JP2012529063A - Display method and system using laser - Google Patents

Display method and system using laser Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2012529063A
JP2012529063A JP2012513336A JP2012513336A JP2012529063A JP 2012529063 A JP2012529063 A JP 2012529063A JP 2012513336 A JP2012513336 A JP 2012513336A JP 2012513336 A JP2012513336 A JP 2012513336A JP 2012529063 A JP2012529063 A JP 2012529063A
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Prior art keywords
laser diode
laser
blue
green
light
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JP2012513336A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
ダブリュ. レイリング ジェイムス
ルディ ポール
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ソラア インコーポレーテッドSoraa Inc.
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Priority to US18210509P priority Critical
Priority to US61/182,105 priority
Priority to US12/789,303 priority patent/US8427590B2/en
Priority to US12/789,303 priority
Application filed by ソラア インコーポレーテッドSoraa Inc. filed Critical ソラア インコーポレーテッドSoraa Inc.
Priority to PCT/US2010/036739 priority patent/WO2010138923A1/en
Publication of JP2012529063A publication Critical patent/JP2012529063A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B21/00Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor
    • G03B21/14Details
    • G03B21/20Lamp housings
    • G03B21/2006Lamp housings characterised by the light source
    • G03B21/2033LED or laser light sources
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N9/00Details of colour television systems
    • H04N9/12Picture reproducers
    • H04N9/31Projection devices for colour picture display, e.g. using electronic spatial light modulators [ESLM]
    • H04N9/3129Projection devices for colour picture display, e.g. using electronic spatial light modulators [ESLM] scanning a light beam on the display screen
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N9/00Details of colour television systems
    • H04N9/12Picture reproducers
    • H04N9/31Projection devices for colour picture display, e.g. using electronic spatial light modulators [ESLM]
    • H04N9/3141Constructional details thereof
    • H04N9/315Modulator illumination systems
    • H04N9/3161Modulator illumination systems using laser light sources
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING THE PROCESS OF LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION [LASER] TO AMPLIFY OR GENERATE LIGHT; DEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN WAVE RANGES OTHER THAN OPTICAL
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/20Structure or shape of the semiconductor body to guide the optical wave ; Confining structures perpendicular to the optical axis, e.g. index or gain guiding, stripe geometry, broad area lasers, gain tailoring, transverse or lateral reflectors, special cladding structures, MQW barrier reflection layers
    • H01S5/22Structure or shape of the semiconductor body to guide the optical wave ; Confining structures perpendicular to the optical axis, e.g. index or gain guiding, stripe geometry, broad area lasers, gain tailoring, transverse or lateral reflectors, special cladding structures, MQW barrier reflection layers having a ridge or stripe structure
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING THE PROCESS OF LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION [LASER] TO AMPLIFY OR GENERATE LIGHT; DEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN WAVE RANGES OTHER THAN OPTICAL
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/40Arrangement of two or more semiconductor lasers, not provided for in groups H01S5/02 - H01S5/30
    • H01S5/4012Beam combining, e.g. by the use of fibres, gratings, polarisers, prisms
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING THE PROCESS OF LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION [LASER] TO AMPLIFY OR GENERATE LIGHT; DEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN WAVE RANGES OTHER THAN OPTICAL
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/40Arrangement of two or more semiconductor lasers, not provided for in groups H01S5/02 - H01S5/30
    • H01S5/4025Array arrangements, e.g. constituted by discrete laser diodes or laser bar
    • H01S5/4031Edge-emitting structures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01SDEVICES USING THE PROCESS OF LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION [LASER] TO AMPLIFY OR GENERATE LIGHT; DEVICES USING STIMULATED EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN WAVE RANGES OTHER THAN OPTICAL
    • H01S5/00Semiconductor lasers
    • H01S5/40Arrangement of two or more semiconductor lasers, not provided for in groups H01S5/02 - H01S5/30
    • H01S5/4025Array arrangements, e.g. constituted by discrete laser diodes or laser bar
    • H01S5/4087Array arrangements, e.g. constituted by discrete laser diodes or laser bar emitting more than one wavelength

Abstract

A system with improved image and / or video display is provided.
The present invention relates to a display technology. More particularly, in a projection display system provided by various embodiments of the present invention, one or more laser diodes are used as a light source for displaying an image. In one set of embodiments, the projector system provided by the present invention uses a blue laser and / or a green laser made using a gallium nitride-containing material. In another set of embodiments, the present invention provides a projection system having a digital illumination processing engine. The digital illumination processing engine is illuminated by a blue laser device and / or a green laser device. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a 3D display system. Other embodiments exist.
[Selection] Figure 2

Description

  The present invention relates to display technology. More particularly, various embodiments of the present invention provide a projection display system.

  In a projection display system, one or more laser diodes and / or LEDs are used as a light source for displaying an image. In one set of embodiments, the projector system provided by the present invention uses a blue laser and / or a green laser made using a gallium nitride-containing material. In another set of embodiments, the present invention provides a projection system having a digital illumination processing engine. The digital illumination processing engine is illuminated by a blue laser device and / or a green laser device. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a 3D display system, although other embodiments exist.

  Large displays are becoming increasingly popular and are expected to expand in the next few years. This is because TV and digital advertisements are becoming more and more common at gas stations, shopping malls, and coffee shops as the price of LCD displays decreases. In recent years, the substantial growth of large-sized displays (for example, 40-inch TVs) has exceeded 40%, for example, and consumers are accustomed to increasing the size of notebook personal computers and PC displays. The display in consumer handheld electronics remains small (greater than 3 inches) as more display content (eg, TV, Internet and video) is available through handheld devices In addition, space and power for the keyboard, camera and other functions must be reserved.

  With this background, an improved system for the display of images and / or video has been desired.

  The present invention relates to display technology. More particularly, various embodiments of the present invention provide a projection display system. In a projection display system, one or more laser diodes are used as a light source for displaying an image. In one set of embodiments, the projector system provided by the present invention uses a blue laser and / or a green laser made using a gallium nitride-containing material. In another set of embodiments, the present invention provides a projection system having a digital illumination processing engine. The digital illumination processing engine is illuminated by a blue laser device and / or a green laser device. Other embodiments exist.

  According to an embodiment, the present invention provides a projection system. The projection system includes an interface for video reception. The system also includes an image processor that processes the video. The system includes a light source that includes a plurality of laser diodes. The plurality of laser diodes includes a blue laser diode. Blue laser diodes are made on non-polarized oriented gallium nitride materials. The system includes a power source electrically connected to the light source.

  According to another embodiment, the present invention provides a projection system. The system includes an interface for video reception. The system also includes an image processor that processes the video. The system includes a light source that includes a plurality of laser diodes. The plurality of laser diodes includes a blue laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a semipolar oriented gallium nitride material. The system also includes a power source electrically connected to the light source.

  According to an embodiment, the present invention provides a projection device. The projection device includes a housing having an opening. The apparatus also includes an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a video processing module. In addition, the apparatus includes a laser source. The laser source includes a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the blue laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 430-480 nm. The green laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the green laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. The red laser can be made from AlInGaP. The laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. The apparatus also includes a laser driver module connected to the laser source. The laser driver module generates three drive currents based on pixels from one or more image frames. Each of the three drive currents is adapted to drive a laser diode.

  The apparatus also includes a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror or flying mirror. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror or flying mirror is configured to project a laser beam through a aperture to a specific location, thereby obtaining a single picture. By rastering the pixels in two dimensions, a complete image is formed. The apparatus includes an optical member provided in the vicinity of the laser source. The optical member is adapted to direct the laser beam to the MEMS scanning mirror. The apparatus includes a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the MEMS scanning mirror.

  According to an embodiment, the present invention provides a projection device. The projection device includes a housing having an opening. The apparatus also includes an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a video processing module. In addition, the apparatus includes a laser source. The laser source includes a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the blue laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 430-480 nm. The green laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the green laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. In this embodiment, the blue and green laser diodes share the same substrate. The red laser can be made from AlInGaP. The laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. The apparatus also includes a laser driver module connected to the laser source.

  The laser driver module generates three drive currents based on pixels from one or more image frames. Each of the three drive currents is adapted to drive a laser diode. The apparatus also includes a MEMS scanning mirror or a flying mirror. The MEMS scanning mirror or flying mirror is configured to project the laser beam through the aperture to a specific position, thereby obtaining a single picture. By rastering the pixels in two dimensions, a complete image is formed. The apparatus includes an optical member provided proximate to the laser source, the optical member being adapted to direct the laser beam to the MEMS scanning mirror. The apparatus includes a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the MEMS scanning mirror.

