JP2011088219A - Operation diagnosis method of robot, control device of robot, control device of mini-environment system, robot, and mini-environment system - Google Patents

Operation diagnosis method of robot, control device of robot, control device of mini-environment system, robot, and mini-environment system Download PDF

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JP2011088219A
JP2011088219A JP2009241056A JP2009241056A JP2011088219A JP 2011088219 A JP2011088219 A JP 2011088219A JP 2009241056 A JP2009241056 A JP 2009241056A JP 2009241056 A JP2009241056 A JP 2009241056A JP 2011088219 A JP2011088219 A JP 2011088219A
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robot
operation
diagnosis
data
plurality
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JP2009241056A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Yasuo Ishijima
Takanori Ito
Koji Ono
Taro Sada
Toshinori Seki
貴則 伊藤
太郎 佐田
耕治 大野
康男 石嶋
俊紀 関
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Hitachi High-Tech Control Systems Corp
株式会社日立ハイテクコントロールシステムズ
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Abstract

Provided is a robot motion diagnosis method that can diagnose a robot operation and avoid problems, and can reduce maintenance time by detailed display of an abnormal part and reproduction of the robot operation on a panel.
In a robot operation diagnosis method having a plurality of motors, manipulators, and sensors that respectively drive a plurality of drive shafts, and moving the manipulators by the drive shafts, a robot diagnosis target for at least one drive shaft In the operation pattern in the initial state of the robot, a plurality of input / output signals of the control device that controls the motor measured multiple times, and a plurality of input / output signals of the device that controls the sensor or manipulator And the newly measured determination data as diagnostic data, and by using a statistical pattern recognition method to determine whether the diagnostic data is included in the determination data, the robot operation is normal when newly measured To determine.
[Selection] Figure 3

Description

  The present invention relates to a robot motion diagnosis method for self-diagnosis of robot motion. The present invention also relates to a robot capable of self-diagnosis of the robot operation and a control device for the robot. Furthermore, the present invention relates to a mini-environment system including the robot and a control device for the mini-environment system.

  As a method of estimating the load state of a robot, conventionally, in robots and machine tools, the amount of current to the servo motor that is the drive source is measured to grasp the load state, and motor coil damage due to overload or amplifier There are methods to prevent damage to the electrical system.

  Further, Patent Document 1 acquires an angle change amount of a diagnosis target axis (robot motion axis in which overload may occur), and based on the obtained value, at least one of angular velocity, acceleration, load, and cumulative load is obtained. A method of diagnosing a robot by simulating a load state by seeking one is disclosed.

  Further, in Patent Document 2, when the robot body is not operated, the edge between the servo amplifier and the motor is automatically cut, and the failure diagnosis circuit unit inside the servo amplifier diagnoses the failure of the servo amplifier itself. A method for determining whether the cause of failure is in the servo amplifier itself or in its wiring is disclosed.

  Further, in Patent Document 3, a sensor is attached to a robot hand (manipulator) and a reference slit is detected to detect deterioration in the conveyance accuracy of a workpiece such as a wafer, and correct the operation so that the workpiece is damaged. A method for avoiding accidents is disclosed.

JP 2005-293332 A JP 2009-125917 A JP 2009-016604 A

  However, the conventional overload detection method and the technique described in Patent Document 1 can diagnose the load state of the servo amplifier that is the driving source of the robot, but the control line and the power line of the servo amplifier Regarding disconnection and other abnormalities, there is a problem that it is impossible to judge whether the servo amplifier itself is faulty.

  Further, with the technique described in Patent Document 2, it is possible to determine whether the servo amplifier itself is malfunctioning or abnormal due to another factor, but it is not possible to diagnose the operational accuracy of the robot or the secular change of the operating time. There is a problem.

  Regarding abnormalities in operation accuracy and operation time, even if there is no abnormality or failure in the servo amplifier, it often becomes abnormal due to deterioration of the mechanism part. In this case, there are many cases where a mechanism that spans multiple axes is the cause, and it is not possible to immediately identify the location where an abnormality has occurred, and it takes time for maintenance such as repairs and parts replacement, and the production line is stopped for a long time. End up. Furthermore, there is a problem that the location of the abnormality occurrence and the maintenance are largely based on the experience of the worker.

  In addition, the technique described in Patent Document 3 has a problem in that diagnosis cannot be performed by a robot that cannot mount a sensor on a hand because of its mechanism.

  The object of the present invention is to diagnose the operation accuracy and operation time of a robot even in a mechanism that cannot mount a sensor on a hand, and to avoid problems such as workpiece damage and system stoppage. And even when the system is stopped, maintenance analysis is possible without the need for operator experience by facilitating failure analysis, displaying details of abnormal parts, and reproducing robot movements on the panel. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for diagnosing a robot operation that can shorten the time.

  It is another object of the present invention to provide a robot using such a motion diagnosis method, a control device for the robot, a mini-environment system including the robot, and a control device for the mini-environment system.

  The robot motion diagnosis method according to the present invention basically has the following features.

  In a method of diagnosing a robot having a plurality of drive shafts, a plurality of motors for driving the drive shafts, a manipulator, and a sensor, wherein the manipulator is moved by the drive shafts, the at least one drive shaft is Set an operation pattern to be diagnosed by a robot, and control a plurality of input / output signals of a control device for controlling the motor measured multiple times and the sensor or the manipulator in the operation pattern in the initial state of the robot A plurality of input / output signals of a device to be used as determination data, and the newly measured single or plural determination data as diagnosis data, and whether or not the diagnosis data is included in the determination data by a statistical pattern recognition method By determining whether or not there is a movement of the robot when the newly measured And judging whether or not a normal or a normally.

  The robot control apparatus according to the present invention basically has the following features.

  A drive control unit configured by feedback control of a plurality of drive shafts and a plurality of motors that respectively drive the drive shafts; and a motor control unit that outputs position, speed, and torque commands to the drive control unit A robot input / output signal interface unit that inputs / outputs signals to / from the robot, a host device interface unit that communicates with the host device and inputs / outputs digital signals, and controls the operation of the robot and the overall system. A central processing unit, a display / operation panel interface unit, a teaching pendant interface unit, a manipulator, and a sensor, and an operation diagnosis operation processing unit that performs operation diagnosis of a robot that moves the manipulator by the drive shaft The motor control unit, the central processing unit, and the motion diagnosis And an internal memory for storing data of the arithmetic processing unit, wherein the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit sets an operation pattern to be diagnosed by the robot for at least one of the drive axes, and in an initial state of the robot In the operation pattern, a plurality of input / output signals of a control device that controls the motor measured a plurality of times and a plurality of input / output signals of a device that controls the sensor or the manipulator are used as determination data, and newly measured. A single or a plurality of the determination data is used as diagnosis data, and by determining whether or not the diagnosis data is included in the determination data by a statistical pattern recognition method, It is characterized in that the operation of the robot is diagnosed by determining whether the operation is normal or not.

  A mini-environment system control device according to the present invention basically includes the above-described robot control device, an interface portion of a load port portion, an interface portion of a fan filter unit, and an interface portion of a pre-aligner. Features.

  A robot according to the present invention includes the robot control device, a display / operation panel connected to the interface unit of the display / operation panel, a teaching pendant connected to the interface unit of the teaching pendant, a manipulator, It has a basic feature that it includes a plurality of drive shafts for moving the manipulator.

  The mini-environment system according to the present invention includes a control device for the above-mentioned mini-environment system, a load port connected to the interface of the load port, and a fan connected to the interface of the fan filter unit. A basic feature includes a filter unit, a pre-aligner connected to the interface portion of the pre-aligner, and a mini-en housing.

  According to the present invention, even a robot with a mechanism that cannot mount a sensor on a hand can diagnose the operation accuracy and operation time of the robot and avoid problems such as workpiece damage and system stoppage. A robot motion diagnosis apparatus can be provided. Even when the system is stopped, the failure analysis can be facilitated, the details of the abnormal part can be displayed, and the robot operation can be reproduced on the panel. It is possible to provide a robot motion diagnosis method that can be shortened.

  In addition, a robot using such a motion diagnosis method, a control device for the robot, a mini-environment system including the robot, and a control device for the mini-environment system can be provided.

