JP2010179373A - Tool for machine tool, tool inspection method, and tool inspection device - Google Patents

Tool for machine tool, tool inspection method, and tool inspection device Download PDF

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JP2010179373A
JP2010179373A JP2009022208A JP2009022208A JP2010179373A JP 2010179373 A JP2010179373 A JP 2010179373A JP 2009022208 A JP2009022208 A JP 2009022208A JP 2009022208 A JP2009022208 A JP 2009022208A JP 2010179373 A JP2010179373 A JP 2010179373A
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tool
reference surface
contour
blade
spindle
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Kei Tanizaki
啓 谷崎
Keisuke Shiozaki
圭輔 塩崎
Kenichi Mitsui
健一 三井
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MITSUI KOKUIN KK
Komatsu NTC Ltd
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MITSUI KOKUIN KK
Komatsu NTC Ltd
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To accurately determine a position of the cutting edge of a tool, and to confirm an attached state of the tool with respect to a working spindle with the tool discontinuous in the circumferential direction in a portion of a blade attached to the working spindle. <P>SOLUTION: A first reference plane 3 continuous around a tool center line 2, and a second reference plane 4 continuous in the circumferential direction around the tool center line 2, are formed in a neck part 1b of the tool 1 having blade parts 1a discontinuous in the circumferential direction. When machining a work 10, a length L from the first reference plane 3 to the cutting edge of the blade part 1a is measured beforehand, the tool 1 is attached to the working spindle 7 of the machine tool, the tool 1 in a rotating state is photographed under area light 5 serving as back light, a position of the cutting edge of the tool 1 is determined from a position of a contour 3a of the first reference plane 3 in an image of an image processing apparatus 9, and the attached state of the tool 1 with respect to the working spindle 7 is confirmed from a relative position of a contour 4a of the second reference plane 4 to a position of a working spindle center line 8. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2010,JPO&amp;INPIT

Description

本発明は、ワークの加工時に工作機械の主軸とともに回転する工具、工具の刃先位置や主軸に対する工具の装着状態を撮影画像上で検査する方法および装置に関する。 The present invention relates to a tool that rotates together with a spindle of a machine tool when machining a workpiece, and a method and apparatus for inspecting a tool edge position of the tool and a mounting state of the tool with respect to the spindle on a photographed image.

工作機械の主軸に工具を装着したとき、工具の刃先位置や、主軸に対する工具の装着状態は、特許文献1や特許文献2に開示されているように、工具の先端部分を撮影し、そのときの画像を画像処理することによって、画像上から確認できる。 When the tool is mounted on the spindle of the machine tool, the tip position of the tool is photographed for the position of the cutting edge of the tool and the mounting state of the tool with respect to the spindle, as disclosed in Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2, and then This image can be confirmed from the image by performing image processing.

ところが、刃の部分で周方向に不連続な工具、例えば切り刃の部分が1枚刃のエンドミルや、刃先から大きなすくい面が溝状に形成されているエンドミル、その他、ドリルなどのように、主軸とともに回転する工具では、工具を回転させたとき、刃の部分や刃先の部分は、工具中心線(回転の中心線)に対して直角の方向から見て、1枚刃の側面や、溝状のすくい面の部分で間欠的に途切れる輪郭となり、連続的な同じ外形線を形成しない。 However, a tool that is discontinuous in the circumferential direction at the blade portion, for example, an end mill with a single blade cutting portion, an end mill with a large rake face formed from the cutting edge in a groove shape, and other drills, In a tool that rotates with the spindle, when the tool is rotated, the blade part and cutting edge part are viewed from the direction perpendicular to the tool center line (rotation center line), and the side surface of the single blade or groove The contour of the rake face is intermittently interrupted and does not form the same continuous outline.

このため、CCDカメラによる撮影画像上においても、刃の部分や刃先の部分の画像は、間欠的に途切れる輪郭の画像となってしまう。この理由から、刃や刃先の部分は、画像上でも確実に識別できず、画像処理技術でも確定しにくい。 For this reason, even on the image taken by the CCD camera, the image of the blade portion and the blade tip portion is an image having a contour that is intermittently interrupted. For this reason, the blade and the edge portion cannot be reliably identified on the image, and are difficult to be determined by the image processing technique.

また、通常、撮影に際して、工具を挟んで、一方の側にバックライトが配置され、他方の側にCCDカメラが配置される。バックライトは、撮影時の背景を一様な明度とするための面照明(平行な線光源)であり、工具の輪郭を影とし、かつ背景と工具の輪郭(影)との明度差を大きくして、工具の輪郭を顕在化するために、採用されている。しかし、この面照明の当て方によって、画像上で間欠的に途切れる輪郭の部分に、直接の照明光線や、本影、半影が短時間のうちに複雑に混在して、外形線の位置に複雑な明暗が発生する。このため、工具の撮影時に、刃や刃先の部分の確定に誤差が生じやすい。 In general, a backlight is disposed on one side and a CCD camera is disposed on the other side with a tool sandwiched therebetween. Backlight is a surface illumination (parallel line light source) for making the background at the time of shooting uniform brightness, making the tool outline a shadow, and increasing the brightness difference between the background and the tool outline (shadow). In order to make the contour of the tool obvious, it is employed. However, depending on how this surface illumination is applied, the direct illumination light, the main shadow, and the penumbra are mixed in a complex manner within a short period of time at the contours that are intermittently interrupted on the image, so that the position of the outline is reached. Complex light and dark occurs. For this reason, at the time of photographing a tool, an error is likely to occur in the determination of the blade and the edge portion.

