JP2013164062A - Geothermal heat exchanger and geothermal power generation device - Google Patents

Geothermal heat exchanger and geothermal power generation device Download PDF

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JP2013164062A
JP2013164062A JP2012210413A JP2012210413A JP2013164062A JP 2013164062 A JP2013164062 A JP 2013164062A JP 2012210413 A JP2012210413 A JP 2012210413A JP 2012210413 A JP2012210413 A JP 2012210413A JP 2013164062 A JP2013164062 A JP 2013164062A
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hot water
pipe
geothermal
injection pipe
water injection
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JP2013164062A5 (en
JP5917352B2 (en
Inventor
Chitose Tawara
千年生 田原
Takehiko Yokomine
健彦 横峯
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Kyushu Power Service:Kk
株式会社九州パワーサービス
Kyoto Univ
国立大学法人京都大学
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24TGEOTHERMAL COLLECTORS; GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS
    • F24T10/00Geothermal collectors
    • F24T10/10Geothermal collectors with circulation of working fluids through underground channels, the working fluids not coming into direct contact with the ground
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/10Geothermal energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P80/00Climate change mitigation technologies for sector-wide applications
    • Y02P80/10Efficient use of energy, e.g. using compressed air or pressurized fluid as energy carrier
    • Y02P80/15On-site combined power, heat or cool generation or distribution, e.g. combined heat and power [CHP] supply

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a geothermal heat exchanger and a geothermal power generation device that can obtain steam from high temperature and high pressure hot water extracted from underground without adhesion of impurities to the device due to the steam in use, thereby allowing large capacity and thermally efficient heat exchange, without adversely affecting the environment in the vicinity of a geothermal field.SOLUTION: A geothermal heat exchanger 1 includes: a pressurized water injection pipe 11 to which pressurized process water supplied by means of a high pressure water supply pump 17; and a hot water extraction pipe 12 for sending up hot water generated through supply of heat from a geothermal field 10 to the process water descending within the pressurized water injection pipe 11 to the geothermal field 10, without steam contained in the hot water, wherein the hot water extracted from the hot water extraction pipe 12 is sent to a steam generator 21, and extracted as steam, only within the steam generator 21. The pressurized water injection pipe 11 is placed on an outer peripheral side of the hot water extraction pipe 12, and is constructed such that the hot water is transferred to the hot water extraction pipe 12 through introduction holes 15 provided in the lower part of the pressurized water injection pipe 11.

Description

  The present invention relates to a geothermal exchanger that performs heat exchange using the geotropics as a heat source without taking out natural steam existing in the geotropics as it is, and a geothermal power generation apparatus that generates power using the geothermal exchanger.

  Methods that use geothermal energy, such as geothermal power generation, use the high-temperature magma layer of the earth as the heat source, can use semi-permanent thermal energy, and generate greenhouse gases during the power generation process. In recent years, it has been attracting attention as an alternative to power generation that relies on fossil fuels. In addition, due to the accident at the nuclear power plant, Japan's energy policy, which relied heavily on nuclear power, has been reevaluated from the ground up. From this viewpoint, there is a strong demand for energy acquisition means that do not damage the natural environment. Yes.

  In conventional geothermal power generation, the geotropics are bored, natural steam that exists in the geotropics is extracted using natural pressure, and it is used by separating it from steam and water. Contains a large amount of peculiar sulfur and other impurities. These impurities become scales and adhere to heat wells, piping, turbine blades, and the like. If the scale adheres, the power generation output decreases over time, making long-term use difficult. In order to solve the problem due to this scale, Patent Document 1, Patent Document 2, Patent Document 3, and Patent Document 4 describe examples of techniques that employ a method of sending water from the ground and heating it to take it out. An invention by the present inventor is described in Patent Document 5.

JP-A-9-112407 Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 57-12571 JP 2000-161198 A JP-A-49-103122 JP 2011-52621 A

  In the invention described in Patent Document 1, a fluid having an arbitrary temperature introduced from the leading edge of the heat exchange unit is mixed with steam and hot water by geothermal heat in the heat exchange unit placed in the ground, that is, a gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this state, it is taken out at the rear end of the heat exchange section.

  In addition, the invention described in Patent Document 2 introduces water into a pipe inserted underground, so that it becomes steam by geothermal heat in the ground, and the steam is separated into liquid by a gas-liquid separator. It is transported to a turbine and a condenser.

  However, Patent Literature 1 and Patent Literature 2 do not describe pressurizing means for pressurizing water sent to the underground. Moreover, although patent document 3 and patent document 4 have description about a pressurization means, in order to obtain the driving force for the water supply pressurization apparatus in patent document 3 and patent document 4 to introduce water into the underground from the ground It is clearly stated that steam is taken out from the basement. Therefore, what is taken out by any method is a gas-liquid two-phase flow state containing hot water and steam, so it is indispensable to separate the steam and water in order to separate the steam and extract only the steam. is there.

Patent Document 5 filed by the present inventor includes a pressurized water injection pipe and a hot water extraction pipe, the pressurized water injection pipe is disposed inside the hot water extraction pipe, and the heated treated water is released from the pressurized water. A geothermal power generation apparatus having a structure that moves to the hot water outlet pipe through the lower end of the injection pipe is described. However, according to this structure, since the pressurized water injection pipe is disposed inside the hot water extraction pipe, there is a problem that the pressurized water injection pipe hardly receives heat from the earth.
As a result of subsequent studies, the present inventor has conducted a conventional method of taking out underground hot water, or generating steam in an underground heat exchanger and taking it out to the ground as a gas-liquid two-phase flow. Through this process, the problems in the system of introducing steam into the turbine have been solved, leading to the invention of a geothermal exchanger and a geothermal power generator capable of acquiring energy more efficiently.