1 is a perspective view of a mini-environment system according to an embodiment of the present invention. The perspective view of the robot for wafer conveyance installed in the mini environment system of a present Example. The block diagram of the mini-environment system of a present Example. The internal block diagram of the operation | movement diagnostic calculation process part of a present Example. The block diagram of the axis | shaft drive part of R1 axis | shaft in the robot of a present Example. The flowchart which shows the operation | movement diagnostic process of the operation | movement diagnostic calculation process part of a present Example. The flowchart which shows the detail of the initial setting step 610 of the operation | movement diagnostic process of an operation | movement diagnosis arithmetic processing part. The schematic which looked at the mini-environment system of a present Example from the upper surface. Items initially set for each axis of data collected in each step in the operation diagnosis of this embodiment. The figure of the measurement data at the time of collecting each item shown in Drawing 9 about R1 axis. The figure of the data in the item which the operation | movement diagnostic calculation process part selected automatically among the measurement data shown in FIG. The figure when the measurement data shown in FIG. 11 are stored in the internal memory. FIG. 13 is a diagram when the measurement data shown in FIG. 12 is generalized and data calculated by the Mahalanobis Taguchi method is stored in an internal memory. The figure when the data shown in FIG. 13 are stored in the internal memory for each axis. The figure of the screen which displays the threshold value setting method and operation | movement diagnostic result of a present Example. The figure of the screen displayed when abnormal data is used by the threshold value setting method of a present Example. The figure of the screen which displays the detailed diagnostic result of R1 axis of a present Example. The figure when R1 axis is abnormal by the encoder value collected when performing the operation reproduction of a present Example. The figure of the screen which displays the table | surface, robot display, and the image of motion reproduction in the display of the detailed diagnostic result of a present Example. The figure of the screen which displays the detailed diagnostic result of R1 axis | shaft which is a detailed site | part, and the image of operation | movement reproduction in the display of the detailed diagnostic result of a present Example.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 shows a mini-environment system (hereinafter abbreviated as “mini-en”) 101 as an example of an embodiment of the present invention.

  The mini-en 101 is a transfer device that supplies the wafer 106 to the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 and discharges the wafer 106 processed or inspected by the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 from the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100. It is a facility to perform.

  The mini-en 101 includes a connection unit with the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100, a mini-en housing 102, a load port unit 103, a fan filter unit (hereinafter abbreviated as “FFU”) 105, and a panel 107. , Controller 300, pre-aligner, external memory, and teaching pendant. These devices installed inside the mini-en 101 are not shown except for the controller 300.

  The semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 is positioned as a higher-level apparatus of the mini-en 101, transmits commands and responses to the mini-en 101 by communication using RS-232C or Ethernet (registered trademark), and parallel input / output signals, and is supplied from the mini-en 101. The wafer 106 is processed or inspected.

  The mini-en housing 102 covers the outside of the system with a fixing plate (exterior cover), supplies a transfer chamber space that is a space isolated from the outside, and serves as a joint portion with the load port unit 103 and the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100.

  The load port unit 103 mainly has a fixing base for fixing the cassette 104 which is a sealed container and a container opening / closing function. The load port unit 103 is joined to the mini-en housing 102 at a single location or a plurality of locations. And a transfer port for the wafer 106 to the mini-en housing 102.

  The FFU 105 includes a blower fan and a filter, and is installed in the upper part of the mini-en housing 102 to realize a clean environment in the mini-en housing 102 by down-flowing clean air.

  The panel 107 is configured by a touch panel, a liquid crystal monitor, a switch, and the like, and has a function capable of display and operation. As described later, the panel 107 has a role as an assistant for an operator or an external operation interface. . Further, depending on the system configuration, the panel 107 may be removed and may serve as a teaching pendant.

  FIG. 2 shows a configuration diagram of the wafer transfer robot 200.

  The robot 200 is installed inside the mini-en housing 102. The arm is a double arm system composed of an arm (1) 203 and an arm (2) 204, and can simultaneously transport two wafers.

  The robot 200 is driven by a servo motor 202 to move the two arms in the lateral direction (horizontal operation) and the Z-axis drive unit to move the two arms in the up-and-down direction (up-and-down operation). 205, a θ-axis drive unit 206 that moves (turns) the two arms in the rotational direction, an R1-axis drive unit that moves the arms (1) 203 and (2) 204 in the extendable direction (horizontal operation), and It has an axis drive unit for five axes, called an R2 axis drive unit.

  The arm (1) 203 and the arm (2) 204 of the robot 200 are joined to a hand 207, which is a manipulator, and has a wafer handling mechanism for placing a wafer.

  The wafer handling mechanism of the robot 200 has a function of holding the back surface center of the wafer by vacuum suction, but may have a side surface grasping function of gripping the side surface of the wafer.

  The robot 200 realizes wafer transfer to each teaching point (transfer position) inside the mini-en housing, such as semiconductor manufacturing equipment, load port unit, pre-aligner, etc., using the above 5-axis drive unit and wafer handling mechanism. To do.

  Note that the robot 200 may be a single-arm system or another mechanism-type robot such as an articulated robot as long as it can transfer a wafer.

  FIG. 3 shows a system configuration diagram of the mini-en 101.

  Before the wafer is supplied to the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100, the pre-aligner 311 is placed on the wafer by the robot 200. By rotating the placed wafer, the notch or orientation flat is adjusted in a certain direction, or the wafer is offset. It has an alignment mechanism that measures the core amount.

  The external memory 312 is a portable external auxiliary storage device such as a USB memory, an SD card, a memory stick, and a CF card, and may be optional depending on the system.

  The teaching pendant 313 is a pendant for causing the robot 200 to teach a wafer transfer position (teaching point) in the mini-en housing.

  The controller 300 mainly includes a central processing unit 301, a host device interface (hereinafter, the interface is abbreviated as “I / F”) 302, an internal memory 303, a robot input / output signal I / F 304, various device I / Fs 305, A drive control unit 320, a motor control unit 306, and an operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 are included. The controller 300 is a control device for the robot 200, but can also serve as a control device for the mini-en 101. In the present embodiment, the controller 300 also serves as a control device for the mini-en 101.

  The central processing unit 301 includes a host device I / F 302, an internal memory 303, a robot input / output signal I / F 304, various device I / Fs 305, a motor control unit 306, an operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310, and the like via a system bus 309. Connected. The central processing unit 301 has a function of controlling all devices mounted on the mini-en by command commands from the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 and external operations from the panel 107 and teaching pendant 313.

  The central processing unit 301 is a central processing unit (hereinafter abbreviated as “CPU”) having a microprocessor unit (hereinafter abbreviated as “MPU”) and various memories. The central processing unit 301 may be a general personal computer (hereinafter abbreviated as “PC”) or a CPU board as long as it is suitable for the system.

  The host device I / F 302 has an I / F circuit for communicating with the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 by Ethernet, RS-232C, or the like, or for transmitting digital or analog input / output signals. Also, it has a function of transmitting command commands, data, input / output signals, and the like between the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 and the central processing unit 301 via the system bus 309.

  The internal memory 303 has a volatile memory, a non-volatile memory, their I / F circuit, and a circuit for transferring to the external memory 312, mainly mounting a plurality of large-capacity non-volatile memories. Circuit.

  The internal memory 303 is a memory mounted separately from the MPU main storage device mounted in the central processing unit 301, the motor control unit 306, and the operation diagnosis processing unit 310. It is used for recording system logs, operation diagnosis calculation processing, and operation reproduction of the robot 200, but with the capacity of the memory mounted in the central calculation processing unit 301, motor control unit 306, and operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310. If the function of each part can be realized, it may not be implemented. The internal memory 303 may be a magnetic storage device such as a hard disk drive.

  The robot input / output signal I / F 304 has various sensors 335 and electromagnetic valves 336 in the robot 200 and other I / F circuits of devices mounted in the robot.

  The various sensors 335 are a pressure sensor for confirming the vacuum pressure mounted inside the robot, an origin sensor for each axis, a ± limit sensor, a reflection type or a transmission type sensor for confirming the presence / absence of a wafer.

  The various device I / Fs 305 have I / F circuits for various external peripheral devices such as the load port unit 103, FFU 105, pre-aligner 311, panel 107, external memory 312, teaching pendant 313, and the like by the central processing unit 301. The communication with each device and the control of input / output signals are performed via the system bus 309.

  The drive control unit 320 includes a servo amplifier 321 that controls the R1-axis servomotor 331, a servo amplifier 322 that controls the R2-axis servomotor 332, and a servo amplifier 323 that controls the θ-axis servomotor 333. , A servo amplifier 324 that controls the Z-axis servomotor 334 and a servo amplifier 325 that controls the Y-axis servomotor 202.

  Each servo motor or servo amplifier may be a general-purpose device suitable for the system or mechanism, and may be an AC servo, a DC servo, or a semi-closed loop stepping motor.

  The motor control unit 306 transmits / receives commands and data to / from the central processing unit 301 via the system bus 309 and operates each input signal 307 and each output according to the purpose such as operating an arbitrary axis of the drive control unit 320. It has a function of controlling the signal 308 and controlling the movement of the robot 200.