特開平11−151605号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 11-151605 特開平2007−326196号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2007-326196

したがって、本発明の課題は、刃の部分で周方向に不連続な工具を主軸に装着した状態で工具の刃先の位置を画像上で決定できるような形状の工具を提供するとともに、主軸とともに回転する工具の装着状態を画像処理技術によって正確に検査できるようにすることである。 Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a tool shaped so that the position of the cutting edge of a tool can be determined on an image with a tool discontinuous in the circumferential direction at the blade portion being mounted on the spindle, and rotates together with the spindle. It is to be able to accurately inspect the mounting state of the tool to be performed by image processing technology.

上記の課題のもとに、本発明は、工作機械用の工具(1)、工具検査方法および工具検査装置において、下記のような解決手段を採用している。本発明に係る工作機械用の工具(1)は、周方向に不連続な刃部(1a)と柄(1c)との間の首部(1b)に、刃部(1a)に近い位置で工具中心線(2)に対して垂直で工具中心線(2)の周りに連続する第1の基準面(3)を形成すると共に、工具中心線(2)を中心として円周方向に連続する外周面による第2の基準面(4)を有している(請求項1)。上記の第2の基準面(4)は、周方向に連続する円柱面によって(請求項2)、または小さな頂角で周方向に連続する円錐面によってそれぞれ形成されている(請求項3)。 Based on the above-described problems, the present invention employs the following solutions in the tool (1), the tool inspection method, and the tool inspection apparatus for machine tools. The tool (1) for a machine tool according to the present invention has a tool at a position close to the blade (1a) at the neck (1b) between the blade (1a) and the handle (1c) which are discontinuous in the circumferential direction. A first reference surface (3) perpendicular to the center line (2) and continuous around the tool center line (2) is formed, and an outer periphery continuous in the circumferential direction about the tool center line (2) It has a second reference surface (4) by a surface (claim 1). The second reference surface (4) is formed by a cylindrical surface that continues in the circumferential direction (Claim 2) or a conical surface that continues in the circumferential direction with a small apex angle (Claim 3).

そして、本発明に係る工具検査方法は、上記の構成の工作機械用の工具(1)を用いて、ワーク(10)を加工するに際して、第1の基準面(3)から刃部(1a)の刃先までの長さ(L)を予め測定しておき、工具(1)を工作機械の主軸(7)に装着し、工具(1)を挟んで、一方の側に面照明(5)を、他方の側に画像処理用のカメラ(6)をそれぞれ対向状態として配置し、主軸(7)の回転により工具(1)を回転させ、面照明(5)の照明のもとで回転状態の工具(1)の第1の基準面(3)および第2の基準面(4)を画像処理用のカメラ(6)により撮影し、画像処理装置(9)の画像上において工具(1)の刃先の位置を第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置と長さ(L)とに基づいて決定するとともに、第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置と主軸中心線(8)との相対位置から主軸(7)に対する工具(1)の装着状態を確認する(請求項4)。 The tool inspection method according to the present invention, when machining the workpiece (10) using the machine tool (1) having the above-described configuration, starts from the first reference surface (3) to the blade portion (1a). The length (L) to the cutting edge of the tool is measured in advance, the tool (1) is mounted on the spindle (7) of the machine tool, the tool (1) is sandwiched, and the surface illumination (5) is placed on one side. The camera (6) for image processing is arranged in the opposite state on the other side, the tool (1) is rotated by the rotation of the main shaft (7), and is rotated under the illumination of the surface illumination (5). The first reference surface (3) and the second reference surface (4) of the tool (1) are photographed by the image processing camera (6), and the tool (1) is imaged on the image of the image processing device (9). The position of the cutting edge is determined based on the position and length (L) of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3), and the second reference To confirm the attachment state of the tool (1) from the relative position with respect to the main axis (7) of the contour position of (4a) and the spindle center line (8) (4) (Claim 4).

また、本発明に係る工具検査装置は、第1の基準面(3)から刃部(1a)の刃先までの長さ(L)を予め測定されている上記の構成の工作機械用の工具(1)と、工具(1)を工作機械の主軸(7)に装着した状態で、工具(1)を挟んで、一方の側に配置した面照明(5)と、他方の側に配置され面照明(5)の照明のもとで回転状態の工具(1)を撮影する画像処理用のカメラ(6)と、画像処理用のカメラ(6)により撮影された画像上において工具(1)の刃先の位置を第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置と長さ(L)とに基づいて決定し、第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置と主軸中心線(8)との相対位置から主軸(7)に対する工具(1)の装着状態を確認する画像処理装置(9)と、からなる(請求項6)。 Moreover, the tool inspection apparatus according to the present invention is a tool for a machine tool having the above-described configuration in which the length (L) from the first reference surface (3) to the blade edge of the blade portion (1a) is measured in advance ( 1), with the tool (1) mounted on the spindle (7) of the machine tool, the surface illumination (5) arranged on one side with the tool (1) in between, and the surface arranged on the other side An image processing camera (6) that captures the rotating tool (1) under illumination (5), and the tool (1) on the image captured by the image processing camera (6). The position of the cutting edge is determined based on the position and length (L) of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3), the position of the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) and the center of the spindle And an image processing device (9) for confirming the mounting state of the tool (1) with respect to the spindle (7) from the relative position to the line (8).

