JP2010231383A - Road-vehicle communication system - Google Patents

Road-vehicle communication system Download PDF

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JP2010231383A
JP2010231383A JP2009076782A JP2009076782A JP2010231383A JP 2010231383 A JP2010231383 A JP 2010231383A JP 2009076782 A JP2009076782 A JP 2009076782A JP 2009076782 A JP2009076782 A JP 2009076782A JP 2010231383 A JP2010231383 A JP 2010231383A
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vehicle
communication
wireless
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JP5428443B2 (en
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Toshiaki Sugafuji
俊明 菅藤
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Mitsubishi Electric Corp
三菱電機株式会社
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To detect the occurrence of incorrect communication produced by a radio wave incoming from other than an in-vehicle communication device mounted on a vehicle running in a predetermined area. <P>SOLUTION: With the provision of a vehicle detection device for detecting a vehicle located in a predetermined detection area of a driving lane based on a measured data from a laser scanner, the number of in-vehicle radio equipment sets exchanging communication with roadside radio equipment in a predetermined communication area including the detection area is measured. The occurrence of incorrect communication is detected when the number of in-vehicle radio equipment sets exchanging communication is greater than the number of vehicles located in the detection area and detected by the vehicle detection device. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2011,JPO&INPIT

Description

この発明は、有料道路に設置された路側機と、車両に搭載された車載器との通信によって、路車間で情報の授受を行う路車間通信システムに関するものである。   The present invention relates to a road-to-vehicle communication system in which information is exchanged between road vehicles by communication between a roadside device installed on a toll road and a vehicle-mounted device mounted on a vehicle.
路車間通信を行うETC(Electronic Toll Collection)システムでは、路上に設置されたアンテナについて、所望の無線通信領域をサポートする、道路面に沿うような方形的なアンテナパターンを形成する。このアンテナの取り付けに際して、アンテナの向きや取り付け角度を微調整しながら設置することで、必要となる無線通信領域を確保していた。   In an ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) system that performs road-to-vehicle communication, a rectangular antenna pattern along a road surface that supports a desired wireless communication area is formed for an antenna installed on a road. When the antenna is attached, it is installed while finely adjusting the direction and angle of the antenna to secure a necessary wireless communication area.
この場合、アンテナ自身でのアンテナパターンの成形のみでは理想のパターン成形はほとんど困難であるため、必要な無線通信領域を含む一回り大きな無線通信領域を生成することが一般的であり、そのため隣接車線への電波漏れによる誤通信や、無線通信領域よりも前後の車両との誤通信が生じることがある。   In this case, since it is almost difficult to form an ideal pattern only by forming an antenna pattern with the antenna itself, it is common to generate a slightly larger wireless communication area including a necessary wireless communication area. In some cases, erroneous communication due to leakage of radio waves or erroneous communication with vehicles before and after the wireless communication area may occur.
また、路側上の設置機器や車両に反射した電波により通信領域外との車両と誤通信をしてしまう場合があるが、これまでは電波吸収体の設置やアンテナの調整により対策してきており、そのことが大きなコストアップの要因となっていた。なお、アンテナの設置時に、誤通信を防ぐように出来る限り正確な無線通信領域を設けるため、アンテナと路面間の向き、角度を厳密に設計通りの設置とする必要があり、そのための作業時間は多大なものとなっていた。   In addition, there are cases where erroneous communication with vehicles outside the communication area due to radio waves reflected on the roadside installation equipment and vehicles, but until now, measures have been taken by installing radio wave absorbers and adjusting antennas, That was a major factor in the cost increase. In addition, when installing the antenna, in order to provide a wireless communication area that is as accurate as possible so as to prevent erroneous communication, the orientation and angle between the antenna and the road surface must be set exactly as designed, and the work time for that is It was a huge thing.
一方、従来のETCシステムにおいて、隣接する走行車線からの信号を受信する誤通信検出用アンテナを用いて、路車間での誤通信を検出する方法が知られている。このETCシステムでは、料金収受用アンテナの通信相手が、当該料金収受用アンテナに対応する走行車線を走行している正しい通信相手であるか、或いは、他の走行車線を走行している誤った通信相手であるかを判断することが可能となる。これにより、誤った通信相手に対して課金することを抑止できる(例えば、特許文献1参照)。   On the other hand, in a conventional ETC system, a method of detecting erroneous communication between roads and vehicles using an erroneous communication detection antenna that receives a signal from an adjacent traveling lane is known. In this ETC system, the communication partner of the toll collection antenna is the correct communication partner traveling in the lane corresponding to the toll collection antenna, or erroneous communication in which the other lane is traveling. It becomes possible to judge whether it is a partner. Thereby, it can suppress charging with respect to an incorrect communication other party (for example, refer patent document 1).
特開2007−241542号公報JP 2007-241542 A
特許文献1に示すETCシステムは、指向性アンテナを用いて通信の該当車両以外からの電波の到来を検出するものであるが、所望の無線通信領域内を走行する通信の該当車両の有無について判別するものではなかった。また、通信の該当車両以外からの電波が、誤通信検出用アンテナの無線通信領域外から到来した場合には、誤通信の発生を検出すること自体ができなかった。   The ETC system shown in Patent Document 1 detects the arrival of radio waves from other than the corresponding vehicle for communication using a directional antenna, but determines whether there is a corresponding vehicle for communication traveling in a desired wireless communication area. It wasn't something to do. Further, when radio waves from other than the vehicle for communication arrived from outside the radio communication area of the erroneous communication detection antenna, it was impossible to detect the occurrence of erroneous communication.
