JP2013002905A - Electric device identification apparatus, electric device identification method and electric device identification program - Google Patents

Electric device identification apparatus, electric device identification method and electric device identification program Download PDF

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JP2013002905A
JP2013002905A JP2011133190A JP2011133190A JP2013002905A JP 2013002905 A JP2013002905 A JP 2013002905A JP 2011133190 A JP2011133190 A JP 2011133190A JP 2011133190 A JP2011133190 A JP 2011133190A JP 2013002905 A JP2013002905 A JP 2013002905A
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JP5492148B2 (en
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Yasunao Suzuki
康直 鈴木
Masaki Kozai
将樹 香西
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Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt>
日本電信電話株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To identify a class or an operating state of an operating electric device even if a power supply current waveform changes in a short time in the electric device.SOLUTION: A current waveform of a current flowing to a power supply line is measured for each cycle, a differential waveform calculation section 121 calculates a differential from a current waveform in a preceding cycle and stores the differential in a differential waveform memory 122, and a statistic value calculation section 123 calculates a statistic parameter relating to the differential waveform stored in the differential waveform memory 122 and stores a reference statistic parameter calculated based on a result of measuring the current waveform of the power supply line of an electric device beforehand in a statistic value database 124. A statistic value identification section 125 collates the statistic parameter calculated by the statistic value calculation section 123 with the reference statistic parameters stored in the statistic value database 124 and selects a reference statistic parameter closest to the calculated statistic parameter, and a device estimation section 128 identifies and determines a class and an operating state of the electric device connected to the power supply line from the selected reference statistic parameter.

Description

本発明は、電源線に流れる電流の波形から電気機器を識別する技術に関する。   The present invention relates to a technique for identifying an electric device from a waveform of a current flowing in a power supply line.
近年、一般家庭やオフィス等の電力需要家の宅内に電力センサを設置し、電力の効率的利用や電気機器の遠隔制御を図る、HEMS(Home Energy Management System)技術に関する検討、開発が進んでいる。一般に、HEMSでは、家電製品等の電気機器の各々に取り付けられた電力センサからの情報を、有線もしくは無線の通信手段を用いて集約、転送することにより、必要な情報を収集する方法が考えられている。   In recent years, studies and developments have been made on HEMS (Home Energy Management System) technology, which installs power sensors in the homes of power consumers such as general households and offices, and aims at efficient use of power and remote control of electrical equipment. . In general, in HEMS, a method of collecting necessary information by aggregating and transferring information from a power sensor attached to each electric device such as a home appliance using a wired or wireless communication means is conceivable. ing.
一方で、電力需要家に電力を供給する電源線の引き込み線や分電盤の位置に設置した1台のセンサで消費電力や電流波形をモニタし、その特徴に基づいて各電気機器の種別や動作状態、消費電力等を識別、把握する方法が提案されている(非特許文献1)。この方式は、必要なセンサが1台で済むことから経済性が高く、また既存の電気製品にセンサを追加したり、新しい電気製品に規格の統一されたセンサを埋め込んでおく必要がないことから、導入への障壁が少ない点で実用性が高く有効な実現手段になると考えられる。しかしながら、得られる情報は積算された電流や電圧の値に限られ、個々の電気機器の電力消費の状態を直接把握することはできないため、何らかの方法で、積算された電力データから個々の電気機器の電力データを推測する必要がある。非特許文献1では、あらかじめ個々の電気機器の電力消費や電流波形等のデータを様々な動作状態において測定、蓄積しておき、それらのデータと実測値とを比較、参照して機器の種別の識別や、動作状態の推測を行う方法が考えられている。   On the other hand, the power consumption and current waveform are monitored by a single sensor installed at the position of the power supply line or distribution board that supplies power to power consumers. A method for identifying and grasping an operating state, power consumption, and the like has been proposed (Non-Patent Document 1). This method is economical because only one sensor is required, and it is not necessary to add a sensor to an existing electrical product or embed a standardized sensor in a new electrical product. It is considered to be an effective means of realization with high practicality in that there are few barriers to introduction. However, the information obtained is limited to the accumulated current and voltage values, and it is not possible to directly grasp the power consumption state of each electrical device. It is necessary to guess the power data. In Non-Patent Document 1, data such as power consumption and current waveforms of individual electric devices are measured and accumulated in various operating states in advance, and these data and measured values are compared and referred to for the type of device. A method of identifying or estimating an operation state is considered.
また、特許文献1には、予め電気機器が単独で動作しているときの電流波形を測定して参照波形として蓄積しておき、給電線引込口付近で合成された電流波形を測定し、参照波形をもとに、パターン認識やニューラルネットワークの推定アルゴリズムの手法を用いて消費電力を推定する方法が開示されている。   Patent Document 1 previously measures a current waveform when an electric device is operating alone and stores it as a reference waveform, measures a current waveform synthesized near the feeder inlet, and refers to it. A method of estimating power consumption based on a waveform and using a pattern recognition or neural network estimation algorithm technique is disclosed.
