JP2011002000A - Suspension device for vehicle - Google Patents

Suspension device for vehicle Download PDF

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JP2011002000A
JP2011002000A JP2009144605A JP2009144605A JP2011002000A JP 2011002000 A JP2011002000 A JP 2011002000A JP 2009144605 A JP2009144605 A JP 2009144605A JP 2009144605 A JP2009144605 A JP 2009144605A JP 2011002000 A JP2011002000 A JP 2011002000A
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vehicle
elastic
suspension
support
air spring
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Kenji Fujimoto
賢二 藤本
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Toyo Tire & Rubber Co Ltd
東洋ゴム工業株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a suspension device for a vehicle including an air spring and an elastic part in series in an up-and-down direction and having different characteristics such as a spring constant depending on directions in such a manner that elasticity in a fore-and-aft direction is high and elasticity in a right-and-left direction is low to be used for a railroad vehicle with a bolster-less bogie.SOLUTION: In the suspension device for the vehicle, a stopper b having a laminated rubber structure in which a plurality of elastic layers 5A-5C and hard barriers 5a, 5b are alternately laminated concentrically at an outside diameter and an inside diameter and showing a chevron shape cross section in a direction along an axis center P, and the air spring a having a vehicle body side upper support part 1, a bogie side lower support part 2, and rubber diaphragm 3 covering both of the support parts 1, 2 are disposed in series in an up-and down direction between a main shaft 4 and an outer tube 2B having the same axis center P as the main shaft 4. A lightening part n formed by partially removing the elastic layers 5A-5C is formed at a specific direction section with respect to the axis center P of the elastic part 5.

Description

本発明は、鉄道車両、バス、トラック自動車等に用いられる車両用懸架装置に係り、詳しくは、空気ばねとストッパーとが上下直列に配備されて成る車両用懸架装置に関するものである。   The present invention relates to a vehicle suspension device used in railway vehicles, buses, truck cars, and the like, and more particularly to a vehicle suspension device in which air springs and stoppers are arranged in series in the vertical direction.

この種の車両用懸架装置は、車体側の上支持部、台車側の下支持部、及びそれら両者に亘って配備されるダイヤフラムを設けて成る空気ばねと、主軸と外筒との間に、複数の弾性層と硬質隔壁とを交互に積層して断面がハ字状を呈する積層ゴム構造の弾性部を介装して成るストッパーとを上下直列に有しており、特許文献1において開示されたものが知られている。   This type of vehicle suspension system is provided between an air spring provided with a diaphragm disposed over the upper support part on the vehicle body side, the lower support part on the carriage side, and both, and the main shaft and the outer cylinder, A plurality of elastic layers and hard partition walls are alternately stacked and a stopper formed by interposing an elastic portion of a laminated rubber structure having a cross-section of a cross section is disclosed in Patent Document 1. Is known.

空気ばねは、基本的には上下方向の荷重や振動に対して緩衝機能するように構成されているものであるが、中には構造上捩れ方向の力が作用する場合がある。それは、前述した特許文献2に示されるボルスタレス台車に空気ばねが適用される場合である。ボルスタレス台車Bの構造を簡単に説明すると、図3に示すように、レール101上を転がる左右一対の車輪102対を有する前後一対の車軸107を回転自在に支持する支持フレーム103と、支持フレーム103を鉄道車体104に上下軸心P周りに回動自在に支承するための回転軸105と、鉄道車体104の底面と支持フレーム103との間に介装される左右一対でゴム製のダイヤフラムから成る空気ばね106とから構成されている。   The air spring is basically configured to function as a buffer against vertical loads and vibrations, but in some cases, a force in the torsional direction may act on the structure. This is a case where an air spring is applied to the bolsterless cart shown in Patent Document 2 described above. The structure of the bolsterless carriage B will be briefly described. As shown in FIG. 3, a support frame 103 that rotatably supports a pair of front and rear axles 107 having a pair of left and right wheels 102 that roll on a rail 101, and a support frame 103 Is composed of a rotating shaft 105 for pivotally supporting the railway vehicle body 104 about a vertical axis P and a pair of left and right rubber diaphragms interposed between the bottom surface of the railway vehicle body 104 and the support frame 103. And an air spring 106.

