JP2010046037A - Breeding aquarium for plankton such as larva of eel, and method for feeding plankton - Google Patents

Breeding aquarium for plankton such as larva of eel, and method for feeding plankton Download PDF

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JP2010046037A
JP2010046037A JP2008214829A JP2008214829A JP2010046037A JP 2010046037 A JP2010046037 A JP 2010046037A JP 2008214829 A JP2008214829 A JP 2008214829A JP 2008214829 A JP2008214829 A JP 2008214829A JP 2010046037 A JP2010046037 A JP 2010046037A
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breeding
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eel
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JP5062594B2 (en
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Kenji Masuda
賢嗣 増田
Hideki Tanaka
秀樹 田中
Kazuharu Nomura
和晴 野村
Kazuhisa Teruya
和久 照屋
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Fisheries Research Agency
独立行政法人水産総合研究センター
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a feeding method effective for organisms wafting in water and passively feeding on materials floating in the water. <P>SOLUTION: The breeding aquarium is obtained by forming two or more stable layers in the breeding aquarium by utilizing the density regulation by a water-soluble polymer, and using the layer having a density higher than that of a breeding water layer as a liquid feed layer. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2010,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、ウナギの仔魚、特に人工授精によって得られたウナギ卵由来の孵化仔魚から浮遊生活を送る葉形仔魚(レプトケファレス)までの浮遊生物の飼育に適した飼育水槽及び新規な給餌方法に関する。   The present invention relates to a breeding aquarium suitable for breeding floating organisms from eel larvae, particularly hatched larvae derived from eel eggs obtained by artificial insemination to leaf-shaped larvae (Leptocephales) that carry floating life, and a novel feeding method About.
ウナギ養殖用種苗として用いられるシラスウナギの採捕量減少のため、人工種苗技術の確立が強く望まれているが、ウナギの人工孵化が可能となった現在、仔魚をシラスウナギまで成長させる効率的な飼育方法の開発が急務である。   Establishing artificial seedling technology is strongly desired to reduce the amount of white eel used as seedlings for eel farming, but now it is possible to artificially hatch eels, and now efficient breeding to grow larvae to glass eels. There is an urgent need to develop a method.
ウナギ仔魚の初期飼料としてサメ卵粉末(特許文献1)や、オキアミ分解物(特許文献2)などが提案されている。
しかし、これらの先行技術は、いずれも飼育水の中を泳ぐ魚が飼料をついばむものであり、飼料を底面に置いて、それをウナギ仔魚に摂餌させる方式を取っているので、仔魚の水槽底面への接触が不可避であった。仔魚の水槽底面への接触は、斃死や形態異常の一因ではないかと疑われている。また、底面に置いた飼料は粘性が高く、給餌後の清掃に手間がかかるという問題があった。
As an initial feed for eel larvae, shark egg powder (Patent Document 1), a krill decomposition product (Patent Document 2), and the like have been proposed.
However, each of these prior arts is such that the fish swimming in the breeding water pour the feed, and the feed is placed on the bottom and fed to the eel larvae. Contact with the bottom surface was inevitable. It is suspected that the contact of the larvae with the bottom of the aquarium may contribute to drowning or morphological abnormalities. In addition, the feed placed on the bottom has a high viscosity, and there is a problem that it takes time to clean after feeding.
本発明者らは、ウナギ仔魚がコロイド状の液体飼料を摂食することを確認した(非特許文献1)が、この実験では、飼育水にコロイド状飼料を混合し、一定時間毎に別に用意した飼育水にウナギ仔魚をピペットで移し変えるもので、実用化に向けた効率的な給餌方法の開発が望まれていた。
特開平11−253111号公報 特開2005−13116号公報 2006年日本水産学会春季大会要旨集No.553
The present inventors confirmed that eel larvae fed a colloidal liquid feed (Non-Patent Document 1). In this experiment, colloidal feed was mixed with the breeding water and prepared separately at regular intervals. The eel larvae were pipetted into the breeding water and the development of an efficient feeding method for practical use was desired.