このため、無線通信領域外から予期せぬ電波が到来し、例えば無線通信領域内で正規の通信アンテナが通信を行っている車両の台数が、この無線通信領域内を実際に走行している車両の台数より多くなった場合であっても、その不整合の発生を検出することができないという問題があった。   For this reason, an unexpected radio wave arrives from outside the wireless communication area, for example, the number of vehicles that are communicating with the regular communication antenna in the wireless communication area is actually traveling in this wireless communication area. Even when the number is larger than the number, the occurrence of the inconsistency cannot be detected.
なお、特許文献1のETCシステムを用いて無線通信領域外からの到来電波による誤通信の発生を漏れなく検出するには、誤通信の発生し得る全ての領域に対して誤通信検出用アンテナを指向させる必要がある。このため、誤通信検出用アンテナを無線通信領域の周辺に多数設置する必要があり、多大な設置コストを要するとともに、システムが複雑化してしまうという問題が生じる。   In order to detect the occurrence of miscommunication due to incoming radio waves from outside the radio communication area using the ETC system of Patent Document 1, the miscommunication detection antenna is provided for all areas where miscommunication may occur. Need to be oriented. For this reason, it is necessary to install a large number of erroneous communication detection antennas around the wireless communication area, which causes a problem that a large installation cost is required and the system becomes complicated.
この発明は、係る課題を解決するためになされたものであり、所定の無線通信領域内を走行中の車両以外から到来する電波によって生じる誤通信の発生を、簡素な機器構成で検出することを目的とする。   The present invention has been made to solve such a problem, and detects the occurrence of erroneous communication caused by radio waves coming from other than a vehicle traveling in a predetermined wireless communication area with a simple device configuration. Objective.
この発明による路車間通信システムは、走行車線の所定の検知領域内に存在する物標までの距離及びその存在方向を計測する、レーザースキャナの計測データに基づいて、当該走行車線の所定の検知領域内に存在する車両を検出する車両検出装置と、上記検知領域を含む所定の通信領域で電波を送受信し、当該通信領域を通過する車両にそれぞれ設けられた車載無線装置と無線通信を行う路側無線装置と、上記路側無線装置と交信中の車載無線装置の台数を計測し、当該交信中の車載無線装置の台数が、上記車両検出装置により検出された上記検知領域内に存在する車両の台数よりも多いときに、誤通信の発生を検知する通信制御装置と、を備えたものである。   The road-to-vehicle communication system according to the present invention is configured to measure a distance to a target existing in a predetermined detection area of a traveling lane and a direction in which the target lane is detected based on measurement data of a laser scanner. A vehicle detection device that detects a vehicle existing in the roadside, and a roadside radio that transmits and receives radio waves in a predetermined communication region including the detection region and performs wireless communication with an in-vehicle wireless device provided in each vehicle that passes through the communication region The number of in-vehicle wireless devices in communication with the device and the roadside wireless device is measured, and the number of in-vehicle wireless devices in communication is determined based on the number of vehicles existing in the detection area detected by the vehicle detection device. And a communication control device that detects the occurrence of erroneous communication.
この発明によれば、所定の検知領域内を走行する車両以外からの到来電波による誤通信の発生を、簡素な機器構成で検出することができる。   According to the present invention, it is possible to detect occurrence of erroneous communication due to incoming radio waves from other than a vehicle traveling in a predetermined detection area with a simple device configuration.
この発明に係る実施の形態1による路車間通信システムの構成を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the structure of the road-vehicle communication system by Embodiment 1 which concerns on this invention. この発明に係る実施の形態1の路車間通信システムによる、誤通信の検出処理動作を示すフローチャートである。It is a flowchart which shows the detection processing operation | movement of a miscommunication by the road-vehicle communication system of Embodiment 1 which concerns on this invention.
実施の形態1.
以下、図を用いてこの発明に係る実施の形態1による路車間通信システムについて説明する。図1は、実施の形態1による路車間通信システムの構成を示す図である。図において、路車間通信システムは、ETCの無線通信により路車間通信を行うための路側無線装置(路側アンテナ)1と、送信部及び受信部を有したレーザースキャナ2と、ETCの無線通信について路側無線装置1の通信制御を行う通信制御装置3と、レーザースキャナ2の計測データに基づいてレーザースキャナ2の検知領域内に存在する車両を検出する車両検出装置20とから構成される。
Embodiment 1 FIG.
Hereinafter, a road-to-vehicle communication system according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a configuration of a road-vehicle communication system according to a first embodiment. In the figure, a road-to-vehicle communication system includes a roadside wireless device (roadside antenna) 1 for performing road-to-vehicle communication by ETC wireless communication, a laser scanner 2 having a transmitter and a receiver, and roadside communication for ETC wireless communication. A communication control device 3 that performs communication control of the wireless device 1 and a vehicle detection device 20 that detects a vehicle existing in a detection region of the laser scanner 2 based on measurement data of the laser scanner 2.