ここで、図6(a),(b)に種類が異なる電気機器の電源電圧波形を基準とした1サイクル分の電流波形をそれぞれ示し、図6(c)にこれらの電流波形が合成された1サイクル分の合成電流波形を示す。図6では電源の電圧波形501を点線で示している。電源の電圧波形501は電力需要家宅内で同じ波形となる。図6(a),(b)に示すように、電気機器の種別や動作状態が異なると一般的に異なる電流波形502,503となる。また、各電源線が合流する分電盤の位置では、電流の重ね合わせの原理(キルヒホッフの第1法則)から、図6(c)に示すように、図6(a),(b)の電流波形502,503を加算した合成電流波形504が測定される。電気機器の動作状態が変化しない限り図6に示した電流波形が電源電圧波形と同じ周期で繰り返される。   Here, FIGS. 6 (a) and 6 (b) show current waveforms for one cycle based on power supply voltage waveforms of different types of electrical equipment, and FIG. 6 (c) shows these current waveforms synthesized. The composite current waveform for one cycle is shown. In FIG. 6, the voltage waveform 501 of the power supply is indicated by a dotted line. The voltage waveform 501 of the power supply has the same waveform in the power consumer's house. As shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B, different current waveforms 502 and 503 are generally obtained when the type and operation state of the electric device are different. Further, at the position of the distribution board where the power lines join, from the principle of current superposition (Kirchhoff's first law), as shown in FIG. 6 (c), as shown in FIG. 6 (a), (b) A combined current waveform 504 obtained by adding the current waveforms 502 and 503 is measured. As long as the operating state of the electric device does not change, the current waveform shown in FIG. 6 is repeated at the same cycle as the power supply voltage waveform.
特許第3602825号公報Japanese Patent No. 3602825
一般に、冷蔵庫、エアコン、こたつ、テレビなどの電気機器は、その動作状態の変化に伴い消費電力が変化する場合でも切り替え周期は少なくても秒単位以上で、電源周波数サイクルに比べると比較的長く、1サイクル毎の電流波形の変動は無視できる程度に小さい。一方で、パーソナルコンピュータや一部の通信端末、洗濯機などでは、動作状態が比較的短時間で変化することが多く、それに応じて1サイクル毎に電流波形が変化するものがある。   In general, electric devices such as refrigerators, air conditioners, kotatsu, and televisions are relatively long compared to the power supply frequency cycle, even if the power consumption changes with the change in their operating state, even if the switching cycle is at least seconds, The fluctuation of the current waveform for each cycle is so small that it can be ignored. On the other hand, in personal computers, some communication terminals, washing machines, and the like, the operating state often changes in a relatively short time, and the current waveform changes in every cycle accordingly.
従来の方法では、各電気機器の電流波形は、少なくともその電気機器の一つの動作状態が続く限りほぼ一定であることが前提となっている。図7に示すように、電流波形503が電源周波数サイクル毎に変動する電気機器が含まれている場合は、測定される合成電流波形504も1サイクル毎に変動して1サイクルの電流波形が一定しないため、パターン認識等による波形識別の精度が落ちたり、誤識別することがある。   In the conventional method, it is assumed that the current waveform of each electric device is substantially constant as long as at least one operation state of the electric device continues. As shown in FIG. 7, when an electric device in which the current waveform 503 varies for each power supply frequency cycle is included, the measured synthesized current waveform 504 also varies for each cycle, and the current waveform for one cycle is constant. Therefore, the accuracy of waveform identification by pattern recognition or the like may be reduced or erroneously identified.
このように、従来の1サイクルの電流波形のプロファイルに基づいて電気機器を識別する方法では、短時間に動作状態が変動し、それに応じて消費電力が変動するような電気機器の種別を精度良く識別することが難しいという問題があった。   As described above, in the conventional method of identifying an electric device based on the current waveform profile of one cycle, the type of the electric device whose operating state fluctuates in a short time and power consumption fluctuates accordingly is accurately determined. There was a problem that it was difficult to identify.
本発明は、上記に鑑みてなされたものであり、短時間に電源電流波形が変化する電気機器であっても、稼働している電気機器の種別や動作状態を精度良く識別することを目的とする。   The present invention has been made in view of the above, and an object of the present invention is to accurately identify the type and operating state of an operating electrical device even if the electrical current waveform changes in a short time. To do.