第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置および第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置は、画像処理の過程でエッジ処理によって輪郭線(3b、4b)として検出する(請求項5および請求項7)。 The position of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3) and the position of the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) are detected as contour lines (3b, 4b) by edge processing during the image processing. (Claim 5 and Claim 7).

本発明に係る工作機械用の工具(1)によれば、刃部(1a)に近い首部(1b)の位置に、第1の基準面(3)および第2の基準面(4)が形成されているため、第1の基準面(3)の位置から工具中心線(2)上で刃先の位置が画像上で決定できるようになり、また主軸(7)に装着した工具(1)を主軸(7)とともに回転させたときに、第2の基準面(4)の位置から主軸(7)に対する工具(1)の装着状態の良否が画像処理技術によって確認できる状態となる(請求項1)。 According to the machine tool (1) of the present invention, the first reference surface (3) and the second reference surface (4) are formed at the position of the neck (1b) close to the blade (1a). Therefore, the position of the cutting edge on the tool center line (2) can be determined on the image from the position of the first reference plane (3), and the tool (1) mounted on the spindle (7) can be determined. When rotated together with the main shaft (7), whether the tool (1) is attached to the main shaft (7) from the position of the second reference surface (4) can be confirmed by an image processing technique (claim 1). ).

第2の基準面(4)が円柱面により形成されていると、工具中心線(2)に対して第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)が平行となり、主軸(7)に対して工具(1)を装着したとき、主軸中心線(9)に対応する画像上の基準線(11)と第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)との平行な度合いや、非対象な状態から、工具(1)のずれや工具(1)の装着不良の検出が画像処理上容易となる(請求項2)。 When the second reference surface (4) is formed of a cylindrical surface, the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) is parallel to the tool center line (2), and the main shaft (7). When the tool (1) is mounted, the degree of parallelism between the reference line (11) on the image corresponding to the spindle center line (9) and the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) From this state, it is easy to detect the displacement of the tool (1) and the mounting failure of the tool (1) in image processing (Claim 2).

また、第2の基準面(4)が小さな頂角の円錐面により形成されていると、主軸(7)に対して工具(1)を装着したときに、主軸中心線(9)に対応する画像上の基準線(11)と第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)との角度や非対象な状態から、工具(1)のずれや、装着不良の検出が可能となる(請求項3)。 Further, when the second reference surface (4) is formed by a conical surface having a small apex angle, when the tool (1) is mounted on the main shaft (7), it corresponds to the main shaft center line (9). Based on the angle between the reference line (11) on the image and the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) and the non-target state, it becomes possible to detect the displacement of the tool (1) and the mounting failure (claim). Item 3).

そして、本発明の工具検査方法および工具検査装置によると、上記の構成の工具(1)を採用して、主軸(7)に工具(1)を装着し、主軸(7)を回転させたとき、回転状態の工具(1)の第1の基準面(3)および第2の基準面(4)を画像処理用のカメラ(6)により撮影し、画像処理装置(9)の画像上において第1の基準面(3)の画像上の輪郭(3a)の位置と長さ(L)とから工具(1)の刃先の位置を決定できるから、加工時の切り込み深さが第1の基準面(3)の位置によって設定でき、また、第2の基準面(4)の画像上の輪郭(3a)の位置と主軸中心線(8)に対応する基準線との相対位置から主軸(7)に対する工具(1)の装着状態が確認でき、これによって装着不良状態の工具(1)による加工不良が未然に防止できる(請求項4および請求項6)。 According to the tool inspection method and the tool inspection apparatus of the present invention, when the tool (1) having the above configuration is adopted, the tool (1) is mounted on the spindle (7), and the spindle (7) is rotated. The first reference surface (3) and the second reference surface (4) of the rotating tool (1) are photographed by the image processing camera (6), and the first reference surface (3) is imaged on the image of the image processing device (9). Since the position of the cutting edge of the tool (1) can be determined from the position and length (L) of the contour (3a) on the image of the reference surface (3) of the first reference surface (3), the cutting depth during processing is the first reference surface It can be set according to the position of (3), and the main axis (7) from the relative position between the position of the contour (3a) on the image of the second reference surface (4) and the reference line corresponding to the main axis center line (8). It is possible to confirm the mounting state of the tool (1) with respect to the tool, and thereby the processing failure due to the tool (1) in a poor mounting state can be confirmed You can stop (claims 4 and 6).

特に、工具(1)の回転時に、第1の基準面(3)は、面照明(5)のもとでカメラ(6)から見て、画像上で常に連続する輪郭(3a)としてカメラ(6)により撮影できる。しかも、輪郭(3a)は、工具中心線(2)に対して直交し、工具(1)の回転中に間断なく連続しているため、カメラ(6)による撮影画像上においても一瞬の間も途切れず、容易に認識できる。したがって、第1の基準面(3)の位置と長さ(L)から工具(1)の刃先の位置が画像上で確実に決定でき、これに基づいて、その工具(1)による加工時の切り込み深さ(切り込み量)が正確に制御できる(請求項4および請求項6)。 In particular, when the tool (1) is rotated, the first reference plane (3) is viewed as a continuous contour (3a) on the image as viewed from the camera (6) under surface illumination (5). 6). Moreover, the contour (3a) is orthogonal to the tool center line (2) and is continuous without interruption during the rotation of the tool (1). Easy to recognize without interruption. Therefore, the position of the cutting edge of the tool (1) can be reliably determined on the image from the position and length (L) of the first reference surface (3), and based on this, the machining time by the tool (1) can be determined. The cutting depth (cutting amount) can be accurately controlled (claims 4 and 6).

