy determination unit 52 determines whether there is sufficient detection accuracy for the entire sensor based on the detection accuracy of each sensor according to a predetermined determination criterion. Various criteria can be adopted as the predetermined criterion. For example, if the detection accuracy of any one sensor is insufficient, it may be determined that automatic driving cannot be performed safely. Further, when the detection accuracy of a predetermined number or more sensors is insufficient, it may be determined that automatic driving cannot be performed safely. In this determination, it is also preferable to perform the determination by weighting according to the importance of the sensor. If the entire sensor has sufficient detection accuracy, it is determined that automatic driving can be performed safely. If there is not sufficient detection accuracy, it is determined that automatic driving cannot be performed safely. Note that the sensor accuracy determination unit 52 only determines whether or not the sensor is functioning correctly. Even if the sensor detection accuracy is sufficient, the vehicle control unit 54 automatically operates based on the sensing content. It may be determined that it cannot be performed safely.

  If it is determined that automatic driving can be safely executed when automatic driving is not executed, the notification unit 53 notifies the driver via the output unit 70 of that fact. The notification unit 53 also notifies the driver via the output unit 70 of a notification for urging to switch from automatic driving to manual driving if it is determined that automatic driving cannot be performed safely during automatic driving. .

  In order to drive the vehicle automatically, the vehicle control unit 54 determines surrounding conditions based on information obtained from various sensors, and controls the accelerator amount, the brake amount, the steering angle, and the like. Specifically, the vehicle is controlled so as to keep the currently traveling lane and keep the distance between the vehicle ahead and a predetermined distance or more. In the present embodiment, the automatic operation control may be realized by using a conventional technique, and thus will not be described in detail here.

  In the present embodiment, the sensor accuracy determination unit 52 determines that the detection accuracy of the sensor is insufficient and it is impossible to continue the automatic driving safely, and the notification unit 53 switches to the manual operation so that the driver can switch to manual operation. When the driver does not switch to manual driving despite the notification, the vehicle control unit 54 performs control to guide the vehicle to the safety point obtained by the safety point calculation unit 51 and stop there. Here, since the safe point calculation part 51 has selected the place which can stop safely in the present condition, the stop of a vehicle can be performed safely.

<Method>
A vehicle control method executed by the automatic driving vehicle control apparatus of this embodiment will be described with reference to the flowcharts of FIGS. 3 and 4. FIG. 3 shows control executed when the automatic driving function is off, and FIG. 4 shows control executed when the automatic driving function is on.

  FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing a process periodically executed when the automatic driving function is off. The automatic operation control ECU 50 acquires sensor information representing the surrounding state from the surrounding state acquisition sensor 10, acquires sensor information representing the traveling state of the host vehicle from the vehicle traveling state acquisition sensor 20, and acquires the driver information from the driver state acquisition sensor 30. Sensor information representing the state is acquired (S301). Based on the acquired sensor information, the sensor accuracy determination unit 52 determines whether the detection accuracy of the sensor is sufficient (whether a predetermined standard is satisfied), and if the detection accuracy is sufficient, the automatic driving function is made safe. If it is insufficient, it is considered that the automatic driving function cannot be executed safely (S302). If the automatic driving function cannot be executed safely (S303-NO), the process is terminated. On the other hand, when the automatic driving function can be executed safely (S304-YES), the notification unit 53 notifies the driver that automatic driving is possible via the output unit 70 (S305). When the driver inputs a notification to start the automatic driving function to the automatic driving control ECU 50 via the input unit 60 (S306-YES), the automatic driving control ECU 50 starts the automatic driving (S307). When starting the automatic driving, the vehicle-mounted communication device 12 notifies the surrounding vehicle to that effect.