  The present invention has been made in order to solve the above-described problems, and since impurities are not attached to the apparatus by the steam used, the steam is obtained from high-temperature and high-pressure hot water taken out from the underground. An object of the present invention is to provide a geothermal exchanger and a geothermal power generation apparatus that can perform heat exchange with high capacity and excellent thermal efficiency and do not adversely affect the environment near the geotropics.

  In order to solve the above-described problems, the geothermal exchanger of the present invention is a pressurized water injection pipe to which treated water pressurized by a high-pressure feed water pump is supplied, and treated water that descends to the geotropics in the pressurized water injection pipe. On the other hand, a hot water extraction pipe that rises in a state in which the hot water generated by supplying heat from the earth and the tropics does not contain steam, and the hot water extracted from the hot water extraction pipe is a steam generator In which the pressurized water injection pipe is arranged on the outer peripheral side of the hot water outlet pipe, and the hot water is supplied to the pressurized water injection pipe. It has the structure which moves to the said hot-water extraction pipe | tube through a lower part, It is characterized by the above-mentioned.

  Treated water pressurized by a high-pressure feed pump is supplied to the pressurized water injection pipe, and the treated water descends through the pressurized water injection pipe to reach the earth tropics, so that heat is supplied from the earth to the treated water. When hot water is generated, and this hot water is taken out to the ground and turned into steam by a steam generator, the steam does not contain impurities, and natural steam that exists in the earth tropics is used directly As described above, since the scale does not adhere to the turbine or piping, it is not necessary to remove the scale, and maintenance is easy. In addition, it is possible to prevent vibration due to vapor blockage and flow instability generated in the pipe by the gas-liquid two-phase flow, which is advantageous from the viewpoint of safety during operation.

Also, until the hot water is sent to the steam generator placed on the ground, the hot water is extracted from the hot water up to the ground surface without containing steam. Compared to the case of taking out as a water-mixed two-phase flow, the energy efficiency is high.
Furthermore, since the pressurized water injection pipe is arranged on the outer peripheral side of the hot water outlet pipe, the pressurized water injection pipe is easy to receive heat from the tropics, and the water injected into the pressurized water injection pipe can be efficiently brought to a high temperature state. it can.

  In the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, in the section from the surface side to the middle of the geotropics, an intermediate layer is provided between the pressurized water injection pipe and the hot water extraction pipe, so that the side closer to the geotropy It is preferable that it is a triple pipe structure which consists of the said pressurized water injection pipe | tube, the said intermediate | middle layer, and the said hot water extraction pipe in order from the said, and it is preferable that the said intermediate | middle layer is a gas layer or a heat insulating material filling layer.

  By providing such an intermediate layer, heat conduction from the hot water outlet pipe where hot hot water rises to the pressurized water inlet pipe can be prevented, and hot water in the hot water outlet pipe is taken out in a high temperature state. be able to. In particular, in the section from the surface side to the middle of the tropics, the temperature of the hot water extraction pipe and the pressurized water injection pipe are significantly different, so the effect of preventing heat loss by providing an intermediate layer in this section to insulate Is big.

In the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, the hot water outlet pipe and the pressurized water inlet pipe may be formed so that a sectional area of the hot water outlet pipe is smaller than a sectional area of the pressurized water inlet pipe. preferable.
The cross-sectional area here means a cross-sectional area when the hot water outlet pipe and the pressurized water injection pipe are cut in a direction perpendicular to the main flow.
Thereby, the flow rate at the time of the hot water which moved to the hot water extraction pipe from the pressurized water injection pipe ascending in the hot water extraction pipe can be increased. Therefore, it is possible to expect the effect of preventing the heat loss and taking out the hot water in the hot water outlet pipe at a high temperature.

In the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, the pressurized water injection pipe is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity, and the middle pipe and the hot water extraction pipe constituting the intermediate layer are formed of a material having high heat insulation. Preferably it is.
As a result, heat from the earth and tropics is effectively conducted to the water descending the pressurized water injection pipe, and heat conduction from the hot water rising in the hot water extraction pipe is suppressed, so the hot water extraction pipe The hot water inside can be taken out at high temperature.

In the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, in a section having a double pipe structure in which the pressurized water injection pipe is formed directly outside the hot water extraction pipe, a plurality of introduction holes are provided on the outer periphery of the hot water extraction pipe. It is preferable that the hot water existing near the lower portion of the pressurized water injection pipe is taken into the hot water extraction pipe by the introduction hole.
This increases the residence time of the fluid in the lowest region, which is expected to be the hottest part, and the water in the pressurized water injection pipe that has become hot due to the supply of heat from the geotropics can smoothly move to the hot water extraction pipe .

In the geothermal exchanger of this invention, it has the triple pipe | tube structure by which the said intermediate | middle layer was provided in the outer side over the full length of the said hot water extraction pipe | tube, and hot water is supplied from the lowest part of the said hot water extraction pipe | tube. It can be made into the structure taken in.
Since the intermediate layer is provided over the entire length of the hot water outlet pipe, the heat insulation effect between the pressurized water injection pipe and the hot water outlet pipe by the intermediate layer can be enhanced.

In the geothermal exchanger of this invention, it is preferable that the intermediate cover part which prevents the natural hot water or steam which exists in the underground from rising to a geothermal well is provided in the outer peripheral side of the said pressurized water injection pipe.
This prevents the natural hot water or steam that exists underground from rising to the ground and losing the thermal energy held by the heat source, and also destroys the natural environment due to the loss of natural geothermal water and steam. Can be prevented.

In the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, it is preferable that the pressurized water injection pipe is provided with a heat transfer area increasing means for increasing the heat transfer area and promoting heat transfer from the geotropics.
By providing the heat transfer area increasing means, the heat of the earth and the tropics is easily transmitted to the pressurized water injection pipe, and the pressurized water flowing through the pressurized water injection pipe can be efficiently heated.

