JP2013229032A - Methods and systems for detecting position-based attribute of object using digital codes - Google Patents

Methods and systems for detecting position-based attribute of object using digital codes Download PDF

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JP2013229032A
JP2013229032A JP2013100309A JP2013100309A JP2013229032A JP 2013229032 A JP2013229032 A JP 2013229032A JP 2013100309 A JP2013100309 A JP 2013100309A JP 2013100309 A JP2013100309 A JP 2013100309A JP 2013229032 A JP2013229032 A JP 2013229032A
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signal
electrodes
controller
code
electrode
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JP5512016B2 (en
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Kurth Reynolds J
カース レノルズ ジェイ.
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Synaptics Inc
シナプティクス インコーポレイテッド
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/044Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by capacitive means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/0416Control or interface arrangements specially adapted for digitisers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/0416Control or interface arrangements specially adapted for digitisers
    • G06F3/0418Control or interface arrangements specially adapted for digitisers for error correction or compensation, e.g. based on parallax, calibration or alignment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03KPULSE TECHNIQUE
    • H03K17/00Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking
    • H03K17/94Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking characterised by the way in which the control signal is generated
    • H03K17/96Touch switches
    • H03K17/962Capacitive touch switches

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide methods, systems and devices for detecting a position-based attribute of a finger, stylus or other object with a touchpad or other sensor having a touch-sensitive region that includes a plurality of electrodes.SOLUTION: Modulation signals for one or more electrodes are produced as a function of any number of distinct digital codes. The modulation signals are applied to associated at least one of the plurality of electrodes to obtain a resultant signal that is electrically affected by the position of the object. The resultant signal is demodulated using the plurality of distinct digital codes in order to discriminate electrical effects produced by the object. The position-based attribute of the object is then determined with respect to the plurality of electrodes from the electrical effects.

Description

  [0001] The present invention relates generally to position or proximity sensors such as touchpads, and more particularly to an apparatus capable of detecting attributes based on the position of a finger, stylus or other object using a digital code. , Systems and methods.

  [0002] Position sensors are commonly used as input devices for computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), media players, video game players, home appliances, mobile phones, public telephones, POS terminal devices, ATMs, kiosks, and the like. A common type of sensor used in such applications is a touchpad sensor, which can be easily found, for example, as an input device for many notebook computers. A user typically operates a sensor by moving a finger, stylus, or other stimulus near the sensing area of the sensor. The stimulus causes a capacitive, inductive, or other electrical effect on the carrier signal applied to the sensing region, which can be detected and correlated with the location or proximity of the stimulus relative to the sensing region. This position information can now be used for moving a cursor or other indicator on the display screen, scrolling character elements on the screen, or other user interface applications. An example of a touchpad type position sensor based on a capacitance type sensing method is described in US Pat. No. 5,880,411 issued to Gillespie et al. On March 9, 1999.

  [0003] While touchpad type sensors have been in use for several years, there is a need for alternative designs that reduce costs and / or improve sensor capabilities. More particularly, there has been much interest in recent years in reducing the effects of display screens, power supplies, radio frequency interference and / or noise generated by other sources outside the sensor. Numerous sampling, filtering, signal processing, shielding and other noise reduction methods have been implemented, but with varying degrees of success.

  [0004] Therefore, it is desirable to provide a system and method for quickly, effectively and efficiently detecting attributes based on the position of an object in the presence of noise. Other desirable features and characteristics will become apparent from the following detailed description and the appended claims, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the foregoing technical field and background.

  [0005] Methods, systems, and apparatus are described for detecting attributes based on the position of a finger, stylus, or other object with a touchpad or other sensor. According to various embodiments, the sensor has a touch-sensitive area composed of any number of electrodes that are suitably arranged to detect user input. Modulation signals for one or more electrodes are generated as a function of any number of different discrete digital codes, which codes can be substantially orthogonal to each other. In order to obtain a result signal that is electrically influenced by the position of the object, a modulation signal is applied to at least one of the associated electrodes. The result signal is demodulated using a plurality of separate digital codes to screen out the electrical effects caused by the object. From the electrical effect, an attribute based on the position of the object relative to the plurality of electrodes is determined.

[0006] Various aspects of the invention will now be described with reference to the drawings. In the drawings, like reference numerals refer to similar elements.
[0007] FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary sensing device. [0007] FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary sensing device. [0008] FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating an exemplary process for detecting attributes based on the position of an object. [0009] Two frequency domain plots of an exemplary received signal and a demodulated signal. [0010] FIG. 4 shows an exemplary case for processing an electrical image of a detected object. [0011] FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example sensing device capable of sensing attributes based on multiple locations in two dimensions. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary sensing device having a filtering capacitor that senses multiple signal channels simultaneously with a common receive electrode. FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary sensing device having a filtering capacitor that integrates a modulation electrode and a receiving electrode. FIG. [0013] FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary sensing device formed on a single substrate. [0014] FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an exemplary sensing device formed on a flexible substrate.

