JP2009070933A - Substrate for forming fine uneven surface structure having single particle film etching mask and manufacturing method thereof, and fine uneven surface structure - Google Patents

Substrate for forming fine uneven surface structure having single particle film etching mask and manufacturing method thereof, and fine uneven surface structure Download PDF

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JP2009070933A
JP2009070933A JP2007236083A JP2007236083A JP2009070933A JP 2009070933 A JP2009070933 A JP 2009070933A JP 2007236083 A JP2007236083 A JP 2007236083A JP 2007236083 A JP2007236083 A JP 2007236083A JP 2009070933 A JP2009070933 A JP 2009070933A
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single particle
surface
substrate
particle film
single
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Hiroshi Shinozuka
啓 篠塚
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Oji Paper Co Ltd
王子製紙株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

A substrate having a single particle film etching mask suitable for forming an antireflection fine uneven structure such as an antireflection subwavelength fine structure on a solar power generation substrate surface is provided.
(1) A substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film formed by close-packing and arranging single particles in two dimensions on the substrate surface. (2) A photovoltaic power generation substrate manufactured by etching the substrate. (3) Single particle dispersion preparation step, dropping step of dropping the single particle dispersion on the liquid surface to form a single particle dispersion film, volatilizing the dispersion medium in the single particle dispersion film, For forming a fine surface relief structure by a single particle film forming step for forming a single particle film that is closely packed in two dimensions and arranged with high precision, and a single particle film transfer step for transferring the single particle film to the substrate surface A substrate is manufactured. In the figure, P represents a single particle, and T represents a gap between single particles in a two-dimensional close packed arrangement state.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a substrate having a single particle film etching mask suitable for forming a fine uneven structure on a substrate surface such as an antireflection structure on a photovoltaic power generation substrate surface, a method for manufacturing the same, and a substrate surface having the single particle film etching mask. The present invention relates to a surface fine concavo-convex structure obtained by etching and a photovoltaic power generation panel having the surface fine concavo-convex structure as a sub-wavelength antireflection microstructure.

  Single-crystal Si, polycrystal Si, thin film Si, amorphous Si, compound thin film, dye sensitized, organic thin film, and various types of photovoltaic power generation panels of quantum dots, the surface is designed to capture light to the maximum and improve photoelectric conversion efficiency. Have been developed that have been devised such as antireflection processing and texture structure.

  For example, a standard process in a crystalline Si solar cell is performed as follows. That is, a monocrystalline or polycrystalline Si wafer having a resistivity of about 1 to 2 Ω · cm and a conductivity type of p-type is sliced, and a concavo-convex structure is formed on the surface by wet etching or dry etching. This uneven structure has an optical confinement and antireflection effect. Next, phosphorus is diffused from the wafer surface to form an n layer. As this diffusion method, a gas diffusion method in which phosphorus oxychloride is deposited and diffused in a diffusion furnace is generally used, but a coating diffusion method in which a solution containing phosphorus is spin-coated may be used.

  Although a pn junction surface is obtained by forming the n layer, an antireflection film is usually formed on the n layer. A titanium oxide film may be used for the antireflection film of a single crystal Si solar cell, but the antireflection film of a polycrystalline Si solar cell may be formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or sputtering. A Si film is used. The theory that hydrogen in the Si nitride film terminates defects present in the grain boundaries of polycrystalline Si (passivation) to improve the performance of the solar cell is prominent.

  In the case of a super straight type structure in which light is incident from the glass substrate side among the thin film Si solar cells, a transparent conductive film is first formed on the glass substrate. The transparent conductive film has a role of sufficiently absorbing light by forming irregularities and scattering light so that the thin film Si layer thereon has sufficient light absorption. As a transparent conductive film, there is “Asahi-U” of Asahi Glass. A fluorine-added tin oxide film is formed by a CVD method, and at this time, unevenness of several hundreds of nanometers adapted to the wavelength of sunlight is self-formed.

  The Si layer is formed by the CVD method in the order of p layer-i layer-n layer. Whereas the p layer and the n layer are 10 to several tens of nm, the i layer is about 300 nm when amorphous Si is used. When the amorphous Si layer is thickened, light absorption increases, but dangling bond defects increase and photodegradation becomes remarkable. After forming the n layer, a transparent conductive film and a silver electrode that plays the role of back surface reflection are formed by sputtering or the like.

  In the case of a compound thin film solar cell, a molybdenum film to be a back electrode is formed on a soda lime glass substrate by sputtering, and a p-type CIGS light absorption layer (consisting of a quaternary compound of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium) Further, an antireflection film and a grid electrode are formed in that order.

In these various solar cells, a texture structure may be formed on the surface for the purpose of trapping more incident light. The texture structure is generally created by KOH etching or etching with an acid (a mixture of HNO 3 , HF, NaNO 3, etc.). In the KOH texture structure and the acid texture structure, it has been reported that the reflectivity of the single crystal Si surface decreases to about 23% and about 17%, respectively (Non-Patent Document 1). There is also a report that the reflectivity of a pyramidal texture structure created under mild etching conditions of KOH + additive is reduced to about 8 to 15% (Non-Patent Document 1).