また、車両6は有料道路4を走行しており、料金所に設けられたゲート(門柱)15を通過中のETC対象車両である。有料道路4はETCの無線通信を行う対象となる道路であって、例えば高架上に設けられた高速道路である。有料道路4と並走して、一般道路5が隣接している。一般道路5には、車両6と並走している車両7が走行している。一般道路5はETCの無線通信を行う対象とならない道路であって、例えば有料道路4に隣接する高架上や有料道路4の高架下に設けられる。車両6には、路側無線装置1と路車間通信を行うことの可能な車載無線装置31が搭載されている。車両7には、路側無線装置1と路車間通信を行うことの可能な車載無線装置32が搭載されているが、有料道路4を走行中ではないのでETC非対象車両である。
なお、ゲート15は、路車間通信を行うためのものであれば、料金所以外に設置されても良い。例えば、路側無線装置1と車載無線装置31が、ETCの無線通信ではなく、道路情報の提供のための通信やインターネット接続のための無線通信などのマルチアプリケーション通信を行うものであっても良い。
The vehicle 6 is traveling on the toll road 4 and is an ETC target vehicle that is passing through a gate 15 provided at a toll gate. The toll road 4 is a road on which ETC wireless communication is performed, and is, for example, an expressway provided on an overpass. A parallel road 5 is adjacent to the toll road 4. A vehicle 7 running alongside the vehicle 6 is traveling on the general road 5. The general road 5 is a road that is not a target for ETC wireless communication, and is provided, for example, on an overpass adjacent to the toll road 4 or under the toll road 4. The vehicle 6 is equipped with an in-vehicle wireless device 31 capable of performing road-to-vehicle communication with the roadside wireless device 1. The vehicle 7 is equipped with an in-vehicle wireless device 32 capable of performing road-to-vehicle communication with the roadside wireless device 1, but is not traveling on the toll road 4 and is therefore an ETC non-target vehicle.
Note that the gate 15 may be installed at a place other than the toll booth as long as it is for road-to-vehicle communication. For example, the roadside apparatus 1 and the in-vehicle wireless apparatus 31 may perform multi-application communication such as communication for providing road information and wireless communication for Internet connection, instead of ETC wireless communication.
ゲート15の上部には、路面から所定高さの位置に、路側無線装置1と、通信制御装置3と、レーザースキャナ2と、車両検出装置20が設置されている。路側無線装置1は、道路面に沿って方形状または楕円形状のアンテナパターンを形成し、ゲート15の下方で走行車線の道路面に方形や楕円形状の所定の無線通信領域8を形成する。例えば、ETCの無線通信を行う場合、この所定の無線通信領域の大きさは円形に近似して直径3m乃至10mの大きさとなる。路側無線装置1の所定の無線通信領域内では、1台の車両のみならず、同領域の大きさに応じて例えば2台乃至10台程度の車両が同時に走行することができる。
なお、通信制御装置3と車両検出装置20は、ゲート15に設置しなくても良く、ゲート下方の道路周辺や道路から幾分離れた道路管理事務所等に設けても良い。
Above the gate 15, the roadside wireless device 1, the communication control device 3, the laser scanner 2, and the vehicle detection device 20 are installed at a predetermined height from the road surface. The roadside apparatus 1 forms a rectangular or elliptical antenna pattern along the road surface, and forms a predetermined rectangular or elliptical wireless communication area 8 below the gate 15 on the road surface of the traveling lane. For example, when performing ETC wireless communication, the size of the predetermined wireless communication area approximates a circle and has a diameter of 3 m to 10 m. Within a predetermined wireless communication area of the roadside apparatus 1, not only one vehicle but also, for example, about 2 to 10 vehicles can travel simultaneously according to the size of the same area.
Note that the communication control device 3 and the vehicle detection device 20 do not have to be installed at the gate 15, but may be provided at a road management office or the like around the road below the gate or some distance from the road.
路側無線装置1は、通信制御装置3によって通信順序の制御や送受信する通信データの処理や相互認証処理を行う通信制御が行われ、通信対象領域となる無線通信領域8において、車載無線装置31との間でETCの無線通信による路車間通信を行う。この路車間通信では、車載無線装置31から路側無線装置1に対して、車載無線装置31に固有な識別コードを示すWCN(ワイヤレスコードナンバ)や車載無線装置31に装着されるETCカードのカード番号などの車両を識別可能な固有情報(以下、ETC車載器IDと称する)を送信する。また、路側無線装置1から車載無線装置31に対して、路側無線装置の固有番号を含む出口料金所情報のような、路側無線装置1を識別可能な固有情報を送信する。通信制御装置3は、車両検出装置20の出力により車両が何台存在するかの検出を行うことで路側無線装置1と車両との誤通信を検出し、その上で無線通信の継続処理や路車間通信結果への情報の付加を行う。   The roadside wireless device 1 is controlled by the communication control device 3 to perform communication control, communication data processing to be transmitted and received, and mutual authentication processing. In the wireless communication region 8 that is a communication target region, the roadside wireless device 1 Road-to-vehicle communication by ETC wireless communication. In this road-to-vehicle communication, WCN (wireless code number) indicating an identification code unique to the in-vehicle wireless device 31 from the in-vehicle wireless device 31 to the roadside wireless device 1 or a card number of an ETC card attached to the in-vehicle wireless device 31. The unique information that can identify the vehicle (hereinafter referred to as ETC onboard equipment ID) is transmitted. In addition, the roadside wireless device 1 transmits unique information that can identify the roadside wireless device 1 such as exit toll gate information including the road number of the roadside wireless device to the vehicle-mounted wireless device 31. The communication control device 3 detects an erroneous communication between the roadside wireless device 1 and the vehicle by detecting how many vehicles are present based on the output of the vehicle detection device 20, and then performs a wireless communication continuation process or a road Adds information to the inter-vehicle communication result.