このように支持フレーム103と鉄道車体104とが直接に空気ばね106を介して接続されている構造では、鉄道車体が直線走行している状況では、図4(a)に示すように、台車Bと鉄道車体104とは平行であり、空気ばね106には上下方向の荷重のみが作用しており、自由状態のときの平面視形状である円筒形が維持されている。   In the structure in which the support frame 103 and the railway vehicle body 104 are directly connected via the air spring 106 in this way, in a situation where the railway vehicle body is running straight, as shown in FIG. And the rail car body 104 are parallel to each other, and only a load in the vertical direction acts on the air spring 106, and a cylindrical shape which is a plan view shape in a free state is maintained.

しかしながら、曲線走行する状況においては、図4(b)に示すように、台車Bと鉄道車体104とは軸心Pを中心として回動移動するので、進行方向(矢印ロ方向)で前側の台車Bについては、曲線外側の空気ばね106はその支持フレーム103側部分が略前側に引張られ、曲線内側の空気ばね106はその支持フレーム103側部分が略後側に引張られることになり、それぞれ水平方向に捩れてせん断力が作用することになる。この空気ばねの捩れ量、即ちせん断力は、レールの曲線半径が短ければ短い程大きくなり、主に車両進行方向の前後に対して作用する。   However, in a situation where the vehicle travels in a curved line, as shown in FIG. 4B, the carriage B and the railway vehicle body 104 rotate around the axis P, so that the carriage on the front side in the traveling direction (arrow B direction). Regarding B, the air spring 106 on the outer side of the curve is pulled substantially on the front side of the support frame 103 side, and the air spring 106 on the inner side of the curve is pulled on the side of the support frame 103 about the rear side. The shearing force acts by twisting in the direction. The twist amount of the air spring, that is, the shearing force, increases as the curve radius of the rail is shorter, and mainly acts on the front and rear in the vehicle traveling direction.

しかしながら、空気ばねに対するせん断力は、構造上、左右方向には殆ど作用しない。従って、バネ定数等の懸架装置のセッティングを、せん断力が生じる前後方向に照準を合せた柔かいものとすると左右方向には腰砕けとなって不安定になる。また、左右方向に照準を合せたしっかりとしたセッティングにすれと、前後方向にはバネ定数が必要以上に強くなって水平方向のせん断変形がし難くなり、前述の曲線走行に悪影響が出るおそれがある。このように、車両用懸架装置を前後左右のいずれにも好適なものとするには改善の余地が残されているものであった。   However, the shearing force against the air spring hardly acts in the left-right direction due to its structure. Therefore, if the setting of the suspension device, such as the spring constant, is soft with the aiming in the front-rear direction in which shearing force is generated, it becomes unstable in the left-right direction and becomes unstable. Also, if the setting is made with the aim in the left-right direction, the spring constant in the front-rear direction will become stronger than necessary, making it difficult for shear deformation in the horizontal direction, which may adversely affect the aforementioned curve running. is there. Thus, there remains room for improvement in order to make the vehicle suspension device suitable for both front and rear and left and right.

特開2006−329280号公報JP 2006-329280 A 特開2002−187548号公報JP 2002-187548 A

本発明の目的は、ボルスタレス台車を備えた鉄道車両に好適なものとすべく、前後方向には弾性が柔かく、かつ、左右方向には弾性が硬いといった具合に、空気ばねと弾性部とを上下直列に有して成る車両用懸架装置を、方向によってバネ定数等の特性が異なる仕様のものとして提供する点にある。   An object of the present invention is to make the air spring and the elastic portion up and down in such a manner that the elasticity is soft in the front-rear direction and the elasticity is hard in the left-right direction so as to be suitable for a railway vehicle equipped with a bolsterless carriage. The vehicle suspension system provided in series is provided with specifications having different characteristics such as a spring constant depending on the direction.