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 11-253111 JP-A-2005-13116 The 2006 Annual Meeting of the Japanese Fisheries Society Spring Meeting No. 553
本発明者らは、ウナギ仔魚の飼育水槽内に、夫々密度の異なる層を形成し、上層をウナギ仔魚の飼育水域とし、下層または中間層を飼育水よりも密度の高い液体状の飼料で形成することにより、仔魚が水槽底面に接触することなく泳ぎながら液体飼料を摂餌できることを見出し、本発明に至ったものである。   The inventors of the present invention have formed different layers of eel larvae in the breeding aquarium, the upper layer is the eel larvae breeding water area, and the lower or intermediate layer is formed of liquid feed having a higher density than the breeding water. Thus, the present inventors have found that larvae can feed liquid feed while swimming without contacting the bottom of the aquarium.
水槽内に密度の異なる層を形成する方法としては、「温度」や「塩分濃度」による比重の調節が考えられるが、温度では大きな比重の違いを作り出すことが困難な上、大きすぎる温度差は魚を傷めるという問題があり、塩分濃度の場合も魚類の浸透圧耐性の限界により、これだけで大きな比重の違いを作り出すことができなかった。   As a method of forming layers with different densities in the water tank, it is possible to adjust the specific gravity by "temperature" and "salt concentration", but it is difficult to create a large difference in specific gravity at the temperature, There was a problem of damaging fish, and even in the case of salt concentration, it was not possible to create a large difference in specific gravity due to the limit of fish osmotic pressure tolerance.
本発明者らは、水溶性の高分子を使用して飼育水の密度を調整すれば、ほとんど浸透圧を変えずに大きな比重差の複数の飼育水を作ることができ、これと、塩分濃度による密度差を組み合わせることにより、飼育水槽内に2層以上の安定な層を形成することができ、しかも、適切な濃度であればウナギ仔魚の健康に深刻な悪影響がないことも実験的に確認した。   By adjusting the density of the breeding water using a water-soluble polymer, the present inventors can produce a plurality of breeding waters with a large specific gravity difference with almost no change in osmotic pressure, and the salt concentration By combining the density differences due to, we can experimentally confirm that two or more stable layers can be formed in the breeding tank and that there is no serious adverse effect on the health of eel larvae at appropriate concentrations did.
すなわち、本発明は、
(1)槽内に少なくとも飼育水層とそれよりも密度の高い液体飼料層が形成された浮遊生物用飼育水槽
(2)液体飼料層よりもさらに密度の高い飼育水層が槽内底部に形成された(1)記載の飼育水槽。
(3)浮遊生物がウナギ仔魚である(1)または(2)に記載の飼育水槽。
(4)槽内に少なくとも飼育水層とそれよりも密度の高い液体飼料層が形成された飼育水槽を使用する浮遊生物の給餌方法。
(5)飼育水槽が液体飼料層よりもさらに密度の高い飼育水層が槽内底部に形成されているものである(4)記載の給餌方法。
(6)浮遊生物がウナギ仔魚である(4)または(5)に記載の給餌方法。
That is, the present invention
(1) Floating water breeding tank in which at least a breeding water layer and a liquid feed layer having a higher density are formed in the tank (2) A breeding water layer having a higher density than the liquid feed layer is formed at the bottom of the tank The breeding aquarium according to (1).
(3) The breeding aquarium according to (1) or (2), wherein the floating organism is an eel larvae.
(4) A method for feeding floating organisms using a breeding water tank in which at least a breeding water layer and a liquid feed layer having a higher density are formed in the tank.
(5) The feeding method according to (4), wherein the breeding aquarium has a breeding aquifer having a higher density than the liquid feed layer at the bottom of the tank.
(6) The feeding method according to (4) or (5), wherein the floating organism is an eel larvae.
本発明によれば、ウナギ仔魚は、摂餌時に飼育槽底面に接触することがなく、接触による物理的な傷害が起こらない。また、給餌後の残った飼料は、通常の通水によって容易に除去できるので、清掃が容易となる。   According to the present invention, eel larvae do not come into contact with the bottom surface of the breeding tank during feeding, and physical injury due to contact does not occur. Moreover, since the feed remaining after feeding can be easily removed by normal water flow, cleaning becomes easy.
本発明の方法で飼育される生物は、人工授精によって得られたウナギ卵由来の孵化仔魚から浮遊生活を送る葉形仔魚(レプトケファレス)までのウナギ仔魚であるが、ウナギ仔魚と同様に浮遊し、水中に漂っている物体を受動的に摂餌する生物に対しても、本発明の方法は、有効である。   The organisms bred by the method of the present invention are eel larvae from hatched larvae derived from eel eggs obtained by artificial insemination to leaf-shaped larvae (Leptocephales) that live a floating life, but floating like eel larvae However, the method of the present invention is also effective for an organism that passively feeds objects floating in the water.
