JP2010094101A - Simplified hydroponics device and hydroponics method - Google Patents

Simplified hydroponics device and hydroponics method Download PDF

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JP2010094101A
JP2010094101A JP2008269384A JP2008269384A JP2010094101A JP 2010094101 A JP2010094101 A JP 2010094101A JP 2008269384 A JP2008269384 A JP 2008269384A JP 2008269384 A JP2008269384 A JP 2008269384A JP 2010094101 A JP2010094101 A JP 2010094101A
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nutrient solution
cultivation
container
hydroponics
microorganisms
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Yoshitaka Ishikawa
義孝 石河
Shigeko Takeguchi
茂子 竹口
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Green Com:Kk
有限会社グリーンコム
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a vegetable hydroponics device for ordinary homes, enabling even an unexperienced person in plant cultivation to easily cultivate in view of the fact that a hydroponics device for vegetable cultivation for ordinary homes requires a different ability from an agricultural device, and enabling health growth even under an environment unsuitable for plant growth, making food taste good, enabling drastic miniaturization and production of cultivation containers of various designs, and serving both for food and appreciation, and to provide a vegetable hydroponics method. <P>SOLUTION: The vegetable hydroponics device is such that a cultivation container capable of storing nutritious liquid includes in the upper part, a netty container in which foam brick is put, a water treating contact material floating in nutritious liquid, and in the bottom, a diffusing pipe connected to an outside air pump with a tube, and titanium oxide. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2010,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、有用微生物を活用した簡易な食用と観賞用を兼ねる、水耕栽培の装置と方法に関する。   The present invention relates to an apparatus and a method for hydroponics that serve both simple food use and ornamental use utilizing useful microorganisms.
養液を流動させる従来の家庭用または小型の水耕装置においては、ポンプ等による強制循環のシステムと養液が流動するスペースが必要なため、一定以上小型化することは困難であった(特許文献1参照。)。また、農業用の水耕装置と同様な、装置のメンテナンスと養液のPH・肥料濃度(EC)の調整が必要であり、一般向けに普及するには課題があった。
上記のタイプの水耕装置において、養液に有機肥料成分を使い、乳酸菌、放線菌、酵母菌を加えて、病害を防止する技術が開示されている(特許文献2参照。)。
養液を流動させない簡易な水耕装置のなかで一般に普及しているものは、ハイドロカルチャーと呼ばれる、粘土を1200度の高熱で焼き発泡させた発泡煉石を、底部に穴の開いた栽培容器に入れて、無機肥料の養液をかけ流す方法である。養液の管理は補給のみでよく、極端に小型化することも可能である。しかし、ハイドロカルチャーの培地は、多孔質で保水性が良いため、微生物が繁殖しやすく、養液が流動しないため、培地が浸水したままの状態が続くと嫌気性菌が増殖し、根腐れしやすくなる。根腐れを防ぐため、水位を低くして好気的な状態を保つとともに、培地にイオン交換樹脂剤を混合して、養液中の有害物質を吸着させるようにしている。しかし、根が養液に接触する面積が少ないため、養分吸収量が少なく、生育が遅延し、生長させる必要のない鑑賞用植物の栽培には適しているが、食用作物の栽培には適していないことが課題である。
本発明者は、光合成細菌を利用した水耕プラント及び水耕栽培方法を開示している(特許文献3参照。)。
また、本発明者は、植物の水耕栽培を一次培養に利用した、光合成細菌及びそれと共生する有用菌を成分とする微生物資材の製造装置と方法を開示している(特許文献4参照)。
In conventional household or small hydroponic devices that flow nutrient solution, it is difficult to reduce the size beyond a certain level because a forced circulation system using a pump or the like and a space where the nutrient solution flows are necessary (patent Reference 1). Moreover, the maintenance of an apparatus and adjustment of PH and fertilizer density | concentration (EC) of a nutrient solution are required like the hydroponic apparatus for agriculture, and there was a problem in spreading to the general public.
In the above-mentioned type of hydroponic device, a technique for preventing disease by using an organic fertilizer component in a nutrient solution and adding lactic acid bacteria, actinomycetes, or yeast is disclosed (see Patent Document 2).
Among the simple hydroponic devices that do not allow the nutrient solution to flow, what is generally popular is a culture vessel called hydroculture, which is made of foamed brick made by baking and foaming clay at a high heat of 1200 degrees, with a hole in the bottom. In this method, the nutrient solution of inorganic fertilizer is poured over. The nutrient solution can be managed only by replenishment, and can be extremely miniaturized. However, because the culture medium of the hydroculture is porous and has good water retention, the microorganisms are easy to propagate and the nutrient solution does not flow.Therefore, if the medium remains immersed, the anaerobic bacteria will grow and rot. It becomes easy. In order to prevent root rot, the water level is kept low to maintain an aerobic state, and an ion exchange resin agent is mixed in the medium to adsorb harmful substances in the nutrient solution. However, because the area where the roots come into contact with the nutrient solution is small, it is suitable for cultivation of ornamental plants that have low nutrient absorption, delay growth, and do not need to grow, but is suitable for cultivation of food crops. There is no problem.