  According to an embodiment, the present invention provides a projection device. The projection device includes a housing having an opening. The apparatus also includes an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a video processing module. In addition, the apparatus includes a laser source. The laser source includes a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the blue laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 430-480 nm. The green laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the green laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. The red laser can be made from AlInGaP. In this embodiment, two or more of the different color lasers are packaged in the same enclosure. In this copackage embodiment, the outputs from the blue, green and red laser diodes are combined to obtain a single beam. The apparatus also includes a laser driver module connected to the laser source. The laser driver module generates three drive currents based on pixels from one or more image frames. Each of the three drive currents is adapted to drive a laser diode. The apparatus also includes a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror or flying mirror. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror or flying mirror is configured to project a laser beam through a aperture to a specific location, thereby obtaining a single picture. By rastering the pixels in two dimensions, a complete image is formed. The apparatus includes an optical member provided proximate to the laser source, the optical member being adapted to direct the laser beam to the MEMS scanning mirror. The apparatus includes a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the MEMS scanning mirror.

  According to another embodiment, the present invention provides a projection apparatus. The apparatus includes a housing having an opening. The apparatus includes an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a laser source. The laser source includes a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the blue laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 430-480 nm. The green laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the green laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. The red laser can be made from AlInGaP. The laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. The apparatus includes a digital light processing (DLP) chip. Digital light processing (DLP) chips include digital mirror devices. The digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors, each mirror corresponding to one or more pixels of one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the digital light processing chip. Many variations of this embodiment are possible, for example, in one embodiment, the green and blue laser diodes may share the same substrate, or two or more of the different color lasers may be housed in the same package. In this same package embodiment, the outputs from the blue, green and red laser diodes are combined to obtain a single beam.

  According to another embodiment, the present invention provides a projection apparatus. The apparatus includes a housing having an opening. The apparatus includes an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a laser source. The laser source includes a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the blue laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 430-480 nm. The green laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the green laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. The red laser can be made from AlInGaP. The apparatus includes a digital light processing chip (DLP). A digital light processing chip (DLP) includes three digital mirror devices. Each digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors. Each mirror corresponds to one or more pixels of one or more image frames. Each color beam is projected onto a digital mirror device. The apparatus includes a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the digital light processing chip. Many variations of this embodiment are possible, for example, in one embodiment, the green and blue laser diodes may share the same substrate, or two or more of the different color lasers may be housed in the same package. . In this copackage embodiment, the outputs from the blue, green and red laser diodes are combined to obtain a single beam.

  As an example, the color wheel may include a phosphor material that changes the color of light emitted from the light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a blue light source and a red light source. The hue ring includes a groove for blue light and a phosphor including a region for converting blue light into green light. In operation, a blue light source (eg, a blue laser diode or a blue LED) provides blue light through the groove and excites green light from the phosphor containing region. The red light source provides red light separately. Green light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the color wheel or reflected from the color wheel. In either case, the green light is collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. Blue light that has passed through the groove is also directed to the microdisplay. The blue light source may be a laser diode or may be an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN. Alternatively, green light may be emitted using a green laser diode instead of a blue laser diode using a phosphor. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  As another example, the color wheel may include a plurality of phosphor materials. For example, the color wheel may include both green and red phosphors combined with a blue light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a blue light source. The hue ring includes a groove for blue laser light and two phosphor-containing regions for conversion of blue light into green light and blue light into red light, respectively. In operation, a blue light source (eg, a blue laser diode or a blue LED) provides blue light through the groove and excites green and red light from the phosphor containing region. Green light and red light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the hue ring or reflected from the hue ring. In either case, green and red light is collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. The blue light source may be a laser diode or may be an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  As another example, the color wheel may include a blue phosphor material, a green phosphor material, and a red phosphor material. For example, the color wheel may include blue, green and red phosphors combined with an ultraviolet (UV) light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a UV light source. The hue ring includes three phosphor-containing regions. The three phosphor-containing regions are for performing conversion from UV light to blue light, conversion from UV light to green light, and conversion from UV light to red light, respectively. In operation, the color wheel sequentially emits blue light, green light and red light from the phosphor-containing region. Blue light, green light and red light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the hue ring or reflected from the hue ring. In either case, blue light, green light and red light are collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. The UV light source may be a laser diode or an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  According to yet another embodiment, the present invention provides a projection apparatus. The apparatus includes a housing having an opening. The apparatus includes an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. The apparatus includes a laser source. The laser source includes a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The blue laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the blue laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 430-480 nm. The green laser diode is fabricated on a non-polar or semipolar orientation Ga-containing substrate, and the green laser diode has a peak operating wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. The red laser can be made from AlInGaP. The wavelength of the green laser diode is about 490 nm to 540 nm. The laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. The apparatus includes a digital light processing chip. The digital light processing chip includes three digital mirror devices. Each digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors. Each mirror corresponds to one or more pixels of one or more image frames. Each color beam is projected onto a digital mirror device. The apparatus includes a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the digital light processing chip. Many variations of this embodiment are possible, for example, in one embodiment, the green and blue laser diodes may share the same substrate, or two or more of the different color lasers may be housed in the same package. In this same package embodiment, the outputs from the blue, green and red laser diodes are combined to obtain a single beam.

  As an example, the color wheel may include a phosphor material that changes the color of light emitted from the light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a blue light source and a red light source. The hue ring includes a groove for blue light and a phosphor including a region for converting blue light into green light. In operation, a blue light source (eg, a blue laser diode or a blue LED) provides blue light through the groove and excites green light from the phosphor containing region. The red light source provides red light separately. Green light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the color wheel or reflected from the color wheel. In either case, the green light is collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. Blue light that has passed through the groove is also directed to the microdisplay. The blue light source may be a laser diode or may be an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN. Alternatively, green light may be emitted using a green laser diode instead of a blue laser diode using a phosphor. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  As another example, the color wheel may include a plurality of phosphor materials. For example, the color wheel may include both green and red phosphors combined with a blue light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a blue light source. The hue ring includes a groove for blue laser light and two phosphor-containing regions for conversion of blue light into green light and blue light into red light, respectively. In operation, a blue light source (eg, a blue laser diode or a blue LED) provides blue light through the groove and excites green and red light from the phosphor containing region. Green and red light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the color wheel or reflected from the color wheel. In either case, green light and red light are collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. The blue light source may be a laser diode or may be an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  As another example, the color wheel may include a blue phosphor material, a green phosphor material, and a red phosphor material. For example, the color wheel may include a combination of blue, green and red phosphors and an ultraviolet (UV) light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each of the plurality of regions corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a UV light source. The hue ring includes three phosphor-containing regions. The three phosphor-containing regions are for performing conversion from UV light to blue light, conversion from UV light to green light, and conversion from UV light to red light, respectively. In operation, the color wheel sequentially emits blue light, green light and red light from the phosphor-containing region. Blue light, green light and red light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the hue ring or reflected from the hue ring. In either case, blue light, green light and red light are collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. The UV light source may be a laser diode or an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  By using the present invention, various objects can be achieved as compared with existing techniques. Specifically, the present invention enables a cost-effective projection system using an efficient light source. In certain embodiments, the light source can be manufactured in a relatively simple and cost effective manner. Depending on the embodiment, the apparatus and method can be manufactured by one skilled in the art using conventional materials and / or methods. In one or more embodiments, the laser device is capable of multiple wavelengths. Of course, other modifications, changes and alternatives are possible. Depending on the embodiment, one or more of these objectives can be achieved. The above and other effects will be described in detail in the present specification and drawings.

  The present invention achieves these and other benefits in the context of known processing techniques. However, a further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be realized by reference to the latter portion of the specification and the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a conventional projection system.

FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2-A is a detailed cross-sectional view of a laser device 200 fabricated on a {20-21} substrate, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2-B is a diagram illustrating a projector having an LED light source.

FIG. 3 is another view of a projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3-A illustrates a laser diode packaged together according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3-B is a cross-sectional view of an active region with a stepped emission wavelength, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3-C is a diagram illustrating a cross section of a plurality of active regions according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3D is a diagram illustrating a projector having an LED light source.

FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 4-A illustrates a laser diode integrated in a single package configuration, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a diagram of a DLP projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5-A is a diagram illustrating a DLP projector according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a 3-chip DLP projection system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a diagram of a 3D display using polarized images filtered by polarized glasses.

FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating a 3D projection system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating an LCOS projection system 900 according to an embodiment of the present invention.

  The present invention relates to display technology. More particularly, in a projection display system provided by various embodiments of the present invention, one or more laser diodes are used as a light source for displaying an image. In one set of embodiments, the projector system provided by the present invention uses a blue laser and / or a green laser made using a gallium nitride-containing material. In another set of embodiments, the present invention provides a projection system having a digital illumination processing engine. The digital illumination processing engine is illuminated by a blue laser device and / or a green laser device. Other embodiments exist.