本発明でいう液体飼料とは、上記コロイド状液体飼料のように、飼育水槽内で安定して中間層を形成できるだけの流動性を有しているものをいい、従来、液体飼料と称せられていたペースト状のものは含まれない。   The liquid feed as used in the present invention means a fluid feed that has a fluidity that can stably form an intermediate layer in a breeding aquarium, like the colloidal liquid feed, and is conventionally referred to as a liquid feed. Paste-like materials are not included.
本発明の方法で使用される液体飼料とは、油性飼料が微細に懸濁したコロイド液、微細な固形飼料が懸濁した懸濁液、水溶性飼料成分を溶解した水溶液、あるいはこれらの混合物をいい、飼育水と略同等な流動性を有する。   The liquid feed used in the method of the present invention is a colloidal liquid in which oily feed is finely suspended, a suspension in which fine solid feed is suspended, an aqueous solution in which water-soluble feed ingredients are dissolved, or a mixture thereof. It has good fluidity as good as breeding water.
飼育水の密度を調整する水溶性高分子としては、飼育魚の健康に影響を与えないものであって、低濃度でゲル化しないものであればいずれでも使用でき、デキストリン、カラゲナン、ヘパリン、コンドロイチン硫酸などが例示される。
水溶性高分子の添加量については、塩分4%程度で形態異常の発生が増加することから、塩分1%分の浸透圧変化に相当する量、すなわち分子量6,000なら100%、分子量60,000なら1,000%、分子量600,000なら10,000%までの範囲で可能である(ただしゲル化しない範囲)。
Any water-soluble polymer that adjusts the density of the breeding water can be used as long as it does not affect the health of the breeding fish and does not gel at low concentrations. Dextrin, carrageenan, heparin, chondroitin sulfate Etc. are exemplified.
As for the amount of water-soluble polymer added, the occurrence of morphological abnormalities increases at a salt content of about 4%. 1,000 is possible in the range of 1,000%, and molecular weight of 600,000 is possible in the range of up to 10,000% (however, it does not gel).
水溶性高分子を溶解した飼育水は、飼育槽の下層を形成するもので、その密度は、上層や中間層と安定的に界面を形成できる程度の差を有していることが必要である。例えば、中間層に牛乳と海水の1:1混合液に1.5%の食塩を溶かしたものを用いた場合、好ましくは1.07g/cm以上である。1.07g/cm未満では、上層や中間層を安定した界面を形成することができず、また、仔魚も容易に底面まで侵入してしまうという問題がある。逆に、含まれる水溶性高分子の濃度が物質固有のゲル化濃度を越えるとゲル化(固化)してしまい、容易に排出されなくなるという問題が生じる。 The breeding water in which the water-soluble polymer is dissolved forms the lower layer of the breeding tank, and its density needs to have a difference enough to form a stable interface with the upper layer and the intermediate layer. . For example, when 1.5% sodium chloride dissolved in a 1: 1 mixture of milk and seawater is used for the intermediate layer, it is preferably 1.07 g / cm 3 or more. If it is less than 1.07 g / cm 3 , there is a problem that a stable interface cannot be formed between the upper layer and the intermediate layer, and the larvae easily penetrate to the bottom surface. On the other hand, if the concentration of the water-soluble polymer contained exceeds the gelation concentration specific to the substance, the gelation (solidification) occurs, resulting in a problem that it cannot be easily discharged.
中間層は、上層を形成する飼育水、水溶性高分子を溶解した下層の飼育水とそれぞれ安定的に界面を形成できる程度の密度差を有していることが必要である。例として牛乳と海水を1:1で混合して1.5%の食塩を溶かしたものの場合、上層とは界面を形成することができる。下層に求められる密度は中間層の密度に応じて決まる。
中間層の密度調整としては、食塩または水溶性高分子を少量添加することによって上記密度差とすることができる。
また、液体飼料層を下層して形成する場合には、中間層を省略することができる。この場合にも、下層の液体飼料内に侵入した仔魚には、密度差により浮力が加わるので、摂餌時に仔魚が飼育槽の底面に接触することはない。
The intermediate layer needs to have a density difference that can stably form an interface with the breeding water that forms the upper layer and the breeding water that dissolves the water-soluble polymer. For example, when milk and seawater are mixed at a ratio of 1: 1 to dissolve 1.5% of sodium chloride, an interface can be formed with the upper layer. The density required for the lower layer is determined according to the density of the intermediate layer.