In the geothermal exchanger of this invention, it is preferable that the support stand is attached to the bottom part of the said pressurized water injection pipe.
The load of the double pipe structure consisting of the pressurized water injection pipe and the hot water extraction pipe, or the triple pipe structure consisting of the pressurized water injection pipe, the hot water extraction pipe and the intermediate layer can be dispersedly received by the support base and suspended. It can be installed more stably with respect to geothermal wells than the one with the lowering method.

In the geothermal exchanger of this invention, it is preferable that the reinforcement part for vibration prevention is provided in the deepest part of the part of the said triple tube structure, and the arbitrary positions in the middle.
In the portion of the triple tube structure, vibrations, particularly lateral vibrations, are likely to occur, but by providing a reinforcing portion, vibrations at this part can be prevented.

  In the geothermal exchanger according to the present invention, one or a plurality of insertion pipes, which are a combination of at least one of the hot water extraction pipes and one of the pressurized water injection pipes, are inserted into one or a plurality of geothermal wells. The insertion pipe, the high-pressure feed water pump arranged on the ground, and the steam generator can be combined.

  Although it is possible to use one insertion tube inserted into one geothermal well, since the temperature and pressure differ depending on the location where it is drilled, power generation for one geothermal well is used when it is used for power generation. Each output will be different. Therefore, by connecting the outlets of the hot water extraction pipes of the insertion pipes in parallel to multiple geothermal wells, and collecting the hot water obtained using each geothermal well, a steam generator, turbine, The capacity of condensers, generators, transformers, etc. can be designed to be large, which has the advantage of increasing the efficiency of the entire power plant.

In the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, the geothermal well can be attached to an existing facility.
By inserting an insertion pipe composed of a hot water extraction pipe and a pressurized water injection pipe into an empty geothermal well or an inactive geothermal well attached to existing equipment, new drilling can be performed. The energy from hot water can be taken out without doing it.

The geothermal power generation apparatus of the present invention is characterized in that power generation is performed using the above-described geothermal exchanger.
By performing power generation using the geothermal exchanger of the present invention, it is possible to perform power generation with high energy efficiency without adversely affecting the natural environment.

  According to the present invention, impurities are not attached to the apparatus by the steam used, and steam is obtained from high-temperature and high-pressure hot water taken out from the underground, so heat exchange with a large capacity and excellent thermal efficiency is possible. Therefore, it is possible to realize a geothermal exchanger and a geothermal power generation apparatus that do not adversely affect the environment near the geotropics.

It is a figure which shows the structure of the geothermal exchanger which concerns on embodiment of this invention. It is a figure which shows the structure of a generator room. It is a figure which shows the thing of the structure by which the intermediate | middle layer was provided in the outer side over the full length of a hot-water extraction pipe | tube. It is a figure which shows the thing of the structure where the heat-transfer area increase means was provided in the outer peripheral side of the pressurized water injection pipe. It is a figure which shows the thing of the structure where the intermediate | middle cover part was provided in the outer peripheral side of the pressurized water injection pipe. It is a phase diagram of water. It is a change figure of the heat transfer mode in a saturated boiling region. It is a figure which shows the change of the inlet pressure by the difference in piping material (thermal conductivity) at the time of taking out as a single phase flow only of hot water. It is a figure which shows the change of a void rate in the case of taking out as a single phase flow only of hot water. It is a figure which shows the change of liquid phase temperature in the case of taking out as a single phase flow only of hot water. It is a figure which shows the heat output in the case of flow volume 0.001m < 3 > / s at the time of taking out as a single phase flow only of hot water. It is a figure which shows the heat output change by the flow volume change at the time of taking out as a single phase flow only of hot water. It is a figure which shows the change of the inlet pressure by the difference in piping material (thermal conductivity) at the time of taking out as a gas-liquid two-phase flow. It is a figure which shows the heat output in the case of flow volume 0.001m < 3 > / s at the time of taking out as a gas-liquid two-phase flow. It is a figure which shows the heat output change by the flow volume change in the case of taking out as a gas-liquid two-phase flow. It is a figure which shows the change of a void ratio in the case of taking out as a gas-liquid two-phase flow.

Below, the geothermal exchanger and geothermal power generation apparatus of this invention are demonstrated based on the embodiment.
Drawing 1 is a figure showing the composition of the geothermal exchanger concerning the embodiment of the present invention. Fig.1 (a) is a figure which shows the general view of a geothermal exchanger, FIG.1 (b) is AA sectional drawing of Fig.1 (a), FIG.1 (c) is FIG.1 (a). It is BB sectional drawing of).

  As shown in FIG. 1, a geothermal exchanger 1 according to an embodiment of the present invention is inserted into a geothermal well 2 and includes a pressurized water injection pipe 11 and a hot water discharge pipe 12, and the pressurized water injection pipe 11 is heated. It is arranged on the outer peripheral side of the water extraction pipe 12. The pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction pipe 12 are both buried in the ground, and a predetermined section near the lower part of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction pipe 12 is formed in the geotropics 10 existing in the deep underground. The depths of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction pipe 12 are set so as to come into contact with each other. By adopting this structure, the high-pressure hot water generated by heating using the earth's tropics 10 as a heat source passes through the lower part of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and moves to the hot water outlet pipe 12.

  In the geothermal exchanger 1, an intermediate layer 13 is provided between the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction pipe 12 in the section from the surface 3 side to the middle of the geotropy 10. That is, in this section, a triple pipe structure including a pressurized water injection pipe 11, an intermediate layer 13, and a hot water take-out pipe 12 in order from the side closer to the earth and the tropics 10 is formed. The intermediate layer 13 has a heat insulating effect as a gas layer or a heat insulating material filling layer. As an example of forming the gas layer, it can be hollow, reduced pressure or vacuum. Further, the intermediate layer 13 itself may be formed of a highly heat insulating material, or may be formed as a closed tube instead of being hollow.