Furthermore, various antireflection techniques are introduced in the patent literature. In Patent Document 1, a texture structure is formed by acid or alkali etching, a diffusion layer is formed by vapor phase diffusion using POCl 3 , etc., and a passivation film for stabilizing the light-receiving surface and incident light are formed on the surface of the diffusion layer. A process is described in which a SiNx film that functions as an antireflection film is formed by a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method, and a TiO 2 film is stacked as an antireflection film on the passivation film by a CVD method. Method.

  In Patent Document 2, a porous etching resistant film is formed using a paste on a semiconductor substrate constituting a solar cell, and etching is performed using the porous etching resistant film as a mask. A technique for forming an antireflection structure composed of fine irregularities on a semiconductor substrate is disclosed.

  Patent Document 3 discloses a substrate surface in which an etching resistant film having an etching resistance with respect to an etchant distributed in the film is formed on the substrate surface, and etching is performed through the etching resistant film to form irregularities on the substrate surface. A method of forming a high-performance surface antireflection structure on a substrate surface at a low cost by a processing method is disclosed.

In Patent Document 4, a first antireflection film is formed on one main surface side of a semiconductor substrate having a PN junction, and electrodes are formed on one main surface side and the other main surface side of the semiconductor substrate. A technique is disclosed in which a second antireflection film is formed on the first antireflection film, and a surface portion of the second antireflection film is roughened by a reactive ion etching method.
JP 2007-103572 A JP 2004-103736 A JP 2003-309276 A JP 07-326784 A 2007 Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology / Electronic Journal

  The reflectance of the surface of the solar cell having a fine concavo-convex structure formed by the general technique introduced in Non-Patent Document 1 is about 8 to 15%, and the utilization efficiency of incident light is still sufficiently high. Absent. In addition, regarding the optical characteristics of the antireflection film or antireflection layer formed by the methods of Patent Documents 1 to 4, the reflectance estimated from the manufacturing method is not considered to be so low. Because (1) the principle of anti-reflection is a method in which the reflected waves on the upper and lower surfaces of the anti-reflection film are shifted by half a wavelength to cancel out by the effect of interference, the effect of lowering the minimum reflectance is small and wavelength-dependent. Due to angular dependence, the antireflection effect is limited, and (2) the antireflection principle is a technique in which the surface microstructure is designed by the technique of lowering the refractive index of the outermost layer by surface roughening. Therefore, an ideal refractive index gradient structure cannot be obtained, and since the antireflection effect is limited, the utilization efficiency of incident light cannot be maximized.

  In the case of a photovoltaic power generation panel based on Si, the refractive index of Si is about 3.5, and its surface has a very high reflectance (about 40% reflection in a mirror state). Such an antireflection structure applied to the surface is difficult to exhibit a sufficient effect unless it is very sophisticated. Since the refractive index of the Si oxide film is about 1.45 and the refractive index of the Si nitride film is about 2.0, which is an intermediate refractive index between air and Si, it can be used as an antireflection film in this system. However, since these are never so-called low refractive materials, the antireflection effect is limited no matter how precisely the film thickness is controlled. It is effective to reduce the reflection intensity itself by coating the surface with a material having a refractive index lower than that of Si, but in the first place, the operation to prevent reflection by shifting the reflected light by half wavelength is viewed from an external observer. It is useful for reducing reflected light, but is ineffective for increasing incident light that can be used for power generation. The light confinement effect due to the texture structure can also improve the power generation efficiency to some extent, but even if you try to confine incident light with internal reflection due to the pyramid structure, the loss is actually large, so the amount of light that can be generated almost by several reflections Will fall below.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and an etching mask is formed of a single particle film in which the particles constituting the single particle film are two-dimensionally closely packed and arranged with high precision. A surface obtained by etching a substrate for forming a surface fine unevenness, which is intended to provide a substrate for forming a surface fine unevenness and a method for producing the same, and further has the single particle film etching mask formed thereon It is an object of the present invention to provide a solar power generation panel having a fine concavo-convex structure and a highly efficient and highly accurate sub-wavelength antireflective microstructure comprising the surface fine concavo-convex structure.

  As a result of intensive studies, the present inventors have dripped a dispersion liquid in which particles are dispersed in a solvent onto the liquid surface in the water tank, and then volatilizes the solvent, whereby the particles are densely packed in a two-dimensional close-packed manner. It was found that an etching mask composed of single particle films arranged with high precision can be formed on a substrate by transferring the single particle layer onto a substrate such as a semiconductor substrate for photovoltaic power generation. Furthermore, by etching this substrate surface through an etching mask, a highly controlled antireflection sub-wavelength fine concavo-convex structure based on optical theory as required for a semiconductor substrate for photovoltaic power generation can be formed on the substrate surface. The headline and the following invention were completed.

(1) An etching mask for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure comprising a single particle film formed by two-dimensionally packing and arranging single particles in a close-packed manner.

(2) A substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film formed by close-packing and arranging single particles two-dimensionally on the substrate surface.

(3) A substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having the etching mask according to the item (2), wherein the substrate is a substrate for photovoltaic power generation.