また、この路車間通信では、料金収受に関する各種料金情報が授受され、課金処理が行われる。例えば、車載無線装置31は、入口料金所の路側無線装置から受信し、車載無線装置31のメモリに記録された入口料金所情報を、路側無線装置1に送信する。路側無線装置1は、受信した入り口料金所情報を通信制御装置3に送信し、通信制御装置3は入口料金所情報と出口料金所情報を、道路管理事務所に設置された図示しない料金計算機に送信する。料金計算機は、この入口料金所情報と出口料金所情報に基づいて、車両が走行した有料道路の入口と出口を認識し、この入口と出口に対応した通行料金の課金計算を行う。料金計算機は、計算した通行料金を、道路管理局に設置された図示しない中央装置に送り、中央装置が決済処理を行う。
また、料金計算機は、計算した通行料金の情報を路側無線装置1に送信し、路側無線装置1は受信した通行料金の情報を車載無線装置31に返信する。車載無線装置31は受信した通行料金の情報をメモリに記録する。
In this road-to-vehicle communication, various fee information related to fee collection is exchanged and billing processing is performed. For example, the in-vehicle wireless device 31 transmits the entrance toll gate information received from the roadside wireless device of the entrance toll gate and recorded in the memory of the in-vehicle wireless device 31 to the roadside wireless device 1. The roadside wireless device 1 transmits the received entrance tollgate information to the communication control device 3, and the communication control device 3 sends the entrance tollgate information and the exit tollgate information to a toll calculator (not shown) installed in the road management office. Send. Based on the entrance toll gate information and the exit toll gate information, the toll calculator recognizes the entrance and exit of the toll road on which the vehicle has traveled, and calculates the toll corresponding to the entrance and exit. The toll calculator sends the calculated toll to a central device (not shown) installed in the road management station, and the central device performs settlement processing.
The toll calculator transmits the calculated toll information to the roadside wireless device 1, and the roadside wireless device 1 returns the received toll information to the in-vehicle wireless device 31. The in-vehicle wireless device 31 records the received toll information in a memory.
レーザースキャナ2は、道路面における路側無線装置1の所定の無線通信領域8の内側に、方形状の所定の検知領域(レーザスキャナのスキャン領域)10を有している。レーザースキャナ2の送信部は、この所定の検知領域10に向けて赤外線(近赤外線または遠赤外線)のパルスレーザ光を送信する。レーザースキャナ2の送信部は半導体レーザ及び走査鏡から構成され、半導体レーザから出力されるパルスレーザ光を2次元走査(水平及び垂直方向走査)し、上記所定の検知領域の全域でパルスレーザ光を走査することができる。レーザースキャナ2から送信されたパルスレーザ光は、この所定の検知領域内で道路面または道路上に存在する物標にて反射し、レーザースキャナ2の受信部はこの反射光(反射パルス光)を受信する。レーザースキャナ2の受信部は走査鏡及びフォトダイオードから構成され、反射光を2次元走査することにより、上記所定の検知領域の全域について反射光をフォトダイオードで受光することができる。レーザースキャナ2は、送信したパルスレーザ光と反射光の位相差に基づいて、この所定の検知領域内に存在する物標(レーザ光の反射点)までの距離を計測するとともに物標の存在方向を計測し、その距離情報及び存在方向の情報を含む計測データを、車両検出装置20に出力する。
なお、所定の検知領域10は、無線通信領域8の内側に含まれるが、無線通信領域8における安定に通信できる領域と同程度かもしくは僅かに小さいサイズにするのが好ましく、無線通信領域8における検知領域10以外の領域では、車両が入り込む余地がない程度の大きさ及び形状とするのが好ましい。
The laser scanner 2 has a predetermined rectangular detection area (laser scanner scan area) 10 inside a predetermined wireless communication area 8 of the roadside apparatus 1 on the road surface. The transmitter of the laser scanner 2 transmits infrared (near infrared or far infrared) pulsed laser light toward the predetermined detection region 10. The transmitter of the laser scanner 2 is composed of a semiconductor laser and a scanning mirror, and performs two-dimensional scanning (horizontal and vertical scanning) on the pulse laser beam output from the semiconductor laser, and emits the pulse laser beam over the entire predetermined detection region. Can be scanned. The pulse laser beam transmitted from the laser scanner 2 is reflected by a target existing on the road surface or road in the predetermined detection area, and the receiving unit of the laser scanner 2 receives the reflected light (reflected pulse light). Receive. The receiving unit of the laser scanner 2 includes a scanning mirror and a photodiode, and the reflected light can be received by the photodiode over the entire predetermined detection area by two-dimensionally scanning the reflected light. The laser scanner 2 measures the distance to the target (laser light reflection point) existing in the predetermined detection area based on the phase difference between the transmitted pulsed laser beam and the reflected light, and the target presence direction. , And the measurement data including the distance information and the information on the existence direction is output to the vehicle detection device 20.