請求項1に係る発明は、車両用懸架装置において、主軸4とこれと互いに同一又はほぼ同一の軸心Pを有する外筒2Bとの間に、複数の弾性層5A〜5Cと硬質隔壁5a,5bとを前記軸心Pと同心又はほぼ同心状態で径内外方向で交互に積層する積層ゴム構造で、かつ、前記軸心Pに沿う方向での断面視形状がハ字状を呈する弾性部5が介装されて成るストッパーbと、
車体側の上支持部1、その下方に配置される台車側の下支持部2、及びそれら両者1,2に亘って配備される弾性材製のダイヤフラム3を設けて成る空気ばねaとが上下直列に配備されるとともに、
前記弾性部5における前記軸心Pに関する特定方向の箇所に、前記弾性層5A〜5Cを部分的に欠如させて成る肉抜き部nが形成されていることを特徴とするものである。
According to the first aspect of the present invention, in the vehicle suspension system, a plurality of elastic layers 5A to 5C and hard partition walls 5a, between the main shaft 4 and the outer cylinder 2B having the same or substantially the same axis P as the main shaft 4 are provided. And an elastic part 5 having a laminated rubber structure in which 5b is alternately laminated in the inner and outer directions concentrically or substantially concentrically with the shaft center P, and the cross-sectional shape in the direction along the shaft center P exhibits a C-shape. A stopper b formed by interposing,
The upper support 1 on the vehicle body side, the lower support 2 on the trolley side disposed below, and the air spring a provided with the diaphragm 3 made of an elastic material provided over both 1 and 2 are vertically moved. Deployed in series,
In the elastic portion 5, a hollow portion n formed by partially lacking the elastic layers 5 </ b> A to 5 </ b> C is formed at a location in a specific direction with respect to the axis P.

請求項2に係る発明は、請求項1に記載の車両用懸架装置において、前記肉抜き部nが前記弾性層5A〜5Cにおける前記軸心Pに関する径方向の全域に亘る状態で形成されていることを特徴とするものである。   According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the vehicle suspension device according to the first aspect, the thinned portion n is formed in a state extending over the entire radial direction with respect to the axis P in the elastic layers 5A to 5C. It is characterized by this.

請求項3に係る発明は、請求項1又は2に記載の車両用懸架装置において、前記肉抜き部nが前記弾性層5A〜5Cにおける前記軸心P方向の全域に亘る状態で形成されていることを特徴とするものである。   According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the vehicle suspension device according to the first or second aspect of the present invention, the thinned portion n is formed in a state extending over the entire area in the axis P direction of the elastic layers 5A to 5C. It is characterized by this.

請求項4に係る発明は、請求項1〜3の何れか一項に記載の車両用懸架装置において、前記肉抜き部nが前記複数の弾性層5A〜5Cの全てに形成されていることを特徴とするものである。   According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the vehicle suspension device according to any one of the first to third aspects, the lightening portion n is formed on all of the plurality of elastic layers 5A to 5C. It is a feature.

請求項5に係る発明は、請求項4に記載の車両用懸架装置において、前記複数の弾性層5A〜5Cのそれぞれに形成される前記肉抜き部nの前記軸心Pに関する角度範囲が互いに等しく設定されていることを特徴とするものである。   According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the vehicle suspension device according to the fourth aspect of the present invention, the angular ranges related to the axial center P of the lightening portion n formed in each of the plurality of elastic layers 5A to 5C are equal to each other. It is characterized by being set.

請求項6に係る発明は、請求項1〜5の何れか一項に記載の車両用懸架装置において、前記特定方向が進行方向の前後に設定される鉄道車両用のものであることを特徴とするものである。   The invention according to claim 6 is the vehicle suspension device according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the specific direction is for a railway vehicle in which the specific direction is set before and after the traveling direction. To do.