  In general, motor motion control includes a position command, a torque command, a speed command, and the like. In this embodiment, a method is employed in which the position and speed are controlled by command pulses.

  Output signals 308 from the motor control unit 306 to each servo amplifier are generally a + limit 502, a -limit 503, an origin 504, a servo-on 505, a deviation counter clear 506, an alarm clear, and a command pulse 507.

  Input signals 307 from the servo amplifiers to the motor control unit 306 are generally an electromagnetic brake release 908, a servo ready 509, an alarm, an in-position 510, an encoder 511, a torque monitor 512, and a speed monitor 913.

  The operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 is connected to the system bus 309. Further, it is connected to a motor control unit 306 and a robot input / output signal I / F 304, and transmits and receives a signal 341 and a signal 342, respectively. Further, the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 performs a diagnosis process of the robot 200, collects data for the diagnosis process, displays a diagnosis result on the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313, and reproduces the operation of the robot 200. It has a function to display.

  FIG. 4 shows an internal configuration example of the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310.

  The operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 includes an MPU 401, a programmable logic device (hereinafter abbreviated as “PLD”) 402 such as an FPGA and a CPLD, a non-volatile memory IC 403, a volatile memory IC 404, and a first axis diagnosis signal I / F circuit. 411, second axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 412, third axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 413, fourth axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 414, fifth axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 415, It has an internal power supply circuit 421, a power supply monitoring IC 422, a communication IC or circuit 423, a real time clock (hereinafter abbreviated as “RTC”) 424, a system bus I / F circuit 425, and an image processing circuit 426.

  The MPU 401 performs arithmetic processing for operation diagnosis of the robot 200. A plurality of modules are mounted as necessary, and are configured to be able to simultaneously process diagnosis of each axis.

  The PLD 402 is equipped with circuits such as calculation assistance of the MPU 401 and registers for each signal. In addition, a plurality of CPU cores may be mounted on an FPGA or the like to have an alternative function of the MPU 401.

  The non-volatile memory IC 403 and the volatile memory IC 404 have a role as a main memory (main storage device) although the mounting differs depending on the MPU 401 used.

  First axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 411, second axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 412, third axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 413, fourth axis diagnostic signal I / F circuit 414, and The 5-axis diagnosis signal I / F circuit 415 includes an input signal 307 and an output signal 308 of the motor control unit 306, an input signal 337 and an output signal 338 of the robot input / output signal I / F 304, and the like. 434 and 435. These axis diagnosis signal I / F circuits 411, 412, 413, 414, and 415 are connected to the MPU 401 and the PLD 402 via the board internal bus or directly and used for arithmetic processing.

  For example, each axis diagnosis signal I / F circuit 411, 412, 413, 414, 415 has the first axis as the R1 axis, the second axis as the R2 axis, the third axis as the θ axis, the fourth axis as the Z axis, The fifth axis is used like the Y axis. If the configuration of the robot 200 is different, it is prepared corresponding to the number of axes as necessary. In addition, if necessary, it is possible to have a function of A / D converting analog data so that the MPU 401 can perform calculations.

  The internal power supply circuit 421 includes a DC / DC converter and a regulator, and generates a substrate internal power supply.

  The power monitoring IC 422 monitors the power generated by the internal power circuit 421 and the external power supply so that the MPU 401 does not malfunction.

  The communication IC or circuit 423 is a circuit for debugging or writing a program to the MPU 401 via the connector 436.

  The RTC 424 adds the date and time to the data to be saved as a log, or displays it on the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313.

  The system bus I / F circuit 425 is a circuit for transmitting and receiving data and signals to and from the central processing unit 301 and the internal memory 303 via the system bus 309, such as PCI and VME adopted in the system. The circuit conforms to the bus standard.

  The image processing circuit 426 is a circuit for assisting image data to be displayed on the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313, and differs depending on the device to be used.

  The operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 may use a general-purpose PC or CPU board depending on the processing capability or system, or may be used as the central arithmetic processing unit 301 or the motor control unit 306. However, since it is assumed that diagnostic processing according to the flow of FIG. 6 and FIG. 7 to be described later can be performed, it is desirable to be configured separately from the central processing unit 301 and the motor control unit 306.

  Next, the configuration of the shaft drive unit will be described using the R1 axis as an example. The R2 axis, the θ axis, the Z axis, and the Y axis axis drive units have the same configuration as that of the R1 axis. FIG. 5 shows a configuration example of the R1 axis drive unit.

  The shaft driving unit of the R1 axis transmits the rotation of the servo motor 331 using the belt (1) 531, the belt (2) 532, and the belt (3) 533, and transmits the hand 207 connected to the arm (1) 203. The link mechanism is such that it goes straight on the R1 axis.

  The arm (1) 203 is mounted with a micro photo sensor which is a + limit sensor 534 and a −limit sensor 535, and the operation is turned off when the dog 536 is blocked. In this way, an electrical limit (limit) is provided in the drive range of the R1 axis of the arm (1) 203.

  In the arm (1) 203, an optical external encoder 538 is mounted on the rotating portion 537 at the tip of the link mechanism. The encoder 538 outputs an incremental encoder signal (general-purpose signal 4) 517 to the controller 300 via the encoder amplifier 545.

  In addition to the encoder signal (general-purpose signal 4) 517, an encoder (position detector) built in the servo motor 331 sends the position detection information of the servo motor 331 to the controller 300 via the servo amplifier 321 as an encoder signal. Output as. This encoder signal is a similar incremental method. Of these, the Z phase is used only for the origin search operation, and is not used for the diagnosis process unless the operation pattern is set to the origin search.

  The hand 207 has three suction openings 540 and controls the vacuum and air 541 by the electromagnetic valve 336 to handle (hold) the wafer 106.

  The vacuum line 542 for suction is connected to a pressure sensor 543 that outputs an ON or OFF signal by comparison with a set threshold value. This ON or OFF signal is output to the controller 300 as a general-purpose signal (2) 515, and the suction state of the wafer 106 is confirmed.

  The reflection type sensor 539 outputs an ON or OFF signal to the controller 300 via the reflection type sensor amplifier 544 depending on the presence or absence of the detection object hand 207 or the wafer 106 that blocks the upper part. Thereby, the trajectory of the hand 207 or the wafer 106 can be confirmed.

  The mounting position of the reflective sensor 539 is not limited as long as it is installed in the frame of the robot 200 or the transfer area in the mini-en housing 102, and even if it is not installed on the hand 207, the hand 207 or wafer that is directly connected to the transfer accuracy. The trajectory of 106 can be confirmed.

  In the controller 300, the power supply voltage 501, + limit 502, −limit 503, servo-on 505, deviation counter clear 506, command pulse are transmitted to the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 via the motor control unit 306 and the robot input / output signal I / F 304. 507, servo ready 509, in-position 510, encoder 511, torque monitor 512, general-purpose signal 1 (signal of reflective sensor 539) 514, general-purpose signal 2 (signal of pressure sensor 543) 515, general-purpose signal 3 (to electromagnetic valve 336) Control signal) 516 and general-purpose signal 4 (signal of the external encoder 538) 517 are input / output from each part.

  Next, FIG. 6 shows a flowchart of diagnostic processing performed by the operation diagnostic calculation processing unit 310.

  The operation diagnosis of the present embodiment is performed by the Mahalanobis Taguchi method (hereinafter abbreviated as “MT method”) described in JP-A-2004-227279 as an example of statistical processing or arithmetic processing.

  The MT method is an abnormality cause diagnosis method using Mahalanobis distance in quality engineering. As long as the abnormality cause diagnosis method uses the Mahalanobis distance, the MTS method, the MTA method, the TS method, or the T method may be used instead of the MT method.

  The statistical processing or arithmetic processing used for diagnosis is not limited to the MT method, and may be other statistical processing (statistical pattern recognition method) such as Fisher discrimination, logistic discrimination, boosting method, and cluster analysis.

(Step 600)
The operator determines whether or not the initial setting is necessary, and determines whether to proceed to the initial setting step 610 or later or the normal operation diagnosis step 650 or later by the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100. select.

  Since the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 must be initialized at the first time when the system is assembled, the data in a predetermined address such as the internal memory 303 or the nonvolatile memory 403 is empty or not set. And automatically proceeds to step 610 and subsequent steps only for the first time, and automatically proceeds to step 650 and subsequent steps after power-on unless there is a command from the operator.