(4) The single particle film has a particle arrangement deviation D (%) defined by the following (Equation 1) of 10% or less, (2) or (3) A substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having an etching mask.
D (%) = | B−A | × 100 / A (Formula 1)
[In the formula, A represents the average particle size of particles, B represents the average pitch between particles in a single particle film, and | B−A | represents the absolute value of the difference between B and A. ]

(5) Any one of the items (2) to (4), wherein the single particles constituting the single particle film have an average particle size of 3 to 380 nm determined by a particle dynamic light scattering method. A substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having the etching mask according to the item.

(6) The single particles constituting the single particle film have a particle size variation coefficient (a value obtained by dividing the standard deviation by an average value) of 20% or less, preferably 10% or less, more preferably 5% or less. A substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having the etching mask according to any one of (2) to (5).

(7) Single particles constituting the single particle film are metals such as Al, Au, Ti, Pt, Ag, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Si, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , MgO 2. (2) to (2), which are single particles of at least one material selected from metal oxides such as CaO 2 , organic polymers such as polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate, semiconductor materials, and inorganic polymers. A substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having the etching mask according to any one of items 6).

(8) The height of the conical microprojections having a height of 50 nm or more, preferably 152 nm or more, which is arranged at a pitch below the wavelength of visible light by etching treatment through the single particle film. And an etching mask capable of forming on the substrate surface a conical microprojection having an aspect ratio of 0.4 or more expressed as a ratio of the diameter of the circular bottom surface of the conical microprojection (height / diameter of the circular bottom surface). A substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having the etching mask according to any one of (2) to (7).

(9) A single particle dispersion preparation step of preparing a single particle dispersion by dispersing single particles having a surface having an affinity for the dispersion medium in an easily volatile dispersion medium; And a dropping step in which a single particle dispersion liquid film is formed by dropping on a liquid surface in a liquid storage tank having a non-affinity with the dispersion medium, and the single particles are two-dimensional by volatilizing the dispersion medium in the single particle dispersion liquid film. A single particle film forming step for forming a single particle film that is closely packed and arranged, and a single particle film transfer step for transferring the single particle film to the substrate surface. A method of forming an etching mask made of a single particle film formed in a two-dimensional close packed arrangement.

(10) A single particle dispersion preparation step of preparing a single particle dispersion by dispersing single particles having a surface having an affinity for the dispersion medium in an easily volatile dispersion medium; And a dropping step in which a single particle dispersion liquid film is formed by dropping on a liquid surface in a liquid storage tank having a non-affinity with the dispersion medium, and the single particles are two-dimensional by volatilizing the dispersion medium in the single particle dispersion liquid film. A single particle film forming step for forming a single particle film that is closely packed and arranged, and a single particle film transfer step for transferring the single particle film to the substrate surface. A method for producing a substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film formed in a two-dimensional close packed arrangement.

(11) Following the single particle film transfer step, a single particle film fixing step of fixing the single particle film formed on the substrate surface in the single particle film transfer step to the substrate surface (10) The manufacturing method of the substrate for surface fine concavo-convex structure formation which has the etching mask which consists of a single-particle film | membrane as described in (8).

(12) The easily volatile dispersion medium is a hydrophobic organic solvent, the non-affinity liquid with the dispersion medium is a hydrophilic liquid, and the single particles have a hydrophobic surface. (10) The manufacturing method of the substrate for surface uneven structure formation which has the etching mask which consists of a single particle film as described in the item (11) characterized by the above-mentioned.

(13) The single particle according to item (10) or (11), wherein the easily volatile dispersion medium is a hydrophilic solvent, and the liquid having no affinity for the dispersion medium is a hydrophobic liquid. A method for producing a substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having an etching mask comprising a film.

(14) The single-particle film transfer step compresses the single-particle film formed on the liquid surface in the liquid storage tank in the single-particle film formation step in the liquid surface direction by a movable barrier to form a closest packed single-particle film The substrate is immersed in the liquid storage tank in advance and is transferred to the substrate surface while being pulled vertically from the liquid so that the substrate surface is perpendicular to the liquid surface. The manufacturing method of the substrate for surface fine concavo-convex structure formation which has an etching mask which consists of a single particle film of any one of (10) term-(13) term.

(15) The substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having the etching mask comprising the single particle film according to any one of (2) to (8) or the above (10) to (14) A fine concavo-convex structure formed by etching the surface of a substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure body having an etching mask made of a single particle film manufactured according to the manufacturing method according to any one of the above through the etching mask. A surface fine concavo-convex structure characterized by having.

(16) The fine concavo-convex structure in the surface fine concavo-convex structure is characterized in that an alignment shift D ′ (%) defined by the following (Equation 2) is 10% or less. Surface fine uneven structure.
D ′ [%] = | C−A | × 100 / A (Formula 2)
[In the formula, A is the average particle diameter of the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask used, C is the average pitch of the structural arrangement in the fine relief structure, and | C−A | is the difference between C and A Indicates an absolute value. ]

(17) The fine concavo-convex structure in the surface fine concavo-convex structure is arranged at a pitch of not more than the wavelength of visible light, and the height of the conical fine protrusions having a height of 50 nm or more, preferably 152 nm or more and the conical fine structure. Item (15) or (16), characterized in that the aspect ratio expressed as a ratio of the diameter of the circular bottom surface of the protrusion (height / diameter of the circular bottom surface) is a conical fine protrusion having an aspect ratio of 0.4 or more. The surface fine uneven structure according to item).

