JP2013200284A - Earthquake detection device - Google Patents

Earthquake detection device Download PDF

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JP2013200284A
JP2013200284A JP2012070241A JP2012070241A JP2013200284A JP 2013200284 A JP2013200284 A JP 2013200284A JP 2012070241 A JP2012070241 A JP 2012070241A JP 2012070241 A JP2012070241 A JP 2012070241A JP 2013200284 A JP2013200284 A JP 2013200284A
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earthquake
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Keiichi Okada
敬一 岡田
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Shimizu Construction Co Ltd
Shimizu Corp
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Shimizu Corp
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PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an earthquake detection device which is capable of determining the magnitude of earthquake vibration in a short time at a low cost by a simple method.SOLUTION: The earthquake detection device is configured to include: an accelerometer which measures three components of a perpendicular component and two horizontal components of each of an acceleration and a velocity of ground motion; recording means which records measurement values of the accelerometer; effective value calculation means which calculates an effective value in a preliminarily set time interval with respect to each component of the acceleration and the velocity; RI calculation means which obtains a real-time seismic intensity on the basis of effective values; and hypocentral distance estimation means which obtains waveforms of a P wave and an S wave of the ground motion on the basis of the effective values and estimates a hypocentral distance in accordance with the difference in arrival time between the P wave and the S wave.

Description

本発明は、地震検知装置に関する。   The present invention relates to an earthquake detection device.

従来、地震の揺れを検知するセンサとして地震計が用いられている。また、一般に、地震計は、地震動の加速度を計測し、この加速度の計測値から地震の揺れの大きさを算出して記録するものである。ここで、加速度の計測値から計算できる指標としては、地震動の最大加速度、最大速度、計測震度、SI値(Spectral Intensity)、リアルタイム震度(RI)などがあり、これらの指標を活用することで、地震による構造物の被害、機器の安全停止など、災害時における緊急な判断、設備機器の制御等を行なうことができる(例えば、特許文献1、特許文献2参照)。   Conventionally, seismometers have been used as sensors for detecting earthquake shaking. In general, a seismometer measures the acceleration of seismic motion and calculates and records the magnitude of the earthquake shake from the measured value of the acceleration. Here, the index that can be calculated from the measured value of acceleration includes the maximum acceleration, maximum velocity, measured seismic intensity, SI value (Spectral Intensity), real-time seismic intensity (RI), etc., by utilizing these indices, It is possible to make urgent judgments at the time of disaster, control of equipment and the like, such as damage to structures due to earthquakes and safe stop of equipment (see, for example, Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2).

また、一般に、地震動の初動であるP波、激しい揺れを引き起こす主要動のS波を検知して揺れが地震によるものと判断した上で、上記指標を活用するようにしている。例えば、このような地震動を検知する装置としては、簡単な装置として感震器があり、感震器では、ある加速度で機械的に物が動き、この物が接触してスイッチが入ることによって地震相当の揺れであることを検知することができる。また、高度化された地震検知装置では、加速度計の出力をデジタル化(A/D変換)して記録するとともに、そのデータから演算によって各種制御指標を求めることができる。そして、この指標に基づいて緊急な判断、設備機器の制御等を行なうことができる。   In general, the above index is used after detecting the P wave, which is the initial motion of the earthquake motion, and the S wave of the main motion that causes severe shaking, and judging that the shaking is caused by the earthquake. For example, as a device for detecting such a seismic motion, there is a seismic device as a simple device. In the seismic device, an object moves mechanically at a certain acceleration, and the object touches and switches on. It can be detected that the vibration is considerable. Further, in the advanced earthquake detection apparatus, the output of the accelerometer can be digitized (A / D conversion) and recorded, and various control indices can be obtained by calculation from the data. And based on this index, urgent judgment, control of equipment, etc. can be performed.

また、近年、P波オンサイト警報装置として、地震初動のP波の立ち上がりから地震の規模やS波の到来時間を予測するナウキャスト地震計が開発され、気象庁の緊急地震速報を発信するリアルタイム地震防災システムとしての活用が進められている。   In recent years, as a P-wave on-site warning device, a Nowcast seismometer that predicts the magnitude of the earthquake and the arrival time of the S-wave from the rise of the initial P-wave has been developed. Utilization as a disaster prevention system is being promoted.