The present inventor has disclosed a hydroponic plant and hydroponic cultivation method using photosynthetic bacteria (see Patent Document 3).
Moreover, this inventor is disclosing the manufacturing apparatus and method of the microbial material which uses the photosynthetic bacterium and the useful microbe symbiotic with it as a component using the hydroponics of a plant for primary culture (refer patent document 4).
実用新案登録3103241号公報Utility Model Registration No. 3103241 特開2006−6301号公報JP 2006-6301 A 特許4019330号公報Japanese Patent No. 4019330 特許4182255号公報Japanese Patent No. 4182255
地球温暖化の問題から引き起こされた環境や食料供給への関心の高まりを背景に、食用と鑑賞用を兼ねた一般家庭向け野菜栽培用水耕装置の需要が増える傾向にある。それに応えるためには、農業用とは異なる性能が水耕装置に要求される。
まず、植物栽培に未経験の人でも、容易に栽培できることである。
つぎに、虫の発生が無く、清潔であることである。
さらに、室内、ベランダ等本来は植物の生育には適さない環境下においても、一般ユーザーの嗜好にあう健康な生育をし、食味がよいことである。
また、卓上に置けるほど小型化でき、様々なデザインの栽培容器を製作できることである。
Against the backdrop of the environment and food supply caused by global warming, there is a growing demand for hydroponics equipment for vegetable cultivation for general households that serve both food and appreciation. In order to meet this demand, hydroponic equipment is required to have performance different from that for agriculture.
First of all, even a person who is not experienced in plant cultivation can easily cultivate.
Next, there is no generation of insects and it is clean.
Furthermore, even under an environment that is not suitable for plant growth, such as indoors or on a veranda, it grows healthy and meets the tastes of general users.
In addition, it can be made small enough to be placed on a table and can produce cultivation containers of various designs.
上記の課題を技術的課題に置き換えると、植物栽培に未経験の人でも、容易に栽培できるようにするためには、装置のメンテナンス、養液のPH・養液濃度(EC)の調整が不要な栽培を実現しなければならない。特許文献1、2のように農業用水耕装置を小型化したタイプのものは不向きである。
本来は植物の生育には適さない環境下においても、健康な生育をし、食味をよくするためには、特許文献2、3のように、有用微生物を活用する必要がある。
虫の発生が無く、清潔で、卓上に置けるほど小型化でき、様々なデザインの栽培容器の製作を可能にするには、ハイドロカルチャー培地が適している。しかし、ハイドロカルチャー培地は、微生物が繁殖しやすいため、浸水すると根腐れしやすく、養液が根に接触する面積が少ないため、養分吸収量が少なく、持続的な生長が必要な食用作物の栽培には適さないことが課題である。
これらの課題を解決するためには、ハイドロカルチャー培地を用い、有用微生物を活用し、物理的に微生物の繁殖を制御しながら栽培することが必要となる。また、養液中の微生物は、液温の変化により代謝活動が大きく変化するため、液温の調節が課題となる。
If the above issues are replaced with technical issues, it is not necessary to maintain the equipment and adjust the pH and nutrient solution concentration (EC) of the nutrient solution so that even those who are not experienced in plant cultivation can easily cultivate. Cultivation must be realized. The thing which reduced the size of the agricultural hydroponic apparatus like patent document 1, 2 is unsuitable.
In order to grow healthy and improve the taste even in an environment that is not originally suitable for plant growth, it is necessary to utilize useful microorganisms as in Patent Documents 2 and 3.
Hydroculture medium is suitable for the production of cultivation containers of various designs that are free of insects, clean, small enough to be placed on a table. However, the hydroculture medium is easy to grow microorganisms, so it tends to rot when submerged, and the area where the nutrient solution comes into contact with the roots is small. Therefore, cultivation of edible crops that require low nutrient uptake and sustained growth The problem is that it is not suitable.
In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to cultivate using a hydroculture medium, utilizing useful microorganisms, and physically controlling the propagation of microorganisms. Moreover, since the metabolic activity of the microorganisms in the nutrient solution changes greatly due to changes in the liquid temperature, the adjustment of the liquid temperature becomes a problem.