  The initial setting is executed at the time of assembling the mini-en 101 or the robot 200, pre-shipment inspection, installation, or any other time. At this time, the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 is adjusted so that the mechanism unit is adjusted and settings of other amplifiers and the like are completed so that the miniature 101 or the robot 200 can operate at the transfer accuracy and operation speed (tact and throughput) of the wafer 106 satisfying the specifications. It is necessary to be in a finished product state. Such a state adjusted to meet the product specifications is referred to as an initial state.

(Step 610)
The initial setting in step 610 follows the flowchart of FIG. Here, a flowchart showing details of the initial setting step 610 shown in FIG. 7 will be described.

(Step 701)
The operator uses the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 to determine in what wafer transfer sequence (operation pattern) the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 performs the operation diagnosis.

  FIG. 8 shows an example of a wafer transfer sequence of the miniene 101. FIG. 8 is a schematic view of the miniene 101 as viewed from above.

  At the time of product adjustment, the operator uses a teaching pendant to teach the teaching point 801 of the pre-aligner 311, the teaching point 803 of the wafer supply position 821, the teaching point 811 of the wafer discharge position 822, and the teaching points 814, 815, 816 of the cassette 104. Is taught.

  The central processing unit 301 stores each teaching point and issues a command to the motor control unit 306 to operate the robot 200 and carry the wafer 106.

  For example, in the wafer transfer sequence (operation pattern), like the path 800, the wafer 106 aligned by the pre-aligner 311 is transferred from the teaching point 801 to the wafer supply position 821 of the teaching point 803 via the teaching point 802. To do. Further, as shown by a path 810, the wafer 106 at the wafer discharge position 822 processed by the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 is transferred from the teaching point 811 to the cassette 104 at the teaching point 814 via the teaching point 812 and the teaching point 813. Or

  If there is no designation by the operator, the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 selects a preset operation, for example, an operation pattern of the route 800.

  It is desirable that the operation pattern setting includes a simultaneous operation of a plurality of axes such as when moving from the teaching point 801 to the teaching point 802 as in the path 800 and has a high operation frequency. The reason is that the wafer 106 stored in the cassette 104 of any load port unit 103 is always transferred to the pre-aligner 311, and the path 800 for transferring the wafer 106 from the pre-aligner 311 to the wafer supply position 821. This is because the operation patterns of the mini-en 101 and the robot 200 are the same, and there is an advantage that the measurement data is constant. In addition, since the frequency of this motion pattern is the highest, the number of diagnoses is increased, and because this motion pattern always drives all axes, it also diagnoses abnormalities caused by the causal relationship between each axis. This is because there is an advantage that is possible.

  Since the setting of the operation pattern largely depends on the system configuration, it is necessary for the device developer to arbitrarily set the operation pattern set in advance.

  The operation pattern may be set by specifying a series of operations such as the route 800 and the route 810, or may be set so that the diagnosis efficiency is best for each axis.

(Step 702)
The operator sets the selection of the axis or unit to be diagnosed using the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100.

  When the operator sets a series of operation patterns such as the path 810 in step 701, the height of the wafer 106 stored in the cassette 104 is different every time, so the Z-axis sets diagnosis individually, or Choose not to diagnose.

  If necessary, the operator may set each unit such as the load port unit 103 and the pre-aligner 311 as a diagnosis target.

  If there is no designation by the operator, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 automatically sets all axes or all of the number of diagnosis targets prepared in advance as diagnosis targets. Accordingly, as described later, the operator does not need to set the diagnosis target axis because the unused axis or the unsuitable axis is automatically deleted in step 711.

(Step 703)
An operator uses a panel 107, a teaching pendant 313, or a semiconductor manufacturing apparatus as an arbitrary digital signal input to the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 as a start trigger for starting collection of data to be measured and counting elapsed time. Set by 100.

  If there is no designation by the operator, the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 issues the operation pattern command set in step 701 by the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 and sets the received timing as a start trigger.

(Step 704)
The worker executes the operation pattern set in step 701, the number of initial setting operations in step 710, the number of operations for collecting determination data in step 620, the number of operations for setting determination contents in step 640, The operation number of diagnostic data collection in step 650 is set within the limit number range by the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100.

  If the number of times is not specified by the operator, the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 sets the number of times to a number set in advance by the designer because it differs depending on the system and statistical processing.

The limit number may differ depending on each step, and may differ depending on the specifications of the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 and the capacity of the internal memory 303. In this embodiment, the number of operations n is 10 for the initial setting operation in Step 710, 200 for the determination data collection operation in Step 620, and for the determination content setting in Step 640 so as not to interfere with the MT method. The operation is set to 50 times, and the diagnosis data collection operation in step 650 is set to once.
(Step 705)
The operator sets items (measurement items) of measurement data that are characteristic quantities of the MT method using the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100.

  FIG. 9 shows measurement items used for diagnosis of single-axis motion of the robot 200.

  The measurement items will be described below.

  The power supply voltage 501 is a power supply voltage supplied to the controller 300, an internal power supply voltage generated by the internal power supply circuit 421 of the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310, or a power supply voltage of the drive control unit (each servo amplifier) 320.

  The + limit 502 and the −limit 503 are signals of limit sensors attached to the respective axes in the various sensors 335. In the case of the R1 axis, the signals of the + limit sensor 534 and the −limit sensor 535 are shown.

  The origin 904 is a sensor signal serving as a reference for the origin (home position) attached to each axis in the various sensors 335.

  The servo-on 505 is one of output signals 308 from the motor control unit 306 to the servo amplifier, and is a signal used when energizing or calling the servo motor.

  The deviation counter clear 506 is one of the output signals 308 from the motor control unit 306 to the servo amplifier, and is a counter value that counts the deviation between the command position, the command speed, and the actual position (encoder value) in the servo amplifier. Is a signal to clear

  The command pulse 507 is one of output signals 308 from the motor control unit 306 to the servo amplifier, and is a pulse train having information on the rotation speed (position) and rotation speed (operation speed) of the servo motor. And

  The electromagnetic brake release 508 is one of the input signals 307 from the servo amplifier to the motor control unit 306 and is a signal indicating that the electromagnetic brake attached to the servo motor has been released. When energized (signal is turned on), the motor can be rotated. For example, the robot 200 is used so that the Z-axis does not descend even when the power is turned off.

  The servo ready 509 is one of the input signals 307 from the servo amplifier to the motor control unit 306, and is a signal indicating that the excitation of the servo motor is completed and operation preparation is completed.

  The in-position 510 is one of the input signals 307 from the servo amplifier to the motor control unit 306. The in-position 510 is turned off while the servo motor is operating, and turned on when the specified position (rotation speed) is reached. Is a signal indicating that is at the target position.

  The encoder 511 is one of the input signals 307 from the servo amplifier to the motor control unit 306, and is a signal indicating the current position (rotation speed) of the motor shaft from the position detector attached to the servo motor. The encoder 511 has a method such as an incremental method or an absolute method, but any method may be used depending on the system. The detector varies depending on the motor, such as an optical encoder or a resolver, but may be of any type.

  The torque monitor 512 is one of the input signals 307 from the servo amplifier to the motor control unit 306, and is a signal output as a voltage so that the torque generated when the servo amplifier controls the servo motor can be monitored. is there.

  The speed monitor 913 is one of the input signals 307 from the servo amplifier to the motor control unit 306. When the servo amplifier controls the servo motor, the speed monitor 913 is a voltage so that it can monitor the current rotation speed. It is an output signal.

  The general-purpose signal can be arbitrarily set at a port when various sensors 335 and the like attached to each mechanism unit are used as a measurement item signal that is a characteristic amount of the MT method. In the present embodiment, the digital input / output signal type includes three points of general-purpose signal (1) 514, general-purpose signal (2) 515, and general-purpose signal (3) 516, and one point of data-type general-purpose signal (4) 517. However, depending on the system, a plurality of points such as 8 may be prepared.

  The measurement timing is shown below.

  When each signal is ON, 920 is a rising edge, and when each signal is OFF, 921 is a falling edge. By the start trigger set in step 703, the elapsed time at each edge of the time when counting is started becomes data.

  Data type signals such as power supply voltage 501, command pulse 507, encoder 511, torque monitor 512, speed monitor 913, general-purpose signal (4) 517 are set in advance such as at acceleration 930, at constant speed 931, or at deceleration 932. Measurement data at any given timing. The timing of measurement does not have to be the above three points as in the present embodiment, and data measured at a plurality of timings at arbitrary points determined based on the processing capability of the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 and the capacity of the internal memory 303 It's okay.