また工具(1)の回転時に、第2の基準面(4)は、面照明(5)のもとでカメラ(6)から見て、正確な装着状態ならば、撮影画像上、主軸中心線(8)に対して平行な2本の輪郭(4a)となる。これらの輪郭(4a)は、画像上から一瞬の間も途切れず、常に連続して現れているため、画像処理上においても容易に識別できる(請求項4および請求項6)。 Further, when the tool (1) is rotated, the second reference surface (4) is viewed from the camera (6) under the surface illumination (5). Two outlines (4a) parallel to (8) are obtained. These outlines (4a) are not interrupted for a moment from the image and always appear continuously, so that they can be easily identified in image processing (claims 4 and 6).

もし、2本の輪郭(4a)が平行でないか、主軸中心線(8)に対して対称の位置になかったり、または主軸中心線(8)に対して周期的に振れたり、あるいは周期的に傾斜するときには、工具(1)の装着状態、すなわち主軸(7)に対する納まり部分に不具合があるものと推測できる。このとき、作業者は、主軸(7)に対する工具(1)のはまり具合や締め具合、さらにはまり合い部分の異物の有無を点検し、正しい装着状態とする。以上の点検や設定によって、その後、工具(1)による加工が精度よく行える(請求項4および請求項5)。 If the two contours (4a) are not parallel, are not in a symmetrical position with respect to the spindle center line (8), or swing periodically with respect to the spindle center line (8), or periodically When it inclines, it can be estimated that there is a defect in the mounting state of the tool (1), that is, in the storage portion with respect to the main shaft (7). At this time, the operator checks whether or not the tool (1) is fitted or tightened with respect to the main shaft (7), and whether or not there is a foreign matter in the fitting portion, and makes a correct mounting state. By the above inspection and setting, the machining with the tool (1) can be performed with high accuracy thereafter (Claim 4 and Claim 5).

第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置および第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置が画像処理の過程のエッジ処理によって輪郭線(3b、4b)として検出すると、画像上での第1の基準面(3)の位置および第2の基準面(4)の位置が線分によって確定でき、画像処理上の確定の精度も高められる(請求項5および請求項7)。 When the position of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3) and the position of the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) are detected as contour lines (3b, 4b) by edge processing during the image processing. The position of the first reference surface (3) and the position of the second reference surface (4) on the image can be determined by line segments, and the accuracy of determination in image processing can be improved (claims 5 and 5). 7).

本発明に係る工具を示しており、(1)は工具の平面図、(2)は工具の正面図である。The tool which concerns on this invention is shown, (1) is a top view of a tool, (2) is a front view of a tool. A、B、C、Dは図1の平面図でのA、B、C、Dの方向に対応する拡大左側面図、拡大背面、拡大右側面図、拡大正面図である。A, B, C, and D are an enlarged left side view, an enlarged back surface, an enlarged right side view, and an enlarged front view corresponding to the directions of A, B, C, and D in the plan view of FIG. 本発明に係る工具検査方法を実施するための本発明に係る工具検査装置の説明図である。It is explanatory drawing of the tool inspection apparatus which concerns on this invention for enforcing the tool inspection method which concerns on this invention. 第1の基準面および第2の基準面の輪郭画像を示しており、(1)は基準面の輪郭の画像図、(2)は基準面の輪郭線の画像図である。The contour images of the first reference surface and the second reference surface are shown, (1) is an image diagram of the contour of the reference surface, and (2) is an image diagram of the contour line of the reference surface.

図1および図2は、本発明に係る工作機械用の工具1を示している。工具1は、加工時に回転する工具の一例としてエンドミルであり、刃部1a、円柱棒状の柄1c、刃部1aと柄1cとの間の首部1bとから構成されている。 1 and 2 show a machine tool 1 according to the present invention. The tool 1 is an end mill as an example of a tool that rotates during processing, and includes a blade portion 1a, a cylindrical rod-shaped handle 1c, and a neck portion 1b between the blade portion 1a and the handle 1c.

刃部1aは、加工形状に応じて、マイナスドライバー状先端の円錐体、円錐台および円柱体の一体形状のものからなり、円錐体、円錐台および円柱体の部分で1つのすくい面1dを形成している。このすくい面1dがあるため、刃部1aは、周方向に不連続な面によって形成されていることになる。 The blade portion 1a is composed of a conical shape, a truncated cone and a cylindrical body at the tip of a minus driver according to the machining shape, and forms a rake face 1d at the cone, the truncated cone and the cylindrical body. is doing. Since there is this rake face 1d, the blade part 1a is formed by a discontinuous face in the circumferential direction.