特開2005−195366号公報JP 2005-195366 A 特開2009−115629号公報JP 2009-115629 A

ところで、上記のような地震検知の情報判断の正確性が求められる高度な装置は、一般にコストが非常に高くなる。このため、コストを抑え簡便な方法で、且つ短時間に地震の揺れの大きさを判断できるようにすることが強く求められている。すなわち、地震を検知する地震検知装置に処理判断アルゴリズムを追加し、高度な地震の揺れの検知と情報制御に利用できるようにして、より高度な防災システムを構築することが必要とされている。   By the way, in general, an advanced apparatus that requires accuracy of information determination for earthquake detection as described above is very expensive. For this reason, there is a strong demand to be able to judge the magnitude of earthquake shaking in a short time and in a simple manner. That is, it is necessary to construct a more advanced disaster prevention system by adding a processing judgment algorithm to an earthquake detection device that detects an earthquake so that it can be used for advanced earthquake shake detection and information control.

本発明は、上記事情に鑑み、コストを抑え簡便な方法で且つ短時間に地震の揺れの大きさの判断を可能にする地震検知装置を提供することを目的とする。   In view of the circumstances described above, an object of the present invention is to provide an earthquake detection device that can determine the magnitude of an earthquake shake in a short time and in a simple manner.

上記の目的を達するために、この発明は以下の手段を提供している。   In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides the following means.

本発明の地震検知装置は、地震動の加速度の鉛直成分及び水平2成分の3成分をそれぞれ計測する加速度計と、前記加速度計の計測値を記録する記録手段と、前記加速度と前記加速度から求めた速度の各成分について、予め設定した時間間隔での実効値を算出する実効値算出手段と、前記実効値を基に、リアルタイム震度を求めるRI算出手段と、前記実効値を基に、前記地震動のP波とS波の波形を求め、前記P波と前記S波の到来する時間差から震源距離を推定する震源距離推定手段とを備えて構成されていることを特徴とする。   The earthquake detection apparatus of the present invention is obtained from an accelerometer that measures three components of vertical and horizontal two components of acceleration of seismic motion, a recording unit that records a measured value of the accelerometer, and the acceleration and the acceleration. For each component of the velocity, an effective value calculating means for calculating an effective value at a preset time interval, an RI calculating means for obtaining a real-time seismic intensity based on the effective value, and the seismic motion based on the effective value. It is characterized by comprising a source distance estimating means for obtaining the P wave and S wave waveforms and estimating the epicenter distance from the time difference between the arrival of the P wave and the S wave.

また、本発明の地震検知装置においては、前記RI算出手段で求めたリアルタイム震度と、前記震源距離推定手段で求めた震源距離とを判断指標とし、該判断指標に基づいて各種機器の制御を行なう制御手段を備えていることが望ましい。   In the earthquake detection apparatus of the present invention, the real-time seismic intensity obtained by the RI calculating means and the epicenter distance obtained by the epicenter distance estimating means are used as judgment indices, and various devices are controlled based on the judgment indices. It is desirable to have a control means.

本発明の地震検知装置によれば、地震の揺れからP波とS波の到来検知をすることで、地震の震源距離を推測することができる。これにより、長周期地震動の発生を判断することができる。   According to the earthquake detection device of the present invention, the epicenter distance of an earthquake can be estimated by detecting the arrival of P waves and S waves from the shaking of the earthquake. Thereby, generation | occurrence | production of a long period ground motion can be judged.

また、長周期地震動の発生の判断と、地震の揺れの強さを表すリアルタイム震度(RI値)とを合わせた状態判断を行なうことで、建物での真に危険となる状態を判断することができる。   In addition, it is possible to determine a truly dangerous state in a building by performing a state determination that combines the determination of the occurrence of long-period ground motion and the real-time seismic intensity (RI value) representing the strength of the earthquake. it can.

さらに、地震の揺れの強さを表すリアルタイム震度により、建物の揺れ変化を判断し、適切な情報制御を行なうことができる。   Furthermore, it is possible to judge the change in the shaking of the building based on the real-time seismic intensity representing the strength of the shaking of the earthquake and perform appropriate information control.