  As explained above, conventional display types are often inappropriate. Small projectors eliminate this problem by projecting large images (up to 60 inches and over 60 inches) from handheld devices, thereby enabling movies, internet surfing in a size format that is familiar to display consumers. And other images can be shared. As a result, pocket projectors, stand-alone companion pico projectors and embedded pico projectors in mobile devices (eg phones) are becoming increasingly available.

  Today, commercial InGaN-based lasers and LEDs are grown on the polar c-plane of GaN crystals. It is well known that when an InGaN light emitting layer is deposited on this conventional GaN orientation, problems arise due to the electric field associated with internal polarization. In these structures, spontaneous polarization is due to charge asymmetry during GaN bonding, and piezoelectric polarization is due to strain. In a quantum well structure, these polarization fields cause the electron and hole wave functions to be spaced apart and consequently reduce their radiative recombination efficiency. Since piezoelectric polarization depends on strain, these internal fields become stronger and the indium content in the emission layer required for blue lasers and LEDs (especially green lasers and LEDs) also increases.

  In addition to a decrease in the radiative recombination coefficient that decreases the LED brightness, a quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the light-emitting quantum well layer occurs due to the internal electric field. Due to this effect, a blue shift of the peak emission wavelength occurs, and the carrier density in the quantum well layer increases. Since the carrier density increases with increasing current, peak wavelength shifts occur as a function of current in blue or green LEDs. Such dependence of wavelength on drive current is not ideal for display applications where current modulation schemes are performed on LEDs. This is because the color change occurs with the current. In a laser diode, the carrier density increases with increasing current until the laser threshold begins. As the laser threshold is turned, the gain exceeds the loss in the cavity. In order to achieve lasing wavelengths in the blue and green regions, when the blue shift at such peak wavelength is below the threshold, the light emitting layer is forced to grow, resulting in an increase in indium content, Blue shift is compensated. It is well known that such increased indium content can lead to material quality degradation due to increased strain and indium-separation. For the realization of high efficiency blue lasers and LEDs and green lasers and LEDs, it is desirable to reduce or zero the polarization-related electric field.

  The growth of device structures on new GaN orientations (eg, nonpolar a-planes or m-planes or semipolar planes between nonpolar planes and polar c-planes) has long been understood to eliminate or reduce polarization fields Can do. On these new crystal planes, a unique degree of design freedom is obtained on both the epitaxial structure and the device structure. In addition, when anisotropic strain occurs in InGaN films grown on nonpolar and semipolar substrates, the effective hole mass decreases, resulting in increased differential gain and increased transparent current density in the laser diode. Can be reduced. Devices (eg, blue lasers and LEDs and green lasers and LEDs fabricated on non-polar and semi-polar surfaces) provide excitation potential to improve performance, increase radiative recombination efficiency, and drive current The peak wavelength blue shift is reduced, device design flexibility is increased, and favorable epitaxial growth quality is obtained.

  Examples of typical projectors based on solid state emitters are given below. Light sources (lasers or LEDs), optical elements, microdisplays (eg, liquid crystals on silicon (LCOS) or digital micromirror devices (DMDs)), driver boards, and power supplies (ie, batteries or power adapters).

  Depending on the application, the projection system can utilize polarized light or polarized light. For example, projection systems using a single scanner (eg, pico projectors) and DLP-based systems typically use unpolarized light sources. In certain applications (eg, projection systems using LCOS), a polarized light source is desirable. Typically, blue and green LEDs (which may be red LEDs) used in conventional projectors are non-polarized (or exhibit a low polarization ratio), which reduces the optical loss from polarization-dependent optical components. Excessive and spatial mode quality deteriorates, resulting in the need for large LCOS or LCD chips, making them unusable in compact designs. This is because the light cannot be focused into a small area. Due to the splitting of the valence band of X electrons and the valence band of Y electrons on nonpolar and semipolar GaN, light emission from devices (eg, LEDs fabricated on these platforms) is essentially Polarized light. The use of semi-polar and / or non-polar GaN-based LEDs in projection displays using LCOS technology or other light valves that require polarized light can cause components (eg, increased system complexity and cost) The optical loss associated with the LED is minimized without the need for additional polarization recyclers. In conventional projection systems, lasers and / or LEDs are often used as light sources for image illumination. Typically, in a projection system, the laser light source performs better than the LED light source.

  FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a conventional projection system. As shown in the figure, after combining the blue laser light, the green laser light, and the red laser light to obtain one laser beam, the laser beam is projected onto the MEMS scanning mirror.

  In a conventional projection system (eg, as shown in FIG. 1), a green second harmonic generation (SHG) laser is used to provide green laser light. At present, there is no direct diode utilization method for green laser emission, and therefore, a 1060 nm diode laser having a double frequency is forced to be utilized. This 1060 nm diode laser is expensive, bulky, difficult to modulate at high speed, and emits a narrow spectrum, causing speckle in the image. Furthermore, these devices require the generation of second harmonics using periodically pulsed lithium niobate (PPLN), which greatly reduces efficiency in connection with the technology.

  First, there is the efficiency of the 1060 nm device itself. Second, optical coupling loss occurs in connection with light induction into and out of the PPLN. Third, conversion loss occurs in the PPLN. Finally, losses occur in connection with cooling the component to the correct temperature.

  In order to produce a highly efficient display that maximizes battery life and minimizes cost, size, and weight, optical losses from the system need to be minimized. Non-limiting sources of optical loss in the system include loss from optical elements whose transmission is polarization dependent. Many compact projectors (eg, pico projectors) use micro-display technology (eg, LCOS or LCD) that has high polarization sensitivity. Typical LCOS-based displays typically require a highly polarized light source based on the nature of liquid crystal display technology.

  In various embodiments, the present invention provides a blue direct diode GaN laser and a green direct diode GaN laser. Blue direct diode GaN laser and green direct diode GaN laser ideal for various types of projections and displays (eg pico projectors, DLP projectors, liquid crystal displays (eg liquid crystal on silicon or “LCOS”)), High polarization output, single spatial mode, medium to large spectral width, high efficiency, and high modulation speed are obtained.

  By using a highly polarized light source in a projection display as provided by embodiments of the present invention, optical efficiency can be maximized, and the least cost and maximum flexibility in obtaining optical components can be obtained. It should be understood that it can be done. In the case of conventional illumination sources (eg, non-polarized LEDs and their systems), complex optical elements are required for polarization recycling due to increased efficiency from non-polar light sources. In contrast, by forming blue lasers and / or LEDs and green lasers and / or LEDs on nonpolar or semipolar GaN, the light output is highly polarized, thereby providing further for handling polarization. An optical element becomes unnecessary.

  As described in the present invention, direct diode lasers with GaN lasers are used for blue and green sources. Conventional c-plane GaN lasers emit non-polarized light or nearly non-polarized light when the laser falls below a threshold. When the laser reaches the threshold, the output light is polarized and the current increases. In contrast, lasers fabricated on nonpolar or semipolar GaN, according to embodiments of the present invention, emit polarized light below a threshold, have a higher polarization ratio, and higher current. By using a highly polarized light source in the projection display, the optical efficiency can be maximized at a minimum cost and the maximum flexibility in selecting optical components can be obtained.

  In order to produce a highly efficient display that maximizes battery life and minimizes cost, size and weight, optical losses from the system need to be minimized. In an LCOS system, the conversion LCOS is often made as small as possible to meet the small volume and to reduce costs. Therefore, a high light spatial brightness laser source is needed to achieve maximum optical efficiency and minimum power consumption, size and weight within the display.

  In the case of a conventional LED, the spatial mode quality is low, so a large LCOS chip or LCD chip is required and cannot be used in a compact design. This is because the light cannot be focused into a small area. In contrast, the blue direct diode GaN laser and the green direct diode GaN laser according to the present invention exhibit a single spatial mode for maximum throughput.

  Embodiments of the present invention also provide benefits from speckle reduction. For example, in the case of a 1060 nm diode laser having a double frequency used in a conventional system, a narrow spectrum is generated, and speckles are generated in an image. For direct diode visible lasers (e.g., green lasers) used in embodiments of the present invention, the spectrum can be increased by> 100x, thus substantially reducing speckle in the image, being expensive and bulky. Reducing the need to add additional components.

  Furthermore, the double frequency 1060 nm diode laser used in conventional systems is inefficient because of the generation of second harmonics. In the case of a direct diode visible laser used in the present invention, the efficiency can be substantially higher and can also benefit from reduced system optical components and size and weight.

  As described above, a typical small projector (eg, a pico projector) includes the following components: That is, a light source (laser or LED), an optical element, a micro display (eg, LCOS display or DMD display), a driver board, and a power source (ie, battery or power adapter).