  The trigger signal 340 is an arbitrary signal such as a signal input to the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 via the system bus 309 or a signal of each measurement item. In FIG. 9, there are three types of trigger signals 340: trigger A, trigger B, and trigger C, but the number of trigger signals is arbitrary. The trigger signal 340 is a data type such as a power supply voltage 501, a command pulse 507, an encoder 511, a torque monitor 512, a speed monitor 913, a general-purpose signal (4) 517, and other data when the trigger signal 340 is turned on or off. This signal specifies that all type signals are measured at the same timing.

  If there is no designation by the operator, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 sets all signals prepared in advance (all measurement items shown in FIG. 9) as measurement items. Therefore, as will be described later, the measurement item for the unused signal and the measurement item that is not suitable for diagnosis are automatically deleted in step 712, so that the operator does not need to arbitrarily set the measurement item.

(Step 706)
The operator sets the number of trigger signals 340 and the selection of signals using the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100.

  The trigger signal 340 is set by the mechanical mechanism of the driving unit of each axis when the external sensor that is effective for diagnosis is turned on or off, or among the measurement items, for example, when the in-position signal is turned on or off. As the trigger signal 340, an individual signal for each axis may be used, or the same signal may be used across a plurality of axes.

  If there is no designation by the operator, the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 sets the trigger signal 340 at a preset timing. In the present embodiment, the setting is made when the signal output from the motor control unit 306 is turned on at the time of acceleration, constant speed, or deceleration for each axis. Therefore, since the timing is set in advance as described above, the worker does not need to set the trigger.

(Step 707)
The operator sets the number of thresholds when setting the threshold value of Mahalanobis distance necessary for setting the determination contents performed in step 640, the tolerance, the determination contents, etc. on the panel 107, teaching pendant 313, or This is performed by the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100.

  When there is no designation by the operator, the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 sets the number of thresholds as 1, the tolerance as 1, and the determination contents as normal and abnormal. Therefore, the worker does not need to preset the determination contents because the contents registered in advance are automatically set.

(Step 708)
The operator uses the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 to set whether to stop the system according to the diagnosis result.

  If a plurality of threshold values are set in step 707, for example, the threshold number is 2, the tolerance is 1 and 2, and the determination contents are set as normal, warning, and abnormal, the normal and warning do not stop, Select to stop the system when an error occurs.

  If there is no designation by the operator, the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 sets all other than normal as a system stop. Therefore, the operator does not have to set the system stop.

(Step 709)
The operator sets a plurality of candidates by using the panel 107, the teaching pendant 313, or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 as to which part has the cause when each measurement item causes an abnormality.

  The operator needs to select a part of the measurement item, particularly for the general-purpose signal, because it is unclear where the minien 101 or the robot 200 appears as an abnormality factor.

  The operator creates one abnormal portion (abnormal state data) of the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 one by one in order to set the cause of the abnormality arbitrarily in detail, and the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 performs step 650 and step 660. , Step 670 and Step 671 may be set after clarifying items and factors by detailed diagnosis in Step 690.

  If the operator performs the above setting once when developing a system such as the mini-en 101 or the robot 200, the worker can accurately determine the detailed part and the factor causing the factor. Since the same item can be set as a factor in the mass production machine, the worker may register the factor in the internal memory 303 in advance.

  If there is no designation by the operator, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 sets the general-purpose signal as “no detailed part display” and the factors corresponding to the other measurement items set in advance. Therefore, the operator does not need to set an abnormality factor because the prerecorded contents are automatically set.

(Step 710)
The motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 requests the central arithmetic processing unit 301 to operate the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 for the number of times set in step 704 with the operation pattern set in step 701. The central processing unit 301 instructs the motor control unit 306 and the like to perform the above operation. When the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 actually operates, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 collects data of the measurement items set in step 705.

  FIG. 10 shows an example of measured data. In this example, in the case of only the R1 axis, when the operation pattern set in step 701 is the path 800 and the arm 1 is extended from the teaching point 802 to the teaching point 803 in the configuration shown in FIG. The data measured as operating from point 521 to point 522 of R1B.

  The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 includes all of the data shown in FIG. 10 for the ON timing 920, OFF time 921, acceleration time 930, constant speed 931, and deceleration time 932, which are the measurement timings shown in FIG. The data measured at the timing is stored in a predetermined area of the internal memory 303 (or the non-volatile memory IC 403 or the volatile memory IC 404) for the total number (n times) set in step 704.

  Since the limit of n times in step 710 only needs to be set in step 711 and step 712, it is preferably set at least twice.

(Step 711)
The motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 discriminates the axis of only the data that does not change from the data collected in step 710, and is mounted on the diagnostic signal I / F circuits 411 to 415 in the motion diagnostic arithmetic processing unit 310. The unused (unconnected) axis is discriminated from the existing detection circuit. Then, the determined axis is automatically deleted from the diagnosis target axis, and the remaining axis is set as the diagnosis target axis and stored in the internal memory 303.

(Step 712)
The motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 determines an item of data that does not change from the data collected in step 710, and determines an item of an unused (unconnected) signal in the detection circuit. The determined items are automatically deleted from the measurement items to be diagnosed, and the remaining items are set as measurement items and stored in the internal memory 303.

  For example, in the case of the R1 axis, in FIG. 10, + limit 502, − limit 503, servo-on 505, deviation counter clear 506, servo ready 509 that are unchanged signals 1010, an origin 904 that is an unused signal 1020, electromagnetic The brake release 908 and the speed monitor 913 are automatically deleted.

  FIG. 11 shows an example of data in the items automatically selected by the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310. In this example, the power supply voltage 501, the command pulse 507, the in-position 510, the encoder 511, the torque monitor 512, the signal 514 of the reflective sensor 539, the signal 515 of the pressure sensor 543, and the signal 516 of the electromagnetic valve 336 are The selected measurement item 1110 is selected by the processing unit 310.

  This is the end of the explanation of the initial setting in step 610 of the flowchart shown in FIG. From here, it returns to the flowchart shown in FIG. 6, and description is continued.

(Step 620)
The motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 requests the central arithmetic processing unit 301 to operate the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 by the number of times (n times) set in step 704 with the operation pattern set in step 701. . The central processing unit 301 instructs the motor control unit 306 and the like to perform the set operation. When the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 actually moves, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 collects the data of the measurement item set in step 712 of the diagnosis target axis set in step 711 and determines the data for determination. Is stored in the internal memory 303.

  For example, in the case of the R1 axis, the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 performs the data type signal measurement timing 1120 shown in FIG. 11 and the elapsed time 1130 until the input signal rises (ON), until the fall (OFF). Are stored in the internal memory 303 as measurement data (reference space 1210). FIG. 12 shows measurement data (reference space 1210) stored in the internal memory 303.

  In the MT method, the measurement item 1110 selected (set) in step 712 is defined as a feature amount, and the collected measurement data (determination data) is defined as a reference space 1210.

  The number of times collected (n times) needs to be larger than the number of data (number of items) measured by the measurement item by the MT method. In the present embodiment, there are 40 items in the initial setting (see FIG. 9) before automatic deletion in step 712, so it is desirable that the number be at least 50 times. Furthermore, since the collected measurement data (determination data) becomes a reference space 1210 that is a collection of normal data, it affects the diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, from the processing capability of the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310, the capacity of the internal memory 303, and the like. It is desirable that the number of times is also appropriate.

  The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 prepares a reference space for each axis set as a diagnosis target axis in step 711, and recognizes each target axis as one space or recognizes all target axes as one space. .

(Step 630)
The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 uses the measurement data collected in step 620 as a reference space, and calculates the Mahalanobis distance (hereinafter abbreviated as “MD”) according to the following procedure. Further, taking the R1 axis as an example, each data after calculation is shown in FIGS.
1. An average value m1220 for each item is calculated.
2. A standard deviation σ1230 in each item is calculated.
3. Normalization is performed according to equation (1), and normalized data Y ij 1340 is calculated.

Here, y ij is measurement data (reference space 1210) of 1 to k items 1 to n times, and i = 1, 2,..., N, j = 1, 2,. And
4). A correlation matrix R1350 shown in Expression (3) is calculated from Expression (2).

5. The inverse matrix A1360 of the correlation matrix R is calculated by the equation (4).

6). MD1211 of each 1 to n times of measurement data is calculated by Formula (5).

Here, Y k is normalized data 1 to n times, Y is a matrix having Y k as a component, and Y T is a transposed matrix of Y. Also, the number of items k = the number of items selected in step 711. In the example of the R1 axis in FIG. 12, k = 21.

  As shown in FIG. 14, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 uses the calculated data 1400 as R1 axis database 1401, R2 axis database 1402, θ axis database 1403, Z axis database 1404, Y axis database 1405, and spare axis database. 1406 is stored in the internal memory 303 as the all-axis database 1407.