本発明は、植物栽培に未経験の人でも容易に栽培でき、植物の生育には適さない環境下においても健康な生育をし、食味がよく、極端な小型化と様々なデザインの栽培容器の製作が可能な、食用と鑑賞用を兼ねた一般家庭向け野菜の水耕栽培の装置と方法を提供することを目的とする。   The present invention can be easily cultivated even by a person who is not experienced in plant cultivation, grows healthy even in an environment unsuitable for plant growth, has a good taste, is extremely compact, and produces various types of cultivation containers. It is an object to provide an apparatus and method for hydroponics of vegetables for general households that can be used for food and appreciation.
請求項1の発明は、養液を貯めることの出来る栽培容器において、上部に、発泡煉石を入れた網状容器を備え、養液中に浮遊する繊維を編んだ紐状水処理接触材を有し、底部に、外部のエアーポンプとチューブにて接続された散気管と、光触媒作用を有する酸化チタンを備えることを特徴とする。   The invention of claim 1 is a cultivation container that can store nutrient solution, and has a net-like container containing foamed brick at the top, and has a string-like water treatment contact material knitted with fibers floating in the nutrient solution. In addition, an air diffusion tube connected to an external air pump and a tube and titanium oxide having a photocatalytic action are provided at the bottom.
請求項2の発明は、請求項1に記載の水耕装置において、発泡煉石に植物を定植し、無機化学肥料と、光合成細菌およびそれと共生する有用微生物を含む微生物資材とを混合した養液を、栽培容器に充たし、散気管にて空気泡を発生させて曝気と液の上下の対流を起こし、繊維を編んだ紐状水処理接触材にて養液中の浮遊微生物、浮遊有機物を捕捉し、光触媒作用を有する酸化チタンにて養液中の浮遊微生物を殺菌し、養液中の浮遊有機物及び有害物質を分解して植物を栽培することを特徴とする。   The invention of claim 2 is the hydroponic apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a plant is planted on foamed brick, and an inorganic chemical fertilizer and a microbial material containing photosynthetic bacteria and useful microorganisms symbiotic with them are mixed. Is filled in a cultivation container, air bubbles are generated in a diffuser tube, aeration and liquid convection are caused, and suspended microorganisms and suspended organic substances in the nutrient solution are captured by a string-like water treatment contact material knitted with fibers. The plant is cultivated by sterilizing floating microorganisms in the nutrient solution with titanium oxide having a photocatalytic action and decomposing the suspended organic matter and harmful substances in the nutrient solution.
請求項3の発明は、請求項2に記載の水耕栽培方法において、該養液の液温が摂氏25度以上で蓄冷剤を、摂氏18度以下で蓄熱剤を、該栽培容器の外部表面に接触させることを特徴とする。   The invention of claim 3 is the hydroponics method according to claim 2, wherein the temperature of the nutrient solution is 25 degrees Celsius or more, the cold storage agent is 18 degrees Celsius or less, the heat storage agent is the outer surface of the cultivation container It is made to contact with.
請求項1に記載の発明によれば、装置のメンテナンスが不要になり、装置の小型化が可能になるとともに、様々なデザインの栽培容器の製作が可能となる。また、虫の発生が無く、清潔さが保たれる。   According to the first aspect of the present invention, maintenance of the apparatus is not required, the apparatus can be downsized, and cultivation containers with various designs can be manufactured. In addition, no insects are generated and cleanliness is maintained.
請求項2に記載の発明によれば、養液のPH・養液濃度(EC)の調整が不要となり、養液補給が容易で、病害が抑制され、養液中の有害物質が除去されるため、植物栽培に未経験な人でも容易に栽培ができるようになる。   According to invention of Claim 2, adjustment of PH and nutrient solution concentration (EC) of a nutrient solution becomes unnecessary, nutrient solution replenishment is easy, a disease is suppressed, and the harmful substance in a nutrient solution is removed. Therefore, even a person inexperienced in plant cultivation can easily cultivate.
請求項2に記載の発明によれば、有用微生物の働きにより、植物の生育には適さない環境下においても、食用と観賞用を兼ねた野菜が栽培でき、健康な生育をし、食味がよくなる。   According to the second aspect of the present invention, vegetables that are both edible and ornamental can be cultivated even under an environment that is not suitable for plant growth due to the action of useful microorganisms, grows healthy, and improves taste. .
請求項3に記載の発明によれば、液温が調節されて、有用微生物が安定した代謝活動を行うようになるため、植物栽培に未経験な人でも容易に栽培ができるようになる。
なお、本発明は一般家庭向けに限定されるものではなく、広く簡易な水耕装置としての利用が可能である。
According to the invention described in claim 3, since the liquid temperature is adjusted and the useful microorganisms perform stable metabolic activity, even a person who has not been experienced in plant cultivation can easily perform cultivation.