FIG. 4 is a flowchart showing a process periodically executed when the automatic driving function is on. The automatic operation control ECU 50 acquires sensor information representing the surrounding state from the surrounding state acquisition sensor 10, acquires sensor information representing the traveling state of the host vehicle from the vehicle traveling state acquisition sensor 20, and acquires the driver information from the driver state acquisition sensor 30. Sensor information representing the state is acquired (S401). Based on the acquired sensor information and map information, the safe point calculation unit 51 obtains a place where the host vehicle can safely stop in the current situation, and stores the result in the memory (S402). Further, based on the acquired sensor information, the sensor accuracy determination unit 52 determines whether the detection accuracy of the sensor is sufficient (whether a predetermined standard is satisfied). It is considered that it can continue (execute) safely, and if it is insufficient, it is regarded that the automatic driving function cannot be continued safely (S403). If the automatic driving function can be safely continued (S404-YES), the vehicle control unit 54 continues the automatic driving control (S405). On the other hand, when the automatic driving function cannot be safely continued (NO in S404), the notification unit 53 outputs a notification prompting the driver to switch from automatic driving to manual driving via the output unit 70. If the driver switches to manual operation in response to this notification (S407-YES), the process ends. On the other hand, if there is no input for switching to manual driving even after a predetermined period of time has passed since notification of switching to manual driving (S407-NO), the vehicle control unit 54 calculates the safety point calculation unit 51 and stores it in the memory. The vehicle is guided to a certain safety point and controlled to stop there. When guiding to the safety point, it is preferable to notify surrounding vehicles that the vehicle is being saved to the safety point by communication via the in-vehicle communication device 12, lighting of a hazard lamp, or the like.

<Operation and effect of this embodiment>
According to the automatic driving vehicle control device according to the present embodiment, if the accuracy of information obtained from the sensor is not sufficient, automatic driving is not started, and if automatic driving is in progress, switching to manual driving is performed. Prompted. Therefore, the safety of the automatic driving can be improved and the danger to the driver can be avoided. In addition, the location where the vehicle is stopped when the driver does not respond to the request to switch to manual driving is periodically calculated in advance. Therefore, in an emergency situation where the driver does not respond, the vehicle can be stopped immediately and safely.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Peripheral condition acquisition sensor 20 Vehicle driving | running | working state acquisition sensor 30 Driver state acquisition sensor 40 Map information memory | storage part 50 Automatic operation control ECU

Claims (9)

  1. Detecting means for acquiring at least one of a running state of the vehicle, a surrounding situation of the vehicle, and a state of the driver;
    Automatic driving means for automatically driving the vehicle;
    A judging means for judging whether or not conditions for performing automatic driving are satisfied;
    With
    The determination unit determines that the condition for performing automatic driving is not satisfied when the detection accuracy of the detection unit does not satisfy a predetermined criterion;
    Self-driving vehicle control device.
  2. If the automatic driving means determines that the condition for performing automatic driving is not satisfied by the determining means during automatic driving, the automatic driving means performs a notification to prompt the driver to cancel the automatic driving.
    The automatic driving vehicle control device according to claim 1.
  3. The automatic driving means starts automatic driving only when it is determined by the determining means that the conditions for performing automatic driving are satisfied.
    The automatic driving vehicle control device according to claim 1 or 2.
  4. Map information storage means for storing map information;
    Safety point calculation means for periodically calculating a stop point where the vehicle can be safely stopped based on the map information and the vehicle running state and the surrounding situation of the vehicle acquired from the detection means;
    Further comprising
    If the driver does not cancel the automatic driving even if the driver does not cancel the automatic driving even if the driver prompts the cancellation of the automatic driving, the vehicle is guided to the stop point and stopped.
    The automatic driving vehicle control device according to claim 2.
  5. An automatic driving vehicle control method performed by an automatic driving vehicle control device,
    A detection step for acquiring at least one of a vehicle running state, a vehicle surrounding situation, and a driver state;
    An automatic driving step for automatically driving the vehicle;
    A determination step for determining whether or not a condition for performing automatic driving is satisfied;
    Including
    In the determination step, when the detection accuracy in the detection step does not satisfy a predetermined criterion, it is determined that the condition for performing automatic driving is not satisfied.
    Self-driving vehicle control method.
  6. If it is determined during automatic driving that the conditions for performing automatic driving are not satisfied, the method further includes a step of notifying the driver to cancel the automatic driving,
    The automatic driving vehicle control method according to claim 5.
  7. Start automatic driving only when it is determined that the conditions for automatic driving are satisfied.
    The automatic driving vehicle control method according to claim 5 or 6.
  8. A safety point calculation step for periodically calculating a stop point where the vehicle can be safely stopped based on the map information and the vehicle running state and the surrounding situation of the vehicle acquired in the detection step;
    If the driver does not cancel the automatic driving even if the driver prompts the cancellation of the automatic driving, a stopping step of guiding the vehicle to the stopping point and stopping the vehicle,
    The automatic driving vehicle control method according to claim 6, further comprising:
  9.   The computer program for making a computer perform each step as described in any one of Claims 5-8.
JP2012260877A 2012-11-29 2012-11-29 Automatic driving vehicle control apparatus and method Pending JP2014106854A (en)

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