(18) The substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having the etching mask comprising the single particle film according to any one of (2) to (8) or the above (10) to (14) The surface having the etching mask in one type selected from the substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film manufactured according to the manufacturing method described in any one of the items 1 A method for producing a surface fine concavo-convex structure, wherein a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an alignment deviation D ′ (%) defined by (Formula 2) of 10% or less is formed.
D ′ [%] = | C−A | × 100 / A (Formula 2)
[In the formula, A is the average particle diameter of the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask used, C is the average pitch of the structural arrangement in the fine relief structure, and | C−A | is the difference between C and A Indicates an absolute value. ]

(19) The fine concavo-convex structure of the surface fine concavo-convex structure is arranged at a pitch equal to or less than the wavelength of visible light, and the height of the conical fine protrusion having a height of 50 nm or more, preferably 152 nm or more, and the conical fine structure. The aspect ratio expressed as the ratio of the diameter of the circular bottom surface of the protrusion (height / diameter of the circular bottom surface) is 0.4 or more, preferably 1 or more, more preferably 2 or more. (18) The method for producing a fine surface relief structure according to item (18).

(20) The surface fine concavo-convex structure according to any one of (15) to (17) and the production method according to any one of (18) and (19). A photovoltaic power generation panel having a surface fine concavo-convex structure selected from among the surface fine concavo-convex structures as at least a part of the sub-wavelength antireflection microstructure.

  According to the present invention, a single-particle film etching mask in which each particle constituting a single-particle film is two-dimensionally closely packed and arranged with high precision forms a surface fine concavo-convex structure such as a substrate for photovoltaic power generation. High-efficiency and high-precision sub-wavelength antireflection microstructure suitable for a photovoltaic power generation panel can be manufactured by etching the surface on which the single particle film etching mask is formed. It is possible.

Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail.
[Single particle film etching mask]
The single particle film etching mask formed on the substrate according to the present invention is an etching mask composed of a single particle film in which a large number of single particles P are two-dimensionally closely packed, as shown in FIG. The deviation D (%) of the particle arrangement defined by the following (formula 1) is 10% or less.
D [%] = | B−A | × 100 / A (Formula 1)
Here, A in (Formula 1) is the average particle diameter of the particles P constituting the single particle film, and B is the average pitch between particles in the single particle film. | B−A | indicates the absolute value of the difference between A and B.

  The average particle size A of the particles is the average primary particle size of the particles constituting the single particle film, and is a peak obtained by fitting the particle size distribution obtained by the particle dynamic light scattering method to a Gaussian curve. Can be determined by a conventional method.

On the other hand, the pitch between particles is the distance between the vertices of two adjacent particles, and the average pitch B is an average of these. If the particles are spherical, the distance between the vertices of adjacent particles is equal to the distance between the centers of the adjacent particles.
Specifically, the average pitch B between particles in the single particle film etching mask is obtained as follows.

First, an atomic force microscope image or a scanning electron microscope image is obtained for a randomly selected region in a single particle film etching mask and a square region with a side having a fine structure of 30 to 40 wavelengths. For example, in the case of a single particle film using particles having a particle size of 300 nm, an image of a region of 9 μm × 9 μm to 12 μm × 12 μm is obtained. Then, this image is waveform-separated by Fourier transform to obtain an FFT image (fast Fourier transform image). Next, the distance from the zero-order peak to the primary peak in the profile of the FFT image is obtained. Thus reciprocal of the distance obtained is the average pitch B 1 in this region. Such processing is similarly performed on a total of 25 or more regions having the same area selected at random, and average pitches B 1 to B 25 in each region are obtained. The average value of the average pitches B 1 to B 25 in the 25 or more regions thus obtained is the average pitch B in the formula (1). In this case, the regions are preferably selected at least 1 mm apart, more preferably 5 mm to 1 cm apart.
At this time, the variation in pitch between particles in each image can be evaluated from the area of the primary peak in the profile of the FFT image.

In the single particle film etching mask in which the deviation D of the particle arrangement is 10% or less, each particle is two-dimensionally closely packed and the interval between the particles is controlled, and the arrangement accuracy is high. Therefore, by using such a single particle film etching mask and forming conical fine protrusions at positions corresponding to the respective particles on the substrate, a highly accurate fine uneven pattern can be obtained. Since such two-dimensional close-packing is based on the principle of self-organization described later, it includes some lattice defects. However, since such grating defects in two-dimensional close-packing create a variety of filling orientations, especially in the case of antireflection applications, the reflection characteristics such as diffraction gratings are reduced to provide a uniform antireflection effect. Help give.
A surface having a fine structure in which a fine concavo-convex pattern consisting of conical fine protrusions is formed on the surface has a very high performance when the pitch, aspect ratio, shape, etc. of the structure satisfy the conditions (for optical reasons) described later. It becomes an antireflection surface.