第1の本発明に係る電気機器識別装置は、識別の対象とする複数の電気機器の電源線それぞれに流れる電流の電流波形を電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取った差分波形に関する統計パラメータを求めた前記複数の電気機器それぞれに対応する参照統計パラメータを格納したデータベースと、電気機器が稼働している実使用状態において電源線に流れる電流を前記周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定した前記電流波形を入力し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取り、差分を取った差分波形を差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積する差分波形計算手段と、前記差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積された差分波形に関する統計パラメータを計算する統計値計算手段と、前記データベースから前記統計パラメータに最も近い前記参照統計パラメータを検索し、当該参照統計パラメータに基づいて前記電源線に接続された電気機器の種別または動作状態の少なくとも一方を識別する推定手段と、を有することを特徴とする。   The electrical equipment identification device according to the first aspect of the present invention measures the current waveform of the current flowing through each of the power supply lines of the plurality of electrical equipments to be identified for the length of the period for each period based on the voltage waveform. A database storing reference statistical parameters corresponding to each of the plurality of electrical devices for which a statistical parameter related to a differential waveform obtained by taking a difference between current waveforms for each period is obtained, and a power supply in an actual use state in which the electrical device is operating Input the current waveform obtained by measuring the current flowing through the line for each period for the length of the period, take a difference between the current waveforms for each period, and store the difference waveform obtained by the difference in the difference waveform storage means Waveform calculation means, statistical value calculation means for calculating statistical parameters related to the differential waveform stored in the differential waveform storage means, and closest to the statistical parameter from the database Find the serial reference statistical parameters, and having an, and estimating means for identifying at least one of the type or the operating state of the electrical device connected to the power line based on the reference statistical parameters.
上記電気機器識別装置において、前記差分波形の積分値、前記差分波形の積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、前記差分波形の自乗積分値、前記差分波形の自乗積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、前記差分波形のピーク値のうち少なくとも1つのパラメータについて、当該パラメータの平均値、分散値、標準偏差値のうち少なくとも1つの統計値を前記統計パラメータとする。   In the electrical equipment identification device, the integrated value of the differential waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the integrated value of the differential waveform by the period time, the square integrated value of the differential waveform, and the square integrated value of the differential waveform divided by the periodic time. For at least one parameter of the time average value and the peak value of the difference waveform, at least one statistical value of the average value, variance value, and standard deviation value of the parameter is set as the statistical parameter.
第2の本発明に係る電気機器識別方法は、電気機器が稼働している実使用状態において電源線に流れる電流を電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定した電流波形を入力するステップと、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取り、差分を取った差分波形を差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積するステップと、前記差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積された差分波形に関する統計パラメータを計算するステップと、識別の対象とする複数の電気機器の電源線それぞれに流れる電流の電流波形を電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取った差分波形に関する統計パラメータを求めた前記複数の電気機器それぞれに対応する参照統計パラメータを格納したデータベースから前記統計パラメータに最も近い前記参照統計パラメータを検索するステップと、前記参照統計パラメータに基づいて前記電源線に接続された電気機器の種別または動作状態の少なくとも一方を識別するステップと、を有することを特徴とする。   In the electrical device identification method according to the second aspect of the present invention, the current waveform obtained by measuring the current flowing through the power line in the actual use state in which the electrical device is operating is measured for the length of the cycle for each cycle based on the voltage waveform. The step of inputting, the step of taking the difference between the current waveforms for each period, the step of accumulating the difference waveform obtained by the difference in the difference waveform accumulating unit, and calculating the statistical parameters relating to the difference waveform accumulated in the difference waveform accumulating unit Measure the current waveform of the current flowing through each step and the power line of each of the plurality of electrical devices to be identified for the length of the cycle for each cycle based on the voltage waveform, and calculate the difference between the current waveforms for each cycle. The reference statistics closest to the statistical parameter from the database storing the reference statistical parameters corresponding to each of the plurality of electrical devices for which the statistical parameters related to the difference waveform were obtained. And having retrieving a parameter, a, and identifying at least one of the type or the operating state of the electrical device connected to the power line on the basis of the reference statistical parameters.
第3の本発明に係る電気機器識別プログラムは、上記電気機器識別装置としてコンピュータを動作させることを特徴とする。   According to a third aspect of the present invention, there is provided an electrical equipment identification program for operating a computer as the electrical equipment identification device.
本発明によれば、短時間に電源電流波形が変化する電気機器であっても、稼働している電気機器の種別や動作状態を精度良く識別することができる。   ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, even if it is an electric equipment from which a power supply current waveform changes in a short time, the classification and operation state of the electric equipment which are working can be identified accurately.
本実施の形態における電気機器識別装置を含む全体構成図である。It is a whole lineblock diagram containing the electric equipment discernment device in this embodiment. 本実施の形態における電気機器識別装置の構成を示す機能ブロック図である。It is a functional block diagram which shows the structure of the electric equipment identification device in this Embodiment. 各サイクルにおける、各電気機器の電流波形、合成電流波形、合成電流波形の差分を取った差分波形を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the difference waveform which took the difference of the current waveform of each electric equipment, a synthetic | combination current waveform, and a synthetic | combination current waveform in each cycle. 本実施の形態において統計パラメータとして利用する差分波形の実効値、実効値の分散、および波高値を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the effective value of the difference waveform utilized as a statistical parameter in this Embodiment, dispersion | distribution of an effective value, and a crest value. 統計パラメータに対する各種の電気機器の分布例を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the example of distribution of the various electric equipment with respect to a statistical parameter. 各電気機器の1サイクル分の電流波形と各電流波形が合成された合成電流波形を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the electric current waveform for 1 cycle of each electric equipment, and the synthetic | combination electric current waveform with which each electric current waveform was synthesize | combined. 1サイクル毎に変動する電流波形の例を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the example of the current waveform which changes for every cycle.