  Currently, blue and green LEDs (which may be red LEDs) are unpolarized, resulting in excessive optical loss and reduced spatial mode quality, resulting in the need for large LCOS chips or LCD chips, Use in compact design becomes impossible. This is because the light cannot be focused into a small area. Due to the splitting of the valence band of X electrons and the valence band of Y electrons on nonpolar and semipolar GaN, light emission from devices (eg, LEDs fabricated on these platforms) is essentially Polarized light. By using semi-polar and / or non-polar GaN-based LEDs in projection displays or other LCOS technologies, there is no need to add components (eg, polarization recyclers that cause increased system complexity and cost), Optical losses associated with unpolarized LEDs are minimized.

  At present, there is no direct diode utilization method for green laser emission, and therefore, a 1060 nm diode laser having a double frequency is forced to be utilized. This double frequency 1060 nm diode laser is expensive, bulky, difficult to modulate at high speed, and emits a narrow spectrum, causing speckle in the image. Furthermore, these devices require the generation of second harmonics using periodic pulsed lithium niobate (PPLN), which greatly reduces the efficiency associated with the technology. First, there is the efficiency of the 1060 nm device itself. Second, optical coupling loss occurs in connection with light induction into and out of the PPLN. Third, conversion loss occurs in the PPLN. Finally, losses occur in connection with cooling the component to the correct temperature.

  Blue direct diode GaN lasers and green direct diode GaN lasers according to embodiments of the present invention provide high polarization output, single spatial mode, medium to large spectral width, high efficiency and high modulation speed, ideal for liquid crystal displays. can get.

  In the case of the conventional approach for the double frequency, although high spatial luminance is achieved, a high modulation frequency cannot be easily obtained, and image artifacts occur at the time of trial. Therefore, the modulation frequency of the source is limited to 100 MHz, and it is necessary to use amplitude (analog) modulation. When the frequency capability increases to 300 MHz, pulsed (digital) modulation can be used, which simplifies the system and eliminates the need for a lookup table.

  With direct diode solutions according to embodiments of the present invention, modulation frequencies in excess of 300 MHz can be achieved, and digital operation can also be realized. Nonpolar GaN lasers and / or semipolar GaN lasers greatly increase the possibilities of direct diode green solutions, thereby greatly increasing the possibilities of digital scanning micromirror projectors.

  FIG. 2 is a simplified diagram illustrating a projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is only an example and should not unduly limit the scope of the claims. Those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications, alternatives and changes. The projection system 250 includes a MEMS scanning mirror 251, a mirror 252, an optical member 254, a green laser diode 253, a red laser diode 256, and a blue laser diode 255.

  As an example, the projection system 250 is a pico projector. In addition to the components shown in FIG. 2, the projection system 250 also includes a housing having an opening and an input interface for receiving one or more image frames. Projection system 250 also includes a video processing module. In one embodiment, the video processing module is electrically connected to the ASIC, thereby driving the laser diode and the MEMS scanning mirror scanning mirror 251.

  In one embodiment, the laser diode, together with the optical member 254, forms a laser source. The green laser diode 253 is characterized by a wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm. The laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. Depending on the application, it is possible to combine the light output from the laser diodes using various types of optical components. For example, the optical component can be a dichroic lens, a prism, a converging lens, and the like. In certain embodiments, the combined laser beam is polarized,

  In one embodiment, a laser driver module is provided. In particular, the laser driver module is adapted to adjust the amount of power provided to the laser diode. For example, the laser driver module generates one or more pixels based on three drive currents from one or more image frames, each of the three drive currents adapted to drive a laser diode. In certain embodiments, the laser driver module is configured to generate a pulse modulated signal in a frequency range of about 50-300 MHz.

  The MEMS scanning mirror 251 is configured to project a laser beam to a specific position through the opening. For example, the MEMS scanning mirror 251 processes one pixel on a specific position corresponding to a pixel of the image at a specific timing. At high frequencies, the pixels projected from the MEMS scanning mirror 251 form an image.

  The MEMS scanning mirror 251 receives light from the laser source through the mirror 252. As shown, a mirror 252 is provided in the vicinity of the laser source. In particular, the optical member is adapted to direct the laser beam to the MEMS scanning mirror 251.

  It should be understood that the projection system 250 includes other components (eg, a power source electrically connected to the laser source and the MEMS scanning mirror 251). Other components include buffer memory, communication interface, network interface, etc.

  As described above, the main component of the projection system 250 is a laser light source. In contrast to conventional projection systems, highly efficient laser diodes are used in embodiments of the present invention. In certain embodiments, the blue laser diode operates in a single transverse mode. For example, blue laser diodes are characterized in that the spectral width is about 0.5 nm to 2 nm. In certain embodiments, the blue laser diode is designed for portable applications (eg, embedded and associated pico projectors) and features a single mode output from 60 mW to 445 nm in a compact TO-38 package. . For example, blue lasers operate at high efficiency and require minimal power consumption over a wide temperature range, thereby enabling consumer projection display applications, defense pointer applications and illuminator applications, biomedical instrumentation and therapy Meet stringent requirements for applications as well as industrial imaging applications. According to various embodiments, the blue laser is fabricated on a GaN substrate based on indium gallium nitride (InGaN) semiconductor technology.

  In various embodiments, the blue and green laser diodes are made using GaN materials. Blue laser diodes can be semipolar or nonpolar. Similarly, the green laser diode can be semipolar or nonpolar. For example, a red laser diode can be manufactured using a GaAlInP material. For example, the following laser diode combinations are possible, but other combinations are possible. Specifically, blue polarity + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green polarity + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue Semipolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green polar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + Green polarity + red * AlInGaP.

As an example, a blue laser diode and a green laser diode can be manufactured on the m-plane. In certain embodiments, the blue laser diode or green laser diode includes a gallium nitride substrate member having an off-cut m-plane crystalline surface region. In a specific embodiment, this off-cut angle is -2.0 to -0.5 degrees with respect to the c-plane. In certain embodiments, the gallium nitride substrate member is a bulk GaN substrate characterized by a semipolar crystalline surface region or a nonpolar crystalline surface region, but may be others. In certain embodiments, the bulk nitrided GaN substrate comprises nitrogen and has a surface dislocation density of less than 10 5 cm −2 . The nitride crystal or wafer may include Al x In y Ga 1-xy N, where 0 ≦ x, y, x + y ≦ 1. In one particular embodiment, the nitride crystal comprises GaN, but may be others. In one or more embodiments, the GaN substrate has threading dislocations at a concentration of about 10 5 cm −2 to about 10 8 cm −2 in a direction substantially perpendicular or oblique to the surface. Due to perpendicular or diagonal dislocations, the surface dislocation density is below about 10 5 cm −2 . In certain embodiments, the device can be fabricated on a semipolar substrate that is slightly offcut.

  In certain embodiments, the laser is fabricated on a {20-21} semipolar GaN surface orientation and the device has a laser stripe region. The laser stripe region is formed so as to overlap with a part of the off-cut crystal line alignment surface region. In certain embodiments, the laser stripe region is characterized by a cavity orientation in which the projection direction is substantially the c direction. The c direction is substantially perpendicular to the a direction. In certain embodiments, the laser strip region has a first end and a second end. In a preferred embodiment, the laser cavity is oriented on a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate with a {20-21} pair of cleaved mirror structures in c direction projection at the cavity end. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

  In certain embodiments, the laser is fabricated on a nonpolar m-plane GaN surface orientation, and the device has a laser stripe region formed overlying a portion of the off-cut crystal line oriented surface region. In certain embodiments, the laser stripe region is characterized by a cavity orientation that is substantially in the c direction. The c direction is substantially perpendicular to the a direction. In certain embodiments, the laser strip region has a first end and a second end. In a preferred embodiment, the laser cavity is oriented in the c direction on an m-plane gallium and nitrogen containing substrate having a pair of cleaved mirror structures at the cavity ends. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

  In a preferred embodiment, the device includes a first cleaved surface provided on the first end of the laser stripe region, and a second cleaved surface provided on the second end of the laser stripe region. Have In one or more embodiments, the first cleavage is substantially parallel to the second cleavage plane. A mirror surface is formed on each cleaved surface. The first cleavage plane includes a first mirror surface. In a preferred embodiment, an upper skip scribe scribing and breaking process provides a first mirror surface. Any suitable technique (eg, diamond scribe or laser scribe or combination) can be used in the scribing process. In certain embodiments, the first mirror surface includes a reflective coating. The reflective coating is selected from silicon dioxide, hafnium and titania, tantalum pentoxide, zirconia, combinations thereof, and the like. Depending on the embodiment, the first mirror surface may include an anti-reflective coating. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

  In a preferred embodiment, the second cleavage surface also includes a second mirror surface. The upper skip scribe scribing and breaking process according to certain embodiments provides a second mirror surface. Preferably, the scribing is diamond scribe or laser scribe. In certain embodiments, the second mirror surface includes a reflective coating (eg, silicon dioxide, hafnium, and titania, tantalum pentoxide, zirconia, combinations, etc.). In certain embodiments, the second mirror surface includes an antireflective coating. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

  In certain embodiments, the laser stripe has a length and a width. The length ranges from about 50 microns to about 3000 microns. The width of the strip ranges from about 0.5 microns to about 50 microns, but other dimensions are possible. In certain embodiments, the widths are substantially the same dimensions, although slight variations are possible. The width and length are often formed using masking and etching processes that are also commonly used in the art.