  [0015] The following detailed description is merely exemplary in nature and is not intended to limit the invention or the application and uses of the invention. Furthermore, there is no intention to be bound by any expressed or implied theory presented in the preceding technical field, background art, invention disclosure or the following detailed description.

  [0016] According to various exemplary embodiments, wideband spectrum technology may be applied to a position sensor, such as a touchpad, for improved noise margin and / or performance. For example, code division multiplexing (CDM) may be used to generate two or more separate modulated signals that are applied to a sensing electrode in the sensor, thereby improving the effective power of the applied signal. it can. Coded wideband spectrum modulation may refer to direct sequence, frequency hopping, time hopping, or various combinations of these techniques. The modulation frequency applied to the sense domain spans a wider spectrum than previously received, so narrowband noise or moderate wideband noise that occurs at a particular frequency (these are uncorrelated with coded modulation) ) On the entire narrow demodulated signal channel is minimized. Also, noise effects on multiple signal channels can be averaged so that a minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is maintained for each useful signal channel. This concept can be further exploited by selecting a digital code to create a frequency domain signal that avoids known noise sources. For this reason, wideband spectrum technology can increase the power applied to the sensing region while reducing the effect of noise, and compared to the conventional time domain multiplexing technology of the corresponding sample period, the SNR of the sensor Is greatly improved. Other useful sensor designs and functions are also possible by applying broadband spectrum technology to the sensor. Such a concept will be described in more detail below.

  [0017] As used herein, the term "position sensor" detects the position or proximity of one or more fingers, pointers, styluses or other objects as well as conventional touchpad devices. It should be understood that a wide range of equivalent devices can also be included. Such devices include, but are not limited to, touch screens, touch pads, touch tablets, biometric authentication devices (such as fingerprint sensors), hand-drawn or character recognition devices, and the like. Similarly, the terms “position”, “object position”, and “position-based attributes” as used herein refer to absolute or relative position or proximity information as well as speed, speed, acceleration, etc. It is intended to include other types of spatial domain information, including measurements of movement in one or more directions. The attributes based on various positions may include a component of time history as in the case of gesture recognition. Thus, in different but equivalent embodiments as determined by application, many different types of “position sensors” detect a wide variety of “position-based attributes”, not just the presence or absence of objects. be able to.

  [0018] Reference is now made to the drawings. Referring initially to FIG. 1A, an exemplary sensor 100 optionally includes a sensing region 101, a controller 102, a modulator 107 having an associated drive circuit 109, and a demodulator 117 having an associated receive circuit 115. An attribute based on the position of a finger, stylus or other object 121 is detected by applying various modulation signals 110A-D to the electrodes 112A-D, and the electrodes 112A-D together with the sensing electrodes 114 define a sensing region 101. doing. Modulated signals 110A-D are capacitively coupled or otherwise electrically coupled to one or more receive electrodes 114 to form any number of data transmission channels 113A-D. Electrical effects caused by the object 121 on the channels 113A-D are subsequently identified in the signal 116 received by the receiving electrode. This received signal can then be processed to separate the position of the object 121 relative to the electrodes 112A-D in the sensing region 101. A prior art example of capacitive sensing and object position processing in a touchpad is described in US Pat. No. 5,880,411, cited above, but in various other embodiments, other sensing is possible. Technology can also be used.

  [0019] Although various types of sensors 100 can detect different electrical effects caused by the object 121, the exemplary embodiment of FIGS. 1 illustrates a configuration for monitoring changes in capacitance across 101. More specifically, when modulation signals 110A-D are applied to the electrodes 112A-D, a “virtual capacitor” is formed between each electrode 112A-D transmitting the modulated signal and the reception electrode 114. Is done. If an object is present in the field created by this capacitor, the capacitance between the transmit electrode 112 and the receive electrode 114 is affected. Typically, when there is a grounded (or effectively grounded) object such as a finger, the effective capacitance between the electrodes 112 and 114 is reduced, and an ungrounded conductor (such as a stylus) or high dielectric When there is a sex object, the effective capacitance increases. In either case, the change in capacitance caused by the presence of the object 121 is reflected in the output signal 116 from the receiving electrode 114, such as measured voltage, current, charge.

  [0020] By monitoring the signal 116 generated by each modulation signal 110A-D, the presence of an object 121 can be determined for each electrode 112A-D. In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1A, four sensing channels 113A-D are shown arranged in a one-dimensional sensing array 101. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 1B, seven channels 113A-G are between several channels 113A-C and 112D-G and 114 arranged in a first direction between 112A-C and 114. As shown in more detail below with reference to FIG. 4, the detection of the “silhouette” of the two-dimensional image is indicated by the remaining channels 113D-G arranged in a substantially orthogonal direction at It is possible. Indeed, in various other embodiments, as few as one, a dozen, hundreds or more sensing channels may be arranged in a single pattern or a multi-dimensional pattern. With proper placement, the position of the object 121 relative to the sensing region 101 can be determined from the electrical effects caused by the object 121 when modulated signals 110A-D applied to various electrodes are transmitted. This effect is reflected in the received signal 116, which is demodulated and then appropriately processed to arrive at the output signal 120.