  When an antireflection body is produced by forming a fine uneven pattern on a photovoltaic power generation substrate, the average particle diameter A determined by the particle dynamic light scattering method is 3 to 380 nm as particles constituting the single particle film etching mask. Use things. Since the average particle diameter A of the particles and the diameter of each circular bottom surface of the conical microprotrusions formed are almost the same value, by using particles having an average particle diameter A of 380 nm or less smaller than the lower limit wavelength of visible light The diameter of the circular bottom surface of the conical fine protrusion to be formed is 380 nm or less, so that optical scattering in the visible light region can be suppressed, and a fine uneven pattern suitable for antireflection use can be formed. In addition, by using a particle having an average particle diameter (A) of 3 nm or more, a sufficient distance can be secured in a space where the refractive index is inclined through which incident light passes, and a quenching effect by a so-called sub-wavelength grating can be obtained satisfactorily. Can do.

  The particles constituting the single particle film etching mask preferably have a particle size variation coefficient (standard deviation divided by average value) of 20% or less, more preferably 10% or less. % Or less is more preferable. If particles having a small variation coefficient of particle size, that is, particles having a small particle size variation are used in this way, in the manufacturing process of a single particle film etching mask, which will be described later, it becomes difficult to generate a defect portion where particles are not present, and an alignment shift D It is easy to obtain a single particle film etching mask having a thickness of 10% or less. From the single particle film etching mask having no defect portion, an antireflection film which gives a uniform refractive index gradient effect to incident light is easily obtained, which is preferable.

The material of the particle is not particularly limited as long as it is spherical. Among them, preferably, metals such as Al, Au, Ti, Pt, Ag, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, Si, metal oxides such as SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , MgO 2 , CaO 2 , In addition to organic polymers such as polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate, semiconductor materials and inorganic polymers can be used.

[Method of forming single particle film etching mask]
Such a single particle film etching mask is disposed on at least one surface of a photovoltaic power generation substrate which is an object to be etched, and is based on a method utilizing a so-called LB method (Langmuir-Blodget method). It can be formed on a substrate. Specifically, a dropping step of dropping a dispersion in which particles are dispersed in a solvent onto the liquid surface in the water tank, a single particle film forming step of forming a single particle film made of particles by volatilizing the solvent, It can manufacture by the method which has a transfer process which transfers a particle film on a photovoltaic power generation substrate.
A preferred method for producing a single particle film etching mask will be specifically described below with an example.

(Single particle dispersion preparation step, dropping step and single particle film forming step)
First, a dispersion liquid is prepared by adding particles having hydrophobic surfaces to a hydrophobic organic solvent composed of one or more kinds of highly volatile solvents such as chloroform, methanol, ethanol, and methyl ethyl ketone (single particle dispersion). Liquid preparation step).
On the other hand, a water tank (trough) is prepared, and water is added thereto as a liquid for developing particles on the liquid surface (hereinafter sometimes referred to as lower layer water).
And a dispersion liquid is dripped at the liquid level of lower layer water. Then, the solvent as the dispersion medium is volatilized, and the particles are developed as a single layer on the liquid surface of the lower layer water, so that a two-dimensional close-packed single particle film can be formed (dropping step and single particle). Film formation step).

  Thus, when a hydrophobic particle is selected as the particle, it is necessary to select a hydrophobic particle as the solvent. On the other hand, in that case, the lower layer water needs to be hydrophilic, and water is usually used as described above. By combining in this way, as will be described later, self-organization of particles proceeds and a two-dimensional close packed single particle film is formed. However, hydrophilic particles or solvents may be selected, and in that case, a hydrophobic liquid is selected as the lower layer water.

  The particle concentration of the dispersion dropped into the lower layer water is preferably 1 to 10% by mass. Further, the dropping rate is preferably 0.001 to 0.01 ml / second. If the concentration of the particles in the dispersion and the amount of dripping are in such a range, the particles are partially agglomerated in a cluster to form two or more layers, defective portions where no particles are present, and the pitch between particles is A tendency of spreading and the like is suppressed, and a single particle film in which each particle is two-dimensionally closely packed with high accuracy is more easily obtained.

  As the particles having hydrophobic surfaces, among the previously exemplified particles, particles made of organic polymers such as polystyrene and having a hydrophobic surface may be used. It may be used after making it hydrophobic with an agent. As the hydrophobizing agent, for example, a surfactant, a metal alkoxysilane, or the like can be used.

The method of using a surfactant as a hydrophobizing agent is effective for hydrophobizing a wide range of materials, and is suitable when the particles are made of metal, metal oxide, or the like.
As the surfactant, cationic surfactants such as brominated hexadecyltrimethylammonium and brominated decyltrimethylammonium, and anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium 4-octylbenzenesulfonate can be suitably used. Moreover, alkanethiol, a disulfide compound, tetradecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, etc. can also be used.

Such a hydrophobizing treatment using a surfactant may be performed in a liquid by dispersing particles in a liquid such as an organic solvent or water, or may be performed on particles in a dry state.
When performed in a liquid, for example, in a volatile organic solvent composed of one or more of chloroform, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl ethyl ketone, toluene, hexane, cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and the like. Then, the particles to be hydrophobized may be added and dispersed, and then the surfactant may be mixed and further dispersed. If the particles are dispersed in advance in this way and then a surfactant is added, the surface can be more uniformly hydrophobized. Such a hydrophobized dispersion can be used as it is as a dispersion for dripping onto the surface of the lower layer water in the dropping step.