For adjusting the density of the intermediate layer, the density difference can be made by adding a small amount of sodium chloride or a water-soluble polymer.
Moreover, when forming a liquid feed layer as a lower layer, an intermediate | middle layer can be abbreviate | omitted. Also in this case, the larvae that have entered the lower liquid feed are added with buoyancy due to the density difference, so that the larvae do not contact the bottom surface of the breeding tank during feeding.
3つの層の形成方法としては、どのような順序で行なってもよいが、一般的には、軽い層から水槽に入れ、次に重い層を底に注入し、最後に一番重い層を注入すれば、界面がきれいに形成されるが、飼育水を収容した飼育水槽の底部に、まず、水溶性高分子を溶解した飼育水をピペットなどで静かに注入して下層を形成し、次いで、中間層となる液体飼料を飼育水と下層の界面付近にピペットなどで静かに注入することにより形成することも可能である。   The three layers can be formed in any order, but generally, the lighter layer is put into the aquarium, then the heavier layer is injected into the bottom, and finally the heaviest layer is injected. If this is done, the interface will be formed cleanly, but first, breeding water in which water-soluble polymer is dissolved is gently poured into the bottom of the breeding tank containing breeding water with a pipette to form the lower layer, and then the middle It is also possible to form the layered liquid feed by gently injecting it with a pipette or the like in the vicinity of the interface between the breeding water and the lower layer.
下層の厚さは、飼育魚がその浮力に抗して底面まで到達できないほどの深さとすることが望ましく、ウナギ仔魚の場合、6〜10mmに設定すればよい。また、中間層の厚さは、ウナギ仔魚が最下層の上面付近を這うように泳ぐことが多いことから、薄くても摂餌される可能性が高いので1mm以上の厚さであればよいが、仔魚が液体飼料層内を自由に泳ぐことができる10mm以上とすることが好ましい。中間層の厚みが1mm未満では、拡散により短時間で消失してしまい、仔魚に十分給餌することができない。   The thickness of the lower layer is preferably set to such a depth that the breeding fish cannot reach the bottom against its buoyancy, and in the case of eel larvae, it may be set to 6 to 10 mm. Moreover, since the eel larva often swims so as to crawl near the upper surface of the lowermost layer, the thickness of the intermediate layer may be 1 mm or more because it is highly likely to be eaten even if it is thin. It is preferable that the larvae be 10 mm or longer so that the larvae can freely swim in the liquid feed layer. If the thickness of the intermediate layer is less than 1 mm, it disappears in a short time due to diffusion, and the larvae cannot be sufficiently fed.
所定時間給餌した後、残った液体飼料を含む中間層は、吸引管を使用する等の方法で容易に飼育槽からは排出することができ、粘性の低い液体飼料なので、残渣が飼育槽の壁面に付着することもない。
また、上層に海水を穏和に注水することにより、ストレーナーの最下開口部より下に存在する密度の高い液体を残してそれより上部の液体を排出することができるが、このことを利用して下層だけを残して中層を洗い流すこともでき、さらに、飼育槽内の各層はすべて水溶性であり、界面に向けて流水すれば、界面は容易に破壊されて攪拌されるので、このような状態で飼育槽内の残差を含む飼育水を全面的に交換することも可能である。
After feeding for a predetermined time, the intermediate layer containing the remaining liquid feed can be easily discharged from the breeding tank by using a suction tube, etc. It does not adhere to the surface.
In addition, by gently pouring seawater into the upper layer, it is possible to leave the dense liquid present below the lowermost opening of the strainer and discharge the liquid above it. The middle layer can be washed away leaving only the lower layer, and all the layers in the breeding tank are water-soluble, and if the water is poured toward the interface, the interface is easily destroyed and stirred. It is also possible to completely replace the breeding water including the residual in the breeding tank.