  [0021] In addition, the sensor 100 can be easily configured or reconfigured by assigning or reassigning a digital code to generate the modulated signal 110 so that the region 101 can be of any type or number of sensing zones. Can be created. As shown in FIGS. 1A-B, each receive electrode 114 can receive signals combined by any number of signal channels 113, thereby providing multiple result signals 116 in a single path. The Since the signal 116 is supplied to a common path, only a common modulation signal 110 (such as a modulation signal 110 formed from a common digital code) is applied to each of the transmission electrodes 112 constituting the detection zone. Any number of electrode sensing channels 113 may be formed permanently or temporarily. The detection zones in region 101 may overlap and / or change over time and can be easily reconfigured by simply applying a different digital code to one or more electrodes 112. Even if multiple electrodes are part of one channel, multiple channel modulations may be applied to one electrode.

  [0022] In conventional sensors, the modulation signals 110A-D are typically simple sine waves or other periodic alternating current (AC) signals, which use various time domain multiplexing (TDM) to Sequentially applied to the channel. However, many advantages can be realized by applying the broadband spectrum concept generally associated with wireless communications to the sensor 100. More particularly, using digital encoding techniques similar to those used for code division multiple access (CDMA) wireless communications, separate modulated signals 110A-D are created and these signals are transmitted in region 101. It can be applied simultaneously to the various detection zones, which may simplify the switching of the sensor 100.

  [0023] Applying wideband spectrum technology to the sensor 100 can provide additional benefits, such as improved noise resistance. Since each signal channel 113 is obtained by applying an appropriate digital code, for example, the principle of coding gain can be easily utilized to improve the performance of the sensor 100. Increasing the sign increases the gain of each modulation signal 110 applied to one or more transmission electrodes 112. By using conventional code generation techniques, variations of combinations of digital codes with known spectral and correlation characteristics can be created relatively easily. In addition, variations of these combinations form a relatively large set of possible distinct digital codes from which a modulated signal 110 having desirable time domain or frequency domain characteristics is generated, as described below. be able to. Other details regarding specific code generation techniques and signal processing techniques are described in more detail later.

  [0024] Referring again to FIGS. 1A-B, the sensing region 101 is a capacitive, resistive type that can detect attributes based on the position, proximity and / or other position of a finger, stylus or other object 121 , Inductive sensors, or other types of sensors. The exemplary sensing region 101 comprises various sensors manufactured by Synaptics Inc. of Santa Clara, California. This sensor uses capacitive or inductive coupling to properly detect a one-dimensional, two-dimensional or multi-dimensional position of the object 121. However, many other sensing areas 101 may be used in various other embodiments. Other types of sensing regions 101 that can detect position or proximity include sensors based on acoustic, optical or electromagnetic properties (eg, high frequency, infrared, ultraviolet, etc.) and / or other effects.

  [0025] The controller 102 may be any processor, microcontroller, neural network, analog computer, programmed circuit, or other module capable of processing the input data 118 and extracting the output index 120. . The particular control circuit 102 used varies greatly depending on the embodiment, but in the exemplary embodiment, the controller 102 is model T1004 manufactured by Synaptics Inc., Santa Clara, California, USA. , T1005, T10XX or other microcontroller. In many embodiments, the controller 102 comprises or communicates with a digital memory 103 that suitably stores digital instructions executable by the controller 102 in the form of software or firmware. Implement various sensing, control and other functions described here. In other embodiments, the functionality of the memory 103 may be incorporated into the controller 102, and in all embodiments, there may not be a physically independent memory device 103. The physical controller may include more elements, such as the drive circuit 109, the receive circuit 115, and others described.

  [0026] Code generation module 104 is any circuit, device, module, program logic, etc. that is independent or integrated, and creates digital code 106 that can be used to generate modulated signals 110A-D. Can do. Although the number, size, and type of digital codes that are created vary greatly, in various embodiments, the codes are substantially orthogonal to each other and a sufficient number of distinct codes to associate with each sensing zone of region 101. It is long enough to provide a digital code. This distinct sign is binary, ternary or generally multilevel and can represent a driven state and a non-driven state (tri-state). Various circuits, modules and techniques for generating digital codes suitable for use with CDM include Walsh Hadamard codes, m-sequences, Gold codes, scissors codes, Barker codes, delay line multiple delay sequences (delay lines) There are shift register sequences such as multiple tap sequences). In another embodiment, the digital code is predetermined and may be stored in a lookup table or other data structure in the controller 102 and / or memory 103 or using any suitable algorithm. It may be generated by the controller 102 or both of them. In such an embodiment, the code generation module 104 may not exist as a physical element independent of the controller 102, and code generation and / or performed as appropriate by the controller 102 or other digital processing device. It should be considered as a logical module that represents the acquisition function.