また、建物での揺れの収束状況を事前に判断することで、何時まで揺れが続くのかの情報制御を行なうことができる。   Further, by determining in advance the state of convergence of shaking in the building, it is possible to control information on how long the shaking will continue.

本発明の一実施形態に係る地震検知装置(地震検知システム)を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the earthquake detection apparatus (earthquake detection system) which concerns on one Embodiment of this invention. 地震検知・判断のためのアルゴリズムを示す図である。It is a figure which shows the algorithm for an earthquake detection and judgment. 1秒間隔で計算された各成分の加速度波形の絶対値の最大値と実効値を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the maximum value and effective value of the absolute value of the acceleration waveform of each component calculated at 1 second intervals. 1秒間隔で計算された加速度、速度のベクトル波形の最大値の変化と、リアルタイム震度(RI値)を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the change of the maximum value of the vector waveform of an acceleration and a velocity calculated at 1 second intervals, and a real-time seismic intensity (RI value). 1秒間隔で計算された各種のパラメータ値の変化と、P波、S波の検知時間を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the change time of various parameter values calculated at 1 second intervals, and the detection time of P wave and S wave.

以下、図1から図5を参照し、本発明の一実施形態に係る地震検知装置(地震検知システム)について説明する。   Hereinafter, an earthquake detection apparatus (earthquake detection system) according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

本実施形態の地震検知装置Aは、図1に示すように、地震動の加速度、速度の鉛直成分及び水平2成分の3成分をそれぞれ計測する加速度計1と、加速度計1の計測値を記録する記録手段2と、加速度と速度の各成分について、予め設定した時間間隔での実効値を算出する実効値算出手段3と、実効値を基に、リアルタイム震度(RI値)を求めるRI算出手段4と、実効値を基に、地震動のP波とS波の波形を求め、P波とS波の到来する時間差から震源距離を推定する震源距離推定手段5と、リアルタイム震度と震源距離とを判断指標とし、この判断指標に基づいて各種機器の制御を行なう制御手段6とを備えて構成されている。   As shown in FIG. 1, the earthquake detection device A of the present embodiment records an acceleration meter 1 that measures three components of acceleration of earthquake motion, vertical component of velocity, and two horizontal components, and measurement values of the accelerometer 1. The recording means 2, the effective value calculating means 3 for calculating the effective value at a preset time interval for each component of acceleration and velocity, and the RI calculating means 4 for obtaining the real time seismic intensity (RI value) based on the effective value. Based on the effective value, the P wave and S wave waveforms of the ground motion are obtained, the source distance estimating means 5 for estimating the source distance from the time difference between the arrival of the P wave and the S wave, and the real time seismic intensity and the source distance are determined. The control means 6 is used as an index, and controls various devices based on the determination index.

また、本実施形態の地震検知装置Aは、少なくとも建物Tの最上階にXYZの3成分計測型の加速度計1を設置し、その出力から地震を検知して記録する装置であり、地震の揺れ状態を検知して状況を判断するアルゴリズムを簡便にして構成したものである。   In addition, the earthquake detection apparatus A of the present embodiment is an apparatus that installs an XYZ three-component measurement type accelerometer 1 on at least the top floor of a building T, detects an earthquake from its output, and records the earthquake. This is a simple algorithm for detecting the state and judging the situation.

そして、この地震検知装置Aにおいては、震源距離推定手段5で求められるP波とS波の検知時間差から地震発生地域が近距離、遠距離であるかを推定することにより、地震動が長周期地震動であるか否かを判断する。また、揺れの強さを判断するリアルタイム震度から、建物Tでの応答低減時間を推測し、揺れが長い時間続くか否かを推測する。さらに、このような検知判断の情報(判断指標)を時系列に求め、制御手段6が、この判断指標を基にして制御出力することで非常放送設備などと連動させて防災情報を出すことが可能になる。これにより、地震の揺れが危険か否かを極めて短時間で判断し、設備・情報の機器を制御することができる。   In this earthquake detection device A, the earthquake motion is detected as a long-period ground motion by estimating whether the earthquake occurrence area is a short distance or a long distance from the difference in detection time between the P wave and the S wave obtained by the epicenter distance estimation means 5. It is determined whether or not. Moreover, the response reduction time in the building T is estimated from the real-time seismic intensity that determines the strength of the shaking, and it is estimated whether or not the shaking continues for a long time. Further, such detection determination information (determination index) is obtained in time series, and the control means 6 outputs control information based on the determination index to output disaster prevention information in conjunction with emergency broadcasting equipment. It becomes possible. This makes it possible to determine whether or not an earthquake shake is dangerous in a very short time, and to control equipment / information equipment.