Note that the present invention is not limited to general households, and can be used as a wide and simple hydroponic device.
発泡煉石は、1200度の高温で粘土を熱し発泡させたもので、多孔質構造で、微生物が繁殖するには好条件である。浸水すると嫌気性菌、水が抜けると好気性菌が増殖する。本発明者は、湛液・曝気条件下では、発泡煉石を入れた養液中で微生物が急激に増殖するのを観察している。また、材質がセラミックスのため、虫や藻類が繁殖し難い性質を備えているようである。
光合成細菌は、有機物の分解や二酸化炭素及び窒素の固定能力が高く、硫化水素等の有害物質を無害化し、自然界で繁殖するとそれ自体またはその分泌物をエサとする多種類の微生物が共生することが知られている。共生菌としては、乳酸菌、酵母、病原菌をエサとする放線菌類、植物に栄養を供給する窒素固定菌類が知られている。また、光合成細菌と共生する菌による有害事例は報告されていない。本発明においては、光合成細菌は、市販の紅色非硫黄細菌を使用する。
微生物の分布において、特定の微生物が多数を占めると、少数の微生物は静菌する(活動が抑制される)傾向があり、微生物相(微生物分布)が安定するとPH値が安定する傾向がある。
水処理接触材は、化学繊維をループ状に編んだ紐状の構造をしていて、水中でプラスに荷電する繊維(例えば、ポリプロピレン)を養液中に入れると、マイナスに荷電している微生物を静電気的に吸着するとともに、その繊維を編んだ構造により養液中の浮遊有機物をろ過する。繊維に捕捉された微生物は、ろ過された浮遊有機物をエサとして分解する。水処理接触材は、養液中の微生物活動を抑制し、エサとなる有機物を減少させる働きをしているが、その対象は、水処理接触材に捕捉された微生物、ろ過された有機物に限定されたものである。
酸化チタン(二酸化チタン)のうち、光触媒作用を有する結晶構造をもつものは、光のうち、紫外線あるいは可視光線が当たると電子が励起され、その表面上に強力な酸化作用をもつ物質を生成する。二酸化チタン表面と接触した有機物は、この強力な酸化作用を示す物質により、二酸化炭素と水に分解される。二酸化チタン表面と接触する微生物や有機物、アンモニア等の有害物質は、二酸化チタンの光触媒作用により、酸化・分解されるが、チタン表面と接触するものに限定されたものである。二酸化チタンは、化学的に安定で、水溶液中に溶出せず、食品添加物として認められ広く使われている無害な物質である。本発明では、セラミック表面に二酸化チタン被膜を生成したものを使用する。
光合成細菌の生育温度は、摂氏10度から摂氏40度で、適温は摂氏30度である。本発明者の経験においては、液温が摂氏18度を下回ると、微生物の代謝活動は急速に低下するとともに、摂氏25度を超えると、急速に繁殖速度を速め、生育可能密度の限界に達し、一部は死にはじめる。
なお、発泡煉石の多孔質構造、散気菅による曝気・対流の生成、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液による有用菌の追加は、本発明の目的に沿って植物を生育させるための必須な機能である。それに対し、水処理接触材は微生物の異常増殖を防ぐセーフティ機能として働き、それを補助する働きを酸化チタンが行っている。養液中の有害物質を減少させる機能は、その大半を有用微生物が担い、補助的に酸化チタンが担っている。
Foamed brick is made by heating and foaming clay at a high temperature of 1200 degrees, and has a porous structure, which is a favorable condition for the growth of microorganisms. Anaerobic bacteria grow when immersed, and aerobic bacteria grow when water is drained. The present inventor has observed that microorganisms rapidly grow in a nutrient solution containing foamed bricks under dripping and aeration conditions. Moreover, since the material is ceramics, it seems to have the property that insects and algae are difficult to breed.
Photosynthetic bacteria have a high ability to decompose organic substances and fix carbon dioxide and nitrogen, detoxify harmful substances such as hydrogen sulfide, and when they propagate in nature, a large number of microorganisms that live on their own or their secretions coexist. It has been known. As symbiotic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes that feed on pathogenic bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing fungi that supply nutrients to plants are known. There have been no reports of harmful cases caused by bacteria that coexist with photosynthetic bacteria. In the present invention, a commercially available red non-sulfur bacterium is used as the photosynthetic bacterium.
In the distribution of microorganisms, when a large number of specific microorganisms occupy, a small number of microorganisms tend to be bacteriostatic (activity is suppressed), and when the microflora (microorganism distribution) is stable, the PH value tends to be stable.