The predetermined detection area 10 is included inside the wireless communication area 8, but preferably has a size that is the same as or slightly smaller than the area in the wireless communication area 8 where stable communication is possible. In a region other than the detection region 10, it is preferable that the size and shape be such that there is no room for the vehicle to enter.
車両検出器20は、レーザースキャナ2から出力される計測データに基づいて、走行車線内の検知領域10に存在する車両の存在を検出する。例えば、レーザースキャナ2から出力される物標の距離及び存在方向の計測データから物標の3次元位置を求め、求めた物標の3次元位置を3次元座標空間上でプロットすることによって、物標の3次元形状プロファイルデータ(3次元点群モデル又はポイントクラウドデータ)を得る。この物標の3次元形状プロファイルデータから、車両が1台も走行していない状態での検知領域10の既存の3次元形状プロファイルデータ(例えば、道路面や予め設置された周辺構造物の3次元形状プロファイルデータ)との差分を得て、その差分データにおける近接した点群を一塊として認識することで、検知領域10に存在する車両候補の3次元形状プロファイルデータ(3次元点群モデル又はポイントクラウドデータ)を得る。この車両候補の3次元形状プロファイルデータについて、車両の大きさや形状を代表する3次元テンプレートモデル(3次元形状ワイヤフレームモデル)と比較し、その一致度合いを相関処理によって照合することで、車両を識別することができる。この車両の識別によって車両の存在を検出し、検出した車両毎に固有の識別番号を付与して、通信制御装置3に出力する。この際、例えば異なる位置に存在する車両についてそれぞれ異なる固有の識別番号を付与する。   The vehicle detector 20 detects the presence of the vehicle existing in the detection area 10 in the traveling lane based on the measurement data output from the laser scanner 2. For example, the three-dimensional position of the target is obtained from the measurement data of the distance and direction of the target output from the laser scanner 2, and the obtained three-dimensional position of the target is plotted on the three-dimensional coordinate space. The target 3D shape profile data (3D point cloud model or point cloud data) is obtained. From the three-dimensional shape profile data of the target, the existing three-dimensional shape profile data of the detection region 10 in a state where no vehicle is traveling (for example, the three-dimensional shape of a road surface or a peripheral structure installed in advance). 3D shape profile data (3D point cloud model or point cloud) of vehicle candidates existing in the detection area 10 by obtaining a difference from the shape profile data) and recognizing adjacent points in the difference data as a lump. Data). The vehicle candidate is identified by comparing the three-dimensional shape profile data of the vehicle candidate with a three-dimensional template model (three-dimensional shape wireframe model) representing the size and shape of the vehicle, and comparing the degree of coincidence by correlation processing. can do. The presence of the vehicle is detected by this vehicle identification, a unique identification number is assigned to each detected vehicle, and the vehicle is output to the communication control device 3. At this time, for example, different unique identification numbers are assigned to vehicles existing at different positions.
なお、レーザースキャナ2から出力される計測データに基づいて物標の検出を行う手法は各種提案されており、車両検出器20は周知の他の方法によって車両の存在を検出しても良い。例えば、レーザースキャナ2の計測データに基づき、道路面から一定高さを持つ座標を抽出し、近接した点群を一つの塊として認識することで、検知領域10に存在する物体の位置及びサイズを算出する。この算出結果に基づいて、異なる位置に存在する物体のサイズを車両の代表サイズと比較することで、検知領域10に存在する個々の車両を認識し、個々の車両を検出することができる(例えば、特開2004−210055及び特開2005−212553参照)。   Various methods for detecting a target based on measurement data output from the laser scanner 2 have been proposed, and the vehicle detector 20 may detect the presence of a vehicle by other known methods. For example, based on the measurement data of the laser scanner 2, coordinates having a certain height are extracted from the road surface and the adjacent point cloud is recognized as one lump so that the position and size of the object existing in the detection region 10 can be determined. calculate. Based on the calculation result, by comparing the size of an object existing at a different position with the representative size of the vehicle, it is possible to recognize each vehicle existing in the detection region 10 and detect each vehicle (for example, JP 2004-210055 and JP 2005-212553).
なお、レーザースキャナ2と車両検出装置20は通信ケーブルや無線通信などによって相互接続されており、レーザレーダ(或いはライダー)を構成する。また、レーザースキャナ2と車両検出装置20は、同一の筐体内に収容される、または同一の基台に載置されるなどして、一体化されたレーザレーダユニット(或いはライダーユニット)を構成しても良い。また、車両検出装置20と通信制御装置3を一体化したユニットとして構成しても良い。   The laser scanner 2 and the vehicle detection device 20 are connected to each other by a communication cable, wireless communication, or the like, and constitute a laser radar (or rider). Further, the laser scanner 2 and the vehicle detection device 20 are housed in the same casing or placed on the same base, thereby constituting an integrated laser radar unit (or rider unit). May be. Moreover, you may comprise as a unit which integrated the vehicle detection apparatus 20 and the communication control apparatus 3. FIG.