より具体的に、図2、及び実際の地震において1秒間隔で計算して判断されるパラメータの変化を示した図3から図5を参照し、本実施形態の地震検知装置Aによる地震検知・判断のためのアルゴリズムを説明する。まず、図2及び図3、図4、図5に示すように、加速度計1によって微小時間間隔△tで計測した情報を基に各成分の加速度波形を求め、さらに、その加速度波形を数値積分(単純時間積分)して速度波形を求める。そして、実効値算出手段3によって、水平2成分のベクトル値及び3成分のベクトル値について例えば1秒間間隔での実効値(RMS:二乗平均平方根)を求め、この実効値の情報を基に、判断指標の計算を行なう。   More specifically, referring to FIG. 2 and FIGS. 3 to 5 showing changes in parameters calculated and determined at intervals of 1 second in an actual earthquake, the earthquake detection and detection by the earthquake detection device A of the present embodiment will be described. An algorithm for determination will be described. First, as shown in FIGS. 2, 3, 4, and 5, an acceleration waveform of each component is obtained based on information measured by the accelerometer 1 at a minute time interval Δt, and the acceleration waveform is numerically integrated. (Simple time integration) to find the velocity waveform. Then, the effective value calculation means 3 obtains, for example, effective values (RMS: root mean square) at intervals of one second for the horizontal two-component vector values and the three-component vector values, and makes a determination based on the information on the effective values. Calculate the index.

本実施形態では、判断指標として、まず、式(1)を用い、加速度、速度の3成分のベクトル最大値の内積からRI値を求め、このRI値から揺れの強さを求める。なお、RI値を求める式(1)は、「翠川、「計測震度と旧気象庁震度および地震動強さの指標との関係」、地域安全学会論文集、1999」に掲載されている。   In the present embodiment, first, using the equation (1) as a determination index, an RI value is obtained from the inner product of the vector maximum values of the three components of acceleration and velocity, and the intensity of shaking is obtained from this RI value. The equation (1) for obtaining the RI value is published in “Yodogawa,“ Relationship between measured seismic intensity and former Meteorological Agency seismic intensity and seismic intensity index ”, Proceedings of the Regional Safety Association, 1999”.

次に、鉛直成分と水平2成分のベクトル値の実効値の比を求め、鉛直成分の実効値の1秒間変化量(1秒前との差)から地震動の初動であるP波及び主要動のS波を求める。   Next, the ratio of the effective value of the vector value of the vertical component and the horizontal two components is obtained, and the P wave that is the initial motion of the seismic motion and the main motion from the amount of change in the effective value of the vertical component for 1 second (difference from the previous one) Find the S wave.

次に、式(2)を用い、ここで求めたP波とS波の到来の時間差から震源距離dを推定する。   Next, using equation (2), the epicenter distance d is estimated from the time difference between the arrival of the P wave and the S wave obtained here.

なお、この震源距離dを求める式(2)は、地震で初期微動継続時間から震源距離(観測地点から震源までの距離)を求めるための大森公式と呼ばれるものである。この大森公式では、P波の到達にかかった時間t、S波の到達にかかった時間tとの差を初期微動継続時間tとして震源距離dを計算する。また、比例係数kは、大森係数と呼ばれ、地盤のP波の速度VとS波の速度Vから求め、通常、6〜8km/秒である。 The equation (2) for obtaining the epicenter distance d is called the Omori formula for obtaining the epicenter distance (distance from the observation point to the epicenter) from the initial tremor duration in the earthquake. The Omori official calculates the focal distance d time t p taken to reach the P-wave, the difference between the time taken to reach the S-wave t s as the initial fine movement continuation time t. Further, the proportional coefficient k is called the Omori coefficients, determined from the speed V p and the S-wave velocity V s of P-wave of the ground, which is usually, 6~8Km / sec.