  If the particles to be hydrophobized are in the form of an aqueous dispersion, a surfactant is added to the aqueous dispersion, the surface of the particles is hydrophobized with an aqueous phase, and then an organic solvent is added to make the hydrophobized treatment. An oil phase extraction method is also effective. The dispersion thus obtained (a dispersion in which particles are dispersed in an organic solvent) can be used as it is as a dispersion for dropping onto the liquid surface of the lower layer water in the dropping step. In order to improve the particle dispersibility of this dispersion, it is preferable to appropriately select and combine the type of organic solvent and the type of surfactant. By using a dispersion having a high particle dispersibility, the particles can be prevented from agglomerating in clusters, and a single particle film in which each particle is two-dimensionally closely packed with high accuracy can be obtained more easily. For example, when chloroform is selected as the organic solvent, it is preferable to use brominated decyltrimethylammonium as the surfactant. In addition, a combination of ethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, a combination of methanol and sodium 4-octylbenzenesulfonate, a combination of methyl ethyl ketone and octadecanoic acid, and the like can be preferably exemplified.

The ratio of the particles to be hydrophobized and the surfactant is preferably such that the mass of the surfactant is 1/3 to 1/15 times the mass of the particles to be hydrophobized.
In addition, in such a hydrophobizing treatment, it is effective in terms of improving particle dispersibility to stir the dispersion during the treatment or to irradiate the dispersion with ultrasonic waves.

The method of using alkoxysilane as a hydrophobizing agent is effective when hydrophobizing particles such as Si, Fe, and Al, and oxide particles such as AlO 2 , SiO 2 , and TiO 2 , but is not limited to these particles. Basically, it can be applied to particles having a hydroxyl group on the surface.

  Alkoxysilanes include monomethyltrimethoxysilane, monomethyltriethoxysilane, dimethyldiethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane, hexyltrimethoxysilane, decyltrimethoxysilane, vinyltrichlorosilane, vinyltrimethoxysilane, vinyltriethoxysilane, 2 -(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl) ethyltrimethoxysilane, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-glycidoxypropylmethyldiethoxysilane, 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane, p-styryltrimethoxysilane 3-methacryloxypropylmethyldimethoxysilane, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-methacryloxypropylmethyldiethoxysilane, 3methacryloxypro Rutriethoxysilane, 3-acryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, N-2 (aminoethyl) 3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane, N-2 (aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, N-2 (aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, N-phenyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, 3-ureidopropyltriethoxysilane, 3-chloropropyltrimethoxy Examples thereof include silane, 3-mercaptopropylmethyldimethoxysilane, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane.

  When alkoxysilane is used as the hydrophobizing agent, the alkoxysilyl group in the alkoxysilane is hydrolyzed to a silanol group, and the silanol group is dehydrated and condensed to the hydroxyl group on the particle surface to effect hydrophobicity. Therefore, the hydrophobization using alkoxysilane is preferably performed in water. Thus, when hydrophobizing in water, it is preferable to stabilize the dispersion state of the particles before hydrophobization by using a dispersant such as a surfactant, for example. Since the hydrophobizing effect of the alkoxysilane may be reduced, the combination of the dispersant and the alkoxysilane is appropriately selected.

  As a specific method of hydrophobizing with alkoxysilane, first, particles are dispersed in water, and this is mixed with an alkoxysilane-containing aqueous solution (an aqueous solution containing a hydrolyzate of alkoxysilane). The reaction is carried out for a predetermined time, preferably 6 to 12 hours, with appropriate stirring in the range. By carrying out the reaction under such conditions, the reaction proceeds moderately and a dispersion of sufficiently hydrophobized particles can be obtained. When the reaction proceeds excessively, the silanol groups react with each other to bond the particles, the particle dispersibility of the dispersion decreases, and the resulting single particle film has particles partially agglomerated in clusters 2 It tends to be more than a layer. On the other hand, when the reaction is insufficient, the surface of the particles is not sufficiently hydrophobized, and the resulting single particle film tends to have a wide pitch between the particles.

In addition, since alkoxysilanes other than amines are hydrolyzed under acidic or alkaline conditions, it is necessary to adjust the pH of the dispersion to acidic or alkaline during the reaction. Although there is no restriction | limiting in the adjustment method of pH, Since the effect of silanol group stabilization is acquired besides the acceleration | stimulation of hydrolysis according to the method of adding 0.1-2.0 mass% concentration acetic acid aqueous solution, it is preferable. .
The ratio of the particles to be hydrophobized and the alkoxysilane is preferably in the range where the mass of the alkoxysilane is 1/10 to 1/100 times the mass of the particles to be hydrophobized.

  After the reaction for a predetermined time, one or more of the above-mentioned volatile organic solvents are added to the dispersion, and the particles hydrophobized in water are subjected to oil phase extraction. At this time, the volume of the organic solvent to be added is preferably in the range of 0.3 to 3 times the dispersion before addition of the organic solvent. The dispersion thus obtained (a dispersion in which particles are dispersed in an organic solvent) can be used as it is as a dispersion for dropping onto the liquid surface of the lower layer water in the dropping step. In such a hydrophobizing treatment, it is preferable to carry out stirring, ultrasonic irradiation, etc. in order to improve the particle dispersibility of the dispersion during the treatment. By increasing the particle dispersibility of the dispersion, it is possible to suppress the aggregation of particles in a cluster shape, and it becomes easier to obtain a single particle film in which each particle is two-dimensionally closely packed with high accuracy.