The water treatment contact material has a string-like structure in which chemical fibers are knitted in a loop shape. When a fiber (for example, polypropylene) that is positively charged in water is placed in a nutrient solution, the microorganism is negatively charged. Is adsorbed electrostatically, and the suspended organic matter in the nutrient solution is filtered by the knitted fiber structure. Microorganisms trapped in the fiber are decomposed using the filtered floating organic matter as food. The water treatment contact material functions to suppress microbial activity in the nutrient solution and reduce the organic matter used as food, but the target is limited to microorganisms trapped in the water treatment contact material and filtered organic matter. It has been done.
Among titanium oxides (titanium dioxide), those with a crystal structure that has a photocatalytic action excite electrons when exposed to ultraviolet light or visible light, and generate substances with a strong oxidizing action on the surface. . The organic matter in contact with the titanium dioxide surface is decomposed into carbon dioxide and water by the substance exhibiting a strong oxidizing action. Hazardous substances such as microorganisms, organic substances, and ammonia that come into contact with the titanium dioxide surface are oxidized and decomposed by the photocatalytic action of titanium dioxide, but are limited to those that come into contact with the titanium surface. Titanium dioxide is a harmless substance that is chemically stable, does not elute in aqueous solution, and is widely used and recognized as a food additive. In the present invention, a ceramic surface formed with a titanium dioxide coating is used.
The growth temperature of photosynthetic bacteria is 10 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius, and the optimum temperature is 30 degrees Celsius. In the experience of the present inventor, when the liquid temperature falls below 18 degrees Celsius, the metabolic activity of microorganisms rapidly decreases, and when the liquid temperature exceeds 25 degrees Celsius, the reproductive speed is rapidly increased and the viable density limit is reached. Some begin to die.
It should be noted that the porous structure of foamed brick, the generation of aeration and convection by air diffuser, and the addition of useful bacteria by inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution added with microbial materials are essential for growing plants in accordance with the purpose of the present invention Function. On the other hand, the water treatment contact material works as a safety function to prevent abnormal growth of microorganisms, and titanium oxide performs the function of assisting it. Most of the functions to reduce harmful substances in nutrient solution are borne by useful microorganisms, and supplementarily by titanium oxide.
本発明を構成する個々の関係は次のとおりである。
無機肥料に微生物資材を添加することにより、養液中で有用微生物は無機肥料成分の代謝・分解を開始する。
植物を定植した発泡煉石を入れた網状コンテナを栽培容器の上部に固定し、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液を、発泡煉石の上から注ぎ入れて栽培容器を充たす。外部に置いたエアーポンプの電源を入れ、エアーポンプとチューブで接続した栽培容器底部の散気管から空気泡を吹き出し、養液を曝気すると、上下の液の対流が起き、発泡煉石内部にも養液が循環するようになる。養液中を浮遊する水処理接触材は、液中の浮遊微生物、浮遊有機物を捕捉する。底部の酸化チタンは、接触する浮遊微生物、浮遊有機物、有害物質を殺菌・分解する。なお、発泡煉石と養液部分の体積割合は、発泡煉石1に対し、養液2が適していると思われる。
The individual relationships constituting the present invention are as follows.
By adding microbial materials to the inorganic fertilizer, useful microorganisms start to metabolize and decompose the inorganic fertilizer components in the nutrient solution.
A net-like container containing foamed bricks planted with plants is fixed to the top of the cultivation container, and an inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution to which microbial materials are added is poured from above the foamed bricks to fill the cultivation container. When the air pump placed outside is turned on, air bubbles are blown out from the diffuser tube at the bottom of the cultivation container connected with the air pump and the tube, and the nutrient solution is aerated, convection of the upper and lower liquid occurs, and the foam brick also enters The nutrient solution circulates. The water treatment contact material floating in the nutrient solution captures suspended microorganisms and suspended organic matter in the solution. Titanium oxide at the bottom sterilizes and decomposes floating microbes, floating organic matter, and harmful substances that come into contact. In addition, it seems that the nutrient solution 2 is suitable with respect to the foamed brick 1 and the volume ratio of a foam brick and a nutrient solution part.