  In certain embodiments, the present invention provides another device structure that can emit light of 501 nm or more in ridge laser embodiments. The device is provided with one or more of the following epitaxially grown elements, including but not limited to: Specifically, an n-GaN cladding layer (thickness 100 nm to 5000 nm, Si doping level 5E17 to 3E18 cm-3), an n-side SCH layer (this includes InGaN with a molar ratio of 3% to 10% indium. A plurality of quantum well active region layers (including at least two 2.0-8.5 nm InGaN quantum wells, and at least two 2.0-8.5 nm thick) InGaN quantum wells are s thin 2.5 nm or more and optionally separated by a GaN barrier that passes through a thickness of up to about 8 nm), a p-side SCH layer (which contains 1% to 10% InGaN). % With a molar ratio of indium and a thickness of 15 nm to 100 nm), an electron blocking layer (this includes AlGaN with a molar ratio of 12% to 22%). Including, with a thickness of 5 to 20 nm and doped with Mg, a p-GaN cladding layer (which has a thickness of 400 to 1000 nm and a Mg doping level of 2E17 cm-3 to 2E19 cm-3 P ++-GaN contact layer (which has a thickness of 20 nm to 40 nm and an Mg doping level of 1E19 cm-3 to 1E21 cm-3).

  In certain embodiments, the laser device is fabricated on a {20-21} semipolar Ga-containing substrate. However, it should be understood that the laser device can be fabricated on other types of substrates (eg, non-polarized oriented Ga-containing substrates).

  Light sources based on red, green and blue sources are widely used, but other combinations are possible. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the light source used in the projection system combines a yellow light source with a red source, a green source and a blue source. For example, the addition of a yellow light source results in an RBG projection and display system with improved color characteristics (eg, a wider full chromaticity). In certain embodiments, an RGYB light source is used for the projection system. The yellow light source may be a yellow laser diode made from a gallium nitride material or an AlInGaP material. In various embodiments, the yellow light source can have a polar orientation, a non-polar orientation, or a semipolar orientation. It should be understood that the projection system according to the present invention can also use light sources of other colors. For example, other colors include cyan and magenta. In certain embodiments, different color laser diodes are packaged separately. In another specific embodiment, two or more different color laser diodes are packaged together. In yet another specific embodiment, two or more different color laser diodes are fabricated on the same substrate.

  FIG. 2-A is a detailed cross-sectional view of a laser device 200 fabricated on a {20-21} substrate, according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example and should not unduly limit the scope of the claims herein. Those skilled in the art will recognize other modifications, changes and alternatives. As shown, the laser device includes a gallium nitride substrate 203. An n-type metal back contact region 201 is provided below the gallium nitride substrate 203. In certain embodiments, the metal back contact region is formed of a suitable material (eg, as described below). Further details of the contact area are described herein and more details are described below.

In certain embodiments, the device also has a superimposed n-type gallium nitride layer 205, an active region 207, and a superimposed p-type gallium nitride layer structure structured as a laser stripe region 209. In certain embodiments, each of these regions is formed using at least metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) epitaxial deposition techniques, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), or other epitaxial growth techniques suitable for GaN growth. The In certain embodiments, the epitaxial layer is a high quality epitaxial layer obtained by GaN growth of an n-type gallium nitride layer. In some embodiments, the high quality layer is doped with, for example, Si or O at a dopant concentration of about 10 16 cm −3 to 10 20 cm −3 to form an n-type material.

In certain embodiments, an n-type Al u In v Ga 1-uv N layer (where 0 ≦ u, v, u + v ≦ 1) is deposited on the substrate. In certain embodiments, the carrier concentration can be in the range of about 10 16 cm −3 to 10 20 cm −3 . Deposition can be performed using MOCVD or MBE. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

  As an example, the bulk GaN substrate is placed on a susceptor in a MOCVD reactor. After the reactor is closed, evacuated and backfilled (or using a load lock configuration) to atmospheric pressure, the susceptor is heated to a temperature of about 900 to about 1200 degrees Celsius in the presence of a nitrogen-containing gas. In one particular embodiment, the susceptor is heated to approximately 1100 degrees Celsius under flowing ammonia. The flow of the gallium-containing metal organic precursor (eg, trimethylgallium (TMG) or triethylgallium (TEG)) is initiated in the carrier gas at a rate of approximately 1-50 cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). The carrier gas can include hydrogen, helium, nitrogen or argon. The flow ratio of the group V precursor (ammonia) to the group III precursor (trimethylgallium, triethylgallium, trimethylindium, trimethylaluminum) at this time is about 2000 to about 12000. The flow of disilane in the carrier gas is initiated at a total flow rate of about 0.1-10 sccm.

  In certain embodiments, the laser stripe region is comprised of a p-type gallium nitride layer 209. In certain embodiments, the laser stripe is provided by an etching process selected from dry etching or wet etching. In a preferred embodiment, the etching process may be dry or others. As an example, the dry etch process is an inductively coupled process using a reactive ion etch process using chlorine-bearing species or similar chemical structures. Similarly, as an example, the chlorine-containing chemical species are often derived from chlorine gas or the like. The device also has an overlying dielectric region that exposes the 213 contact region. In certain embodiments, the dielectric region is an oxide (eg, silicon dioxide or silicon nitride), but may be other. The contact area is connected to the superimposed metal layer 215. The superimposed metal layer has a multilayer structure including palladium and gold (Pd / Au), platinum and gold (Pt / Au), and nickel gold (Ni / Au), but may be other layers. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

In certain embodiments, the laser device has an active region 207. The active region may include 1 to 20 quantum well regions according to one or more embodiments. As an example, an n-type Al u In v Ga 1-uv N layer is deposited for a predetermined period until a predetermined thickness is reached, and then an active layer is deposited. The active layer can include a plurality of quantum wells including 2-10 quantum wells. The quantum well can include InGaN with a GaN barrier layer in between. In other embodiments, the well layer and the barrier layer include Al w In x Ga 1-wx N and Al y In z Ga 1-yz N, respectively, where 0 ≦ w, x, y , Z, w + x, y + z ≦ 1, w <u, y and / or x> v, z), whereby the band gap of the well layer (s) is the barrier layer (s) and n-type layer The number is smaller than the band gap. The thickness of the well layer and the barrier layer can each be about 1 nm to about 20 nm. The composition and structure of the active layer is selected such that light emission is obtained at a preselected wavelength. The active layer may remain undoped (or may be unintentionally doped) or may be n-type doped or p-type doped. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

In certain embodiments, the active region can also include an electron blocking region and a separate confinement heterostructure. In some embodiments, it is preferred to deposit an electron blocking layer. The electron blocking layer may include Al s In t Ga 1-st N (where 0 ≦ s, t, s + t ≦ 1), has a higher band gap than the active layer, and may be p-type doped. In one particular embodiment, the electron blocking layer comprises AlGaN. In another embodiment, the electron blocking layer comprises an AlGaN / GaN superlattice structure, comprising alternating AlGaN layers and GaN layers, each having a thickness of about 0.2 nm to about 5 nm. Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

As described above, the p-type gallium nitride structure is deposited above the electron blocking layer and the active layer (s). The p-type layer can be doped with Mg to a level of about 10 16 cm −3 to 10 22 cm −3 , and the thickness of the p-type layer can be about 5 nm to about 1000 nm. Electrical contact can be improved by doping the outermost 1-50 nm of the p-type layer higher than the other parts of the layer. In certain embodiments, the laser stripe is provided by an etching process selected from dry etching or wet etching. In a preferred embodiment, the etching process may be dry or others. The device also has an overlying dielectric region that exposes the 213 contact region. In certain embodiments, the dielectric region comprises an oxide (eg, silicon dioxide), but may be other (eg, silicon nitride). Of course, there can be other modifications, changes, and alternatives.

  It should be understood that the light source of projector 250 can also include one or more LEDs. FIG. 2-B is a simplified diagram illustrating a projector having an LED light source. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As an example, blue and green LEDs are manufactured from gallium nitride-containing materials. In one particular embodiment, the blue LED is characterized by a non-polar orientation. In another embodiment, the blue LED is characterized by a semipolar orientation.

  FIG. 3 is another view of a projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. In FIG. 3, the projection device includes a MEMS scanning mirror, a mirror, a light conversion member, a red laser diode, a blue diode, and a green laser diode. The blue laser diode and green laser diode as shown are integrated as a single package. For example, blue and green lasers share the same substrate and surface. Outputs from the blue and green laser diodes are emitted from the common surface. It will be appreciated that co-packaging the blue laser diode and the green laser diode allows for a substantial reduction in the size and cost of the projector device (eg, a reduction in the number of parts).