  In order to further improve the accuracy of the formed single particle film, the dispersion before dropping onto the liquid surface is microfiltered with a membrane filter or the like, and aggregated particles (from a plurality of primary particles) present in the dispersion are used. Secondary particles) are preferably removed. If the microfiltration is performed in advance as described above, it is difficult to generate a portion where two or more layers are formed or a defective portion where particles are not present, and it is easy to obtain a single particle film with high accuracy. Assuming that a defect portion having a size of several to several tens of μm exists in the formed single particle film, a surface pressure sensor that measures the surface pressure of the single particle film in a transition step described later in detail, Even if an LB trough device having a movable barrier that compresses the single particle film in the liquid surface direction is used, such a defective portion is not detected as a difference in surface pressure, and a highly accurate single particle film etching mask is obtained. Things get harder.

  Furthermore, such a single particle film forming step is preferably performed under ultrasonic irradiation conditions. When the single particle film formation process is performed while irradiating ultrasonic waves from the lower layer water to the water surface, the close packing of particles is promoted, and a single particle film in which each particle is two-dimensionally close packed with high accuracy is obtained. It is done. At this time, the ultrasonic output is preferably 1 to 1200 W, and more preferably 50 to 600 W. Moreover, although there is no restriction | limiting in particular in the frequency of an ultrasonic wave, For example, 28 kHz-5 MHz are preferable, More preferably, they are 700 kHz-2 MHz. In general, when the vibration frequency is too high, energy absorption of water molecules starts and a phenomenon in which water vapor or water droplets rise from the surface of the water occurs, which is not preferable for the LB method of the present invention. In general, when the frequency is too low, the cavitation radius in the lower layer water is increased, bubbles are generated in the water, and rise toward the water surface. When such bubbles accumulate under the single particle film, the flatness of the water surface is lost, which is inconvenient for the implementation of the present invention. In addition, standing waves are generated on the water surface by ultrasonic irradiation. If the output is too high at any frequency, or if the wave height of the water surface becomes too high due to the tuning conditions of the ultrasonic transducer and transmitter, the single particle film will be destroyed by the water surface wave, so care must be taken.

If the frequency of the ultrasonic wave is appropriately set in consideration of the above, close-packing of particles can be effectively promoted without destroying the single particle film being formed. In order to perform effective ultrasonic irradiation, the natural frequency calculated from the particle size of the particles should be used as a guide. However, for example, when the particle diameter is small, such as 100 nm or less, the natural frequency becomes very high, and it is difficult to apply ultrasonic vibration as calculated. In such a case, the calculation is performed assuming that the natural vibration corresponding to the mass of the particle dimer, trimer,... Can be reduced. Even when ultrasonic vibration corresponding to the natural frequency of the aggregate of particles is applied, the effect of improving the particle filling rate is exhibited. The ultrasonic irradiation time may be sufficient to complete the rearrangement of particles, and the required time varies depending on the particle size, ultrasonic frequency, water temperature, and the like. However, it is preferably 10 seconds to 60 minutes under normal production conditions, and more preferably 3 minutes to 30 minutes.
Advantages obtained by ultrasonic irradiation include the effect of destroying the soft agglomerates of particles that tend to occur when preparing a nanoparticle dispersion, in addition to the closest packing of particles (to make the random array 6-way closest) This also has the effect of repairing some of the point defects, line defects, crystal transitions, and the like.

The formation of the single particle film described above is due to self-organization of particles. The principle is that when the particles are aggregated, surface tension acts due to the dispersion medium existing between the particles. As a result, the particles do not exist at random, but a two-dimensional close packed structure is automatically used. It is to form. In other words, the close-packing by surface tension can be said to be arrangement by lateral capillary force.
In particular, when three particles, such as colloidal silica, which are spherical and have a highly uniform particle size, come together and come into contact with each other in a floating state on the water surface, the surface of the particle group is minimized so as to minimize the total length of the waterline. Tension acts, and as shown in FIG. 1, the three particles P are stabilized in an arrangement in which gaps (minimum constituent units indicating the positional relationship of particles) based on equilateral triangles indicated by T are formed.

If the water line is at the top of the particle group, that is, if the particles P are submerged below the liquid surface, such self-organization does not occur and a single particle film is not formed. Therefore, when one of the particles and the lower layer water is hydrophobic, it is important to make the other hydrophilic so that the particles do not dive under the liquid surface.
As the lower layer water, it is preferable to use water as described above. When water is used, relatively large surface free energy acts, and the close-packed arrangement of particles once generated is stable on the liquid surface. It becomes easy to sustain.

(Single particle film transfer process)
Then, the single particle film formed on the liquid surface by the single particle film forming step is transferred to a substrate that is an object to be etched, for example, a photovoltaic power generation substrate in a single layer state (single particle film transfer step). The single particle film of the present invention follows the shape of the uneven substrate surface while maintaining a two-dimensional close-packed state even if the substrate is not flat, and deforms the surface shape to completely cover it. It is possible. When following the concavo-convex shape, it is considered that a slip phenomenon occurs on the grain crystal plane in the single particle film, and the shape is freely deformed from two dimensions to three dimensions. Because of these features, the substrate on which the antireflection microstructure is created need not necessarily be flat.