そして、この震源距離dが200km以上と判断された場合には、長周期地震動が到来すると判断する。さらに、P波として判断された時点でのRI値が3以上(震度で3程度)では、強い揺れが長く続くと判断する。   And when this epicenter distance d is determined to be 200 km or more, it is determined that a long-period ground motion comes. Furthermore, when the RI value at the time point determined as the P wave is 3 or more (seismic intensity of about 3), it is determined that strong shaking continues for a long time.

次に、上記では、建物Tの最上階に設置した加速度計1のみで判断を行なうように説明をした。これに対し、図1に示すように、建物Tの基礎部においても同様の加速度計1を設置して地震検知を同時に観測した場合においては、建物Tに入力される地震動の揺れの終わりが判断できる。すなわち、超高層建物Tでは、地震動の揺れが収まっても、なお、建物Tの応答が長く続くことが懸念されている。そうした揺れが何時まで続くのか、揺れが収まる時間を判断することが必要になる。   Next, in the above description, it has been described that the determination is made only with the accelerometer 1 installed on the top floor of the building T. On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 1, when the same accelerometer 1 is installed at the base of the building T and the earthquake detection is observed at the same time, the end of the shaking of the ground motion input to the building T is determined. it can. That is, in the super high-rise building T, there is a concern that the response of the building T will continue for a long time even if the shaking of the earthquake motion is settled. It is necessary to judge how long the shaking will last and how long the shaking will stop.

そして、ここでは、建物Tの揺れが収まる時間の判断を建物の固有周期と減衰定数を用いた式(3)の自由振動波形減衰式から推測する。固有周期は、建物Tの階数から推定する簡便式(階数×0.1(s))で求め、減衰定数は、鉄骨造で0.01を適用する。そして、振幅が1ガルRMSを下回る時間を求め、地震の揺れが収束する時間の予想を情報発信して機器制御を行なう。   And here, judgment of the time when the shaking of the building T is settled is estimated from the free vibration waveform attenuation formula of the formula (3) using the natural period of the building and the damping constant. The natural period is obtained by a simple formula (floor × 0.1 (s)) estimated from the floor of the building T, and the attenuation constant is 0.01 for steel structure. Then, the time when the amplitude is less than 1 gal RMS is obtained, and information on the expected time for the earthquake to converge is transmitted to control the equipment.

なお、Aは初期振幅、Tは建物の固有周期、hは減衰定数を表し、この式(3)によってt秒後における自由振動波形の振幅レベル以下になる振幅の時間が求まる。   A represents the initial amplitude, T represents the natural period of the building, h represents the attenuation constant, and the time of the amplitude that is equal to or lower than the amplitude level of the free vibration waveform after t seconds is obtained by this equation (3).

したがって、本実施形態の地震検知装置においては、建物Tに加速度計1を設置して、地震を検知するとともに、その記録を簡便な方法でリアルタイム処理することで、次のような地震揺れ状態の検知制御が可能になる。   Therefore, in the earthquake detection device of the present embodiment, the accelerometer 1 is installed in the building T to detect the earthquake, and the recording is processed in real time by a simple method, so that the following earthquake shaking state can be obtained. Detection control becomes possible.

地震の揺れからP波とS波の到来検知をすることで、地震の震源距離を推測することができる。これにより、長周期地震動の発生を判断することができる。   By detecting the arrival of the P wave and S wave from the shaking of the earthquake, the epicenter distance of the earthquake can be estimated. Thereby, generation | occurrence | production of a long period ground motion can be judged.

また、長周期地震動の発生の判断と、地震の揺れの強さを表すRI値とを合わせた状態判断を行なうことで、建物Tでの真に危険となる状態を判断することができる。   Further, it is possible to determine a truly dangerous state in the building T by performing a state determination that combines the determination of the occurrence of long-period ground motion and the RI value representing the strength of the earthquake shake.