また、図1に示すように、路側無線装置1の無線通信領域は、その大部分が有料道路4上で通信対象領域となる無線通信領域8を形成する。しかし、路側無線装置1の送信電波の一部は、隣接する一般道路5に漏れ出ており、電波漏れしたETC対象車線以外の無線通信領域9を形成する。この電波漏れした無線通信領域9は、有料道路4からの電波漏れによって生じたものであるが、この領域内には検知領域10が設けられていない。逆に言えば、検知領域10は、例えばETCの無線通信のような路車間通信を行うための、通信対象領域となる正規の無線通信領域を、正確に規定するための領域として利用することができる。   As shown in FIG. 1, the radio communication area of the roadside apparatus 1 forms a radio communication area 8 that is mostly a communication target area on the toll road 4. However, a part of the transmission radio wave of the roadside apparatus 1 leaks to the adjacent general road 5, and forms a radio communication area 9 other than the ETC target lane where the radio wave leaks. The radio communication area 9 where the radio wave leaks is caused by the radio wave leak from the toll road 4, but the detection area 10 is not provided in this area. In other words, the detection area 10 can be used as an area for accurately defining a regular wireless communication area that is a communication target area for road-to-vehicle communication such as ETC wireless communication. it can.
次に、路車間通信システムの動作を説明する。
車両6は、有料道路4を走行中のETC対象車両である。ここで、ETCの無線通信処理を行なう路側無線装置1は、所望の無線通信領域を十分確保できるだけのアンテナパターンが設定されているものとする。通常、路側無線装置1の無線通信領域は理想的な形状を正確に規定することができず、また道路の路面や周辺構造物、或いは他の車両などから反射される電波によってマルチパスが生じ、例えば送信電波の電界強度分布が変動して、通信領域が不安定となる。このため、路側無線装置1の無線通信領域8は、道路の幅員または車線幅を包含し、かつ少なくとも1台分の車両が誤通信を生じない程度の十分な大きさを有することで、安定した通信を行うことのできる無線通信領域を確保している。
Next, the operation of the road-vehicle communication system will be described.
The vehicle 6 is an ETC target vehicle that is traveling on the toll road 4. Here, it is assumed that the roadside wireless device 1 that performs ETC wireless communication processing has an antenna pattern that can sufficiently secure a desired wireless communication area. Usually, the radio communication area of the roadside apparatus 1 cannot accurately define an ideal shape, and multipaths are generated by radio waves reflected from road surfaces, surrounding structures, or other vehicles, For example, the electric field strength distribution of the transmission radio wave fluctuates and the communication area becomes unstable. For this reason, the radio communication area 8 of the roadside apparatus 1 is stable because it includes the width of the road or the lane width, and has a sufficient size so that at least one vehicle does not cause erroneous communication. A wireless communication area in which communication can be performed is secured.
しかし、路側無線装置1の無線通信領域として十分な大きさの領域を確保することにより、例えば高速道路下の一般道5へ電波の一部が漏れ出して、無線通信領域9を形成してしまうことがある。車載無線装置32を搭載した車両7が、このETC対象車線以外の意図しない無線通信領域9を走行している場合、路側無線装置1との間で意図しない路車間通信(誤通信)を行う状況が発生する。この場合、路側無線装置1は、通信制御装置3の各種通信制御により、無線通信領域9において車載無線装置32との間で相互認証や各種情報の授受が行われ、ETCの無線通信による路車間通信が開始される。   However, by securing a sufficiently large area as the radio communication area of the roadside apparatus 1, for example, a part of the radio wave leaks to the general road 5 under the expressway and forms the radio communication area 9. Sometimes. When the vehicle 7 equipped with the in-vehicle wireless device 32 is traveling in an unintended wireless communication area 9 other than the ETC target lane, an unintended road-to-vehicle communication (erroneous communication) with the roadside wireless device 1 is performed. Occurs. In this case, the roadside wireless device 1 performs mutual authentication and exchange of various information with the in-vehicle wireless device 32 in the wireless communication area 9 by various communication controls of the communication control device 3, and the roadside-vehicle communication by ETC wireless communication is performed. Communication is started.
このため、実施の形態1による路車間通信システムでは、ETC対象車線以外の無線通信領域9を通過する車両との間で誤通信が発生しても、ETC対象車線内の所定の無線通信領域8に含まれる所定の検知領域10のみをレーザースキャナ2(レーザレーダ)でスキャンする車両検知を行い、車両の存在台数を計数することによって、ETC対象車線以外の車両からの到来電波による誤通信の発生を検出することができる。なお、所定の検知領域と所定の無線通信領域との差分領域の大きさは、車両のサイズよりも小さくすることが好ましい。以下、この誤通信の検出処理についてさらに説明する。   For this reason, in the road-to-vehicle communication system according to the first embodiment, even if erroneous communication occurs with a vehicle that passes through the wireless communication area 9 other than the ETC target lane, the predetermined wireless communication area 8 in the ETC target lane. Vehicle detection by scanning only a predetermined detection area 10 included in the vehicle with a laser scanner 2 (laser radar), and counting the number of vehicles present, resulting in erroneous communication due to incoming radio waves from vehicles other than the ETC target lane Can be detected. Note that the size of the difference area between the predetermined detection area and the predetermined wireless communication area is preferably smaller than the size of the vehicle. Hereinafter, the erroneous communication detection process will be further described.