首部1bは、刃部1aに近い位置で、工具中心線2に対して垂直な平面上で工具中心線2の周りに完全に連続する第1の基準面3を形成すると共に、工具中心線2を中心とし円周方向に完全に連続する円柱体の外周面により第2の基準面4を形成している。第1の基準面3は、刃部1aについて工具中心線2の長さ方向の基準面となり、第2の基準面4は、工具中心線2に対して直交する方向の基準面となる。上記の構成の工具1において、第1の基準面3から刃部1aの刃先までの長さLは、切り込み深さの制御に利用するために、予め測定しておき、その工具1に特有の数値として記録しておく。 The neck portion 1b forms a first reference surface 3 that is completely continuous around the tool center line 2 on a plane perpendicular to the tool center line 2 at a position close to the blade portion 1a, and the tool center line 2 The second reference surface 4 is formed by the outer peripheral surface of a cylindrical body that is completely continuous in the circumferential direction. The first reference plane 3 is a reference plane in the length direction of the tool center line 2 with respect to the blade portion 1a, and the second reference plane 4 is a reference plane in a direction orthogonal to the tool center line 2. In the tool 1 having the above-described configuration, the length L from the first reference surface 3 to the blade edge of the blade portion 1a is measured in advance to be used for controlling the cutting depth, and is specific to the tool 1. Record as a numerical value.

上記のように、首部1bの刃部1aに近い部分に、第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4が形成されているから、第1の基準面3の位置から工具中心線2上で刃先の位置が決定でき、また主軸7に対して工具1を装着し、工具1を回転させたときに、主軸中心線9と第2の基準面4の外形線との平行な度合いや、非対象な状態から、工具1のずれや装着不良の検出が画像処理技術によって確認ができる状態となる。 As described above, since the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4 are formed in the portion of the neck portion 1b close to the blade portion 1a, the position on the tool center line 2 from the position of the first reference surface 3 The position of the blade edge can be determined by the above, and when the tool 1 is mounted on the spindle 7 and the tool 1 is rotated, the degree of parallelism between the spindle center line 9 and the outline of the second reference plane 4 From an untargeted state, the tool 1 is in a state where it can be confirmed by the image processing technique whether the tool 1 has been displaced or is defective.

次に、図3は、本発明に係る工具検査装置を示している。工具検査装置は、前記構成の工具1を工作機械の主軸7に装着した状態で、工具1を挟んで、一方の側に配置した面照明5と、他方の側に配置した画像処理用CCD型のカメラ6と、カメラ6により撮影された撮影画像上において、前記の長さLと第1の基準面3の位置とから工具1の刃先の位置を決定し、第2の基準面4の位置と主軸中心線8との相対位置から主軸7に対する工具1の装着状態を検査する画像処理装置9と、からなる。 Next, FIG. 3 shows a tool inspection apparatus according to the present invention. The tool inspection apparatus includes a surface illumination 5 arranged on one side and a CCD type for image processing arranged on the other side of the tool 1 with the tool 1 having the above-described configuration mounted on the spindle 7 of the machine tool. The position of the cutting edge of the tool 1 is determined from the length L and the position of the first reference plane 3 on the captured image captured by the camera 6 and the camera 6, and the position of the second reference plane 4 And an image processing device 9 for inspecting the mounting state of the tool 1 with respect to the main shaft 7 from the relative position between the main shaft 8 and the main shaft center line 8.

ワーク10の加工に際して、工具1は、工作機械の主軸7の主軸端にチャックなどの固定手段により、または必要に応じ、図示しない工具ホルダーを介して、主軸7の主軸端に装着される。主軸7に対する工具1の装着状態で、工具1の第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4は、ともにカメラ6の被写界内にあるため、バックライトとなる面照明5の照明のもとで、カメラ6によって撮影できるようになっている。なお、カメラ6は、主軸7の送り制御の加工原点に関連付けて、主軸中心線8に対して正確に位置決めされており、しかも、カメラ6の光軸は、主軸7の主軸中心線8に対して直角に交わっている。 When machining the workpiece 10, the tool 1 is mounted on the spindle end of the spindle 7 of the spindle 7 of the machine tool by a fixing means such as a chuck or, if necessary, via a tool holder (not shown). Since the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4 of the tool 1 are both in the field of view of the camera 6 when the tool 1 is mounted on the spindle 7, the illumination of the surface illumination 5 serving as a backlight is used. Originally, the camera 6 can take a picture. The camera 6 is accurately positioned with respect to the spindle center line 8 in association with the machining origin of the feed control of the spindle 7, and the optical axis of the camera 6 is relative to the spindle center line 8 of the spindle 7. Crossed at right angles.

そして、本発明に係る工具検査方法は、ワーク10の加工前に、主軸7の回転によって、工具1を回転させ、面照明5をバックライト照明として回転状態の工具1の第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4をカメラ6により撮影し、カメラ6の画像信号を画像処理装置9に送る。第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4は、工具1の回転方向の全周面において完全に連続している。 In the tool inspection method according to the present invention, before machining the workpiece 10, the tool 1 is rotated by the rotation of the spindle 7, and the surface illumination 5 is used as backlight illumination, and the first reference surface 3 of the rotating tool 1 is rotated. The second reference plane 4 is photographed by the camera 6, and the image signal of the camera 6 is sent to the image processing device 9. The first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4 are completely continuous on the entire circumferential surface in the rotation direction of the tool 1.

図4の(1)は、工具1の画像を示している。画像は、工具1の回転中にかかわらず、外形線の部分で途切れず、常時、連続的な外形線として現れている。特に、画像上で、第1の基準面3、第2の基準面4は、それぞれ輪郭3a、輪郭4aとして現れる。輪郭3aおよび輪郭4aは、ともに第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4の外形線である。 (1) in FIG. 4 shows an image of the tool 1. Regardless of the rotation of the tool 1, the image is not interrupted at the portion of the outline and always appears as a continuous outline. In particular, on the image, the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4 appear as a contour 3a and a contour 4a, respectively. The contour 3 a and the contour 4 a are both outlines of the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4.