発泡煉石上部の液が浸漬していない部分は好気性菌、浸漬している部分は嫌気性菌、養液中は好気性菌、嫌気性菌、通性菌が混在した状態で繁殖するものとみられる。微生物資材の養液への添加、発泡煉石の多孔質構造、散気管による曝気、植物根からの微生物のエサとなる有機物の放出、水補給が少ない等は、微生物が増殖する要因となる。
光合成細菌が増殖して微生物分布で多数を占めると、少数の有害菌は静菌して本来の活動をしなくなるうえ、病原菌をエサとする有用菌が共生するようになるため、病害は抑制されるようになる。
光合成細菌を主体にして微生物相が安定すると、植物生育に適したPH6.0付近の弱酸性でPH値が安定するため、PH調整が不要となる。
栽培容器中で繁殖した微生物は代謝活動により、アミノ酸、核酸、酵素、植物ホルモン等を分泌し、植物根はそれらを吸収して、健康で旺盛な生育をし、食味が良くなる。
しかし、微生物を増殖させ過ぎると、養液中の溶存酸素を消費して、根が酸素欠乏状態に陥ったり、エサとなる有機物の不足から、根をエサとして攻撃するようになる。これを防ぎ、有用微生物の繁殖を高濃度で安定させるために、限定的な、水処理接触材による遊離微生物の活動抑制と酸化チタンによる物理的殺菌・分解をおこなう。
これらの機能の連係により、有用微生物の繁殖と抑制、嫌気性菌と好気性菌の分布のバランスがとれ、人為的な作業を行わなくても、有用菌の働きにより、容易に栽培ができ、植物の生育には適さない環境下においても、健康な生育をし、食味がよい栽培を実現することができる。
以上は、液温が摂氏18度から摂氏25度の範囲にある場合である。この範囲を超えると有用菌は正常な活動をしなくなるため、下限を下回る低温下では市販の蓄熱剤を栽培容器に接触させて保温し、上限を超える高温下では蓄冷剤を接触させて保冷することにより、微生物の活動低下や過剰繁殖を簡便な方法で防止する。
The part of the top of the foam brick that is not immersed is an aerobic bacterium, the part that is immersed is an anaerobic bacterium, and the nutrient solution breeds in a mixed state of aerobic, anaerobic, and facultative bacteria It seems to be. Addition of microbial materials to nutrient solution, porous structure of foamed brick, aeration with a diffuser, release of organic matter that feeds microorganisms from plant roots, less water supply, etc., cause growth of microorganisms.
When photosynthetic bacteria grow and occupy a large number in the microbial distribution, a small number of harmful bacteria will be bacteriostatic to stop their original activity, and useful bacteria that use the pathogenic bacteria as food will coexist, so the disease is suppressed. Become so.
When the microbial flora is stable mainly composed of photosynthetic bacteria, the PH value is stabilized at a weak acidity around PH 6.0 suitable for plant growth, so that PH adjustment becomes unnecessary.
Microorganisms propagated in the cultivation container secrete amino acids, nucleic acids, enzymes, plant hormones, and the like through metabolic activities, and plant roots absorb them, grow healthy and vigorously, and taste better.
However, if the microorganisms are grown too much, the dissolved oxygen in the nutrient solution is consumed, and the roots become oxygen-deficient, or the roots attack as food because of the lack of organic matter. In order to prevent this and to stabilize the growth of useful microorganisms at a high concentration, the activity of free microorganisms with limited water treatment contact material and physical sterilization / decomposition with titanium oxide are performed.
By linking these functions, the balance between the propagation and suppression of useful microorganisms, the distribution of anaerobic bacteria and aerobic bacteria, it is possible to cultivate easily by the action of useful bacteria, without performing artificial work, Even in an environment that is not suitable for plant growth, it is possible to achieve healthy growth and cultivation with good taste.
The above is a case where the liquid temperature is in the range of 18 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. Beyond this range, useful bacteria will not function normally, so keep the thermal storage agent in contact with the cultivation container at low temperatures below the lower limit, and keep it cool by contacting the cold storage agent at high temperatures above the upper limit. Therefore, it is possible to prevent a decrease in microbial activity and overgrowth by a simple method.
以下、本発明の実施の形態について、図面を参照して詳細に説明する。図1は、本発明の水耕装置の構造を示した模式図である。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the structure of the hydroponic apparatus of the present invention.
本発明で使用される水耕装置は、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)を充たした栽培容器(7)の上部に、定植した植物(1)を支持・固定する発泡煉石(2)を入れた網状コンテナ(3)を備え、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)中には、浮遊する水処理接触材(8)を備え、底部には、外部のエアーポンプ(12)とチューブ(13)により接続された散気管(11)と、酸化チタン(9)を備えている。   The hydroponic apparatus used in the present invention is a foamed brick that supports and fixes a plant (1) planted on the top of a cultivation container (7) filled with an inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which microbial materials are added ( 2) A reticulated container (3) containing a microbial material and an inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) with a floating water treatment contact material (8) and an external air pump ( 12) and a diffuser tube (11) connected by a tube (13), and titanium oxide (9).