請求項1の発明によれば、肉抜き部を弾性層に設けることにより、左右方向に比べて前後方向のバネ定数が柔かいものとして、曲線通過等によって空気ばねにせん断力が生じる前後方向には柔かいバネ定数が設定され、かつ、左右方向には腰砕けとならないように踏ん張りの効くように硬いバネ定数が設定される鉄道車両用懸架装置といった具合に、全体としての弾性条件を方向によって異なるようにすることが可能になる。しかも、そのための手段が、弾性層を部分的に欠如させるだけのものであるから、構造簡単で、しかも周辺の構成要素に一切の改造が要求されない合理的、経済的であり、現行機種に容易に後付け装着可能等、実用上の利点も大である。   According to the first aspect of the present invention, by providing the hollow portion in the elastic layer, the spring constant in the front-rear direction is softer than that in the left-right direction, and in the front-rear direction in which a shearing force is generated in the air spring by passing a curve or the like. The elastic conditions as a whole differ depending on the direction, such as a suspension system for railway vehicles, where a soft spring constant is set, and a hard spring constant is set so that it is strutable so as not to break in the left-right direction. It becomes possible to do. Moreover, since the means for this is only to partially lack the elastic layer, the structure is simple, and it is rational and economical that no modification is required for the surrounding components, making it easy for current models. In addition, there are great practical advantages such as being retrofitted.

その結果、ボルスタレス台車を備えた鉄道車両に好適なものとすべく、前後方向には弾性が柔かく、かつ、左右方向には弾性が硬いといった具合に、空気ばねと弾性部とを上下直列に有して成る車両用懸架装置を、構造の複雑化やコストアップを招かない合理的で経済的な手段でありながら、方向によってバネ定数等の特性が異なる仕様のものとして提供することができる。   As a result, the air spring and the elastic part are arranged in series in the vertical direction so that it is suitable for a railway vehicle equipped with a bolsterless carriage, such that the elasticity is soft in the front-rear direction and the elasticity is hard in the left-right direction. The suspension system for a vehicle thus configured can be provided as a specification having different characteristics such as a spring constant depending on the direction, while being a rational and economical means that does not cause a complicated structure and an increase in cost.

肉抜き部としては、請求項2のように、弾性層の径方向全域に形成するとか、請求項3のように、肉抜き部が弾性層を軸心方向に貫通形成されるとか、請求項4のように、複数の弾性層の全てに形成するとか、請求項5のように、複数の弾性層において角度範囲が互いに等しく設定する等、必要に応じた効果を発揮可能な構成を選択することができる。   The thinned portion is formed over the entire radial direction of the elastic layer as in claim 2, or the thinned portion is formed through the elastic layer in the axial direction as in claim 3, or 4 is formed on all of the plurality of elastic layers, or a structure capable of exhibiting the effect according to necessity is selected, such as setting the angle ranges equal to each other in the plurality of elastic layers, as in claim 5. be able to.

請求項6の発明によれば、前後に柔かいストッパーとなるので、前述のボルスタレス台車を備える鉄道車両の懸架装置として好適なものとなる利点がある。   According to the invention of claim 6, since the front and back are soft stoppers, there is an advantage that it is suitable as a suspension device for a railway vehicle including the bolsterless carriage described above.

鉄道車両懸架装置の構造を示す断面図(実施例1)Sectional drawing which shows the structure of a railway vehicle suspension system (Example 1) ストッパー部を示す一部切欠きの平面図Top view of a notch showing the stopper ボルスタレス台車の概略構造を示す正面図Front view showing schematic structure of bolsterless bogie ボルスタレス台車の平面図で、(a)は直線走行時、(b)は曲線走行時It is a top view of a bolsterless bogie, (a) when traveling straight, (b) when traveling in a curve

以下に、本発明による車両用懸架装置の実施の形態を、鉄道車両に適用されるものとして図面を参照しながら説明する。尚、構造を分り易くするために、図1は図2のX−X線での断面図として描いてある。   Hereinafter, an embodiment of a vehicle suspension device according to the present invention will be described as applied to a railway vehicle with reference to the drawings. In order to make the structure easy to understand, FIG. 1 is drawn as a cross-sectional view taken along line XX of FIG.

〔実施例1〕
実施例1による鉄道車両用懸架装置Aは、上支持部1と下支持部2とダイヤフラム3とで成る空気ばねaと、その下方に直列配備される積層ゴム構造のストッパーbと、を有して構成されており、鉄道車両(図示省略)と台車(図示省略)との上下間に介装されている。
[Example 1]
The railcar suspension system A according to the first embodiment includes an air spring a including an upper support portion 1, a lower support portion 2, and a diaphragm 3, and a stopper b having a laminated rubber structure arranged in series below the air spring a. And is interposed between the upper and lower sides of a railway vehicle (not shown) and a carriage (not shown).