  [0027] In the context of a separate digital code, the phrase "substantially orthogonal" means that if a separate code yields meaningful and independent results, the separate code is mathematically It means that it does not need to be completely orthogonal to each other. Thus, strict orthogonality can be sacrificed (tradeoff) due to various other characteristics such as correlation, spectrum or compressibility. Similarly, the term “sensing zone” means that a single sign is applied to multiple electrodes 112 to create a single sensing zone that includes a portion of sensing area 101 that is larger than any of the individual electrodes 112. It refers to what can be done. A plurality of codes may be applied to one electrode to create an overlapping or spatially filtered “detection zone”. For example, sequences that are phase delayed or “shifted” of the same code sequence can be distinct, substantially orthogonal, and easily identifiable. In various cases, interpolation between phase shifts may be possible.

  [0028] Modulator 107 is any circuit, logic module, or other module that can use the separate digital code generated by module 104 to generate modulated signals 110A-D. In general, modulator 107 modulates carrier signal 111 with digital code 106 using any type of amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), phase modulation (PM), or other suitable technique. The modulation signals 110A to 110D are generated. Thus, modulator 107 may be implemented using any conventional digital and / or analog circuitry, or may be implemented in part or in whole by software logic executed internally, such as controller 102. Good. The carrier signal 111 can be appropriately generated by an arbitrary oscillator or other signal generator 105. In one embodiment suitable for use with capacitive sensing touchpads, the signal 111 may be generated at a frequency in the range of about 10 kHz to 100 MHz, but in various equivalent embodiments, what are these signals? It may be created at a frequency or range. Further details regarding an exemplary modulation function will be described later with reference to FIG. In yet another embodiment, the carrier signal 111 is omitted and the spectral components of the applied modulation signals 110A-D are determined from the clock rate, repetition length, and / or other properties of the digital code. Thus, in various alternative embodiments, the carrier signal 111 may be omitted or conceptually interpreted as a direct current (DC) signal, or both.

  [0029] The modulation signals 110A-D may be applied to the electrodes 112A-D in the sensing region 101 in any manner. In various embodiments, the modulator 107 suitably applies signals to the appropriate electrodes 112A-D via any drive circuit 109, which can include any scaling amplifier, multiplexer, any current. A switch to a source or voltage source, charge transfer elements, controlled impedance, and the like. In FIG. 1, a single driver circuit 109 is shown as connecting the modulator 107 and the sensing region 101 in series with each other. In practice, however, the drive circuit 109 typically comprises a plurality of amplifiers, a plurality of drivers and / or other signal paths, with the modulator 107 and the various electrodes 112 in the sensing region 101 connected in parallel. The plurality of detection channels 113 are simultaneously driven by the modulated electrode 112 with the same or different signals.

  [0030] As described above, the modulation signals 110A-D are supplied to the electrodes 112A-D in the sensing region 101, and the resulting result signal 116 from the receiving electrode 114 is obtained as appropriate. The signal is supplied to the demodulator 117. A scaling amplifier, multiplexer, filter, selector, comparator and / or other receiving circuit 115 may also be provided to form the received signal 116. A demodulator 117 is any circuit or other module that can demodulate the output 116 of the sensing region 101 to identify electrical effects caused by the object 121. Demodulator 117 may include, communicate with, or both have a demodulation filter, such as any suitable digital or analog low-pass or band-pass filter and any conventional analog-to-digital converter (ADC). sell. In various embodiments, the demodulator 117 receives the carrier signal 111 and / or a phase-shifted separate digital code 106 to allow demodulation of both signals. In another embodiment, demodulator 117 analog demodulates carrier signal 111 and provides the resulting signal to controller 102 and / or receiving circuit 115 for subsequent processing. Similarly, the demodulation function represented by module 117 of FIG. 1 may be logically provided by hardware, software, firmware, etc. in controller 102 and / or other elements, in which case independent demodulation circuitry is provided. 117 becomes unnecessary.

  [0031] During operation of the sensor 100, any number of separate digital codes are created by the code generation module 104 and modulated by the carrier frequency to generate a set of modulated signals 112A-D, which are detected regions 101. To any number of electrodes 112A-D. The position of the object 121 relative to the detection area 101 electrically affects one or more output signals 116 supplied from the detection area 101. By demodulating the result signal 116, electrical effects are identified, which are then processed, such as by the controller 102, to determine position-based attributes for the object 121. By modulating the electrodes with an appropriate digital code, the narrow sensing frequency of the sensor can be effectively spread across multiple frequencies, improving noise rejection. Further, by using code division multiplexing, each modulated signal 110A-D can be applied simultaneously, which reduces the need for independent time domain switching or control in many embodiments, Can be eliminated. Electrical effects identified from the sensing region 101 using broadband spectrum technology can be suitably further processed by the controller 102 and / or other processing devices.

  [0032] Referring now to FIG. 2, an exemplary process 200 for detecting position-based object attributes relative to the sensing region 101 creates a separate set of digital codes for the modulated signals 110A-D. (Step 201), a step of demodulating each of the response signals 116 obtained by applying the modulation signals 110A to 110D (steps 204 and 206), and an electrical effect identified in the response signal 116, the object 121 And a step of determining one or more attributes based on the position (step 208). In various further embodiments, the particular digital generated in step 202 may be used to reduce the effects of noise, reduce interference to other devices caused by the device, or for other purposes. The sign may be changed (step 210). Additional processing such as processing of single or multiple objects, removal of unwanted image data, etc. may also be performed (step 212).