  Here, the spare axis database 1406 is an example when the operation of the pre-aligner 311 or the like is arbitrarily set in step 702. The all-axis database 1407 includes an average value, standard deviation, normalized data, correlation matrix, inverse matrix, and MD calculated from a reference space including all the reference spaces of each database.

(Step 631)
The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 determines whether or not the content set in step 610 is appropriate from the data 1400 calculated and stored in step 630.

  The determination method of the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 determines whether or not the average value 1212 of MD in each database is 1.

  The permissible range of whether or not the MD average value 1212 is 1 is arbitrary, but when the MD average value 1212 of all the databases can be regarded as 1, the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 displays the panel 107 and the teaching pendant 313. OK is displayed, and the process proceeds to Step 640.

  When the MD average value 1212 is not 1 in at least one database, since the measurement item and the MT method (MD calculation) are not reliable, the operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 displays NG on the panel 107 and the teaching pendant 313. Return to the initial setting of step 610.

  In the case of NG, the operator confirms and changes the operation count n set in step 704 and the measurement item set in step 712. The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 determines again whether or not the average value 1212 of the MD in each database is 1. If the average MD value 1212 still does not become 1, the operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 causes the data 1400 stored in the internal memory 303 to be transferred to the external memory 312 via the interface unit of the external memory, and the like. It is possible to analyze the cause.

(Step 640)
The motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 requests the central arithmetic processing unit 301 to operate the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 by the number of times (n times) set in step 704 with the operation pattern set in step 701. . The central processing unit 301 instructs the motor control unit 306 and the like to perform the set operation. When the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 actually operates, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 receives the measurement data for setting diagnosis contents (measurement data for normal threshold determination 1510 or measurement data for threshold determination 1610 only for abnormality). Collected and stored in the internal memory 303 as data for determination. Further, the threshold is set based on the number of thresholds, the tolerance, and the determination contents set in step 707 and stored in the internal memory 303 (or the non-volatile memory IC 403 or the volatile memory IC 404).

  The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 displays a threshold setting screen as shown in FIG. 15 or 16 on the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313. 15 and 16, the MD1211 of the reference space and the measurement data 1510 and 1610 are displayed as bar graphs, but may be displayed as a scatter diagram.

  In the threshold setting screen shown in FIG. 15, in step 707, the number of thresholds is set to 2 (1521 and 1522), the tolerance is set to 1 and 3, and the determination contents are set to normal, mild abnormality, and severe abnormality. The measurement data 1510 for setting the diagnostic contents is normal operation data and is displayed in the MD 1211 of the reference space. The threshold 1521 is obtained by adding a tolerance (= 1) to the maximum value among the MD 1211 and the measurement data 1510 in the reference space.

  Prior to entering this step, the operator can wait for the processing of the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310, and can intentionally change the adjustment state of the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 to set a threshold value. .

  In the threshold setting screen shown in FIG. 16, in step 707, the number of thresholds is set to 1 (1620), the margin is not set, and the determination contents are set to normal and abnormal. The measurement data 1610 for setting diagnosis contents is data on the conveyance accuracy abnormality state created by the operator. The threshold value can be changed by the operator on this screen to the position 1620 by the panel 107 or teaching pendant 313.

  For example, in the case of the R1 axis, the operator changes the tension of an arbitrary belt out of the belt (1) 531, the belt (2) 532, and the belt (3) 533 from the final adjustment state of shipping, and only an abnormality It is possible to create an abnormal state consisting of the threshold determination measurement data 1610.

(Step 650)
Each time the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 is operated by the number of times (n times) set in step 704 in the operation pattern set in step 701, the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 performs diagnosis data (diagnosis data 1240). Are stored in the internal memory 303 (or the non-volatile memory IC 403 and the volatile memory IC 404).

  The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 uses the diagnosis data y (diagnosis data 1240) for each motion as measurement data separately from the data 1400 for each axis, for any number of times as long as the capacity of the internal memory 303 is allowed. Save the entire axis in a ring format.

(Step 660)
The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 calculates MD using the diagnosis data y (diagnosis data 1240), data 1400, and equation (5) collected in step 650.

  The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 compares the threshold value set in step 640 with the calculated MD value, and diagnoses normality or abnormality based on the determination content in step 707.

  Based on the prepared data 1400, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 performs diagnosis of each axis for each axis and diagnosis of all axes using the all-axis database 1407.

  In this way, the central processing unit 301, the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100, and the operator can recognize in particular disturbances or abnormal factors of the mechanism unit extending between the axes.

(Step 670)
The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 transmits the diagnosis result to the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 based on the diagnosis result of each axis in step 660. Further, as shown in FIG. 15, for example, the MD position calculated based on the diagnosis result is indicated by a double circle mark on the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313, or the OK display 1530 is displayed in green and the NG display 1531 is displayed. The diagnosis result is displayed in a color such as red so that the operator can easily recognize the diagnosis result visually.

  As a result, the central processing unit 301, the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100, and the operator can recognize that a difference from the normal conveyance (normal operation pattern) state occurs due to external factors or wear of the mechanism unit. . By warning the occurrence of this abnormal state, the necessity of maintenance such as component replacement and mechanism adjustment can be known in advance, and a serious accident such as breakage of the wafer 106 can be prevented and maintained. In some cases, a serious accident can be prevented by emergency stopping the system.

(Step 671)
If at least one axis is not normal in the result of the diagnosis processing in step 660, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 determines whether to stop the system based on the setting in step 708. If the system is to be stopped, the process proceeds to step 690. If the system is not stopped due to normality or warning display, the process proceeds to step 680.

(Step 680)
The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 proceeds to step 650 in order to perform a diagnosis every time the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 operates with the motion pattern set in step 701. However, if a diagnosis stop or stop command is forcibly received from the operation of the panel 107 or teaching pendant 313 or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100, the diagnosis processing is stopped (terminated) and a diagnosis restart command is issued. The diagnosis process is not started unless it is turned on.

(Step 690)
The worker or the semiconductor manufacturing apparatus 100 can perform a detailed diagnosis by operating the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313 or a command from the host device when the system of the mini-en 101 or the robot 200 is stopped.

The operation diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 performs detailed diagnosis. That is, the measurement data of the axis determined to be abnormal is performed by the following method, which is one of the MT methods, and the item 1370 that becomes the cause element is clarified.
1. Among the distances (md 1 to md k ) of each component in Expression (5), the component having the maximum value is searched for.
2. The measurement data y (diagnosis data y) of the component having the maximum value is replaced with the average value m, and MD is calculated again.
3. The above steps 1 and 2 are repeated until MD <threshold.
4). Record the measurement data and the process of md i (i = 1 to k) until MD <threshold value.
5). Of course the md i, to display the value of the maximum value as a final effect 1720.
However, the final effect is that the data replaced in the first time is the same, and the first and subsequent values are the maximum values in the process.

  The larger final effect 1720 of each item in the above procedure 5 can be estimated as the cause of the abnormality. As a result, it is possible to know where an abnormality has occurred in the shaft driving unit, and to take measures against the worker.

(Step 691)
The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 displays the detailed diagnosis result calculated in step 690. FIG. 17 is an example of a screen display of the detailed diagnosis result for the R1 axis. A screen as shown in FIG. 17 and an abnormal factor (cause element) item 1730 set in step 709 are displayed on the panel 107 or teaching pendant 313.

  In FIG. 17, the axis 1710 displaying the current diagnosis result, the evaluation 1711, the result 1712, and the bar graph of the final effect 1720 in each detailed diagnosis item 1721 (1370) are displayed in color. The evaluation is, for example, the value of MD, and the result is the same as in step 670. Coloring is displayed darker as the final effect increases.

  In FIG. 17, the final effect 1720 is displayed as a colored bar graph, but may be displayed as a colored scatter diagram, or may be displayed as a colored graph using another graph.

  The motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 displays a part, for example, as shown in FIG. 19 according to an operation from the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313 or a command from the host device.

  FIG. 19 shows an example of a screen for displaying a diagnosis result by a table 1910 of all axis diagnosis results, a robot display, and an image of motion reproduction. FIG. 19 shows a case where the R1 axis is abnormal, and the row of the R1 axis in Table 1910 is displayed in color. The abnormal axis R1 axis drive unit 1920 is also colored in the same color as the row of the R1 axis in Table 1910.

  FIG. 20 shows an example of a screen that displays the diagnosis result based on the detailed diagnosis result of the R1 axis, which is a detailed part, and an image of operation reproduction. As shown in FIG. 20, the mechanism of the R1 axis is displayed, and the belt (1) 531, the belt (2) 532, which are the abnormal factors in the same color as the bar graph of the item associated in step 707 of FIG. The belt (3) 533 is colored and displayed.