空気ばねaは、客車等の被支持体(図示省略)に固定される縦軸心Pを中心とする略円板状の上支持部1と、円盤状の上蓋部2Aと筒状のリング部2Bとから成る下支持部2と、これら両者1,2に亘って配備されるゴム(弾性材の一例)製で略横倒しドーナツ状を呈するダイヤフラム(ベローズ)3と、を有して構成されている。   The air spring a includes a substantially disk-shaped upper support portion 1 centered on a longitudinal axis P fixed to a support body (not shown) such as a passenger car, a disk-shaped upper lid portion 2A, and a cylindrical ring portion. 2B, and a diaphragm (bellows) 3 which is made of rubber (an example of an elastic material) and is substantially lying on its side and presents a donut shape. Yes.

ストッパーbは、主軸4と、これと互いに同一(又はほぼ同一)の縦軸心Pを有するリング部(外筒の一例)2Bとの間に、複数の弾性層5A〜5Cと硬質隔壁5a,5bとを縦軸心Pと同心(又はほぼ同心)状態で径内外方向で交互に積層する積層ゴム構造で、かつ、縦軸心Pに沿う方向での断面視形状がハ字状を呈する弾性部5が介装されることで構成されている。このように断面がハ字形状を呈するストッパーbと空気ばねaとが上下直列に配備されて成るものは、通常、「コニカルストッパー型空気ばね」と呼ばれる。   The stopper b includes a plurality of elastic layers 5A to 5C and hard partition walls 5a between the main shaft 4 and a ring portion (an example of an outer cylinder) 2B having the same (or substantially the same) longitudinal axis P as the main shaft 4. 5b is a laminated rubber structure in which the axis 5b and the axis P are concentrically (or substantially concentrically) laminated in the radial inner and outer directions, and the elasticity of the cross-sectional view in the direction along the axis P is a letter C. It is comprised by the part 5 being interposed. Such a structure in which the stopper b and the air spring a having a cross-sectional shape are vertically arranged in series is generally called a “conical stopper type air spring”.

上蓋部2Aは、皿を伏せたような形状の金属材等で形成されており、上面側には上下に扁平な下滑り板7がスクリュー止めされている。この下滑り板7は、ダイヤフラムがパンク等によってエアレス状態になった場合に、上支持部1の下面に装備される上滑り板10との当接に備えたものとして配備されている。リング部2Bは、下方ほど径が若干大きくなるように傾斜が付けられたテーパ内周面8を有するとともに、ダイヤフラム3を抜け止め状に嵌装するための環状突起9が外周面側に形成されている。上蓋部2Aとリング部2Bとは、互いに嵌合するインロー段差構造によって互いに共有の縦軸心Pを有する状態でのボルト止めで一体的に連結されることで下支持部2に構成されている。   The upper lid portion 2A is formed of a metal material or the like shaped like a dish, and a lower sliding plate 7 that is flat up and down is screwed to the upper surface side. The lower sliding plate 7 is provided as a preparation for contact with the upper sliding plate 10 provided on the lower surface of the upper support portion 1 when the diaphragm is brought into an airless state by puncture or the like. The ring portion 2B has a tapered inner peripheral surface 8 which is inclined so that the diameter thereof is slightly larger toward the lower side, and an annular protrusion 9 for fitting the diaphragm 3 in a retaining shape is formed on the outer peripheral surface side. ing. The upper lid portion 2A and the ring portion 2B are configured as the lower support portion 2 by being integrally connected by bolting in a state of having a common vertical axis P by mutually connecting inlay step structures. .