  The pressurized water injection pipe 11 in contact with the geotropy 10 is thermally conductive like a ceramic composite material or a carbon composite material in order to improve the heat supply from the geotropy 10 to the injection water descending the pressurized water injection pipe 11. It is made of a material having high properties and excellent strength. On the other hand, the intermediate pipe 14 and the hot water outlet pipe 12 constituting the intermediate layer 13 are made of a highly heat insulating material in order to maintain a high temperature state of the hot water flowing through the hot water outlet pipe 12. As an example, an ordinary metal material with a heat insulating material coating or the like can be used. In the portion having the triple pipe structure, the pump pressure from the high-pressure feed water pump 17 and the geothermal pressure from the geotrophic zone 10 work. In order to improve the thermal conductivity, the thickness of the pressurized water injection tube 11 which is an outer tube is reduced.

  Below the section having the triple pipe structure described above, a double pipe structure is formed in which the pressurized water injection pipe 11 is formed directly outside the hot water extraction pipe 12. In this section, a plurality of introduction holes 15 are provided on the outer periphery of the hot water extraction pipe 12, and hot water existing near the lower portion of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 is taken into the hot water extraction pipe 12 by the introduction holes 15. . The lower end 11b of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 has a thick structure in order to ensure strength, and has a structure that supports the lower end 12b of the hot water outlet pipe 12.

  Reinforcing portions 16 for preventing vibration in the lateral direction are provided at several locations at arbitrary positions in the middle of the deepest portion of the triple tube structure. As a specific structure of the reinforcing portion 16, a structure in which a support frame is formed can be adopted. A pressure adjusting unit 18 is provided on the upper surface of the middle pipe 14 on the surface 3 side, and the pressure of the middle pipe 14 is adjusted by the pressure adjusting unit 18. In addition, a lid 19 is attached to the geothermal well 2 at the ground surface 3, thereby preventing natural hot spring water from flowing out and preventing environmental destruction. The triple pipe structure is inserted into the basement by a method in which triple pipes of a certain length produced at the factory are added on site.

  As shown in FIG. 1B and FIG. 1C, the cross-sectional area of the hot water extraction pipe 12 that is an inner pipe is formed to be smaller than the cross-sectional area of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 that is an outer pipe. . Thereby, the flow rate of the hot water rising in the hot water extraction pipe 12 can be increased, and an effect of preventing heat loss can be expected.

  The pressurized water injection pipe 11 is supplied with high-purity treated water from which impurities have been removed, pressurized by the high-pressure feed pump 17 from the upper end 11a side, and this treated water is indicated by a white arrow in the pressurized water injection pipe 11. And reaches near the lower end 11b. In the vicinity of the lower end 11b, as shown by the black arrow, the treated water is heated by the heat supplied from the tropics 10, and the heated treated water moves to the hot water outlet pipe 12 through the introduction hole 15, and is in a pressurized state. The hot water take-out pipe 12 rises as indicated by a white arrow while maintaining a high temperature state, reaches the upper end 12a as a state of only hot water containing no steam, and is taken out.

  As can be seen from this, the high-pressure feed water pump 17 gives the pressure necessary for taking out the hot water containing only steam to the treated water injected into the pressurized water injection pipe 11. The specific feasibility of this pressurization will be described in detail later.

The hot water taken out from the hot water take-out pipe 12 is sent to the steam generator 21 and depressurized. In the steam generator 21, a high pressure state is maintained under a pressure condition lower than the pressure applied to the treated water injected into the pressurized water injection pipe 11, whereby high-temperature and high-pressure steam can be obtained. By generating this high-temperature and high-pressure steam, large heat energy can be transferred.
According to this method, without boiling water in the underground geothermal exchanger / pipe, etc., only the hot water is taken out by applying pressure with the high-pressure feed pump 17 and is boiled under reduced pressure only in the steam generator 21.・ High pressure steam can be taken out.

  In the geothermal exchanger 1, one or more insertion pipes configured by combining at least one hot water extraction pipe 12 and one pressurized water injection pipe 11 are inserted into one or more geothermal wells 2. The insertion tube, the high-pressure feed pump 17 disposed on the ground, and the steam generator 21 can be combined.

  Although it is possible to use one insertion tube inserted into one geothermal well, since the temperature and pressure differ depending on the location where it is drilled, power generation for one geothermal well is used when it is used for power generation. Each output will be different. Therefore, by connecting the outlets of the hot water extraction pipes of the insertion pipes in parallel to multiple geothermal wells, and collecting the hot water obtained using each geothermal well, a steam generator, turbine, The capacity of condensers, generators, transformers, etc. can be designed to be large, which has the advantage of increasing the efficiency of the entire power plant.

  For example, when three geothermal wells are used, the thermal output of each geothermal well is converted into a generator output, and when the first well is 500 kW, the second well is 400 kW, and the third well is 600 kW, three units are independent. Rather than constructing a power generation system, if these are combined and designed as a unit of 1 well + 2 well + 3 well = 1500 kW, the overall output is the same, but the steam generator, turbine, condenser, power generation The capacity of the generator and the transformer can be designed to be large, and the efficiency of the electrical equipment is increased by the capacity. Therefore, when used for power generation, the efficiency of the entire power plant is increased. In addition, construction costs such as construction costs can be significantly reduced.

  In addition, the geothermal exchanger 1 can use a newly installed geothermal well 2 and is an existing facility, for example, a geothermal well 2 attached to an existing geothermal power plant, which is an empty geothermal well or a suspended geothermal well. An insertion pipe configured by combining the hot water extraction pipe 12 and the pressurized water injection pipe 11 can be inserted into the well and used.

  In the geothermal exchanger configured to insert the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction pipe 12 into the geothermal well 2 as in the present invention, the pressurized treated water is supplied to the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction is performed. By allowing only hot water not containing steam to be taken out from the tube 12, it has a special effect.