図2は、通信制御装置3による誤通信の検出処理動作を示すフローチャートである。
まず、通信制御装置3は、路側無線装置1から送信電波を送り、車両に搭載された車載無線装置31または車載無線装置32との無線通信を開始する(ステップS1)。
FIG. 2 is a flowchart showing an erroneous communication detection processing operation performed by the communication control device 3.
First, the communication control device 3 transmits a transmission radio wave from the roadside wireless device 1 and starts wireless communication with the in-vehicle wireless device 31 or the in-vehicle wireless device 32 mounted on the vehicle (step S1).
次に、路側無線装置1と車載無線装置31または車載無線装置32との通信接続が確立され、路車間での無線通信が成立する(ステップS2)。
続いて、路車間での無線通信が成立したら、ETC車載器IDの検出により、そのETC車載器IDの数を計数することによって、無線通信している車両の台数(N1)が計測される(ステップS3)。
Next, the communication connection between the roadside apparatus 1 and the in-vehicle wireless apparatus 31 or the in-vehicle wireless apparatus 32 is established, and wireless communication between the road and vehicle is established (step S2).
Subsequently, when the wireless communication between the road and the vehicle is established, the number (N1) of vehicles in wireless communication is measured by counting the number of the ETC onboard unit ID by detecting the ETC onboard unit ID ( Step S3).
また、車両検出装置20は、レーザースキャナ2の計測データを用いて、所望の無線通信領域8内における所定の検知領域10内に存在する車両を検出する。車両検出装置20は、検出した車両の位置毎に異なる識別番号を付与し、付与した各識別番号を通信制御装置3に出力する。
通信制御装置3は、車両検出装置20により検出した車両の識別番号の数を計数することにより、車両の台数(N2)を計測する(ステップS4)。
なお、車両検出装置20が検出した各車両の位置データを出力し、通信制御装置3が異なる位置データの数を計数することで、車両の台数(N2)を計測しても良い。
Further, the vehicle detection device 20 detects a vehicle existing in a predetermined detection area 10 in a desired wireless communication area 8 using the measurement data of the laser scanner 2. The vehicle detection device 20 assigns a different identification number to each detected vehicle position and outputs each assigned identification number to the communication control device 3.
The communication control device 3 measures the number of vehicles (N2) by counting the number of vehicle identification numbers detected by the vehicle detection device 20 (step S4).
The number of vehicles (N2) may be measured by outputting the position data of each vehicle detected by the vehicle detection device 20 and counting the number of different position data by the communication control device 3.
ここで、ステップS5において、レーザースキャナ2のスキャン結果に基づいて検出した車両台数N2が0である場合には、如何なる通信が発生していても、所望の無線通信領域8における所定の検知領域10内には通信の対象車両が存在しないため、通信中止としてしまう(ステップS6)。   Here, when the number N2 of vehicles detected based on the scan result of the laser scanner 2 is 0 in step S5, the predetermined detection area 10 in the desired wireless communication area 8 is whatever the communication is occurring. Since there is no vehicle to be communicated in, communication is canceled (step S6).
一方、ステップS5において、レーザースキャナ2のスキャン結果に基づいて検出した車両台数N2が0でない場合には、次のステップS7を実行する。
ステップS7において、路車間での無線通信により検出された車両台数N1が、レーザースキャナ2において検出した車両台数N2と等しいか又は小さい場合には、通信対象のETC車両(例えば車両6)と一般車両(例えば車両7)が混在しているだけと判定し、課金処理などの規定の通信を継続した後、通信処理を完了させる(ステップS8)。
On the other hand, if the number of vehicles N2 detected based on the scan result of the laser scanner 2 is not 0 in step S5, the next step S7 is executed.
In step S7, when the number of vehicles N1 detected by wireless communication between road vehicles is equal to or smaller than the number of vehicles N2 detected by the laser scanner 2, an ETC vehicle (for example, vehicle 6) to be communicated and a general vehicle It is determined that only (for example, vehicles 7) are mixed, and after the prescribed communication such as the billing process is continued, the communication process is completed (step S8).
反対に、N1がN2より大きい場合には、例えば無線通信領域9のような通信対象領域以外の車両7とも無線通信を始めていることになるため、この通信は誤通信の可能性が極めて高い。そこで、誤通信の可能性が高いことを示すために、通信制御装置3は通信結果に誤通信フラグを付加する(ステップS9)。この誤通信フラグは、ETC車載器IDと対応付けされて通信制御装置3の所持する記憶装置に履歴(ログ)が記録されるとともに、図示しない中央装置にレポートとして送信され記録される。   On the other hand, when N1 is greater than N2, for example, the vehicle 7 other than the communication target region such as the wireless communication region 9 has started wireless communication, and thus this communication has a very high possibility of erroneous communication. Therefore, in order to indicate that the possibility of erroneous communication is high, the communication control device 3 adds an erroneous communication flag to the communication result (step S9). The erroneous communication flag is associated with the ETC on-board unit ID, a history (log) is recorded in a storage device possessed by the communication control device 3, and is transmitted and recorded as a report in a central device (not shown).