上支持部1は、その外径側端で成る取付外周部1aと、その下面側にボルト止めされる断面形状が略鉤状の装着リング14とにより、ダイヤフラム3の大径側周端部(上ビード部)3aを気密状に挟持保持するように形成されている。また、ダイヤフラム3の小径側周端部(下ビード部)3bは、環状突起9に沿う状態でその上側においてリング部2Bに気密状に外嵌装着されている。これにより、ダイヤフラム3の内部空間Sは外部と気密状に遮断されており、空気の圧縮による緩衝作用(エアクッション)が生じるように構成されている。尚、上支持部1の中心部に一体化されているボス部1Bを介して、ダイヤフラム3内に対する空気の出し入れにより、エアクッションの硬軟調節を行う構成を採ることが可能である。   The upper support portion 1 includes a mounting outer peripheral portion 1a formed by an end on the outer diameter side thereof, and a mounting ring 14 having a substantially bowl-shaped cross-section that is bolted to the lower surface side thereof. The upper bead portion 3a is sandwiched and held in an airtight manner. Further, the small-diameter side peripheral end portion (lower bead portion) 3b of the diaphragm 3 is externally fitted to the ring portion 2B in an airtight manner on the upper side thereof along the annular protrusion 9. Thereby, the internal space S of the diaphragm 3 is shut off in an airtight manner from the outside, and is configured to have a buffering action (air cushion) due to air compression. In addition, it is possible to take a configuration in which the air cushion is adjusted in softness by taking air into and out of the diaphragm 3 through the boss portion 1B integrated with the center portion of the upper support portion 1.

主軸4は、内部下方開放となるように抉り取り内部空間rを設けて軽量化された円錐台軸部4Aと、これを載せ付ける支持板4Bと、支持板4Bの下側に一体化される枢支軸部4Cとを有して構成されている。円錐台軸部4Aの外周は、最内側の弾性層5A(後述)を支持する円錐外周面4aに形成されている。枢支軸部4Cは図示しない台車に落とし込み支持される。   The main shaft 4 is integrated with the lower side of the support plate 4B, the support plate 4B on which the truncated conical shaft portion 4A, which has been turned up so as to be opened downward and reduced in weight, is lightened. And a pivot shaft 4C. The outer periphery of the truncated cone shaft portion 4A is formed on a conical outer peripheral surface 4a that supports the innermost elastic layer 5A (described later). The pivot shaft 4C is supported by being dropped into a cart (not shown).

弾性部5は、ゴム材による内外三重の第1〜第3弾性層5A,5B,5Cと、これらの間に介在される金属板製で内外二重の第1及び第2硬質隔壁5a,5bとから成る積層ゴム構造のものに構成されている。これら各弾性層5A,5B,5C及び各硬質隔壁5a,5bはいずれも環状のものであり、第1弾性層5Aの内周面が支持部材4の外周面4aに加硫接着等の手段によって固着されるとともに、第3弾性層5Cの外周面がリング部2Bのテーパ内周面8に加硫接着等の手段によって固着されている。つまり、主軸4と下支持2とが弾性部5を介して連結一体化されている。   The elastic portion 5 includes first and second triple-layered first and second hard partition walls 5a, 5b made of a metal plate, and inner and outer double-layered first and second hard partition walls 5a, 5b. And a laminated rubber structure. The elastic layers 5A, 5B, 5C and the hard partition walls 5a, 5b are all annular, and the inner peripheral surface of the first elastic layer 5A is attached to the outer peripheral surface 4a of the support member 4 by means such as vulcanization adhesion. While being fixed, the outer peripheral surface of the third elastic layer 5C is fixed to the tapered inner peripheral surface 8 of the ring portion 2B by means such as vulcanization adhesion. That is, the main shaft 4 and the lower support 2 are connected and integrated through the elastic portion 5.

この懸架装置Aには、車両進行方向である前方向(矢印イ方向)及び後方向(矢印ロ方向)の弾性に関するバネ定数を、左右方向(矢印ハ及びニの方向)の弾性に関するバネ定数に比べて小さくする異方設定手段6が装備されている。異方設定手段6は、図1,図2に示すように、弾性部5における前後方向(「軸心に関する特定方向」の一例)の箇所に、弾性層5A〜5Cを部分的に欠如させて成る肉抜き部nを形成することで構成されている。   In this suspension device A, the spring constant related to the elasticity in the forward direction (arrow B direction) and the rear direction (arrow B direction), which is the vehicle traveling direction, is changed to the spring constant related to the elasticity in the left-right direction (arrow C direction). Anisotropic setting means 6 for reducing the size is provided. As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the anisotropic setting means 6 partially lacks the elastic layers 5 </ b> A to 5 </ b> C in the front-rear direction (an example of “a specific direction related to the axis”) in the elastic portion 5. It is comprised by forming the lightening part n which consists.