以下、本発明の実施の形態について図面を用いて説明する。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
図1は、本実施の形態における電気機器識別装置を含む全体構成図である。   FIG. 1 is an overall configuration diagram including an electrical equipment identification device according to the present embodiment.
同図に示すように、電力は商用電源配電網5からユーザ(電力需要家)宅内の分電盤3を介して電気機器2A,2Bに供給される。本実施の形態における電気機器識別装置1は、分電盤3と屋内電気配線の間の電源線など、電力需要家宅内の総消費電力が測定可能な位置に設置される。電気機器2A,2Bは、それぞれ電源回路や電力消費形態が異なるため、それらの電源線を流れる電流波形も一般的に異なるものとなる。電気機器識別装置1において測定される電源電流の波形は、これら複数の電気機器2A,2Bの電源電流波形を合成したものとなる。電気機器識別装置1は、合成された電源電流波形から個々の電気機器2A,2Bの電源電流波形を推測して、電気機器2A,2Bの機器種別やその動作状態を識別することを目的とする。なお、ここでは簡単のため、電力需要家宅内に2つの電気機器2A,2Bが存在する場合について説明するが、電気機器の数が増えた場合でも以下で説明する動作原理は全く同様である。   As shown in the figure, electric power is supplied from the commercial power distribution network 5 to the electric devices 2A and 2B via the distribution board 3 in the user (electric power consumer) house. The electrical equipment identification device 1 in the present embodiment is installed at a position where the total power consumption in a power consumer's house can be measured, such as a power line between the distribution board 3 and the indoor electrical wiring. Since the electric devices 2A and 2B have different power supply circuits and power consumption modes, the current waveforms flowing through these power supply lines are generally different. The waveform of the power supply current measured in the electric device identification apparatus 1 is a combination of the power supply current waveforms of the plurality of electric devices 2A and 2B. The electrical device identification apparatus 1 is intended to identify the power supply current waveforms of the individual electrical devices 2A and 2B from the synthesized power supply current waveforms and identify the device type and the operating state of the electrical devices 2A and 2B. . Here, for the sake of simplicity, the case where there are two electric devices 2A and 2B in the electric power consumer's house will be described. However, even when the number of electric devices increases, the operation principle described below is exactly the same.
図2は、本実施の形態における電気機器識別装置の構成を示す機能ブロック図である。同図に示す電気機器識別装置1は、電流センサ110、電圧センサ111、タイミング検出部112、電流波形測定部113、およびA/D変換部114を備えた測定機能と、逐次波形メモリ120、差分波形計算部121、差分波形メモリ122、統計値計算部123、統計値データベース124、統計値識別部125、参照波形データベース126、波形識別部127、および機器推定部128を備えた識別機能を有する。電気機器識別装置1の識別機能が備える各部は、演算処理装置、記憶装置等を備えたコンピュータにより構成して、各部の処理がプログラムによって実行されるものとしてもよい。このプログラムは電気機器識別装置1の識別機能が備える記憶装置に記憶されており、磁気ディスク、光ディスク、半導体メモリ等の記録媒体に記録することも、ネットワークを通して提供することも可能である。以下、各部について説明する。   FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram showing the configuration of the electrical equipment identification device in the present embodiment. The electrical device identification apparatus 1 shown in the figure includes a measurement function including a current sensor 110, a voltage sensor 111, a timing detection unit 112, a current waveform measurement unit 113, and an A / D conversion unit 114, a sequential waveform memory 120, a difference The waveform calculation unit 121, the differential waveform memory 122, the statistical value calculation unit 123, the statistical value database 124, the statistical value identification unit 125, the reference waveform database 126, the waveform identification unit 127, and the device estimation unit 128 are included. Each unit provided in the identification function of the electrical apparatus identification device 1 may be configured by a computer including an arithmetic processing device, a storage device, and the like, and the processing of each unit may be executed by a program. This program is stored in a storage device included in the identification function of the electrical device identification apparatus 1, and can be recorded on a recording medium such as a magnetic disk, an optical disk, or a semiconductor memory, or provided through a network. Hereinafter, each part will be described.