本発明の装置の構造の概要は次のとおりである。最初に発泡煉石(2)を網状コンテナ(3)に少量入れ、植物(1)根を置き、さらに発泡煉石(2)を網状コンテナ(3)に入れて植物を固定する。栽培容器(7)の底部に、外部のエアーポンプ(11)とチューブ(12)により接続された散気管(10)を設置し、水処理接触材(8)と酸化チタン(9)を置く。微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)を発泡煉石(2)の上から注ぎ入れて栽培容器(7)を充たす。エアーポンプ(11)の電源を入れると、空気泡(4)が発生し、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)が上下に対流をはじめる。養液の自然減少分は、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)を発泡煉石(2)のうえから注入して補充する。発泡煉石(2)は、嫌気性・好気性の微生物を増殖させ、水処理接触材(8)は、浮遊微生物と浮遊有機物を吸着・ろ過する。酸化チタン(9)は、その表面と接触する範囲で、浮遊微生物を殺菌し、浮遊有機物・有害物質を分解する。   The outline of the structure of the apparatus of the present invention is as follows. First, a small amount of the foamed brick (2) is put in the mesh container (3), the root of the plant (1) is placed, and the foamed brick (2) is placed in the mesh container (3) to fix the plant. At the bottom of the cultivation container (7), an air diffuser (10) connected by an external air pump (11) and a tube (12) is installed, and a water treatment contact material (8) and titanium oxide (9) are placed. An inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which microbial material is added is poured from the foamed brick (2) to fill the cultivation container (7). When the air pump (11) is turned on, air bubbles (4) are generated, and the inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which the microbial material is added begins to convect up and down. The naturally reduced amount of nutrient solution is supplemented by injecting an inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which microbial materials are added from the foamed brick (2). Foam brick (2) grows anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, and water treatment contact material (8) adsorbs and filters suspended microorganisms and suspended organic matter. Titanium oxide (9) disinfects suspended microorganisms and decomposes suspended organic matter and harmful substances within the range where it comes into contact with its surface.
上記した実施形態における各部の構成は一例であり、本発明の技術思想の範囲で種々の変形が可能である。以下、実施例を示す。   The configuration of each part in the above-described embodiment is an example, and various modifications can be made within the scope of the technical idea of the present invention. Examples are shown below.
図1において、直径約5ミリメートルの発泡煉石(2)を直径15センチメートルの網状コンテナ(3)に少量入れ、サラダ菜の幼苗(1)の根を置き、さらに発泡煉石(2)0.6リットルを網状コンテナ(3)に入れて植物を固定する。直径15センチメートル、高さ16センチメートルの円筒形のプラスチック製栽培容器(7)の底部に、外部に置いた吐出量毎分2リットルのエアーポンプ(11)と口径6ミリメートルのシリコンチューブ(12)により接続された長さ10センチメートルの散気管(10)1個を設置し、直径5センチメートル、長さ3センチメートルの水処理接触材(8)2個と直径2センチメートルの球体に酸化チタンを塗布した資材(9)9個を置く。光合成細菌およびそれの共生菌を含有した微生物資材10ミリリットルを添加した無機肥料養液(6)約1.8リットルを発泡煉石(2)の上から注ぎ入れて栽培容器(7)を充たす。エアーポンプ(11)の電源を入れて、空気泡(4)を発生させ、液を上下に対流させる。微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)の自然減少分は発泡煉石(2)のうえから注入して補充する。   In FIG. 1, a small amount of foam brick (2) having a diameter of about 5 millimeters is placed in a mesh container (3) having a diameter of 15 centimeters, roots of the seedlings (1) of salad vegetables are placed, and foam brick (2) 0. Put 6 liters in the mesh container (3) to fix the plants. At the bottom of a cylindrical plastic cultivation container (7) having a diameter of 15 centimeters and a height of 16 centimeters, an air pump (11) of 2 liters per minute and a silicon tube having a diameter of 6 millimeters (12) are placed outside. ) To connect one 10cm long diffuser tube (10), 2 centimeters in diameter, 3cm in length water treatment contact material (8) and 2cm in diameter sphere Nine materials (9) coated with titanium oxide are placed. About 1.8 liters of an inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which 10 milliliters of microbial material containing photosynthetic bacteria and symbiotic fungi thereof is added is poured from above the foamed brick (2) to fill the cultivation container (7). The air pump (11) is turned on, air bubbles (4) are generated, and the liquid is convected up and down. The natural decrease of the inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which microbial materials are added is replenished by injecting it from the foamed brick (2).
上記の方法にて室内で栽培したサラダ菜は、旺盛に生育した。また、晴天時に屋外へ置いても、萎れることはなかった。作業は、微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液(6)を補充するのみであった。サラダ菜は、甘みと苦味とうま味が混ざり合った濃厚な食味となり、歯ごたえがあった。   Salad vegetables grown indoors by the above method grew vigorously. In addition, even when placed outdoors in fine weather, it did not wither. The work was only to replenish the inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution (6) to which the microbial material was added. Salad vegetables had a rich taste with a mixture of sweetness, bitterness and umami, and were crunchy.