即ち、具体的には、各弾性層5A,5B,5Cにおける縦軸心Pを中心とする前後の左右45度ずつの範囲は、縦軸心Pに関する径方向の全域に亘り、かつ、上下に貫通させて弾性層を欠如させて成る第1〜第3肉抜き部11(n),12(n),13(n)を設けることにより、前述の異方設定手段6が構成されている。つまり、肉抜き部nが複数の弾性層5A〜5Cの全てに形成されており、それら第1〜第3肉抜き部11〜13の縦軸心Pに関する角度範囲が互いに等しく(90度)設定されている。また、各肉抜き部11〜13が各弾性層5A〜5Cにおいて軸心方向に貫通形成されている。   That is, specifically, a range of 45 degrees left and right around the longitudinal axis P in each elastic layer 5A, 5B, 5C extends over the entire radial direction with respect to the longitudinal axis P and vertically. The anisotropic setting means 6 described above is configured by providing the first to third thinned portions 11 (n), 12 (n), and 13 (n) that are penetrated and lack the elastic layer. That is, the thinned portion n is formed in all of the plurality of elastic layers 5A to 5C, and the angular ranges related to the longitudinal axis P of the first to third thinned portions 11 to 13 are set to be equal to each other (90 degrees). Has been. In addition, each of the thinned portions 11 to 13 is formed through the elastic layers 5A to 5C in the axial direction.

ストッパーbにおいて、ゴム製弾性層5A〜5Bを部分的に取り除くこと、即ち、肉抜き部nを設けることにより、縦軸心Pに関するその方向のバネ定数が肉抜き部nのない箇所に比べて柔らかくなる。故に、空気ばねaを含む懸架装置A全体としても前記方向(実施例1では前後方向)のバネ定数を柔かくすることができる。   In the stopper b, the rubber elastic layers 5A to 5B are partially removed, that is, by providing the thinned portion n, the spring constant in that direction with respect to the vertical axis P is compared with the portion where the thinned portion n is not present. It becomes soft. Therefore, the spring constant of the said direction (in the front-back direction in Example 1) can be made soft also as the whole suspension apparatus A including the air spring a.

つまり、肉抜き部nによる異方設定手段6を設けることにより、左右方向に比べて前後方向のバネ定数が柔かい鉄道車両用懸架装置Aが実現できる。これにより、曲線通過等によって空気ばねaにせん断力が生じる前後方向には柔かいバネ定数が設定され、かつ、左右方向には腰砕けとならないように踏ん張りの効くように硬いバネ定数が設定されるという改善された理想的な鉄道車両用懸架装置Aになっている。   That is, by providing the anisotropic setting means 6 with the lightening portion n, it is possible to realize the railcar suspension system A in which the spring constant in the front-rear direction is softer than that in the left-right direction. As a result, a soft spring constant is set in the front-rear direction in which a shearing force is generated in the air spring a due to the passage of a curve and the like, and a hard spring constant is set in the left-right direction so that the struts are effective so as not to crumble. It is an improved ideal railcar suspension system A.

しかもそのための手段が、ストッパーbにおける弾性層5A〜5Cを部分的に欠如させるだけの簡単で、しかも周辺の構成要素に一切の改造が要求されない合理的なものになる。よって、経済的であるとともに、現行機種に容易に後付け装着が可能になる等、実用上の利点が大である。   In addition, the means for this is simple, in which the elastic layers 5A to 5C in the stopper b are partially omitted, and the peripheral components are not required to be modified at all. Therefore, it is economical and has great practical advantages such as being easily retrofitted to the current model.

また、図示は省略するが、トラック(自動車)に適用される場合において、急ブレーキによる強い減速Gに踏ん張って耐えるべく、縦軸心Pに関する後方及び左右の3箇所に肉抜き部nを設けて前方のバネ定数を硬くする設定の車両用懸架装置Aとすることも可能である。   Although not shown in the drawings, when applied to a truck (automobile), in order to withstand a strong deceleration G caused by a sudden brake, a hollow portion n is provided at three positions on the rear and left and right sides of the vertical axis P. It is also possible to make the vehicle suspension device A set so that the front spring constant is hardened.