  Thereby, even if the system stops, the operator can shorten the maintenance time and the recovery work by following the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313 regardless of experience.

When at least one axis is operating, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 performs parallel processing (simultaneous processing) separately from the processing performed in the flow of FIGS. Resolver values can be stored. As shown in FIG. 18, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 collects encoder values or resolver values for all axes of the robot 200 as well as the motion pattern of step 701, and collects time S 1 1821, S 2 1822,. As in S 1 1830 (l = 1, 2,...), An arbitrary number is collected at an arbitrary fixed time interval and stored in the internal memory 303 in a ring manner.

  FIG. 18 is an example in which the encoder waveform 1811 of the R1 axis indicates abnormal data.

  The operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 stops ring-type data storage based on the diagnosis result in step 660, the alarm of the drive control unit 320 (each servo amplifier), and other alarms of various devices installed in the mini-en 101. Then, the encoder value (or resolver value) at the time of malfunction such as abnormality or alarm is held in the internal memory 303.

The time interval (the number of S 1 ) or the area taken by the ring is a range that is commensurate with the processing capability of the motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 and the internal memory 303, and is arbitrary as long as at least one motion pattern can be reproduced. May be set.

  The motion diagnosis arithmetic processing unit 310 operates the panel 107 or the teaching pendant 313 or commands from the host device to display a moving image that reproduces the trajectory (motion) of the robot 200 based on the encoder value at a slow or actual speed. Are displayed on the panel 107 and the teaching pendant 313. FIGS. 19 and 20 show a motion reproduction 1933 of the robot 200, a motion reproduction 1933 of the θ axis, a motion reproduction 1934 of the Z axis, a motion reproduction 1935 of the Y axis, and a motion reproduction 2020 of the R1 axis. Show.

  For example, the motion diagnosis calculation processing unit 310 converts the θ-axis encoder waveform 1813, the Z-axis encoder waveform 1814, and the Y-axis encoder waveform 1815 of FIG. 18 into the θ-axis motion reproduction 1933 and the Z-axis of FIG. Displayed as an operation reproduction 1934 and an operation reproduction 1935 of the Y axis. Thereby, the worker can recognize the state of the simultaneous operation.

  If the data is abnormal as in the encoder waveform 1811 of the R1 axis, it is abnormal in the diagnosis result in step 660. Therefore, the abnormal data is as in the operation reproduction 2020 of the R1 axis shown in FIG. Is displayed. That is, using the point 2030 representing the trajectory and speed of the motion, the motion is reproduced while leaving a history. In FIG. 20, the point 2030 representing the locus (position) and speed of the operation is displayed as a black dot, the locus is represented as the position of the point, and the speed is represented as the interval between the points. Similarly, both the speed and the trajectory (position) are displayed with white dots as a normal operation while calculating the ideal design value. The locus may be displayed using a vector (arrow line) instead of a point. In this case, the speed is represented by the magnitude of the vector (the length of the arrow line).

  As a result, the operator can quickly confirm the details of the operation status of the robot 200 when a malfunction such as an abnormality occurs.

  Further, as described above, the worker transfers the encoder value stored in the internal memory 303 to the external memory 312 via the interface unit of the external memory and takes it out like other collected data and calculated data. It is possible to perform a detailed analysis of defects over time.

  The present invention is applicable to a wafer transfer robot or a mini-environment system for transferring a semiconductor wafer.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 100 ... Semiconductor manufacturing apparatus, 101 ... Mini-environment system (mini-en), 102 ... Mini-en housing | casing, 103 ... Load port part, 104 ... Cassette, 105 ... Fan filter unit (FFU), 106 ... Wafer, 107 ... Panel, 200 ... Wafer transfer robot, 201 ... Y-axis drive unit, 202 ... Y-axis servo motor, 203 ... Arm 1, 204 ... Arm 2, 205 ... Z-axis drive unit, 206 ... θ-axis drive unit, 207 ... Hand, 300 ... Controller, 301 ... Central processing unit, 302 ... Host device interface (I / F), 303 ... Internal memory, 304 ... Robot input / output signal interface (I / F), 305 ... Various device interfaces (I / F), 306 ... Motor control unit, 307 ... Input signal, 308 ... Output signal, 309 ... Stem bus 310 ... Operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit, 311 ... Pre-aligner, 312 ... External memory, 313 ... Teaching pendant, 320 ... Drive control unit, 321 ... R1-axis servo amplifier, 322 ... R2-axis servo amplifier, 323 ... θ Axis servo amplifier, 324 ... Z-axis servo amplifier, 325 ... Y-axis servo amplifier, 331 ... R1-axis motor, 332 ... R2-axis motor, 333 ... θ-axis motor, 334 ... Z-axis motor, 335 ... Various sensors, 336 ... Solenoid valve, 337 ... Input signal, 338 ... Output signal, 340 ... Trigger signal, 341 ... Signal, 342 ... Signal, 401 ... MPU, 402 ... Programmable logic device (PLD), 403 ... Non-volatile memory IC, 404 ... volatile memory IC, 411 ... first axis diagnostic signal interface circuit, DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 12 ... Signal interface circuit for 2nd axis diagnosis, 413 ... Signal interface circuit for 3rd axis diagnosis, 414 ... Signal interface circuit for 4th axis diagnosis, 415 ... Signal interface circuit for 5th axis diagnosis, 421 ... Internal power supply circuit, 422 ... Power supply monitoring IC, 423 ... Communication IC or circuit, 424 ... Real time clock (RTC), 425 ... System bus interface circuit, 426 ... Image processing circuit, 431 ... Connector, 432 ... Connector, 433 ... Connector, 434 ... Connector 435 ... connector 436 ... connector 501 ... power supply voltage 502 ... + limit 503 ...- limit 505 ... servo on, 506 ... deviation counter clear, 507 ... command pulse, 509 ... servo ready, 510 ... in position, 511 ... Encoder, 512 ... torque monitor, 514 ... general-purpose signal 1, 515 ... general-purpose signal 2, 516 ... general-purpose signal 3, 517 ... general-purpose signal 4, 800 ... path, 801 ... teaching point of pre-aligner, 802 ... teaching point, 803 ... wafer supply position Teaching point of 810 ... path, 811 ... teaching point of wafer discharge position, 812 ... teaching point, 813 ... teaching point, 814 ... teaching point of load port 1, 815 ... teaching point of load port 2, 816 ... load port 3 Teaching point, 821 ... Wafer supply position to semiconductor manufacturing apparatus, 822 ... Wafer discharge position from semiconductor manufacturing apparatus, 904 ... Origin, 908 ... Electromagnetic brake release, 913 ... Speed monitor, 920 ... ON, 921 OFF, 930 ... acceleration, 931 ... constant speed, 932 ... deceleration, 1010 ... signal not changing, 1020 ... unused signal, 1110 ... selected measurement item, 1120 ... measurement timing, 1130 ... elapsed time, DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1140 ... Elapsed time, 1210 ... Reference space, 1211 ... Mahalanobis distance (MD), 1212 ... Average value of Mahalanobis distance, 1220 ... Average value, 1230 ... Standard deviation, 1240 ... Diagnostic data, 1340 ... Normalization data, 1350 ... Correlation Matrix, 1360 ... Inverse matrix, 1370 ... Item, 1400 ... Data, 1401 ... R1 axis database, 1402 ... R2 axis database, 1403 ... θ axis database, 1404 ... Z axis database, 1405 ... Y axis database, 1406 ... Preliminary axis database 1407 ... All axes database, 1510 ... Positive Normal measurement data for threshold determination, 1521 ... Threshold, 1522 ... Threshold, 1530 ... OK display, 1531 ... NG display, 1610 ... Measurement data for threshold determination only for abnormality, 1620 ... Threshold, 1710 ... Display diagnostic results Axis, 1711 ... Evaluation displaying diagnostic results, 1712 ... Results displaying diagnostic results, 1720 ... Final effects, 1721 ... Detailed diagnostic items, 1811 ... R1 axis encoder waveform, 1813 ... θ axis encoder waveform, 1814 ... Z-axis encoder waveform, 1815 ... Y-axis encoder waveform, 1821 ... Collection time S 1 , 1822 ... Collection time S 2 , 1830 ... Collection time S l , 1910 ... Table of diagnosis results for all axes, 1920 ... Abnormal axis An R1 axis drive unit, 1933... Θ axis motion reproduction, 1934... Z axis operation reproduction, 1935... Y axis operation reproduction, 2020. R1 axis motion reproduction, 2030 ... Points representing motion trajectory and speed.