  [0033] The flowchart shown in FIG. 2 illustrates the various logical steps involved in the exemplary process 200, rather than a rigorous software implementation. However, some or all of the steps of the process 200 are stored in the memory 103 and are performed only by the controller 102 or other elements of the sensor 100 (eg, code generation module 104, modulator 107, demodulation, etc. Or both of these may be performed. Alternatively, the various steps may be stored in any digital recording medium such as any digital memory, portable media (eg, compact disc, floppy disk, portable memory, etc.), magnetic media, or optical media. In various other embodiments, the various steps of process 200 may be applied in any order in time or may be arbitrarily changed in other ways. Furthermore, the various steps shown in FIG. 2 may be combined, or the various steps may be organized differently by other methods.

  [0034] As described above, the separate digital code 106 used to generate the modulated signals 110A-D may be any type of hardware or software logic represented by the code generation module 104 of FIG. , May be generated in any way (step 201). For example, any number of feedback shift registers may be configured in a maximum length sequence (MLS) to generate a desired length of pseudorandom digital code, which is a separate code sequence. As such, it can be easily applied to the various modulation signals 110A-D in various phases and / or sums. The binary code sequence 106 output from the parallel shift register is generally flat in spectrum, except for the smallest DC term. In alternative embodiments, the MLS or other routine for generating the digital code 106 may be simulated by software running on the controller 102 or elsewhere, as appropriate. In yet another embodiment, the code 106 is generated prior to use and stored, such as in a lookup table or other data structure in the memory 103. In various other but equivalent embodiments, the controller 102 may generate or obtain the code 106 directly, or generate the code by directing the operation of the independent code generation module 104, etc. You may do both. As explained above, the particular code may be generated in any way. The sequence of digital bits may simply be phase shifted to create multiple separate codes. In another embodiment, a separate code is calculated from another code using various methods such as addition, exclusive-or, multiplication, and / or other techniques for generating high-dimensional random numbers and pseudo-random numbers. can do. Code generation methods based on XOR or multiplication operations have the added advantage of being able to generate linear combinations, which may be useful in some embodiments.

  [0035] Next, using various codes 106, a particular modulated signal 110A-D is modulated or otherwise generated, which is applied to various sensing electrodes 112A-D in sensing region 101. Applied (step 202). As explained above, the applied signal is electrically affected by the presence of the object 121 and the resulting electrical effect is determined from the received signal 116 (step 203).

  [0036] In demodulation of the received signal channel 113 (in step 204), information regarding the position of the object 121 is appropriately extracted from the modulated signal. In this extraction, the modulation process described above is generally performed in reverse. Thus, the demodulator 117 typically provides analog demodulation and / or signal selection (noise and desired) in addition to the specific digital code 106 previously used to modulate the carrier signal to generate a specific result signal 116. The carrier signal 111 (or another signal synchronized with the signal 111) is received. Since the sensor performs both transmission and reception, there is little need for recovery of the carrier or code sequence.

  [0037] Demodulation may be performed as appropriate for any number of received signal channels 113 (step 206). In the exemplary sensor 100 shown in FIG. 1A, a signal 116 obtained by transmitting each signal channel from the modulated electrodes 112 </ b> A to 112 </ b> D is received on a common path exiting from the receiving electrode 114. However, the conventional CDM demodulation technique is used even when the detection channels 113A-D are all driven at the same time (eg, the modulated signals 110A-D are simultaneously provided to the modulated electrodes 112A-D). Thus, the result signal 116 generated by each channel 113A-D can be demodulated. For this reason, the specific component (or channel) of the result signal 116 generated with respect to the arbitrary modulation signals 110A to 110D can be easily extracted. As described below, this concept can be utilized in a number of ways to provide sensor 100 with many additional features and performance enhancements. For example, in order to expand a specific detection zone in the region 101, common modulation signals 110A to 110D may be applied to the plurality of electrodes 112A to 112D. This zone can be easily adjusted during operation, such as to create various operating modes. For example, the same modulation signal 110 can be provided to each electrode 112A-D so that the entire sensing area 101 operates as a single button and otherwise the sensor capabilities are not adjusted. Since all of the signals obtained from the reception electrodes 116 are supplied to the common path in FIG. 1, in this case, by simply demodulating the entire reception signal using a common modulation code, However, the presence of the object 121 can be identified. A similar concept can be applied to create any number of separate detection zones or overlapping detection zones across the detection region 101 by simple manipulation of the digital code sequence 106. Further, spatial frequency filtering can be performed only by appropriate modulation / demodulation, for example, in order to eliminate the palm or not to accept other inappropriate input.