電流センサ110、電圧センサ111は、電気機器2A,2Bが稼働している電源線に取り付けられ、それぞれ電源線の電流値、電圧値をモニタする。電流センサ110は非接触型の電流プローブや電源線内に挿入した低抵抗の両端の電圧を測定する電流計などが使用できる。電圧センサ111は2線間の電圧を電圧計で直接測定することで実現できるし、非接触の容量性電圧プローブを用いても良い。   The current sensor 110 and the voltage sensor 111 are attached to the power supply line in which the electric devices 2A and 2B are operating, and monitor the current value and the voltage value of the power supply line, respectively. The current sensor 110 can be a non-contact type current probe, an ammeter that measures the voltage across the low resistance inserted in the power line, or the like. The voltage sensor 111 can be realized by directly measuring the voltage between two wires with a voltmeter, or a non-contact capacitive voltage probe may be used.
タイミング検出部112は、電圧センサ111で測定した電圧値を基準として、1サイクル内の特定の位相のタイミングでトリガを掛け、電流波形測定部113は電源電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に1サイクル分の電流波形を取得する。A/D変換部114は、取得した電流波形をディジタルデータに変換する。   The timing detection unit 112 triggers at the timing of a specific phase within one cycle with the voltage value measured by the voltage sensor 111 as a reference, and the current waveform measurement unit 113 performs one cycle for each cycle based on the power supply voltage waveform. Get the current waveform in minutes. The A / D converter 114 converts the acquired current waveform into digital data.
ディジタルデータに変換された電流波形は、逐次波形メモリ120、差分波形計算部121、および波形識別部127に送られる。   The current waveform converted into the digital data is sent to the sequential waveform memory 120, the differential waveform calculation unit 121, and the waveform identification unit 127.
逐次波形メモリ120は、1サイクル分毎に電流波形を蓄積する。   The sequential waveform memory 120 stores a current waveform every cycle.
差分波形計算部121は、逐次波形メモリ120から1サイクル前の電流波形を読み出して、A/D変換部114から受信した電流波形との差分を計算し、計算結果である差分波形を差分波形メモリ122に蓄積する。   The differential waveform calculation unit 121 reads the current waveform one cycle before from the sequential waveform memory 120, calculates the difference from the current waveform received from the A / D conversion unit 114, and stores the difference waveform as the calculation result in the differential waveform memory Accumulate in 122.
差分波形メモリ122は、1サイクル分毎に差分波形を蓄積する。   The difference waveform memory 122 accumulates the difference waveform every one cycle.
統計値計算部123は、差分波形メモリ122から読み出した差分波形を用いて、予め十分な値として設定したサンプル数のデータの統計パラメータの値を計算する。統計パラメータとしては、例えば、差分波形の積分値、その積分値を電源電圧の周期時間で割った時間平均値、差分波形の自乗積分値、その自乗積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、差分波形のピーク値などのパラメータのうち少なくとも1つのパラメータについて、当該パラメータの平均値、分散値、標準偏差値などの統計値のうち少なくとも1つの統計値を用いる。   The statistical value calculation unit 123 uses the differential waveform read from the differential waveform memory 122 to calculate the statistical parameter value of data of the number of samples set as a sufficient value in advance. As the statistical parameters, for example, the integral value of the differential waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the integral value by the cycle time of the power supply voltage, the square integral value of the difference waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the square integral value by the cycle time, For at least one parameter among parameters such as a peak value of a differential waveform, at least one statistical value among statistical values such as an average value, a variance value, and a standard deviation value of the parameter is used.
統計値データベース124は、予め、識別の対象とする全ての電気機器を単独に動作させた場合についての電気機器の電源線に流れる電流の電流波形を、電源電圧を基準とした周期毎に測定し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取った差分波形について求めた統計パラメータを参照統計パラメータとして格納する。   The statistical value database 124 measures, in advance, the current waveform of the current flowing through the power supply line of the electrical device when all the electrical devices to be identified are operated independently for each period based on the power supply voltage. The statistical parameter obtained for the difference waveform obtained by taking the difference between the current waveforms for each period is stored as the reference statistical parameter.
統計値識別部125は、統計値計算部123が計算した統計パラメータと統計値データベース124に格納された参照統計パラメータとを比較し、統計パラメータに最も近い値を持つ参照統計パラメータを検索する。統計パラメータと参照統計パラメータとの比較、対照、および識別判定を複数種類の統計パラメータを用いて行うことで、より精度を高くすることができる。   The statistical value identification unit 125 compares the statistical parameter calculated by the statistical value calculation unit 123 with the reference statistical parameter stored in the statistical value database 124 and searches for a reference statistical parameter having a value closest to the statistical parameter. By comparing, comparing, and discriminating the statistical parameter with the reference statistical parameter using a plurality of types of statistical parameters, the accuracy can be further increased.
参照波形データベース126は、予め、対象となる全ての電気機器を単独に動作させた場合についての電源線の電流波形を参照電流波形として格納する。   The reference waveform database 126 stores, in advance, a current waveform of the power supply line as a reference current waveform when all target electric devices are operated independently.