  For example, if the comparison between the extraction in the air-water mixed state and the extraction in the high-pressure hot water is performed in association with the pipe diameter of the extraction pipe, the extraction in the air-water mixed state is the same as the extraction in the high-pressure hot water. In order to obtain an amount of energy, it is necessary to make the diameter of the take-out pipe larger than in the case of taking out with high-pressure hot water. However, when the pipe diameter of the extraction pipe is increased, the cross-sectional area of the boring performed to form the extraction pipe increases, resulting in a greater loss to the hot spring resources during construction and operation. There is a drawback of becoming. In addition, the construction facilities are inevitably increased in size due to the large construction, which leads to a longer construction period and higher costs.

  In addition, in the method of boiling in the basement, there are difficulties in feasibility due to problems such as hydrodynamic instability and vapor blockage. Furthermore, since the heat transfer coefficient of the gas-liquid two-phase flow is much larger than the heat transfer coefficient of the single-phase flow using only hot water, the energy loss when transporting the heat medium over a long distance is large.

  On the other hand, according to the present invention, not only the amount of heat (energy) obtained by the working medium by geothermal heat can be converted with high efficiency by boiling under reduced pressure on the ground, but also the diameter of the hot water discharge pipe is reduced for the reasons described above. It can be set small, and it is possible to reduce the burden on the environment and prevent the construction from becoming large.

  Thus, the method of taking out only the hot water obtained by heating the pressurized treated water is a method in which the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water discharge pipe 12 are essential constituent requirements. It is possible to maintain a large capacity and highly efficient power generation while considering the environmental load, and this method is a method for extracting hot water obtained by heating pressurized treated water. By being applied to the configuration of the invention, it is extremely advantageous and produces its own effects.

FIG. 2 shows the configuration of the generator room 20.
The steam generated by the steam generator 21 is further heated by the steam superheater 22, sent to the turbine 23 as high-temperature and high-pressure steam, and the generator 24 generates power. The steam in the turbine 23 is sent to the condenser 25, and the condensate generated by the condenser 25 is sent to the high-pressure feed pump together with the altitude treated water, and is sent to the geothermal well again.

  Although the example which used the geothermal exchanger of this invention for geothermal power generation is shown in FIG. 2, the application object of the geothermal exchanger of this invention is not limited to this. For example, it can be used as a system that directly uses steam obtained by the geothermal exchanger of the present invention for air conditioning, and other uses are also possible.

In FIG. 3, the thing of the structure where the intermediate | middle layer was provided in the outer side over the full length of a hot-water extraction pipe | tube is shown.
As shown in FIG. 3, the intermediate layer 13 has a triple pipe structure that is provided outside the hot water outlet pipe 12 over the entire length, and the hot water inlet 26 is formed at the lowermost part of the hot water outlet pipe 12. Is provided. The hot water heated by descending the pressurized water injection pipe 11 is taken into the hot water extraction pipe 12 from the hot water intake 26. According to this structure, since the intermediate layer 13 is provided over the entire length of the hot water outlet pipe 12, the heat insulation effect between the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water outlet pipe 12 by the intermediate layer 13 can be enhanced.

FIG. 4 shows a structure in which an intermediate lid is provided on the outer peripheral side of the pressurized water injection tube. Fig.4 (a) is a figure which shows the general view of a geothermal exchanger, and FIG.4 (b) is CC sectional drawing of Fig.4 (a).
As shown in FIG. 4, an intermediate lid portion 27 is provided on the outer peripheral side of the pressurized water injection tube 11 at an intermediate position in the depth direction of the pressurized water injection tube 11. The intermediate lid portion 27 is provided so as to protrude in the radial direction over the outer periphery of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 so as to block the geothermal well 2, and the geothermal well 2 is partitioned in the vertical direction by the intermediate lid portion 27. It has a structure.

  The presence of such an intermediate lid portion 27 can prevent natural hot water existing underground from rising to the ground. Natural vapor is condensed by the intermediate lid 27 and returns to the basement. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the loss of the thermal energy held by the heat source, and it is possible to prevent the natural environment from being destroyed due to the loss of natural geothermal water or steam.

  A support base 28 is attached to the bottom of the pressurized water injection pipe 11, and the lower end surface of the support base 28 is disposed so as to contact the bottom of the geothermal well 2. By providing this support base 28, a double pipe structure composed of the pressurized water injection pipe 11 and the hot water extraction pipe 12, or a triple pipe structure composed of the pressurized water injection pipe 11, the hot water extraction pipe 12 and the intermediate layer 13. The load can be received by the support 28 in a distributed manner, and can be installed more stably with respect to the geothermal well 2 than the suspension type. The number of the support bases 28 can be appropriately changed according to the situation.

FIG. 5 shows a structure in which heat transfer area increasing means is provided on the outer peripheral side of the pressurized water injection tube. Fig.5 (a) is a figure which shows the general view of a geothermal exchanger, and FIG.5 (b) is DD sectional drawing of Fig.5 (a).
As shown in FIG. 5, a plurality of side wall fins 29 functioning as heat transfer area increasing means for increasing the heat transfer area and promoting heat transfer from the earth and the tropics are provided on the outer peripheral side of the pressurized water injection pipe 11. . The side wall fins 29 can have a disk-like shape provided so as to protrude in the radial direction over the outer periphery of the pressurized water injection tube 11, and the shape and number thereof can be changed as appropriate according to the situation.

Further, a bottom fin 30 having a structure protruding downward is provided at the bottom of the pressurized water injection tube 11. This bottom fin 30 also functions as a heat transfer area increasing means. FIG. 5 shows a pin-shaped one, but the shape and number can be appropriately changed according to the situation.
In addition, the intermediate | middle cover part 27, the support stand 28, the side wall fin 29, and the bottom part fin 30 which were mentioned above can be attached similarly to the thing of the structure shown in FIG. Further, in contrast to the structure shown in FIG. 3, the reinforcing portion 16 can be provided at the lowermost part of the triple pipe structure as in the case shown in FIG. 1.