  [0038] The demodulated signal 118 is suitably received at the controller 102 so that an attribute based on the position of the object 121 can be determined (step 208). These signals can be filtered digitally or analogly using linear and non-linear filters. Various techniques for identifying the position of the object 121 relative to the various electrodes 112A-D include detecting the peak of the electrical effect, calculating the center of gravity based on the electrical effect, and the difference in electrical effect between the electrodes 112A-D. Comparison of electrical effects over time, interpolation between signal channels from electrodes, and / or many other techniques. In peak detection, the position of the object 121 is associated with one or more electrodes 112A-D by identifying the modulation signal 110A-D that produced the largest capacitive effect relative change in the result signal 116. It is done. The sensing channels 113A-D in which such peak electrical effects (such as maximum, minimum, or other specific values) occur are based on the currently obtained scaled electrical effects. It can also be identified by comparison with a line value (eg, an average value for a particular channel, such as determined empirically, time averaged, or stored from previous measurements). Yet another embodiment is to compare the current electrical effect of each channel 113A-D with the current value obtained in the adjacent sensing channel, thereby producing the peak electrical effect 113A- D can be identified. In another embodiment, a weighted average of the electrical effects obtained from some or all of the modulated electrodes 112A-D can be calculated, and this weighted average or centroid can be correlated with the position of the object 121. Many techniques for correlating the electrical effects obtained over the sensing region 101 with the position of the object 121 are known or will be developed in the future, and any of these techniques may be implemented in various ways according to the present application. It can be used in the form.

  [0039] Various additional functions can be implemented by aging the digital code 106 used to generate the modulation signals 110A-D. For example, to implement a simple dual differential digital / analog conversion for the received signal channel 113, the digital code 106 applied to one or more electrodes 112 may be periodic, aperiodic, or otherwise. Logically inverted in time (such as 1's complement), the complementary detection signal 116 is generated. This complementary code 106 is used to drive two separate ADC inputs (such as the ADC present in driver 115 and / or demodulator 117) in the reverse direction, thereby allowing many types of variations in signal 116. Or the residual distortion is offset. Steps 210 and 212, respectively, describe optional noise reconstruction and image processing functions, which can be enabled in various embodiments as additional benefits obtained using wideband spectrum technology. . These functions are described in more detail below (with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4 respectively), but may not be used in all embodiments. The digital code 106 is easy to change, store, and later process by its nature, allowing any number of signal enhancements, noise removal, and / or other sensor 100 performance improvements. Furthermore, due to the combinational power of digital sequences, a relatively large number of digital codes can be used. Coding gain and orthogonality conventionally depend on the linearity and superposition of the particular code used. Non-linearity and dispersion limit the theoretical effectiveness of digital codes, but exceed this by increasing the relative signal power (and thus the SNR) obtained by modulating multiple electrodes 112 simultaneously Benefits are gained. Furthermore, in many embodiments, self-induced channel-to-channel noise can be more dominant than other noise sources, thus providing a relatively stable dynamic range.

  [0040] Referring now to FIGS. 3A-B, wideband spectrum technology enables improved noise avoidance compared to conventional single frequency sampling methods. As described above, a sensing zone corresponds to a single electrode 112 or a common modulation signal 110 is provided to multiple electrodes 112 to provide a single “electrode” for later demodulation and calculation. Large detection zones that function effectively as The modulated waveform 110 is a function of a separate digital code 106 that uniquely identifies the applied sensing zone, thereby allowing easy application of CDM and other conventional broadband spectrum techniques. . FIG. 3 shows an exemplary spectrum plot 300 in which the frequency domain difference between the spectrum 302 of the carrier signal 111 and the spectrum 304 of the modulated signal 110 is emphasized. Compared to the single frequency carrier signal 302, the multiple frequency spectrum 304 of the modulated signal received at 114 is much wider. In the spectrum 304 of the modulated signal, active power is distributed over a very wide sensing band, so that the influence of the narrowband noise signal 306 at or near a specific frequency of interest is greatly reduced. That is, if a spurious noise signal 306 is generated near a single frequency (or narrowband) carrier signal 302, the noise may be more dominant than the electrical effect in the detection channel 113. Further, as shown in the spectral plot 350 of the received signal 116, the adverse effects of wideband noise 308 or interference from other modulated electrode channels 310 can be mitigated by wideband spectrum techniques. From plot 350, the demodulated signal 352 (corresponding to the coupling of channels 113 and / or the presence of an object 121 near the demodulated sensing region) is limited to a relatively narrow frequency band, whereas It can be seen that signals 354 received from other channels are spread over a wide band. Both wideband noise 308 and narrowband noise 306 are similarly spread over wide frequency bands 356 and 358 in the demodulated signal. Thus, by increasing the bandwidth of the applied modulated signal 110, the signal to noise ratio of the demodulated signal 116 is dramatically improved. Due to the demodulation, noise outside the signal band is diffused and becomes extremely narrow, so that a desired signal portion 352 can be easily extracted by a narrow band filter or the like. This concept can be further exploited by selecting a digital code 106 that avoids known noise sources. That is, a digital code 106 having an arbitrary bit length is applied to the carrier signal 111 in order to form a spectral “gap” at a frequency known to be susceptible to spurious noise. By applying conventional Fourier analysis (eg, using a simple Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), etc.), a digital code can be selected to create a modulated signal 110 having many desired spectral characteristics. . In order to avoid expected or actual noise in the result signal 116, the sign applied to the modulated electrode 112 may be pre-selected even if it is changed during operation (eg, step 210 in FIG. 2). Or both. In another embodiment, the particular code 106 applied to the one or more electrodes 112 is changed over time, randomly, pseudo-randomly, according to determinism, or otherwise during sensor operation. In addition, any noise present in the result signal 116 or demodulated signal 118 may be statistically filtered. Similarly, specific spatial frequencies or spatial positions can be emphasized (eg, by coding gain) or can be filtered out by applying a sign to different modulation electrodes. In addition to reducing the effects of noise or spurious effects on non-input objects (such as palms), shifting the sign during operation can provide other advantages (such as sorting or moisture resistance). In various equivalent embodiments, instead of or in addition to changing the digital code 106, the frequency, phase, amplitude and / or waveform of the carrier signal 111 may be adjusted.