Claims (22)

  1. In an operation diagnosis method for a robot having a plurality of drive shafts, a plurality of motors for driving the drive shafts, a manipulator, and a sensor, and moving the manipulator by the drive shafts,
    For at least one of the drive axes, set an operation pattern to be diagnosed by the robot,
    In the operation pattern in the initial state of the robot, determination data includes a plurality of input / output signals of a control device that controls the motor measured a plurality of times and a plurality of input / output signals of a device that controls the sensor or the manipulator. age,
    A single or a plurality of the determination data newly measured as diagnostic data,
    Determining whether the operation of the robot at the time of the new measurement is normal or not by determining whether the diagnostic data is included in the determination data by a statistical pattern recognition method A robot motion diagnosis method characterized by the above.
  2. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 1,
    The determination data is measured in advance,
    Collecting the diagnostic data each time the movement pattern of the robot is executed at least once;
    A robot operation diagnosis method for determining whether the operation of the robot is normal or not.
  3. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 1,
    The robot motion diagnosis method, wherein the motion pattern is one in which a plurality of the drive shafts move and move between at least two arbitrary teaching points stored in advance in the robot.
  4. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 1,
    The determination data and the diagnostic data are data obtained by measuring a plurality of input / output signals of a control device that controls the motor and a plurality of input / output signals of a device that controls the sensor or the manipulator at an arbitrary time,
    A robot motion diagnosis method for operating the robot an arbitrary number of times in the motion pattern, detecting data that does not change among the measured data, and deleting the detected data from the measurement items to be diagnosed.
  5. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 4,
    The timing for measuring the plurality of input / output signals of the control device for controlling the motor and the plurality of input / output signals of the device controlling the sensor or the manipulator is triggered by at least one arbitrary digital signal as a trigger. A robot motion diagnosis method that measures at the timing of the rising or falling edge of a digital signal.
  6. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 1,
    The statistical pattern recognition method is Mahalanobis Taguchi method,
    A robot motion diagnosis method that sets a reference space of the Mahalanobis Taguchi method as a data group of the drive axis in which the motion pattern is set.
  7. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 4,
    The Mahalanobis Taguchi method is used to confirm the validity of the deleted measurement item, and the reference space of the Mahalanobis Taguchi method is a data group of the drive axis in which the operation pattern is set. Method.
  8. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 6,
    Whether the diagnostic data is included or not included in the determination data is determined by a Mahalanobis distance threshold,
    The threshold value is set in advance to a maximum value among the Mahalanobis distance of each time calculated by the determination data and the Mahalanobis distance of the diagnosis data using the diagnosis data measured at least once in the operation pattern. A method for diagnosing robot motion that is added to the tolerance.
  9. The robot motion diagnosis method according to claim 8,
    The robot threshold value can be set to a single threshold value or a plurality of threshold values. When a plurality of threshold values are set, an arbitrary Mahalanobis distance can be set.
  10. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 1,
    A method for diagnosing a robot operation, in which, if it is determined that the operation of the robot is not normal, a statistical pattern recognition method detects an item of a signal that is determined to be abnormal from the diagnosis data.
  11. The robot operation diagnosis method according to claim 1,
    Periodically storing the position detection signal of the drive shaft;
    A robot motion diagnosis method that reproduces an operation trajectory of the robot by the position detection signal when it is determined that the operation of the robot is not normal or when an alarm is generated in a device mounted on the robot.
  12. Multiple drive shafts;
    A drive control unit composed of a control device that feedback-controls a plurality of motors that respectively drive the drive shafts;
    A motor control unit that outputs position, speed, and torque commands to the drive control unit;
    A robot input / output signal interface unit for inputting / outputting signals to / from the inside of the robot;
    A host device interface unit for performing communication and digital signal input / output with the host device;
    A central processing unit for controlling the operation of the robot and the overall system;
    The interface part of the display / operation panel;
    Teaching pendant interface,
    An operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit for performing operation diagnosis of a robot having a manipulator and a sensor and moving the manipulator by the drive shaft;
    An internal memory for storing data of the motor control unit, the central processing unit, and the operation diagnosis processing unit;
    The operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit is
    For at least one of the drive axes, set an operation pattern to be diagnosed by the robot,
    In the operation pattern in the initial state of the robot, determination data includes a plurality of input / output signals of a control device that controls the motor measured a plurality of times and a plurality of input / output signals of a device that controls the sensor or the manipulator. age,
    A single or a plurality of the determination data newly measured as diagnostic data,
    By determining whether the diagnostic data is included or not included in the determination data by a statistical pattern recognition method, it is determined whether the operation of the robot at the time of the new measurement is normal or not normal Performing an operation diagnosis of the robot;
    A robot control device characterized by that.
  13. A control apparatus for a robot according to claim 12,
    The interface part of the load port part,
    The interface part of the fan filter unit,
    The interface part of the pre-aligner,
    A control device for a mini-environment system, comprising:
  14. A control apparatus for a robot according to claim 12,
    A display / operation panel connected to the interface of the display / operation panel;
    A teaching pendant connected to the interface of the teaching pendant;
    A manipulator,
    A plurality of drive shafts for moving the manipulator;
    A robot characterized by comprising:
  15. A control device for a mini-environment system according to claim 13,
    A load port unit connected to an interface unit of the load port unit;
    A fan filter unit connected to the interface part of the fan filter unit;
    A pre-aligner connected to the interface part of the pre-aligner;
    A mini-environment system comprising a mini-en housing.
  16. The robot according to claim 14, wherein
    The statistical pattern recognition method is Mahalanobis Taguchi method,
    The reference space of the Mahalanobis Taguchi method is set as a data group of the drive shaft that sets the operation pattern,
    The display / operation panel or the teaching pendant displays a Mahalanobis distance of the reference space and a Mahalanobis distance of the diagnostic data measured for obtaining a threshold value as a scatter diagram or a bar graph.
  17. The robot according to claim 14, wherein
    The statistical pattern recognition method is Mahalanobis Taguchi method,
    The reference space of the Mahalanobis Taguchi method is set as a data group of the drive shaft that sets the operation pattern,
    The display / operation panel or the teaching pendant displays the Mahalanobis distance of the reference space as a scatter diagram or bar graph, and the Mahalanobis distance of the diagnostic data measured for the operation diagnosis on the scatter diagram or bar graph. A robot that displays a position and displays the result in a color different from a normal color when the result of the operation diagnosis is abnormal.
  18. The robot according to claim 14, wherein
    When it is determined that the operation of the robot is not normal, the display / operation panel or the teaching pendant displays the drive axis and the measurement item determined to be not normal by a colored bar graph, and is determined not to be normal. A robot that displays a portion of the robot corresponding to a drive axis in the same color as the bar graph.
  19. The robot according to claim 14, wherein
    The operation diagnosis arithmetic processing unit periodically stores the position detection signal of the drive axis, and when it is determined that the operation of the robot is not normal, or when an alarm is generated in a device mounted on the robot , The movement locus of the robot is displayed on the display / operation panel or the teaching pendant by the position detection signal,
    The display / operation panel or the teaching pendant displays the speed and position of the drive shaft as points or vectors as the robot's motion trajectory, and reproduces the robot's motion trajectory as a slow or actual speed video. robot.
  20. The robot according to claim 14, wherein
    When it is determined that the operation of the robot is not normal, the central processing unit emergency stops the operation of all the mounted devices.
  21. The robot according to claim 14, wherein
    A robot comprising an interface unit of an external memory and capable of transferring data stored in the internal memory to an external memory connected to the interface unit of the external memory.
  22.   A mini-environment system comprising the robot according to any one of claims 16 to 21.
JP2009241056A 2009-10-20 2009-10-20 Operation diagnosis method of robot, control device of robot, control device of mini-environment system, robot, and mini-environment system Pending JP2011088219A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2015174207A (en) * 2014-03-18 2015-10-05 セイコーエプソン株式会社 robot
JP2016107379A (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-20 ファナック株式会社 Robot system including augmented reality corresponding display
JP2016203273A (en) * 2015-04-16 2016-12-08 富士通株式会社 Robot control program and robot

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2015174207A (en) * 2014-03-18 2015-10-05 セイコーエプソン株式会社 robot
JP2016107379A (en) * 2014-12-08 2016-06-20 ファナック株式会社 Robot system including augmented reality corresponding display
US10052765B2 (en) 2014-12-08 2018-08-21 Fanuc Corporation Robot system having augmented reality-compatible display
JP2016203273A (en) * 2015-04-16 2016-12-08 富士通株式会社 Robot control program and robot

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