  In the present invention, water pressurized by the high-pressure feed pump 17 from the ground is taken out to the ground as a gas-free state, that is, a single-phase flow without generating steam inside the underground geothermal exchanger, A major feature is that geothermal heat is taken out as steam by reducing pressure to boil with the generator 21. Below, the feasibility is demonstrated in detail.

  FIG. 6 shows a phase diagram of water. When a phase change occurs from a liquid to a gas, that is, when the TC line in FIG. 6 is traversed from left to right, the temperature is the boiling point, and the boiling point can be increased by increasing the pressure. The feed water pressurization of the present invention is installed for the purpose of suppressing this phase change in an underground geothermal exchanger (single-phase flow single-shaft triple-pipe geothermal exchanger). The steam is intentionally taken out as single-phase hot water without generating steam.

  In a conventional geothermal power plant, a flash system that separates the gas-liquid two-phase flow from the ground into steam and water using a steam / water separator is called a single flash (a system that passes the steam / water separator only once). In order to obtain power generation efficiency, the method of passing the steam-water separator once again is called double flash.) Compared with this method, the present invention is not a method of taking out natural steam, but a high pressure. There is an advantage by constructing a complete closed line from press-fitting by a pump to steam generation, turbine and condenser. For this reason, a comparison was made with the case where pressure was applied by a pump and the mixture was taken out as gas-water mixture (gas-liquid two-phase flow).

  In general geothermal power generation technology that is put into practical use, steam is generated in natural hot water or an underground heat exchanger, and is extracted to the ground as a mixture of hot water and steam, that is, a gas-liquid two-phase flow. If water droplets (hot water and steam condensate) are mixed in the steam, the thermal efficiency of the turbine will cause so-called wet loss, which is significantly less efficient than when operating with dry steam (steam only). It has been known. Further, when water droplets in the steam collide with the turbine blades or the inner wall of the pipe rotating at a high speed, they are subject to erosion (collision wear), causing not only a further reduction in efficiency but also equipment damage.

  Therefore, the gas-liquid two-phase flow that has been taken out must be mechanically separated into steam and water by a steam / water separator before being introduced into the turbine, which also increases the cost. In the boiling water reactor, the gas-liquid two-phase flow generated in the core is equipped with a steam-water separator and a steam dryer at the subsequent stage to make it closer to dry steam. That is, when the underground heat exchanger receives and transfers ground heat as a gas-liquid two-phase flow, the amount of heat stored in the liquid phase must be discarded.

When considering heat transfer of fluid flowing through an underground heat exchanger, the heat transfer coefficient of gas-liquid two-phase flow is generally much larger than that of single-phase flow. The heat transfer in a forced flow boiling system is finely classified and complicated according to the aspect of boiling. As an example, FIG. 7 shows saturated boiling, that is, the temperature of the liquid is equal to or slightly higher than the saturation temperature. It shows the heat transfer coefficient in the flow where the generation is taking place. The heat transfer coefficient is a measure showing how easily heat is transferred from a flowing fluid to a wall in contact with the fluid. The vertical axis represents the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient h TP for gas-liquid two-phase flow to the heat transfer coefficient h Lz for single-phase flow, and the horizontal axis represents an amount called the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. It is generally used when arranging flow pressure loss and heat transfer. From FIG. 7, it can be seen that the heat transfer coefficient of the gas-liquid two-phase flow is 10 to several tens of times that of the single-phase flow. In addition, FIG. 7 which shows the change of the heat transfer mode in a saturated boiling region is quoted from JG Collier, “Convective Boiling and Condensation,” McGraw-Hill, New York. (1972).

  In underground heat exchangers, whether the water supply side is the inner pipe or the outer pipe, the low temperature section (in the case of outer pipe water intake, low temperature underground and inner pipe low temperature water supply, In the case of pipe water intake, heat exchange with outer pipe water supply). There is no perfect heat insulating material, and heat transfer from the intake side, which is a high temperature part, to the low temperature part necessarily occurs.

  As mentioned above, in the case of gas-liquid two-phase flow, the amount of propagation is much larger than that of single-phase flow, that is, it is easy to lose heat, so before carrying the underground heat received in the deep underground to the ground, It will be returned to the underground heat exchanger or underground, which may reduce thermal efficiency or make it impossible to extract steam.

  The gas-liquid two-phase flow has a very complicated flow mode and heat transfer mechanism. If the influence of buoyancy is added to it, the phenomenon becomes more complicated and unstable. In the present invention, it is assumed that a triple pipe heat exchanger is manufactured on the order of several hundred meters to km. However, when underground pressure is further applied to the system in the deep part, the gas-liquid two-phase flow is normally driven. It is unknown whether it will be done.

  In particular, in the case of a triple pipe having such a long flow path, vibration due to steam generation becomes a problem. This problem has been taken up by nuclear reactors, and measures are being developed to prevent it. If the vibration is amplified, damage to the equipment will occur. More important is where the steam is generated.

  Since the bottom is the hottest, there is a high possibility that vapor will be generated at the bottom or by boiling under reduced pressure during upward flow. In either case, the greatest concern is the occurrence of a phenomenon called vapor lock in which the high-pressure portion generated by the generated steam closes the flow path. The vapor lock itself is not an event that can be prevented by a check valve or the like, and if this occurs, it may cause equipment damage due to overheating, and it is necessary to prevent this.

  Next, the feasibility of the present invention by numerical analysis will be described. In the trial calculation, the heat exchanger of the present invention (outer tube diameter: 80 mm) was installed in a 1000 m well, and the temperature of the deepest underground was 270 ° C. Although the outer diameter of the heat exchanger is small due to limitations on calculation capacity and time, it is assumed that a large number of heat exchangers of the same level are actually installed on the plateau and used as modular heat exchangers. doing. Further, considering the flow rate as a reference, the heat transfer is not greatly influenced by the size of the pipe diameter.