これらの画像は、画像上で、主軸中心線8と一致する位置の基準線11とともに現れるようになっている。第1の基準面3の輪郭3aは、基準線11に直交する直線として現れており、また第2の基準面4に対応する2本の輪郭4aは、基準線11に平行で、基準線11から等しい距離の位置で直線として現れている。 These images appear on the image together with a reference line 11 at a position coinciding with the main axis center line 8. The contour 3 a of the first reference surface 3 appears as a straight line orthogonal to the reference line 11, and the two contours 4 a corresponding to the second reference surface 4 are parallel to the reference line 11 and are the reference line 11. It appears as a straight line at an equal distance from

画像処理装置9は、画像処理プログラムを内蔵しており、カメラ6の画像信号に基づいてディスプレー上に撮影画像を表示し、第1の基準面3の画像位置から工具1の刃先の位置を決定するとともに、第2の基準面4の画像位置と主軸中心線8との相対位置の対比から主軸7に対する工具1の装着状態を確認する。 The image processing device 9 has a built-in image processing program, displays a photographed image on the display based on the image signal of the camera 6, and determines the position of the cutting edge of the tool 1 from the image position of the first reference plane 3. At the same time, the mounting state of the tool 1 on the spindle 7 is confirmed from the comparison of the relative position between the image position of the second reference plane 4 and the spindle center line 8.

工具1が主軸7に正しく装着されておれば、工具1が回転状態にあっても、カメラ6から見た第1の基準面3の輪郭3aおよび第2の基準面4の輪郭4aの位置は、主軸中心線8と一致する位置の基準線11に対して相対的に変動せず、常に一定であるから、それらの画像上で輪郭3aおよび輪郭4aの位置も基準線11に対して変動せず、常に一定の位置となっている。 If the tool 1 is correctly mounted on the spindle 7, even if the tool 1 is in a rotating state, the positions of the contour 3a of the first reference surface 3 and the contour 4a of the second reference surface 4 viewed from the camera 6 are The positions of the contour 3a and the contour 4a on the images are also fluctuated with respect to the reference line 11 because they do not fluctuate relative to the reference line 11 at the position coincident with the spindle center line 8 and are always constant. It is always a fixed position.

画像処理の過程で、画像処理プログラムが第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4の画像についてエッジ抽出処理を行えば、それらの輪郭3a、4aは、単純な線分の輪郭線3b、4bとして検出できる。図4の(2)は、第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4の画像についてエッジ抽出処理を行ったときの輪郭線3b、4bを示している。エッジ抽出処理によると、輪郭3a、4aの位置確定は、より確実にできる。 If the image processing program performs edge extraction processing on the images of the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4 in the course of image processing, the contours 3a and 4a are represented by simple line contours 3b, It can be detected as 4b. (2) in FIG. 4 shows contour lines 3b and 4b when the edge extraction processing is performed on the images of the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4. According to the edge extraction process, the positions of the contours 3a and 4a can be determined more reliably.

撮影画像上において、画像処理プログラムは、第1の基準面3および第2の基準面4の画像の安定な状態から主軸7に対する工具1の正しい装着状態が画像の対称性判定や、パターンマッチング、長さ測定などの手法によって確認する。装着状態が正しいものと判断されたとき、画像処理装置9は、第1の基準面3の輪郭3aまたは輪郭線3bの位置を確定し、確定した位置と予め測定してある長さLとから工具1の刃先の位置を工作機械の加工原点の座標値として決定する。なお、工具1の刃先が磨耗して、第1の基準面3から刃先までの長さLが変化していると、刃先の位置の決定に際して誤差が表れるから、長さLは加工に際して適当な時間毎に確認しておき、変化しているときには、その長さLを改めて設定しておく。 On the captured image, the image processing program determines whether the correct mounting state of the tool 1 with respect to the spindle 7 from the stable state of the images of the first reference surface 3 and the second reference surface 4 is image symmetry determination, pattern matching, Confirm by techniques such as length measurement. When it is determined that the mounting state is correct, the image processing device 9 determines the position of the contour 3a or the contour line 3b of the first reference surface 3, and from the determined position and the length L measured in advance. The position of the cutting edge of the tool 1 is determined as the coordinate value of the machining origin of the machine tool. In addition, if the cutting edge of the tool 1 is worn and the length L from the first reference surface 3 to the cutting edge is changed, an error appears when determining the position of the cutting edge. Check every time, and when it changes, the length L is set anew.

刃先の位置(座標値)のデータは、図示しない制御部に送られ、主軸中心線8の方向の送り量を決めて、工具1による所定の切り込み深さの制御に利用される。この制御の実現のために、既述のように、カメラ6は、主軸7の送り制御の加工原点に関連付けて正確に位置決めされていなければならない。 Data on the position (coordinate value) of the blade edge is sent to a control unit (not shown), and the feed amount in the direction of the spindle center line 8 is determined and used for controlling a predetermined cutting depth by the tool 1. In order to realize this control, as described above, the camera 6 must be accurately positioned in association with the machining origin of the feed control of the spindle 7.