〔別実施例〕
肉抜き部nは、第1弾性層5Aのみに設けるとか、第2及び第3弾性層5B,5Cの双方に設けるといった構成でも良く、また、上下方向に貫通形成されなくても良い。さらに、前方のみや後方のみに設けるとか、軸心Pに関する60度の範囲とか120度の範囲とか、その設定は、要求条件に対応させて任意に変更可能である。
[Another Example]
The thinned portion n may be provided only in the first elastic layer 5A, or may be provided in both the second and third elastic layers 5B and 5C, and may not be formed through in the vertical direction. Furthermore, the setting, such as being provided only in the front or only in the rear, or in the range of 60 degrees or 120 degrees with respect to the axis P, can be arbitrarily changed according to the required conditions.

1 上支持部
2 下支持部
2B 外筒
3 ダイヤフラム
5 弾性部
5A〜5C 弾性層
5a,5b 硬質隔壁
P 軸心
a 空気ばね
b ストッパー
n 肉抜き部
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Upper support part 2 Lower support part 2B Outer cylinder 3 Diaphragm 5 Elastic part 5A-5C Elastic layer 5a, 5b Hard partition P Axis a Air spring b Stopper n Thickening part

Claims (6)

主軸とこれと互いに同一又はほぼ同一の軸心を有する外筒との間に、複数の弾性層と硬質隔壁とを前記軸心と同心又はほぼ同心状態で径内外方向で交互に積層する積層ゴム構造で、かつ、前記軸心に沿う方向での断面視形状がハ字状を呈する弾性部が介装されて成るストッパーと、
車体側の上支持部、その下方に配置される台車側の下支持部、及びそれら両者に亘って配備される弾性材製のダイヤフラムを設けて成る空気ばねとが上下直列に配備されるとともに、
前記弾性部における前記軸心に関する特定方向の箇所に、前記弾性層を部分的に欠如させて成る肉抜き部が形成されている車両用懸架装置。
Laminated rubber in which a plurality of elastic layers and hard partition walls are alternately laminated in the inner and outer directions concentrically or substantially concentrically with the shaft center between the main shaft and the outer cylinder having the same or substantially the same shaft center. A stopper having a structure and an elastic portion interposed in a cross-sectional shape in a direction along the axis, the shape being a letter C;
The upper support portion on the vehicle body side, the lower support portion on the cart side disposed below the air support, and an air spring provided with a diaphragm made of an elastic material provided over both of them are arranged in series vertically,
A suspension system for a vehicle, wherein a hollow portion formed by partially lacking the elastic layer is formed at a position in a specific direction with respect to the shaft center in the elastic portion.
前記肉抜き部が前記弾性層における前記軸心に関する径方向の全域に亘る状態で形成されている請求項1に記載の車両用懸架装置。   The suspension device for a vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the lightening portion is formed in a state extending over a whole area in the radial direction with respect to the axis in the elastic layer. 前記肉抜き部が前記弾性層における前記軸心方向の全域に亘る状態で形成されている請求項1又は2に記載の車両用懸架装置。   The vehicle suspension device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the lightening portion is formed in a state extending over the entire region of the elastic layer in the axial direction. 前記肉抜き部が前記複数の弾性層の全てに形成されている請求項1〜3の何れか一項に記載の車両用懸架装置。   The vehicle suspension device according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the lightening portion is formed in all of the plurality of elastic layers. 前記複数の弾性層のそれぞれに形成される前記肉抜き部の前記軸心に関する角度範囲が互いに等しく設定されている請求項4に記載の車両用懸架装置。   The suspension system for a vehicle according to claim 4, wherein angular ranges related to the axial center of the thinned portions formed in each of the plurality of elastic layers are set to be equal to each other. 前記特定方向が進行方向の前後に設定される鉄道車両用のものである請求項1〜5の何れか一項に記載の車両用懸架装置。   The vehicle suspension device according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the specific direction is for a railway vehicle set before and after the traveling direction.
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