FIG. 8 shows the inlet pressure required for taking out as hot water at the heat exchanger outlet without causing any phase change between the heat exchanger total path 2000 m. The horizontal axis is the heat conductivity of the heat exchanger. The changed thermal conductivity is a value that can be sufficiently achieved with existing materials. Flow both cases is 0.001m 3 /s(3.6m 3 / h), also hot water pressure at the outlet is adjusted inlet pressure to be 6 MPa. This flow rate and pressurization are values that are sufficiently possible with a conventional general-purpose pressurizing pump.

  FIG. 9 shows changes in the temperature distribution in the heat exchanger and the void ratio with respect to the distance from the inlet. The void ratio is a ratio of the gas phase in a certain volume of the gas-liquid two-phase flow, and indicates a value in the range of 0 to 1. In the case of 0, only water is used, and in the case of 1, only steam is used. Only the cases where the thermal conductivity of the pipe is 0.01 W / mK (heat is difficult to escape) and 0.1 W / mK (heat is easy to escape) are shown, but the void ratio is naturally 0 over the entire section.

FIG. 10 shows the liquid phase temperature change over the entire section corresponding to FIG. As can be seen from FIG. 10, hot water at approximately 260 ° C. and 6 MPa can be taken out at the outlet. FIG. 11 is a diagram showing the heat output when the flow rate is 0.001 m 3 / s, and a large heat output can be obtained as compared with the input pump power as shown in FIG. FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a change in heat output due to a change in flow rate, and the heat output can be increased by increasing the flow rate.

  11 and 12, what is indicated as output is the heat output taken out from the geothermal well in KW, and what is indicated as output-power is from the heat output to the high-pressure feed pump. It is a numerical value obtained by subtracting the capacity and corresponds to the actual heat output. Moreover, what is indicated as pump power is the capacity of the high-pressure feed water pump. These displays are the same in FIGS. 14 and 15.

  Next, using the same calculation code, FIGS. 13 to 16 show calculation results when steam is generated in the underground heat exchanger and taken out as a gas-liquid two-phase flow. This is based on the assumption that heat output of the same scale as that taken out as a single-phase flow is taken out.

FIG. 13 shows the change in inlet pressure due to the difference in piping material (thermal conductivity), FIG. 14 shows the heat output when the flow rate is 0.001 m 3 / s, and FIG. 15 shows the heat output due to the flow rate change. The output change is shown. In this case, the outlet pressure is 3.5 MPa. However, the heat output is derived from the amount of heat possessed as a gas-liquid two-phase flow, and as described above, only the heat of steam is used by the subsequent steam-water separation.

  FIG. 16 shows the change in the void ratio compared to FIG. Boiling is started in the upflow region beyond the bottom, and when the heat conductivity of the heat exchanger piping material is 0.1 W / mK, the void fraction at the outlet is about 0.7 (30% by volume is water) ), About 0.8 in the case of 0.01 W / mK. Moreover, from the calculation result of 0.01 W / mK, it turns out that the state of a gas-liquid two-phase flow is changing rapidly near the exit. This calculation does not take into account the above-described instability due to vapor lock or boiling (bubble generation), and it can be seen that the flow is under extremely ideal conditions.

  From the above results, water pressurized by a high-pressure feedwater pump from the ground, which is a feature of the present invention, does not contain steam without generating steam inside the underground geothermal exchanger, that is, a single-phase flow It has been proved that it is possible to take out geothermal heat as steam by taking it out to the ground and then reducing the pressure with a steam generator to boil. It has also been proved that a single-phase flow can easily obtain the same thermal efficiency as when using a gas-liquid two-phase flow while eliminating various problems in using the gas-liquid two-phase flow. .

  In the present invention, impurities are not attached to the power generator by the steam used, and steam can be obtained from high-temperature and high-pressure hot water taken out from the underground, so that heat exchange with a large capacity and excellent thermal efficiency is possible. It can be used as a geothermal exchanger and geothermal power generator that does not adversely affect the environment near the geotropics.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Geothermal exchanger 2 Geothermal well 3 Ground surface 10 Geotropics 11 Pressurized water injection pipe 11a Upper end of pressurized water injection pipe 11b Lower end of pressurized water injection pipe 12 Hot water extraction pipe 12a Upper end of hot water extraction pipe 12b Lower end of hot water extraction pipe 13 Middle layer DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 14 Middle pipe 15 Introduction hole 16 Reinforcement part 17 High pressure feed pump 18 Pressure adjustment part 19 Lid 20 Generator room 21 Steam generator 22 Steam superheater 23 Turbine 24 Generator 25 Condenser 26 Hot water inlet 27 Intermediate lid part 28 Support base 29 Side wall fin 30 Bottom fin

Claims (13)