さらに、地震の揺れの強さを表すRI値により、建物Tの揺れ変化を判断し、適切な情報制御を行なうことができる。   Furthermore, it is possible to determine the change in the shaking of the building T based on the RI value representing the strength of the earthquake and to perform appropriate information control.

また、建物Tでの揺れの収束状況を事前に判断することで、何時まで揺れが続くのかの情報制御を行なうことができる。   Further, by determining in advance the state of convergence of shaking in the building T, it is possible to control information on how long the shaking will continue.

以上、本発明に係る地震検知装置の一実施形態について説明したが、本発明は上記の実施形態に限定されるものではなく、その趣旨を逸脱しない範囲で適宜変更可能である。   As mentioned above, although one Embodiment of the earthquake detection apparatus concerning this invention was described, this invention is not limited to said embodiment, It can change suitably in the range which does not deviate from the meaning.

1 加速度計
2 記録手段
3 実効値算出手段
4 RI算出手段
5 震源距離推定手段
6 制御手段
A 地震検知装置
T 建物
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Accelerometer 2 Recording means 3 Effective value calculation means 4 RI calculation means 5 Epicenter distance estimation means 6 Control means A Earthquake detection device T Building

Claims (2)

地震動の加速度の鉛直成分及び水平2成分の3成分をそれぞれ計測する加速度計と、
前記加速度計の計測値を記録する記録手段と、
前記加速度と前記加速度から求めた速度の各成分について、予め設定した時間間隔での実効値を算出する実効値算出手段と、
前記実効値を基に、リアルタイム震度を求めるRI算出手段と、
前記実効値を基に、前記地震動のP波とS波の波形を求め、前記P波と前記S波の到来する時間差から震源距離を推定する震源距離推定手段とを備えて構成されていることを特徴とする地震検知装置。
An accelerometer that measures three components of vertical and horizontal two components of acceleration of seismic motion,
Recording means for recording the measured value of the accelerometer;
Effective value calculation means for calculating an effective value at a preset time interval for each component of the acceleration and the velocity obtained from the acceleration;
RI calculating means for obtaining a real-time seismic intensity based on the effective value;
Based on the effective value, it is configured to include a source distance estimation unit that obtains waveforms of the P wave and S wave of the ground motion and estimates a source distance from a time difference between the arrival of the P wave and the S wave. An earthquake detection device characterized by
請求項1記載の地震検知装置において、
前記RI算出手段で求めたリアルタイム震度と、前記震源距離推定手段で求めた震源距離とを判断指標とし、該判断指標に基づいて各種機器の制御を行なう制御手段を備えていることを特徴とする地震検知装置。
The earthquake detection device according to claim 1,
And a control means for controlling various devices based on the determination index of the real-time seismic intensity obtained by the RI calculation means and the epicenter distance obtained by the epicenter distance estimation means. Earthquake detection device.
JP2012070241A 2012-03-26 2012-03-26 Earthquake detection device Pending JP2013200284A (en)

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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016197013A (en) * 2015-04-02 2016-11-24 アズビル株式会社 Building damage intensity estimating system and method
WO2017159076A1 (en) * 2016-03-14 2017-09-21 オムロン株式会社 Seismic sensor and earthquake detection method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS6215482A (en) * 1985-07-15 1987-01-23 Japanese National Railways<Jnr> Hypocentral distance calculating device
JPH06324160A (en) * 1993-01-12 1994-11-25 Kajima Corp Seismic intensity forecasting system
JP2000249772A (en) * 1999-03-03 2000-09-14 Yamatake Corp Vibration detecting device and earthquake detecting system with it

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS6215482A (en) * 1985-07-15 1987-01-23 Japanese National Railways<Jnr> Hypocentral distance calculating device
JPH06324160A (en) * 1993-01-12 1994-11-25 Kajima Corp Seismic intensity forecasting system
JP2000249772A (en) * 1999-03-03 2000-09-14 Yamatake Corp Vibration detecting device and earthquake detecting system with it

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016197013A (en) * 2015-04-02 2016-11-24 アズビル株式会社 Building damage intensity estimating system and method
WO2017159076A1 (en) * 2016-03-14 2017-09-21 オムロン株式会社 Seismic sensor and earthquake detection method

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