波形識別部127は、A/D変換部114から受信した電流波形と参照波形データベース126に格納された参照電流波形とを比較し、入力した電流波形に最も近い参照電流波形を選択する。   The waveform identification unit 127 compares the current waveform received from the A / D conversion unit 114 with the reference current waveform stored in the reference waveform database 126, and selects the reference current waveform closest to the input current waveform.
機器推定部128は、統計値識別部125、波形識別部127それぞれの識別結果を参照し、それらの識別結果の取捨選択等を行って機器種別等を判定し、識別結果として出力する。電源周波数の1サイクル毎に電流波形が変化する電気機器に関しては統計値識別部125の識別結果、電源周波数のサイクル間で電流波形の時間的な変化がほとんどない電気機器に関しては波形識別部127の識別結果を用いることで、より精度の高い機器識別が実現できる。   The device estimation unit 128 refers to the identification results of the statistical value identification unit 125 and the waveform identification unit 127, performs selection of the identification results, etc., determines the device type and the like, and outputs the identification result. As for the electric equipment whose current waveform changes every cycle of the power supply frequency, the identification result of the statistical value identification unit 125, and for the electric equipment whose current waveform hardly changes between cycles of the power supply frequency, the waveform identification unit 127 By using the identification result, device identification with higher accuracy can be realized.
次に、各電気機器の電流波形、合成電流波形、合成電流波形の差分を取った差分波形について説明する。   Next, the difference waveform which took the difference of the current waveform of each electric equipment, a synthetic | combination current waveform, and a synthetic | combination current waveform is demonstrated.
図3は、各サイクルにおける、電気機器(A),(B)の電流波形、合成電流波形、および差分波形を示す図である。   FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a current waveform, a combined current waveform, and a difference waveform of the electric devices (A) and (B) in each cycle.
図3に示す例では、電気機器(A)の電流波形は各サイクルで一定の波形を示しているのに対し、電気機器(B)の電流波形は各サイクルで波形が変化している。そのため、電気機器識別装置1で検出される合成電流波形も各サイクルで変化する。   In the example shown in FIG. 3, the current waveform of the electric device (A) shows a constant waveform in each cycle, whereas the current waveform of the electric device (B) changes in each cycle. For this reason, the combined current waveform detected by the electric appliance identifying apparatus 1 also changes in each cycle.
電気機器識別装置1では、1サイクル毎に、その時点での合成電流波形とその前のサイクルで合成電流波形の差分を計算する。合成電流波形の差分を計算することで、1サイクル毎に変化している波形の変化部分だけが抽出されるため、図3に示す例では、差分波形は電気機器(B)の波形と相似形となり、その振幅はサイクル間の変化量に比例することとなる。このように、差分波形のプロファイルからは電流波形が変動する電気機器(B)のみの種別に関する情報が得られ、差分波形のレベルからはその変動の様子を知ることができる。したがって、本実施の形態における電気機器識別装置1では、1サイクル毎の変動に注目し、差分波形計算部121で合成電流波形の差分波形を求めて差分波形メモリ122に時系列順に蓄積しておき、統計値計算部123で差分波形の統計パラメータを求めることで電気機器の特徴量を得る。   In the electrical device identification device 1, for each cycle, the difference between the combined current waveform at that time and the combined current waveform in the previous cycle is calculated. By calculating the difference of the composite current waveform, only the changed part of the waveform that changes every cycle is extracted. Therefore, in the example shown in FIG. 3, the difference waveform is similar to the waveform of the electrical device (B). Therefore, the amplitude is proportional to the amount of change between cycles. As described above, information about only the type of the electric device (B) in which the current waveform fluctuates is obtained from the profile of the difference waveform, and the state of the fluctuation can be known from the level of the difference waveform. Therefore, in the electrical apparatus identification device 1 in the present embodiment, attention is paid to the fluctuation for each cycle, the difference waveform calculation unit 121 obtains the difference waveform of the combined current waveform and stores it in the difference waveform memory 122 in chronological order. The characteristic value of the electric device is obtained by obtaining the statistical parameter of the differential waveform by the statistical value calculation unit 123.
次に、統計パラメータの具体例について説明する。   Next, specific examples of statistical parameters will be described.
図4に、差分波形と差分波形に関する統計パラメータとして実効値、実効値の分散、および波高値を示す。実効値は、複数の差分波形の1サイクル分の実効的な電流値(電流値の時間平均値)であり、波高値は、差分波形の1サイクル内の波高ピーク値の統計上の平均値である。実効値の平均値は電気機器の消費電力の時間平均に相当するものであり、その分散値は電気機器の消費電力の短期間内での変化の度合いの大きさに相当するものである。   FIG. 4 shows the effective value, the dispersion of the effective value, and the peak value as statistical parameters related to the differential waveform and the differential waveform. The effective value is an effective current value (time average value of current values) for one cycle of a plurality of differential waveforms, and the peak value is a statistical average value of peak height values within one cycle of the differential waveform. is there. The average value of the effective values corresponds to the time average of the power consumption of the electrical equipment, and the variance value corresponds to the magnitude of the degree of change in the power consumption of the electrical equipment within a short period.