  [0042] Referring now to FIG. 4, a plurality of presences 408 of objects 121 within the sensing region 101, by a broadband spectrum technique that simultaneously applies a plurality of encoded modulation signals 110A-D to the various electrodes 112A-D. 410, 412 can be identified. For example, multiple objects may include multiple fingers on a touchpad, the presence of a palm resting on sensor 100 during use, the presence of a finger and stylus together, and / or any other combination of inputs. It can correspond to. Electrical effects resulting from multiple entities 408, 410 are conceptually projected onto one or more axes 404, 406 to identify the relative position of the object on that axis, as shown in FIG. sell. That is, the peak value of the electrical effect can be correlated with the relative position of the object 121 with respect to the detection region 101. In the example of FIG. 4, the finger 408 can be identified by the increased electrical effect projected on the “X” axis 404 and the “Y” axis 406. By correlating the relative X and Y positions of the peak electrical effect, the location of the presence 408 can be correlated in two dimensions (or in other dimensions). Similarly, the example of FIG. 4A shows a large area showing a second entity 410 where an electrical effect is projected onto axes 404 and 406. Such projections of a plurality of electrical effects can be additionally correlated to identify an image of the object 121 (such as a “contour”) present in the region 101. Further extending this concept, one or more images 408, 410 can then be processed appropriately. The presence of multiple fingers in region 101 can be used, for example, to perform scrolling, mode selection, or other tasks. If the image can be identified as originating from the user's palm (or other unwanted part of the user's body), the image 410 can be later processed, such as reporting location information or other output signals. Can be avoided.

  [0043] In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the two axes 404, 406 are part of the modulated electrode 112, or are arranged in two generally orthogonal directions, as in FIG. 1B, Almost compatible with related channels. However, in other embodiments, any number of electrodes 112 may be overlapping, non-overlapping, arranged in a matrix or other configuration. An example of a sensor 500 having overlapping electrodes 112A-G arranged in two dimensions is shown in FIG. In such an embodiment, the electrical effect on the receive channel is effectively measured independently at each intersection of the two direction electrodes (eg, the X and Y directions are on the axes 404, 406 of the contour plot 400). As such, the controller 102 correlates the results to provide a two-dimensional representation or image of the object 121 rather than two two-dimensional “silhouettes” such as 404 and 406. In such a case, the electrodes arranged in the first direction (for example, the electrodes 112A to 112C) are modulated at a different time from the electrodes arranged in the second direction (for example, the electrodes 112D to 112G). One or more received signals 116 from any pair of electrodes (eg, electrodes 112D and F) are provided to demodulator 117 via multiplexer 502. FIG. 5 shows that various electrodes 112A-G are coupled to modulator 107 and demodulator 117 via multiplexer 502. FIG. The multiplexer may also connect one or more of the electrodes to the receiving circuit 115 before demodulation. In practice, each electrode can be connected in any manner such that a signal is applied to one subset of electrodes 112 and received on the other subset.

  [0044] In various embodiments, separate result signals 116 may be provided to two or more electrodes (eg, corresponding to channel 113 described above) that function as receiving channels. In addition, undriven or unused electrodes (such as 112E and G) are coupled to an electrical reference (such as ground) or driven by a modulated signal to improve the spatial resolution of the receiving channel being driven. Can be done. This reference is generally called a shield signal or a protection signal, and can be applied via the multiplexing logic 502 or the like.

  [0045] Digital encoding processing and other wideband spectrum techniques are equally applicable to sensors that function in any number of different ways. FIG. 6A shows an exemplary sensor 600 comprising, for example, any number of modulated electrodes 112A-B arranged in one or more dimensions, which linearly transfers the charge transferred by the modulated electrodes. Is coupled to a capacitive filter (such as an integrating capacitor 610). A microcontroller 102/104 or the like suitably generates a separate digital code 106 that modulates 112A-B coupled to electrode 114 as described above. However, in this example, the digital code 106 does not necessarily encode the voltage supplied to each electrode 112A-B, but controls the timing of the charge transferred to 114. The amount of charge provided by each electrode 112A-B is determined from demodulated signal 118 by controlling the charge and discharge timing of each electrode and then checking the amount of charge collected from 114 to integrating capacitor 610. can do. Charging of each electrode 112A-B is controlled by selecting the digital code 106 so that a voltage is applied to each electrode only when charge is to be transferred to the receiving electrode 114, and otherwise it is floated. be able to. By selectively supplying charge from individual electrodes 112A-B and / or sets thereof to capacitor 610, the amount of coupling from each electrode 112A-B (which is affected by the proximity of object 121) is determined. be able to.