  In addition, green laser diodes and blue laser diodes are characterized by high efficiency. For example, the blue color on the green laser diode is made from a bulk gallium nitride material. The blue laser diode can be non-polar or semi-polar. Green laser diodes can be non-polar or semi-polar as well. For example, the following laser diode combinations are possible, but other possibilities are possible. Specifically, blue polarity + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green polarity + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue Semipolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green polar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + Green polarity + red * AlInGaP.

  In one embodiment, the green laser diode is characterized by a wavelength between 480 nm and 540 nm. This wavelength range is different from conventional manufacturing devices that use infrared laser diodes (ie, those with an emission wavelength of about 1060 nm) and have doubled the frequency using SHG.

  FIG. 3-A is a simplified diagram of a laser diode packaged together according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 3-A, two laser diodes are provided on a single package. For example, laser 1 is illustrated in a blue laser diode and laser 2 is a green laser diode. Laser power can be combined using optical elements.

  The outputs of the two lasers as shown in FIG. For example, the output of laser 1 and laser 2 can be combined as shown using optical components (eg, dichroic lenses, waveguides).

  In other embodiments, the blue and green laser diodes are monolithically integrated. FIG. 3-B is a cross-sectional view of an active region with a stepped emission wavelength according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 3-B, for example, active regions having different radial gradients are provided. Ridge waveguides in different parts of the active region are adapted to emit different wavelengths.

  FIG. 3-C is a simplified diagram illustrating cross sections of a plurality of active regions according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. In particular, each active region is associated with a specific wavelength.

  It should be understood that the light source of projector 300 may also include one or more LEDs. FIG. 3D is a simplified diagram illustrating a projector having an LED light source. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As an example, blue and green LEDs are manufactured from gallium nitride-containing materials. In one particular embodiment, the blue LED is characterized by a non-polar orientation. In another embodiment, the blue LED is characterized by a semipolar orientation.

  FIG. 4 is a simplified diagram of a projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 4, a light source 401 is obtained by integrating a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode. The light source 401 combines the outputs of the laser diodes. The combined light is projected onto the mirror, which mirrors the combined light into a MEMS scanning mirror. Reflects up. By providing the laser diode in the same package, both the size and cost of the light source 401 can be reduced. For example, it should be understood that the following laser diode combinations are possible, but other combinations are possible. For example, blue polarity + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green polarity + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + Green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green polarity + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green polarity + Red * AlInGaP.

  FIG. 4-A is a simplified diagram illustrating a laser diode integrated in a single package configuration, according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. For example, laser 1 can be a green laser diode, laser 2 can be a red laser diode, and laser 3 can be a blue laser diode. Depending on the application, the green laser diode can be fabricated on a semipolar gallium-containing substrate, a nonpolar gallium-containing substrate or a polar gallium-containing substrate. Similarly, the blue laser diode can be formed on a semipolar gallium-containing substrate, a nonpolar gallium-containing substrate or a polar gallium-containing substrate.

  It should be understood that the various projection systems according to the present invention have a wide range of applications. In various embodiments, the projection system described above is integrated on cell phones, cameras, personal computers, portable computers and other electronic devices.

  FIG. 5 is a simplified diagram of a DLP projection device according to an embodiment of the present invention, which is merely an example, and does not unduly limit the scope of the claims. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 5, the projection apparatus includes, in particular, a light source, a condenser lens, a hue ring, a molded lens, a digital illumination processor (DLP) substrate, and a projection lens. The DLP substrate includes in particular a processor, a memory and a digital micromirror device (DMD).

  As an example, the color wheel may include a phosphor material that changes the color of light emitted from the light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a blue light source and a red light source. The hue ring includes a groove for blue light and a phosphor including a region for converting blue light into green light. In operation, a blue light source (eg, a blue laser diode or a blue LED) provides blue light through the groove, excites green light from the phosphor-containing region, and a red light source provides red light separately. Green light from the phosphor may pass through the hue ring or may be reflected from the hue ring. In either case, the green light is collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. Blue light that has passed through the groove is also directed to the microdisplay. The blue light source can be a laser diode and / or an LED made on non-polar oriented GaN or semi-polar oriented GaN. In some cases, combining both the blue laser and the blue LED can improve the color characteristics. Other sources of green light include green laser diodes and / or green LEDs that can be made from nonpolar Ga-containing or semipolar Ga-containing substrates. In some embodiments, it may be advantageous to use some combination of LED, laser and / or phosphor converted green light. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  As another example, the color wheel may include a plurality of phosphor materials. For example, the color wheel may include both green and red phosphors combined with a blue light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a blue light source. The hue ring includes a groove for blue laser light and two phosphor-containing regions for conversion of blue light into green light and blue light into red light, respectively. In operation, a blue light source (eg, a blue laser diode or a blue LED) provides blue light through the groove and excites green and red light from the phosphor containing region. Green and red light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the color wheel or reflected from the color wheel. In either case, green and red light is collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. The blue light source may be a laser diode or may be an LED made on non-polar or GaN-polar GaN.

  As another example, the color wheel may include a blue phosphor material, a green phosphor material, and a red phosphor material. For example, the color wheel may include a combination of blue, green and red phosphors and an ultraviolet (UV) light source. In certain embodiments, the hue circle includes a plurality of regions, each region corresponding to a particular color (eg, red, green, blue, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, the projector includes a light source that includes a UV light source. The hue circle includes three phosphor-containing regions for each of UV light to blue light conversion, UV light to green light conversion, and UV light to red light conversion. In operation, the hue circle sequentially emits blue, green, and red light from the phosphor-containing region. Blue light, green light and red light from the phosphor can be transmitted through the hue ring or reflected from the hue ring. In either case, blue light, green light and red light are collected by the optical element and redirected to the microdisplay. The UV light source may be a laser diode or an LED made on non-polar or GaN oriented semi-polar GaN. It will be appreciated that other combinations of color light sources and their hue circles are possible.

  The light source as shown can be made based on a laser. In one embodiment, the output from the light source is a laser beam characterized by a substantially white color. In one embodiment, the light source combines the light output from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. For example, a single package can be obtained by integrating blue, green, and red laser diodes. As mentioned above. Other combinations are possible. For example, a blue laser diode and a green laser diode share a single package, and a red laser diode is packaged alone. In this embodiment, these lasers can be modulated so that the colors are in time series, thereby eliminating the need for a hue circle. Blue laser diodes can be polar, semipolar and nonpolar. Similarly, green laser diodes can be polar, semipolar and nonpolar. For example, blue and / or green diodes are manufactured from a bulk substrate that includes a gallium nitride material. For example, the following laser diode combinations are possible, but other combinations are possible. Specifically, blue polarity + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green polarity + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue Semipolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green polar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + Green polarity + red * AlInGaP.

  In FIG. 5, the DLP projection system projects light of one color (for example, red, green, or blue) onto the DMD at once using a color wheel. The reason why the color wheel is necessary is that white light is continuously provided from the light source. Since the solid state device is used as the light source in the embodiment of the present invention, it should be understood that the hue circle shown in FIG. 5 is not necessary in the DLP projector according to the present invention. FIG. 5-A is a simplified diagram illustrating a DLP projector according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes.

  In another embodiment, the light source includes a single laser diode. For example, the light source includes a blue laser diode that outputs a blue laser beam. The light source also includes one or more optical members that change the blue color of the laser beam, for example, the one or more optical members include a phosphor material. The laser beam excites the phosphor material to form a substantially white light source that serves as the light source for the projection display. In the present embodiment, a hue circle is required to order the blue frame, the green frame, and the red frame with respect to the DLP.

  The projection system 500 includes a light source 501, a light source controller 502, an optical member 504, and a DLP chip 505. The light source 501 is configured to emit colored light to the DMD 503 through the optical member 504. More specifically, the light source 501 includes a colored laser diode. For example, the laser diode includes a red laser diode, a blue laser diode, and a green laser diode. At a predetermined time interval, a single laser diode is turned on and the other laser diodes are turned off, so that a single colored laser beam is emitted onto the DMD 503. The light source controller 502 provides a control signal to the light source 501 for switching the laser diode on and off based on a predetermined frequency and order. For example, this laser diode switching is similar to the function of the hue circle shown in FIG.

  FIG. 6 is a simplified diagram illustrating a 3-chip DLP projection system according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 5, the 3-chip DLP projection system includes a light source, an optical element, a plurality of DMDs, and a color wheel system. As shown, each of these DMDs is associated with a particular color.