これらの統計パラメータは電気機器毎に個別の特徴を持つため、統計パラメータを予め測定した参照統計パラメータと比較対照することで電気機器の識別が可能である。図5に識別判定の例を示す。電流の実効値を縦軸に、その分散値を横軸に取ると、電気機器の種別やその動作状態毎に特徴的な分布を示す。計算した統計パラメータをこの分布に当てはめることで電気機器の種別等が識別できる。   Since these statistical parameters have individual characteristics for each electric device, the electric device can be identified by comparing and comparing the statistical parameter with a reference statistical parameter measured in advance. FIG. 5 shows an example of identification determination. When the effective value of the current is plotted on the vertical axis and the dispersion value is plotted on the horizontal axis, a characteristic distribution is shown for each type of electrical device and its operating state. By applying the calculated statistical parameters to this distribution, the type of electrical equipment can be identified.
以上説明したように、本実施の形態によれば、電源線に流れる電流の電流波形を電源周波数1サイクルごとに測定し、差分波形計算部121が前のサイクルの電流波形との差分を計算して差分波形メモリ122に蓄積し、統計値計算部123が差分波形メモリ122に蓄積された差分波形に関する統計パラメータを計算し、予め電気機器の電源線の電流波形を測定した結果をもとに計算した参照統計パラメータを統計値データベース124に格納しておき、統計値識別部125が統計値計算部123が計算した統計パラメータと統計値データベース124に格納された参照統計パラメータとを照らし合わせて計算した統計パラメータに最も近い参照統計パラメータを選択し、機器推定部128が選択された参照統計パラメータから電源線に接続された電気機器の種別、動作状態を識別、判定することにより、短時間に電源電流波形が変化する電気機器であっても、稼働している電気機器の種別や動作状態を精度良く識別することができる。その結果、消費電力を効果的に節減するための情報提供サービスや、機器故障の把握、通知サービス、独居老人や要介護者の見守りサービスを提供することが可能となる。   As described above, according to the present embodiment, the current waveform of the current flowing through the power supply line is measured every power supply frequency cycle, and the difference waveform calculation unit 121 calculates the difference from the current waveform of the previous cycle. The statistical value calculation unit 123 calculates statistical parameters related to the differential waveform stored in the differential waveform memory 122 and calculates based on the result of measuring the current waveform of the power supply line of the electrical device in advance. The reference statistical parameter is stored in the statistical value database 124, and the statistical value identification unit 125 calculates the statistical parameter calculated by the statistical value calculation unit 123 against the reference statistical parameter stored in the statistical value database 124. The reference statistical parameter closest to the statistical parameter is selected, and the device estimation unit 128 connects to the power line from the selected reference statistical parameter. By identifying and determining the type and operating status of the electrical equipment that has been used, the type and operating status of the operating electrical equipment can be accurately identified even if the electrical current waveform changes in a short time Can do. As a result, it is possible to provide an information providing service for effectively reducing power consumption, a device failure grasping and notification service, and a monitoring service for elderly people who need to live alone or those who need care.
なお、電気機器識別装置1の識別結果をネットワークを介して転送することにより、遠隔で情報の把握やその情報に基づく電力制御等を行うことができる。   In addition, by transferring the identification result of the electric device identification apparatus 1 via a network, it is possible to remotely grasp information, perform power control based on the information, and the like.
また、動作状態についても、各動作状態毎の参照統計パラメータを統計値データベース124に格納しておくことで、電気機器の種別と同様に識別することができる。   In addition, the operation state can be identified in the same manner as the type of the electric device by storing the reference statistical parameter for each operation state in the statistical value database 124.