  1.   Hot water generated by supplying heat from the geotrophic to the pressurized water injection pipe to which the treated water pressurized by the high-pressure feed water pump is supplied and the treated water descending to the earth tropics in the pressurized water injection pipe A hot water extraction pipe that rises in a state not containing steam, and the hot water extracted from the hot water extraction pipe is sent to the steam generator and is extracted as steam only in the steam generator. The pressurized water injection pipe is arranged on the outer peripheral side of the hot water outlet pipe, and the hot water passes through the lower part of the pressurized water injection pipe and moves to the hot water outlet pipe. A geothermal exchanger characterized by that.
  2.   In the section from the surface side to the middle of the tropics, an intermediate layer is provided between the pressurized water injection pipe and the hot water outlet pipe, so that the pressurized water injection pipe and the 2. The geothermal exchanger according to claim 1, wherein the geothermal heat exchanger has a triple pipe structure including an intermediate layer and the hot water extraction pipe, and the intermediate layer is a gas layer or a heat-insulating material packed layer.
  3.   The said hot water extraction pipe and the said pressurized water injection pipe are formed so that the cross-sectional area of the said hot water extraction pipe may become smaller than the cross-sectional area of the said pressurized water injection pipe. Geothermal exchanger.
  4.   2. The pressurized water injection pipe is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity, and the middle pipe and the hot water outlet pipe constituting the intermediate layer are formed of a material having high heat insulation. To 3. The geothermal exchanger according to any one of 3 to 4.
  5.   In the section having a double pipe structure in which the pressurized water injection pipe is formed directly outside the hot water outlet pipe, a plurality of introduction holes are provided on the outer periphery of the hot water outlet pipe. The geothermal exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein hot water existing near the lower portion of the pressurized water injection pipe is taken into the hot water extraction pipe.
  6.   The hot water outlet pipe has a triple pipe structure in which the intermediate layer is provided outside the hot water outlet pipe, and hot water is taken in from the lowermost part of the hot water outlet pipe. Item 5. The geothermal exchanger according to any one of Items 1 to 4.
  7.   The intermediate lid part which prevents the natural hot water or steam which exists underground in the outer peripheral side of the said pressurized water injection pipe | tube raises a geothermal well is provided. A geothermal exchanger as described in 1.
  8.   The geothermal heat according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the pressurized water injection pipe is provided with a heat transfer area increasing means for increasing the heat transfer area to promote heat transfer from the earth and the tropics. Exchanger.
  9.   The geothermal exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein a support base is attached to the bottom of the pressurized water injection pipe.
  10.   The geothermal exchanger according to any one of claims 2 to 9, wherein a reinforcing portion for preventing vibration is provided at an arbitrary position in the middle of the deepest portion of the triple pipe structure.
  11.   One or a plurality of insertion pipes formed by combining at least one hot water extraction pipe and one pressurized water injection pipe are inserted into one or a plurality of geothermal wells, and are arranged on the ground with the insertion pipe. The geothermal exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the high-pressure feed water pump and the steam generator are combined.
  12.   The geothermal heat exchanger according to claim 11, wherein the geothermal well is attached to an existing facility.
  13.   A geothermal power generation apparatus that performs power generation using the geothermal exchanger according to any one of claims 1 to 12.
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JP5731051B1 (en) * 2014-06-05 2015-06-10 俊一 田原 Boiling water type geothermal exchanger and boiling water type geothermal power generator
JP5791836B1 (en) * 2015-02-16 2015-10-07 俊一 田原 Boiling water type geothermal exchanger and boiling water type geothermal power generator
JP5839531B1 (en) * 2015-05-12 2016-01-06 株式会社エスト Geothermal exchanger and geothermal power generator
JP5839528B1 (en) * 2015-04-27 2016-01-06 俊一 田原 Temperature drop compensation type geothermal exchanger and temperature drop compensation type geothermal power generator
CN105352210A (en) * 2015-11-11 2016-02-24 河南润恒节能技术开发有限公司 Shallow geothermal energy device with pumping and recharging in same well
JP2016098806A (en) * 2014-11-26 2016-05-30 協同テック株式会社 Circulation type geothermal power generation system and its construction method
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WO2016204287A1 (en) * 2015-06-19 2016-12-22 ジャパン・ニュー・エナジー株式会社 Geothermal electricity generating system, geothermal electricity generating device, geothermal electricity generating method, or medium transfer pipe, geothermal electricity generating device and geothermal electricity generating method employing medium transfer pipe, and method of installing medium transfer pipe in fracture zone
JP6067173B1 (en) * 2016-09-30 2017-01-25 俊一 田原 Geothermal exchanger and geothermal power generator
JP6176890B1 (en) * 2017-05-26 2017-08-09 千年生 田原 Geothermal exchanger and geothermal power generator
JP2018017173A (en) * 2016-07-27 2018-02-01 一般財団法人電力中央研究所 Geothermal power generation facility
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JP2014227962A (en) * 2013-05-24 2014-12-08 株式会社大林組 Steam generator for geothermal generation, steam generation method for geothermal generation, and geothermal generation system
US9714643B2 (en) 2014-06-05 2017-07-25 Est. Inc. Boiling-water geothermal heat exchanger and boiling-water geothermal power generation equipment
JP5731051B1 (en) * 2014-06-05 2015-06-10 俊一 田原 Boiling water type geothermal exchanger and boiling water type geothermal power generator
US10203162B2 (en) 2014-09-02 2019-02-12 Japan New Energy Co., Ltd. Geothermal heat exchanger, liquid transport pipe, liquid raising pipe, geothermal power generation facility, and geothermal power generation method
AU2015312919B2 (en) * 2014-09-02 2019-03-28 Japan New Energy Co., Ltd. Geothermal heat exchanger, liquid transport pipe, liquid raising pipe, geothermal power generation facility, and geothermal power generation method
JP2016098806A (en) * 2014-11-26 2016-05-30 協同テック株式会社 Circulation type geothermal power generation system and its construction method
US10060652B2 (en) 2015-02-16 2018-08-28 Kyoei Denki Kogyo Corporation Boiling-water geothermal heat exchanger and boiling-water geothermal power generation equipment
WO2016132624A1 (en) * 2015-02-16 2016-08-25 株式会社エスト Boiling water-type geothermal heat exchanger and boiling water-type geothermal power generation device
JP5791836B1 (en) * 2015-02-16 2015-10-07 俊一 田原 Boiling water type geothermal exchanger and boiling water type geothermal power generator
JP5839528B1 (en) * 2015-04-27 2016-01-06 俊一 田原 Temperature drop compensation type geothermal exchanger and temperature drop compensation type geothermal power generator
JP5839531B1 (en) * 2015-05-12 2016-01-06 株式会社エスト Geothermal exchanger and geothermal power generator
WO2016204287A1 (en) * 2015-06-19 2016-12-22 ジャパン・ニュー・エナジー株式会社 Geothermal electricity generating system, geothermal electricity generating device, geothermal electricity generating method, or medium transfer pipe, geothermal electricity generating device and geothermal electricity generating method employing medium transfer pipe, and method of installing medium transfer pipe in fracture zone
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