  In various embodiments, the white light beam includes a substantially white laser beam provided by a light source. In one embodiment, the output from the light source is a laser beam characterized by a substantially white color. In one embodiment, the light source combines the light output from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode. For example, as described above, blue, green, and red laser diodes can be integrated to obtain a single package. Other combinations are possible. For example, a blue laser diode and a green laser diode share a single package, and a red laser diode is packaged alone. Blue laser diodes can be polar, semipolar and nonpolar. Similarly, green laser diodes can be polar, semipolar and nonpolar. For example, blue and / or green diodes are manufactured from a bulk substrate that includes a gallium nitride material. For example, the following laser diode combinations are possible, but other possibilities are possible. Specifically, blue polarity + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue polarity + green polarity + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue Semipolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue semipolar + green polar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green nonpolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + green semipolar + red * AlInGaP, blue nonpolar + Green polarity + red * AlInGaP.

  In another embodiment, the light source includes a single laser diode. For example, the light source includes a blue laser diode that outputs a blue laser beam. The light source also includes one or more optical members that change the blue color of the laser beam. For example, the one or more optical members include a phosphor material.

  It should be understood that the light source may include a laser diode and / or an LED. In one embodiment, the light source includes laser diodes of different colors. For example, the light source may further include a phosphor material that changes the color of light emitted from the laser diode. In another embodiment, the light source includes one or more colored LEDs. In yet another embodiment, the light source includes both a laser diode and an LED. For example, the light source may include a phosphor material for changing the light color of the laser diode and / or LED.

  In various embodiments, laser diodes are used for 3D display applications. Typically, 3D display systems rely on stereoscopic viewing principles. In the stereoscopic vision technique, different images are provided to the left and right eyes of the user by using a separate device for each user watching the scene. Examples of this technique include anaglyph images and polarized glasses. FIG. 7 is a simplified diagram illustrating a 3D display using a polarized image filtered by polarized glasses. As illustrated, the left eye and the right eye recognize different images through polarized glasses.

  Conventional polarized glasses often include circular polarized glasses utilized by RealD Cinema (registered trademark) and are widely adopted in many theaters. Another type of image separation is provided by interference filter technology. For example, spatial interference filters in glasses and projectors are the mainstream technology, and this is the origin of this name. In these filters, the visible color spectrum is divided into six narrow bands (two of which are red regions, two of which are green regions and two of which are blue regions (for illustrative purposes). Therefore, they are referred to as R1, R2, G1, G2, B1, and B2)). These R1, G1, and B1 bands are used for the image for one eye, and R2, G2, and B2 are used for the image for the other eye. This technique allows the human eye to hardly perceive such small spectral differences. A full-color 3D image can be generated with only a slight color difference between the two eyes. In some cases, this technique may be referred to as a “super anaglyph”. This is because this technique is highly spectrally multiplexed and forms the core of conventional anaglyph techniques. In a specific example, the following set of wavelengths is used. For example, in the left eye, red 629 nm, green 532 nm, and blue 446 nm, and in the right eye, red 615 nm, green 518 nm, and blue 432 nm.

  In various embodiments, the present invention provides a projection system that projects 3D images. In this system, laser diodes are used to provide basic RGB colors. FIG. 8 is a simplified diagram illustrating a 3D projection system according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 8, the projection system includes a projector 801. The projector 801 is configured to project an image associated with one eye (for example, the left eye). The projector 801 includes a first light source. The first light source includes a first set of laser diodes (ie, a red laser diode, a green laser diode, and a blue laser diode). Each of these laser diodes is associated with a specific wavelength. For example, a red laser diode is configured to emit a laser beam characterized by a wavelength of 629 nm, a green laser diode is configured to emit a laser beam characterized by a wavelength of 532 nm, and a blue laser diode is , Configured to emit a laser beam characterized by a wavelength of 446 nm. It should be understood that other wavelengths are possible.

  In various embodiments, the blue laser diode is characterized by a nonpolar orientation or a semipolar orientation. For example, blue laser diodes are made from gallium nitride containing substrates. In one particular embodiment, the blue laser diode is manufactured from a bulk substrate material. Similarly, a green laser diode can be manufactured from a gallium nitride containing substrate. For example, green laser diodes are characterized by nonpolar orientation or semipolar orientation.

  It should be understood that colored LEDs can also be used to provide colored light to the projection element. For example, red LEDs can be used in place of red laser diodes to provide red light. Similarly, various color LEDs and / or laser diodes can be used as interchangeable light sources. The phosphor material can be used to change the color of light emitted from the LED and / or laser diode.

  Projector 802 is configured to project an image associated with the other eye (eg, the right eye). The second light source includes a second set of laser diodes (ie, a red laser diode, a green laser diode, and a blue laser diode). Each of these laser diodes is associated with a particular wavelength, each of which is different from the wavelength of the corresponding laser diode of the first light source. For example, a red laser diode is configured to emit a laser beam characterized by a wavelength of 615 nm, a green laser diode is configured to emit a laser beam characterized by a wavelength of 518 nm, and a blue laser diode is It is configured to emit a laser beam characterized by 432 nm. It should be understood that other wavelengths are possible.

  Although the projectors 801 and 802 shown in FIG. 8 are arranged in a spaced apart manner, it should be understood that the two projectors can also be arranged in one housing unit. In addition to the light source and the image source, the projector includes optical elements for focusing images from the two projectors on the same screen.

  Depending on the specific application, the projection image can be filtered according to the viewer using various types of filters. In one embodiment, a band pass filter is used. For example, with a band pass filter, only one set of RGB color wavelengths can pass through one eye. In another embodiment, a notch filter can be used to allow substantially all wavelengths except one specific set of RGB color wavelengths to pass through one eye. Other embodiments are possible.

  In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) projection system. FIG. 9 is a simplified diagram illustrating an LCOS projection system 900 according to an embodiment of the present invention. This diagram is merely an example, and does not limit the scope of the claims excessively. Those skilled in the art will recognize modifications, substitutions and changes. As shown in FIG. 9, the green laser diode provides green laser light to the green LCOS thru splitter 901, the blue laser diode provides blue laser light to the blue LCOS thru splitter 903, and the red laser diode is the red laser diode. Provide light to the LCOS thru splitter 904. Each LCOS is used to form a predetermined single color image as provided by the corresponding laser diode, and the single colored image is combined by the x-cube component 902. The combined color image is projected onto the lens 906.

  In various embodiments, the one or more laser diodes used in the projection system 900 are characterized by semipolar orientation or non-polar orientation. In one embodiment, the laser diode is manufactured from a bulk substrate. In certain embodiments, the blue and green laser diodes are fabricated from gallium nitride containing substrates. It should be understood that colored LEDs can be used to provide colored light for the projection element. For example, in providing red light, it is possible to use a red LED instead of a red laser diode. Similarly, various color LEDs and / or laser diodes can be used as interchangeable light sources. The phosphor material can be used to change the color of light emitted from the LED and / or laser diode.

  The LCOS projection system 900 includes three panels. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a projection system with a single LCOS panel. The red, green and blue laser diodes are aligned and the red, green and blue laser beams are collimated on a single LCOS. The laser diode is pulse modulated so that only one laser diode is powered at a given timing and the LCOS is lit in a single color. It will be appreciated that because of the use of colored laser diodes, the LCOS projection system according to the present invention does not require a beam splitter that splits a single white light source into color beams as used in conventional LCOS projection systems. Should. In various embodiments, one or more laser diodes used in a single LCOS projection system are characterized by semipolar orientation or non-polar orientation. In one embodiment, the laser diode is manufactured from a bulk substrate. In certain embodiments, the blue and green laser diodes are fabricated from gallium nitride containing substrates. In various embodiments, the configuration shown in FIG. 9 is also used in a ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon (FLCOS) system. For example, the panel shown in FIG. 9 can be a FLCOS panel.

  While specific embodiments have been described in detail above, various modifications, alternative constructions, and equivalent changes are possible. Accordingly, the above description and illustrations should not be taken as limiting the scope of the invention. The scope of the invention is defined and construed by the appended claims.