1…電気機器識別装置
110…電流センサ
111…電圧センサ
112…タイミング検出部
113…電流波形測定部
114…変換部
120…逐次波形メモリ
121…差分波形計算部
122…差分波形メモリ
123…統計値計算部
124…統計値データベース
125…統計値識別部
126…参照波形データベース
127…波形識別部
128…機器推定部
2A,2B…電気機器
3…分電盤
5…商用電源配電網
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Electric equipment identification device 110 ... Current sensor 111 ... Voltage sensor 112 ... Timing detection part 113 ... Current waveform measurement part 114 ... Conversion part 120 ... Sequential waveform memory 121 ... Differential waveform calculation part 122 ... Differential waveform memory 123 ... Statistical value calculation Unit 124 ... Statistical value database 125 ... Statistical value identification unit 126 ... Reference waveform database 127 ... Waveform identification unit 128 ... Equipment estimation unit 2A, 2B ... Electric equipment 3 ... Distribution board 5 ... Commercial power distribution network

Claims (5)

  1. 識別の対象とする複数の電気機器の電源線それぞれに流れる電流の電流波形を電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取った差分波形に関する統計パラメータを求めた前記複数の電気機器それぞれに対応する参照統計パラメータを格納したデータベースと、
    電気機器が稼働している実使用状態において電源線に流れる電流を前記周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定した前記電流波形を入力し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取り、差分を取った差分波形を差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積する差分波形計算手段と、
    前記差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積された差分波形に関する統計パラメータを計算する統計値計算手段と、
    前記データベースから前記統計パラメータに最も近い前記参照統計パラメータを検索し、当該参照統計パラメータに基づいて前記電源線に接続された電気機器の種別または動作状態の少なくとも一方を識別する推定手段と、
    を有することを特徴とする電気機器識別装置。
    Measures the current waveform of the current flowing through each power supply line of multiple electrical devices to be identified for each period of the period based on the voltage waveform, and calculates the difference between the current waveforms for each period A database storing reference statistical parameters corresponding to each of the plurality of electrical devices for which statistical parameters relating to the waveform were obtained;
    Input the current waveform obtained by measuring the current flowing through the power supply line for each period in the actual usage state where the electrical equipment is operating, and take the difference between the current waveforms for each period. Differential waveform calculation means for storing the difference waveform in the difference waveform storage means,
    Statistical value calculation means for calculating statistical parameters related to the differential waveform accumulated in the differential waveform accumulation means;
    Searching for the reference statistical parameter closest to the statistical parameter from the database, and estimating means for identifying at least one of a type or an operating state of the electrical equipment connected to the power line based on the reference statistical parameter;
    An electrical equipment identification device comprising:
  2. 前記差分波形の積分値、前記差分波形の積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、前記差分波形の自乗積分値、前記差分波形の自乗積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、前記差分波形のピーク値のうち少なくとも1つのパラメータについて、当該パラメータの平均値、分散値、標準偏差値のうち少なくとも1つの統計値を前記統計パラメータとする請求項1記載の電気機器識別装置。   The integrated value of the differential waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the integrated value of the differential waveform by the period time, the square integrated value of the differential waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the square integrated value of the differential waveform by the periodic time, the difference The electrical equipment identification device according to claim 1, wherein at least one statistic value among an average value, a variance value, and a standard deviation value of the peak value of the waveform is used as the statistic parameter.
  3. 電気機器が稼働している実使用状態において電源線に流れる電流を電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定した電流波形を入力するステップと、
    周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取り、差分を取った差分波形を差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積するステップと、
    前記差分波形蓄積手段に蓄積された差分波形に関する統計パラメータを計算するステップと、
    識別の対象とする複数の電気機器の電源線それぞれに流れる電流の電流波形を電圧波形を基準とした周期毎に当該周期の長さ分測定し、周期毎の電流波形間で差分を取った差分波形に関する統計パラメータを求めた前記複数の電気機器それぞれに対応する参照統計パラメータを格納したデータベースから前記統計パラメータに最も近い前記参照統計パラメータを検索するステップと、
    前記参照統計パラメータに基づいて前記電源線に接続された電気機器の種別または動作状態の少なくとも一方を識別するステップと、
    を有することを特徴とする電気機器識別方法。
    A step of inputting a current waveform obtained by measuring the current flowing in the power line in the actual use state in which the electrical equipment is operating for each period with respect to the voltage waveform as a reference;
    Taking a difference between current waveforms for each cycle, and storing the difference waveform obtained by the difference in the difference waveform storage means;
    Calculating statistical parameters relating to the differential waveform stored in the differential waveform storage means;
    Measures the current waveform of the current flowing through each power supply line of multiple electrical devices to be identified for each period of the period based on the voltage waveform, and calculates the difference between the current waveforms for each period Retrieving the reference statistical parameter closest to the statistical parameter from a database storing reference statistical parameters corresponding to each of the plurality of electrical devices for which a statistical parameter relating to a waveform has been obtained;
    Identifying at least one of a type or an operating state of an electrical device connected to the power line based on the reference statistical parameter;
    A method for identifying an electrical device, comprising:
  4. 前記差分波形の積分値、前記差分波形の積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、前記差分波形の自乗積分値、前記差分波形の自乗積分値を周期時間で割った時間平均値、前記差分波形のピーク値のうち少なくとも1つのパラメータについて、当該パラメータの平均値、分散値、標準偏差値のうち少なくとも1つの統計値を前記統計パラメータとする請求項3記載の電気機器識別方法。   The integrated value of the differential waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the integrated value of the differential waveform by the period time, the square integrated value of the differential waveform, the time average value obtained by dividing the square integrated value of the differential waveform by the periodic time, the difference 4. The electric device identification method according to claim 3, wherein for at least one parameter of the peak value of the waveform, at least one statistical value among an average value, a variance value, and a standard deviation value of the parameter is used as the statistical parameter.
  5. 請求項1又は2記載の電気機器識別装置としてコンピュータを動作させることを特徴とする電気機器識別プログラム。   A computer is operated as the electric device identification device according to claim 1 or 2, and an electric device identification program.
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