  [0046] FIG. 6B shows another embodiment having an exemplary sensor with sensing and driving integrated at each electrode 112 and filtered or demodulated by one or more capacitors 610. FIG. Reference numeral 106 modulates drive circuit 109, which can be implemented as a current source connected to electrode 112. The response of the electrode to the drive circuit is affected by the coupling of the object 121 near the electrode, and the resulting signal (such as the voltage produced by the coupling) is filtered and / or demodulated by the circuit 604 and the capacitor 610. The filtered signal is further demodulated to determine the position attribute of the object. Furthermore, multiple electrodes can be driven simultaneously by substantially orthogonal codes, and after demodulation, stable coupling of electrode 112A to another electrode 112B can be substantially offset. These position detection methods, and many other position detection methods, benefit from digital encoding processing and wideband spectrum technology.

  [0047] Referring now to FIG. 7, various sensors 700 formed in accordance with the encoding techniques described herein may be formed on a single circuit board or other substrate 702. In such an embodiment, the electrodes 112A-G forming the sensing region 101 may be disposed on one side of the substrate and a processing element (eg, controller 102, etc.) may be formed on the opposite side. In various sensors (such as the sensors 100 and 500 shown in FIGS. 1 and 5), it is not necessary to physically move the detection electrode and the reception electrodes 112 and 114 to each other. It may be firmly fixed in any way above. The substrate 702 can be formed of a flexible material so that it can be folded or bent. In addition, a protective surface 704 can be deposited or otherwise provided on the electrodes to provide stable isolation and protection from moisture, dirt, and other environmental effects. Surface 704 may suitably provide tactile feedback to the user. FIG. 8 shows an exemplary sensor 800 suitably formed on the flexible substrate 802. FIG. 8 shows that the various processing elements are on the same surface of the modulated and sensing electrodes and the substrate 802, and the substrate 802 can provide haptic feedback to the region 101. It should be understood that the various concepts, structures, components, and techniques described herein may be combined with one another or modified as appropriate to create various other embodiments.

[0048] Accordingly, numerous systems, devices and processes are provided for detecting attributes based on the position of a finger, stylus or other object with a position sensing device such as a touchpad. While at least one exemplary embodiment has been presented in the foregoing detailed description, it should be appreciated that a vast number of variations exist. For example, the various steps of the techniques described herein may be performed in any temporal order and are not limited to the order presented and / or claimed herein. It should also be understood that the exemplary embodiments described herein are examples only and are not intended to limit the scope, applicability, or configuration of the invention in any way. Thus, various functions and configurations of the various elements may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims and the legal equivalents thereof.

Claims (6)

  1. A position sensor controller,
    A drive circuit for transmitting a first signal by a first transmission electrode and simultaneously transmitting a second signal by a second transmission electrode, wherein the first signal and the second signal are separate digital A drive circuit that is a separate signal based on a sign;
    A receiving circuit for receiving an electrical effect by at least one receiving electrode;
    With
    The electrical effect is associated with the first signal and the second signal, and the first transmission electrode, the second transmission electrode, and the at least one reception electrode are within a detection region of the position sensor. The controller determines an attribute based on a position of at least one input object in the detection area based on the electrical effect.
  2.   The controller of claim 1, wherein the distinct digital codes are mathematically independent.
  3.   The controller of claim 1, wherein the separate digital code comprises one of a Gold code, a scissors code, a Barker code, a Walsh Hadamard code, and a pseudo-random digital code.
  4.   The controller of claim 1 or 2, wherein at least one of the separate digital codes is adjusted based on the electrical effect.
  5. The drive circuit is
    Amplitude modulating a carrier signal in response to the separate digital code;
    Frequency modulating a carrier signal in accordance with the separate digital code;
    Phase modulating a carrier signal in response to the separate digital code;
    The controller according to claim 1, wherein the first signal is transmitted by the first transmission electrode and at the same time the second signal is transmitted by the second transmission electrode.
  6. A plurality of transmission electrodes arranged in a first direction;
    A plurality of receiving electrodes arranged in a second direction, wherein the first direction is substantially orthogonal to the second direction;
    A controller coupled to the plurality of transmit electrodes and the plurality of receive electrodes, the controller comprising:
    The first signal is transmitted by the first transmission electrode of the plurality of transmission electrodes, and at the same time, the second signal is transmitted by the second transmission electrode of the plurality of transmission electrodes, and the first signal and the first The two signals are separate signals based on separate digital codes;
    Receiving an electrical effect associated with the first signal and the second signal by at least one receiving electrode of the plurality of receiving electrodes;
    A controller for determining an attribute based on a position of at least one input object based on the electrical effect;
    A position sensor.
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