以上のように、無線通信を行なう時点で、レーザースキャナを用いて無線通信領域8内の車両台数を検出し、無線通信の続行又は中止判定することにより、誤通信の検出が可能となり、延いては継続的な誤通信の発生を防止することができる。また、誤通信の判定が正確にできない場合であっても、誤通信の可能性があるという情報を誤通信フラグに残すことにより、後日の追跡調査をサポートすることができるようになる。   As described above, when wireless communication is performed, the number of vehicles in the wireless communication area 8 is detected using a laser scanner, and it is possible to detect erroneous communication by determining whether to continue or stop wireless communication. Can prevent continuous miscommunication. Further, even when erroneous communication cannot be determined accurately, it is possible to support a follow-up survey at a later date by leaving information indicating the possibility of erroneous communication in the erroneous communication flag.
以上説明した通り、実施の形態1による路車間通信システムは、走行車線の所定の検知領域内に存在する物標までの距離、及びその物標の存在方向を計測するレーザースキャナの計測データに基づいて、上記走行車線の所定の検知領域内に存在する車両を検出する車両検出装置と、上記検知領域を内側に含む所定の通信領域で電波を送受信し、当該通信領域を通過する車両にそれぞれ設けられた車載無線装置と無線通信による情報の授受を行う路側無線装置と、上記路側無線装置と交信中の車載無線装置の台数を計測し、当該交信中の車載無線装置の台数が、上記車両検出装置により検出された上記検知領域内に存在する車両の台数よりも多いときに、誤通信の発生を検知する通信制御装置と、を備えたものである。これによって、所定の検知領域内を走行する車両に搭載された車載無線装置以外からの到来電波による誤通信の発生を、レーザースキャナを用いた簡素な機器構成で検出することが可能となる。   As described above, the road-to-vehicle communication system according to the first embodiment is based on the measurement data of the laser scanner that measures the distance to the target existing in the predetermined detection area of the traveling lane and the direction in which the target exists. A vehicle detection device for detecting a vehicle existing in a predetermined detection area of the travel lane, and a vehicle that transmits and receives radio waves in a predetermined communication area including the detection area inside, and is provided in each vehicle that passes through the communication area. The number of roadside wireless devices that exchange information by wireless communication with the vehicle-mounted wireless device and the number of vehicle-mounted wireless devices that are communicating with the roadside wireless device are measured. And a communication control device that detects the occurrence of erroneous communication when the number of vehicles existing in the detection area detected by the device is larger than the number of vehicles. As a result, it is possible to detect the occurrence of erroneous communication due to incoming radio waves from other than the in-vehicle wireless device mounted on the vehicle traveling in the predetermined detection area with a simple device configuration using a laser scanner.
1 路側無線装置、2 レーザースキャナ、3 通信制御装置、4 有料道路、5 一般道路、6 (ETC)車両、7 (一般)車両、8 (ETC対象車線の)無線通信領域、9 (ETC対象車線以外の)無線通信領域、10 (レーザスキャナの)検知領域、20 車両検出装置、31 車載無線装置、32 車載無線装置。   1 Roadside wireless device, 2 Laser scanner, 3 Communication control device, 4 Toll road, 5 General road, 6 (ETC) vehicle, 7 (General) vehicle, 8 Wireless communication area of ETC target lane, 9 (ETC target lane) Wireless communication area, 10 (laser scanner) detection area, 20 vehicle detection device, 31 vehicle-mounted wireless device, 32 vehicle-mounted wireless device.

Claims (1)

  1. 走行車線の所定の検知領域内に存在する物標までの距離及びその存在方向を計測する、レーザースキャナの計測データに基づいて、当該走行車線の所定の検知領域内に存在する車両を検出する車両検出装置と、
    上記検知領域を含む所定の通信領域で電波を送受信し、当該通信領域を通過する車両にそれぞれ設けられた車載無線装置と無線通信を行う路側無線装置と、
    上記路側無線装置と交信中の車載無線装置の台数を計測し、当該交信中の車載無線装置の台数が、上記車両検出装置により検出された上記検知領域内に存在する車両の台数よりも多いときに、誤通信の発生を検知する通信制御装置と、
    を備えた路車間通信システム。
    A vehicle that detects a vehicle existing in a predetermined detection area of the traveling lane based on measurement data of a laser scanner that measures a distance to a target existing in the predetermined detection area of the traveling lane and a direction in which the target exists. A detection device;
    A roadside wireless device that transmits and receives radio waves in a predetermined communication region including the detection region, and performs wireless communication with an in-vehicle wireless device provided in each vehicle passing through the communication region;
    When the number of in-vehicle wireless devices in communication with the roadside wireless device is measured, and the number of in-vehicle wireless devices in communication is greater than the number of vehicles existing in the detection area detected by the vehicle detection device In addition, a communication control device that detects the occurrence of miscommunication,
    A road-to-vehicle communication system comprising:
JP2009076782A 2009-03-26 2009-03-26 Road-to-vehicle communication system Active JP5428443B2 (en)

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JP2015079379A (en) * 2013-10-17 2015-04-23 株式会社東芝 Vehicle counter, vehicle counting program, and vehicle counting system
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KR20190070941A (en) * 2016-11-22 2019-06-21 미츠비시 쥬고 기카이 시스템 가부시키가이샤 O communication prevention device, charge transfer system and communication prevention method
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