しかし、仮に工具1が主軸7に正しく装着されていないとき、画像上で、第1の基準面3の輪郭3aの位置または輪郭線3bの位置は、一定の位置に定まらず、歳差運動などを起こし、また第2の基準面4の輪郭4aの位置または輪郭線4bの位置は、画像上の基準線11に対して平行でないか、基準線11に対して非対称で等距離の位置になかったり、あるいは異なる向きの傾斜を周期的に繰り返す。このような状況から、主軸7に対する工具1の装着不良、すなわち挿入不良や、異物介入による納まり不良などが検出できる。 However, if the tool 1 is not correctly attached to the main shaft 7, the position of the contour 3a or the contour line 3b of the first reference surface 3 is not fixed at a fixed position on the image, such as precession. In addition, the position of the contour 4a or the contour 4b of the second reference surface 4 is not parallel to the reference line 11 on the image, or is asymmetric and not equidistant with respect to the reference line 11. Or periodically tilt in different directions. From such a situation, it is possible to detect a mounting failure of the tool 1 with respect to the main shaft 7, that is, an insertion failure or a fitting failure due to foreign matter intervention.

画像処理プログラムが画像の対称性判定や、パターンマッチング、長さ測定などの手法によって工具1の装着不良を検出したとき、作業者は、主軸7に対する工具1のはまり具合や締め具合、さらにはまり合い部分の異物の有無などを点検し、正しい装着状態とする。以上の検査によって、装着状態の工具1によるワーク10の加工が精度よく行える。 When the image processing program detects an improper mounting of the tool 1 by a method such as image symmetry determination, pattern matching, or length measurement, the operator can determine whether the tool 1 is fitted or tightened with respect to the spindle 7 and further fit. Check the presence or absence of foreign matter on the part and make sure it is properly attached. Through the above inspection, the workpiece 10 can be processed with high accuracy by the tool 1 in the mounted state.

なお、第2の基準面4は、通常、円柱面によって形成されるが、必要に応じて、小さな頂角で円周方向に連続する円錐面(テーパ面)によって形成することもできる。円錐面(テーパ面)状の第2の基準面4では、円錐面の頂点は、刃部1a側とするが、柄1cの終端側にあってもよい。第2の基準面4が円錐面(テーパ面)により形成されているとき、主軸7に対して工具1を装着したときに、主軸中心線9と第2の基準面4の外形線との角度の測定や、非対象な状態の判定、パターンマッチング、長さ測定から、工具1のずれや、装着不良の検出が可能となる。 In addition, although the 2nd reference surface 4 is normally formed by a cylindrical surface, it can also be formed by the conical surface (taper surface) which continues in the circumferential direction with a small apex as needed. In the second reference surface 4 having a conical surface (tapered surface) shape, the apex of the conical surface is on the blade portion 1a side, but may be on the terminal side of the handle 1c. When the second reference surface 4 is formed by a conical surface (tapered surface), when the tool 1 is mounted on the main shaft 7, the angle between the main shaft center line 9 and the outline of the second reference surface 4 It is possible to detect the displacement of the tool 1 and the mounting failure from the measurement of the above, the determination of the non-target state, the pattern matching, and the length measurement.

本発明は、周方向に不連続な刃部1aを有する工具1であれば、エンドミルにかぎらず、各種のフライス工具やドリルなどにも利用できる。 The present invention can be used not only for an end mill but also for various milling tools and drills as long as the tool 1 has a discontinuous blade 1a in the circumferential direction.

1 工具 1a 刃部 1b 首部 1c 柄 1d すくい面
2 工具中心線
3 第1の基準面 3a 輪郭 3b 輪郭線
4 第2の基準面 4a 輪郭 4b 輪郭線
5 面照明
6 カメラ
7 主軸
8 主軸中心線
9 画像処理装置
10 ワーク
11 基準線
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Tool 1a Blade part 1b Neck part 1c Handle 1d Rake face 2 Tool center line 3 1st reference plane 3a Contour 3b Contour line 4 2nd reference plane 4a Contour 4b Contour line 5 Surface illumination 6 Camera 7 Spindle 8 Spindle center line 9 Image processing device 10 Work 11 Reference line

Claims (7)