Claims (56)

  1. A projection system,
    An interface for receiving image or video signals;
    A light source including a plurality of laser diodes, wherein the plurality of laser diodes includes a first laser diode, the first laser diode being nonpolar or semipolar and made from a gallium nitride material , With light source,
    A projection system including a power source electrically connected to the light source.
  2. The system of claim 1, wherein the first diode is a blue diode characterized by non-polar orientation.
  3. The system of claim 1, wherein the first diode is a blue diode characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  4. The system of claim 1, wherein the first diode is a green laser diode characterized by non-polar orientation.
  5. The system of claim 1, wherein the first diode is a green laser diode characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  6. A projection system,
    An interface for receiving image or video signals;
    A light source including one or more LEDs, wherein the one or more LEDs include a first LED, the first LED being nonpolar or semipolar and made from a gallium nitride material. , With light source,
    And a power source electrically connected to the light source.
  7. A light engine,
    A communication interface for receiving the drive signal;
    A light source including one or more LEDs, wherein the one or more LEDs include a first LED, the first LED being nonpolar or semipolar and made from a gallium nitride material. , With light source,
    A light engine including a power source electrically connected to the light source.
  8. A light engine,
    A communication interface for receiving the drive signal;
    A light source comprising a plurality of laser diodes, the plurality of laser diodes comprising a first laser diode, the first laser diode being nonpolar or semipolar and made from a gallium nitride material; ,
    A light engine including a power source electrically connected to the light source.
  9. The light engine according to claim 8, further comprising a control module that selectively switches the plurality of laser diodes.
  10. 9. The light engine according to claim 8, further comprising an optical member for combining outputs from at least two of the plurality of laser diodes.
  11. A light engine,
    A communication interface for receiving the drive signal;
    A light source comprising a plurality of light emitting diodes (LEDs), wherein the plurality of LEDs comprises a first LED, the LED being non-polar or semi-polar and made from a gallium nitride material; ,
    A light engine including a power source electrically connected to the light source.
  12. A projection device,
    A housing having an opening;
    An input interface for receiving one or more image frames;
    A video processing module;
    A laser source, the laser source including a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode, wherein the blue laser diode and the green laser diode share a first mounting surface; A laser source having a wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm, wherein the laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode;
    A laser driver module connected to the laser source, wherein the laser driver module is configured to purify three drive currents based on pixels from the one or more image frames, the three drive currents Are each a laser driver module adapted to drive a laser diode; and
    A MEMS scanning module configured to project the laser beam through the opening to a specific location;
    An optical member provided proximate to the laser source, the optical member being adapted to direct the laser beam to the MEMS scanning module;
    A power supply electrically connected to the laser source.
  13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the MEMS scanning module comprises a flying mirror scanner.
  14. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the MEMS scanning module comprises a single mirror scanner.
  15. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the laser beam is polarized.
  16. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the blue laser diode operates in a single spatial mode.
  17. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the blue laser diode is characterized by a spectral width of about 0.8 nm to 2 nm.
  18. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the blue laser diode and the green laser diode are fabricated from the same GaN substrate.
  19. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the MEMS scanning module includes one or more drive coils.
  20. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the optical member comprises a mirror.
  21. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the green laser diode is characterized by a non-polar orientation.
  22. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the green laser diode is characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  23. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the blue laser diode is characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  24. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the blue laser diode is characterized by a non-polar orientation.
  25. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the red laser diode comprises a GaAlInP material.
  26. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the laser source includes a waveguide for combining the outputs from the green and blue laser diodes.
  27. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the laser source includes one or more dichroic filters.
  28. A projection device,
    A housing having an opening;
    An input interface for receiving one or more image frames;
    A laser source, the laser source including a blue laser diode, a green laser diode, and a red laser diode, wherein the blue laser diode and the green laser diode share a first mounting surface; A laser source having a wavelength of about 490 nm to 540 nm, wherein the laser source is configured to generate a laser beam by combining the outputs from the blue laser diode, the green laser diode, and the red laser diode;
    A digital light processing chip including a digital mirror device, wherein the digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors, each of the mirrors corresponding to one or more pixels of the one or more image frames. Chips,
    A projection apparatus including a power source electrically connected to the laser source.
  29. The apparatus of claim 28, further comprising a condenser lens.
  30. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, further comprising a projection lens.
  31. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the digital light processing chip includes a buffer memory.
  32. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the green laser diode is characterized by a non-polar orientation.
  33. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the blue laser diode is characterized by a non-polar orientation.
  34. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the green laser diode is characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  35. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein the blue laser diode is characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  36. 30. The apparatus of claim 28, comprising two or more digital mirror devices.
  37. A projection device,
    A housing having an opening;
    An input interface for receiving one or more image frames;
    A laser source including a blue laser diode and a wavelength changing module, wherein the blue laser diode is a non-polar diode, the wavelength changing module includes a phosphor material, and the laser is colored by exciting the phosphor material. A laser source, forming a light source;
    A digital light processing chip including a digital mirror device, wherein the digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors, each of the mirrors corresponding to one or more pixels of the one or more image frames. Chips,
    Means for directing light from the blue laser diode and the colored light source to the digital mirror device;
    A projection apparatus including the laser source and a power source electrically connected to the digital light processing chip.
  38. A projection device,
    A housing having an opening;
    An input interface for receiving one or more image frames;
    A laser source including a blue laser diode and a wavelength changing module, wherein the blue laser diode is a semipolar diode, the wavelength changing includes a phosphor material, and the laser excites the phosphor material to provide a color; A laser source, forming a light source;
    A digital light processing chip including a digital mirror device, wherein the digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors, each of the mirrors corresponding to one or more pixels of the one or more image frames. Chips,
    Means for directing light from the blue laser diode and the colored light source to the digital mirror device;
    A projection apparatus including the laser source and a power source electrically connected to the digital light processing chip.
  39. A projection device,
    A first video source, wherein the first video source is associated with a first display, the first video source includes a first light source, and the first light source includes a predetermined first A first video source comprising a first blue laser diode characterized by a wavelength, wherein the first blue laser diode is made from a gallium nitride-containing material;
    A second video source, wherein the second video source is associated with a second display, the first video source and the second video source are time synchronized, and the second video source is Including a second light source, the second light source including a second blue laser diode characterized by a predetermined second wavelength, wherein the second blue laser diode is fabricated from a gallium nitride material; A second video source;
    And a power supply electrically connected to the first video source.
  40. The first light source further includes a first green laser diode and a first red laser diode, wherein the first green laser diode is characterized by a predetermined third wavelength, and the first red laser The diode is associated with a predetermined fourth wavelength;
    The second light source further includes a second green laser diode and a second red laser diode, wherein the second green laser diode is characterized by a predetermined fifth wavelength, and the second red laser The diode is characterized by a predetermined sixth wavelength;
    The predetermined first wavelength differs from the predetermined second wavelength by 10 nm to 30 nm;
    40. The apparatus of claim 39.
  41. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, further comprising a video driver module that drives the first video source.
  42. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the first blue laser diode is characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  43. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the first blue laser diode is characterized by a non-polar orientation.
  44. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, further comprising an optical element for projecting the first display and the second display onto a screen.
  45. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the first light source further comprises a green laser diode, the green laser diode being characterized by a non-polar orientation.
  46. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the first light source further comprises a green laser diode, the green laser diode being characterized by a semipolar orientation.
  47. 40. The apparatus of claim 39, further comprising an audio module, wherein the audio module is synchronized with the first video source.
  48. The first display is visible through a first filter and substantially invisible through a second filter;
    The second display is visible through the second filter and substantially invisible through the first filter;
    The first filter is a notch filter that blocks at least the second wavelength;
    40. The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the second filter is a notch filter that blocks at least the first wavelength.
  49. The first display is visible through a first filter and substantially invisible through a second filter;
    The second display is visible through the second filter and substantially invisible through the first filter;
    The first filter is a bandpass filter that blocks at least the second wavelength;
    40. The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the second filter is a bandpass filter that blocks at least the first wavelength.
  50. A projection system,
    One or more LCOS panels;
    A plurality of laser diodes configured to emit laser light onto the one or more LCOS panels, the plurality of laser diodes including a first laser diode, wherein the first laser diode is A plurality of laser diodes characterized by polar or semipolar orientation;
    A projection system including a power source electrically connected to the plurality of laser diodes.
  51. A projection system,
    One or more LCOS panels;
    A plurality of LEDs configured to emit light onto the one or more LCOS panels, the plurality of LEDs including a first LED, the first LED being non-polarly oriented or semi-polar A plurality of LEDs characterized by orientation;
    A projection system including a power source electrically connected to the plurality of laser diodes.
  52. A projection device,
    A housing having an opening;
    An input interface for receiving one or more image frames;
    A light source, the light source comprising a blue laser diode, wherein the blue laser diode is characterized by a semipolar orientation or a non-polar orientation and is manufactured from a gallium-containing material;
    A digital light processing chip including a digital mirror device, wherein the digital mirror device includes a plurality of mirrors, each of the mirrors corresponding to one or more pixels of the one or more image frames. Chips,
    A hue circle including a plurality of wavelength changing components, wherein the plurality of wavelength changing components includes a first component, the first component including a phosphor material and corresponding to a predetermined time sequence. When,
    A projection apparatus comprising: the light source; and a power source electrically connected to the digital light processing chip.
  53. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, wherein the light source further comprises a phosphor material.
  54. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, wherein the light source further comprises one or more LEDs.
  55. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, wherein the light source includes a red LED.
  56. 53. The apparatus of claim 52, wherein the light source comprises a yellow light emitting laser diode.
JP2012513336A 2009-05-29 2010-05-28 Display method and system using laser Pending JP2012529063A (en)

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US12/789,303 2010-05-27
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