5Lボウル型水槽内に以下の密度の異なる3層を形成した。
上層:ろ過海水厚さ1500mm(5−8L)
中層:牛乳とろ過海水の1:1混合液に食塩を1.5%加えたもの厚さ5mm(100mL)
下層:ろ過海水中にデキストリンを15%溶解したもの厚さ15mm(200mL)
この水槽の上層内で、ホルモンによる催熟および産卵によって得られたウナギ仔魚(日齢7)を水槽あたり300尾収容して飼育したところ、無給餌群が全滅した後も数日の生残が確認された。
The following three layers having different densities were formed in a 5 L bowl water tank.
Upper layer: filtered seawater thickness 1500mm (5-8L)
Middle layer: 1% mixture of milk and filtered seawater with 1.5% salt added. Thickness 5mm (100mL)
Lower layer: Thickness 15 mm (200 mL) with 15% dextrin dissolved in filtered seawater
In the upper layer of this aquarium, 300 eel larvae (age 7) obtained by hormonal ripening and egg laying were housed and bred for several days after the no-feeding group was annihilated. confirmed.
従来、水槽での飼育が困難とされていた、水中を浮遊し、水中に漂っている物体を受動的に摂餌する生物に対して有効な給餌方法であり、養殖対象生物の可能性が拡大する。   This is an effective feeding method for living organisms that have previously been difficult to raise in aquarium and that passively feed objects floating in the water and drifting in the water. To do.

Claims (6)

  1. 槽内に少なくとも飼育水層とそれよりも密度の高い液体飼料層が形成された浮遊生物用飼育水槽。   A floating aquarium for floating organisms in which at least a breeding water layer and a liquid feed layer having a higher density are formed in the tank.
  2. 液体飼料層よりもさらに密度の高い飼育水層が槽内底部に形成された請求項1記載の飼育水槽。   The breeding aquarium according to claim 1, wherein a breeding aquifer having a higher density than the liquid feed layer is formed at the bottom of the tank.
  3. 浮遊生物がウナギ仔魚である請求項1または2に記載の飼育水槽。   The breeding aquarium according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the floating organism is an eel larvae.
  4. 槽内に少なくとも飼育水層とそれよりも密度の高い液体飼料層が形成された飼育水槽を使用する浮遊生物の給餌方法。   A method for feeding floating organisms using a breeding water tank in which at least a breeding water layer and a liquid feed layer having a higher density are formed in the tank.
  5. 飼育水槽が液体飼料層よりもさらに密度の高い飼育水層が槽内底部に形成されているものである請求項4記載の給餌方法。   The feeding method according to claim 4, wherein the breeding water layer having a higher density than the liquid feed layer is formed at the bottom of the tank.
  6. 浮遊生物がウナギ仔魚である請求項4または5に記載の給餌方法。   The feeding method according to claim 4 or 5, wherein the planktonic organism is an eel larvae.
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103688889A (en) * 2013-12-24 2014-04-02 大连海洋大学 Cultivation density measuring method for aquatic animal planktonic larvae
JP2014140357A (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-08-07 Fisheries Research Agency Eel fingerling rearing method, rearing device and rearing container
CN104982369A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-10-21 孟如苗 Automatic feeding device for freshwater lake

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JPH1156257A (en) * 1997-08-18 1999-03-02 Yoji Muramatsu Feed for feed organism for eel fry and culture of eel fry
JPH11253111A (en) * 1998-03-10 1999-09-21 Natl Res Inst Of Aquaculture Rearing of hatched fish larva of eel
JP2002272311A (en) * 2001-03-22 2002-09-24 Masato Kino Method for feeding liquid feed for fish and shellfish

Patent Citations (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH1156257A (en) * 1997-08-18 1999-03-02 Yoji Muramatsu Feed for feed organism for eel fry and culture of eel fry
JPH11253111A (en) * 1998-03-10 1999-09-21 Natl Res Inst Of Aquaculture Rearing of hatched fish larva of eel
JP2002272311A (en) * 2001-03-22 2002-09-24 Masato Kino Method for feeding liquid feed for fish and shellfish

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2014140357A (en) * 2012-12-26 2014-08-07 Fisheries Research Agency Eel fingerling rearing method, rearing device and rearing container
CN103688889A (en) * 2013-12-24 2014-04-02 大连海洋大学 Cultivation density measuring method for aquatic animal planktonic larvae
CN104982369A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-10-21 孟如苗 Automatic feeding device for freshwater lake

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