周方向に不連続な刃部(1a)と柄(1c)との間の首部(1b)に、刃部(1a)に近い位置で工具中心線(2)に対して垂直で工具中心線(2)の周りに連続する第1の基準面(3)を形成すると共に、工具中心線(2)を中心として円周方向に連続する外周面による第2の基準面(4)を形成してなる工作機械用の工具(1)。 A tool centerline (vertical to the tool centerline (2) at a position close to the blade (1a) at the neck (1b) between the peripherally discontinuous blade (1a) and the handle (1c) 2) A first reference surface (3) continuous around the periphery is formed, and a second reference surface (4) is formed by an outer peripheral surface continuous in the circumferential direction around the tool center line (2). A tool for machine tools (1). 第2の基準面(4)を周方向に連続する円柱面により形成する、ことを特徴とする請求項1記載の工作機械用の工具(1)。 The tool (1) for machine tools according to claim 1, characterized in that the second reference surface (4) is formed by a cylindrical surface continuous in the circumferential direction. 第2の基準面(4)を小さな頂角で周方向に連続する円錐面により形成する、ことを特徴とする請求項1記載の工作機械用の工具(1)。 The tool (1) for a machine tool according to claim 1, characterized in that the second reference surface (4) is formed by a conical surface which is continuous in the circumferential direction with a small apex angle. 周方向に不連続な刃部(1a)と柄(1c)との間の首部(1b)に、刃部(1a)に近い位置で工具中心線(2)に対して垂直で工具中心線(2)の周りに連続する第1の基準面(3)を形成すると共に、工具中心線(2)を中心として円周方向に連続する外周面による第2の基準面(4)を形成してなる工作機械用の工具(1)を用いて、ワーク(10)を加工するに際して、
第1の基準面(3)から刃部(1a)の刃先までの長さ(L)を予め測定しておき、工具(1)を工作機械の主軸(7)に装着し、工具(1)を挟んで、一方の側に面照明(5)を、他方の側にCCDカメラ(6)をそれぞれ対向状態として配置し、主軸(7)の回転により工具(1)を回転させ、面照明(5)の照明のもとで回転状態の工具(1)の第1の基準面(3)および第2の基準面(4)を画像処理用のカメラ(6)により撮影し、画像処理装置(9)の画像上において工具(1)の刃先の位置を第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置と長さ(L)とに基づいて決定するとともに、第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置と主軸中心線(8)との相対位置から主軸(7)に対する工具(1)の装着状態を確認する、ことを特徴とする工具検査方法。
A tool centerline (vertical to the tool centerline (2) at a position close to the blade (1a) at the neck (1b) between the peripherally discontinuous blade (1a) and the handle (1c) 2) A first reference surface (3) continuous around the periphery is formed, and a second reference surface (4) is formed by an outer peripheral surface continuous in the circumferential direction around the tool center line (2). When machining the workpiece (10) using the machine tool (1)
The length (L) from the first reference surface (3) to the blade edge of the blade portion (1a) is measured in advance, the tool (1) is mounted on the spindle (7) of the machine tool, and the tool (1) With the surface illumination (5) on one side and the CCD camera (6) on the other side facing each other, the tool (1) is rotated by rotating the spindle (7), and the surface illumination ( The first reference surface (3) and the second reference surface (4) of the rotating tool (1) under the illumination of 5) are photographed by the image processing camera (6), and the image processing device ( 9) The position of the cutting edge of the tool (1) on the image of 9) is determined based on the position and length (L) of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3), and the second reference surface ( 4) Check the mounting state of the tool (1) on the spindle (7) from the relative position between the position of the contour (4a) and the spindle center line (8). Tool inspection method to be.
第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置および第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置をエッジ処理によって輪郭線(3b、4b)として検出する、ことを特徴とする請求項4記載の工具検査方法。 The position of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3) and the position of the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) are detected as contour lines (3b, 4b) by edge processing. The tool inspection method according to claim 4. 周方向に不連続な刃部(1a)と柄(1c)との間の首部(1b)に、刃部(1a)に近い位置で工具中心線(2)に対して垂直で工具中心線(2)の周りに連続する第1の基準面(3)を形成すると共に、工具中心線(2)を中心として円周方向に連続する外周面による第2の基準面(4)を形成してなり、第1の基準面(3)から刃部(1a)の刃先までの長さ(L)を予め測定されている工作機械用の工具(1)と、工具(1)を工作機械の主軸(7)に装着した状態で、工具(1)を挟んで、一方の側に配置した面照明(5)と、他方の側に配置され面照明(5)の照明のもとで回転状態の工具(1)を撮影する画像処理用のカメラ(6)と、画像処理用のカメラ(6)により撮影された画像上において工具(1)の刃先の位置を第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置と長さ(L)とに基づいて決定し、第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置と主軸中心線(8)との相対位置から主軸(7)に対する工具(1)の装着状態を確認する画像処理装置(9)と、からなることを特徴とする工具検査装置。 A tool centerline (vertical to the tool centerline (2) at a position close to the blade (1a) at the neck (1b) between the peripherally discontinuous blade (1a) and the handle (1c) 2) A first reference surface (3) continuous around the periphery is formed, and a second reference surface (4) is formed by an outer peripheral surface continuous in the circumferential direction around the tool center line (2). The tool (1) for the machine tool, in which the length (L) from the first reference surface (3) to the blade edge of the blade part (1a) is measured in advance, and the tool (1) as the spindle of the machine tool (7) with the tool (1) sandwiched between the surface illumination (5) arranged on one side and the illumination on the other side arranged under the illumination of the surface illumination (5) The image processing camera (6) for photographing the tool (1) and the position of the cutting edge of the tool (1) on the image photographed by the image processing camera (6) The reference plane (3) is determined on the basis of the position and length (L) of the contour (3a), and the position of the contour (4a) of the second reference plane (4) and the spindle centerline (8) A tool inspection device comprising: an image processing device (9) for confirming a mounting state of the tool (1) with respect to the spindle (7) from a relative position. 第1の基準面(3)の輪郭(3a)の位置および第2の基準面(4)の輪郭(4a)の位置をエッジ処理によって輪郭線(3b、4b)として検出する、ことを特徴とする請求項6記載の工具検査装置。 The position of the contour (3a) of the first reference surface (3) and the position of the contour (4a) of the second reference surface (4) are detected as contour lines (3b, 4b) by edge processing. The tool inspection apparatus according to claim 6.
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011041985A (en) * 2009-08-19 2011-03-03 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Tool rotating-direction positioning method
JP2012213840A (en) * 2011-04-01 2012-11-08 Murata Machinery Ltd Machine tool
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JP6900561B1 (en) * 2020-07-07 2021-07-07 Dmg森精機株式会社 Machine tools, information processing methods, and information processing programs
CN112935878A (en) * 2021-03-23 2021-06-11 哈尔滨职业技术学院 Computer host drilling equipment and operation method
CN112935878B (en) * 2021-03-23 2022-03-11 哈尔滨职业技术学院 Computer host drilling equipment and operation method

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