本発明の水耕装置の模式図である。It is a schematic diagram of the hydroponic apparatus of this invention.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 植物
2 発泡煉石
3 網状コンテナ
4 空気泡
5 植物根
6 微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液
7 栽培容器
8 水処理用接触材
9 酸化チタン
10 散気管
11 エアーポンプ
12 チューブ
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Plant 2 Foam brick 3 Reticulated container 4 Air bubbles 5 Plant root 6 Inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution added with microorganism material 7 Cultivation container 8 Water treatment contact material 9 Titanium oxide 10 Aeration pipe 11 Air pump 12 Tube

Claims (3)

  1. 養液を貯めることの出来る栽培容器において、上部に発泡煉石を入れた網状容器を備え、養液中に浮遊する繊維を編んだ紐状水処理接触材を有し、底部に、外部のエアーポンプとチューブにて接続された散気管と、光触媒作用を有する酸化チタンと、を備えることを特徴とする簡易型水耕装置。   Cultivation container that can store nutrient solution, has a net-like container with foamed brick at the top, has a string-like water treatment contact material knitted with fibers floating in the nutrient solution, and has external air at the bottom. A simplified hydroponic apparatus comprising an air diffuser connected by a pump and a tube, and titanium oxide having a photocatalytic action.
  2. 請求項1に記載の水耕装置において、該発泡煉石に植物を定植し、光合成細菌及びそれと共生する有用菌を含む微生物資材を添加した無機肥料養液を、該栽培容器に充たし、該散気管にて空気泡を発生させて曝気と液の上下の対流を起こし、該水処理接触材にて養液中の浮遊微生物、浮遊有機物を捕捉し、該酸化チタンにて養液中の浮遊微生物を殺菌し、養液中の浮遊有機物及び有害物質を分解して、植物を栽培することを特徴とする水耕栽培方法。   The hydroponic apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a plant is planted on the foamed brick, and an inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution to which a microbial material containing a photosynthetic bacterium and a useful symbiosis with the plant is added is filled in the cultivation container. Air bubbles are generated in the trachea, causing aeration and convection of the liquid up and down, trapping floating microorganisms and floating organic matter in the nutrient solution with the water treatment contact material, floating microorganisms in the nutrient solution with the titanium oxide A hydroponic cultivation method characterized in that plants are cultivated by sterilizing water and decomposing suspended organic substances and harmful substances in the nutrient solution.
  3. 請求項2に記載の水耕栽培方法において、該無機肥料養液の液温が摂氏25度以上で蓄冷剤を、摂氏18度以下で蓄熱剤を、該栽培容器の外部表面に接触させることを特徴とする水耕栽培方法。   The hydroponic cultivation method according to claim 2, wherein the temperature of the inorganic fertilizer nutrient solution is 25 degrees Celsius or more and the cold storage agent is contacted with the outer surface of the cultivation container at 18 degrees Celsius or less. Hydroponic cultivation method characterized.
JP2008269384A 2008-10-20 2008-10-20 Simplified hydroponics device and hydroponics method Pending JP2010094101A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4853800B1 (en) * 2011-03-01 2012-01-11 文男 前川 A water purification method using a powder ion-exchange resin-containing adsorbent as a filtration layer.
JP2012235732A (en) * 2011-05-11 2012-12-06 Noriomi Watanabe Hydroponic method for zingiber mioga
KR101223763B1 (en) * 2010-07-28 2013-01-17 황윤택 Apparatus for home hydroponic culture
CN102912783A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-02-06 盛广 Water collection and soil coverage sand brick for conservation of water and soil in deserts
CN104219948A (en) * 2012-04-09 2014-12-17 三井化学株式会社 Plant cultivation material and plant cultivation method using same
CN104250057A (en) * 2014-08-29 2014-12-31 天津大学 Photocatalytic oxidation and ecological remediation combined integrated water body restoration device

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101223763B1 (en) * 2010-07-28 2013-01-17 황윤택 Apparatus for home hydroponic culture
JP4853800B1 (en) * 2011-03-01 2012-01-11 文男 前川 A water purification method using a powder ion-exchange resin-containing adsorbent as a filtration layer.
JP2012235732A (en) * 2011-05-11 2012-12-06 Noriomi Watanabe Hydroponic method for zingiber mioga
CN104219948A (en) * 2012-04-09 2014-12-17 三井化学株式会社 Plant cultivation material and plant cultivation method using same
CN102912783A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-02-06 盛广 Water collection and soil coverage sand brick for conservation of water and soil in deserts
CN104250057A (en) * 2014-08-29 2014-12-31 天津大学 Photocatalytic oxidation and ecological remediation combined integrated water body restoration device

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