The specific method for transferring the single particle film to the substrate surface is not particularly limited. For example, the single particle film is lowered from above while keeping the hydrophobic substrate or the like substantially parallel to the single particle film. A method in which the single particle film is transferred to the substrate by the affinity between the single particle film and the substrate, both of which are hydrophobic, and transferred to the substrate; There is a method of transferring the single particle film onto the substrate by arranging the film in the horizontal direction and gradually lowering the liquid surface after forming the single particle film on the liquid surface. According to these methods, the single particle film can be transferred onto the substrate without using a special apparatus. However, even in the case of a single particle film having a larger area, the secondary close packed state It is preferable to adopt the so-called LB trough method in that it can be easily transferred onto a substrate while maintaining the above [Journal of Materials and Chemistry, Vol. 11, 3333 (2001), Journal.
of Materials and Chemistry, Vol. 12, 3268 (2002). ].

  FIG. 2 schematically shows an outline of the LB trough method. In this method, the substrate 11 is preliminarily immersed in the lower layer water 12 in the water tank, and the above-described dropping step and single particle film forming step are performed in this state to form the single particle film F [FIG. 2 (a)]. Then, after the step of forming the single particle film, the single particle film F can be transferred onto the substrate 11 by pulling the substrate 11 upward [(FIG. 2 (b)]. Since it is already formed in a single layer state on the liquid surface by the particle film forming process, even if the temperature condition of the transition process (temperature of the lower layer water), the pulling speed of the substrate 11 or the like slightly varies, There is no fear that the single particle film F will collapse and become multi-layered, etc. The temperature of the lower layer water is usually about 10 to 30 ° C. depending on the environmental temperature which varies depending on the season and weather.

At this time, as a water tank, a surface pressure sensor based on a Wilhelmy plate (not shown) for measuring the surface pressure of the single particle film F and a single particle film F are compressed in a direction along the liquid surface. When the LB trough apparatus having the movable barrier is used, the single particle film F having a larger area can be transferred onto the substrate 11 more stably. According to such an apparatus, the single particle film F can be compressed to a preferable diffusion pressure (density) while measuring the surface pressure of the single particle film F, and is moved toward the substrate 11 at a constant speed. be able to. Therefore, the transition from the liquid level of the single particle film F to the substrate 11 proceeds smoothly, and troubles such as the transfer of only the single particle film F having a small area onto the photovoltaic power generation substrate hardly occur. A preferable diffusion pressure is 5 to 80 mNm −1 , more preferably 10 to 40 mNm −1 . With such a diffusion pressure, it is easy to obtain a single particle film F in which each particle is two-dimensionally closely packed with higher accuracy. The speed at which the substrate 11 is pulled up is preferably 0.5 to 20 mm / min. In addition, although LB trough apparatus can be obtained as a commercial item, when it is desired to construct a substrate such as a large-area photovoltaic power generation substrate in a lump, it is necessary to make it by hand or by custom order.

In the case of a photovoltaic power generation substrate, the material can be appropriately selected depending on the power generation method, for example, semiconductors such as single crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, metals such as aluminum, iron, copper, Examples thereof include metal oxides such as glass, quartz glass, mica and sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ), and polymer materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate, and triacetyl cellulose. Further, if necessary, the surface of the substrate may be coated with another material or chemically altered.

[Single particle film immobilization process]
Although the single particle film etching mask can be formed on the photovoltaic power generation substrate by the transition process as described above, after the transition process, the formed single particle film etching mask is fixed on the photovoltaic power generation substrate. A single particle film fixing step may be performed. By fixing the single particle film on the photovoltaic power generation substrate, it is possible to suppress the possibility of particles moving on the photovoltaic power generation substrate during the etching process described later, and to etch more stably and with high accuracy. . In particular, such a possibility increases when the final stage of the etching process in which the diameter of each particle gradually decreases.

As a method for the immobilization process, there are a method using a binder and a sintering method.
In the method using a binder, a binder solution is supplied to the single particle film side of the photovoltaic power generation substrate on which the single particle film etching mask is formed and penetrates between the single particle film etching mask and the photovoltaic power generation substrate. Let
The amount of the binder used is preferably 0.001 to 0.02 times the mass of the single particle film etching mask. In such a range, the particles can be sufficiently fixed without causing the problem that the binder is too much and the binder is clogged between the particles, and the accuracy of the single particle film etching mask is adversely affected. If a large amount of the binder solution has been supplied, after the binder solution has permeated, the excess of the binder solution may be removed by using a spin coater or tilting the photovoltaic power generation substrate.
As the binder, an alkoxysilane, a general organic binder, an inorganic binder, or the like exemplified above as the hydrophobizing agent can be used. After the binder solution has permeated, heat treatment may be appropriately performed according to the type of the binder. When using alkoxysilane as a binder, it is preferable to heat-process on 40-80 degreeC on the conditions for 3 to 60 minutes.

  When the sintering method is adopted, the photovoltaic power generation substrate on which the single particle film etching mask is formed can be heated to fuse each particle constituting the single particle film etching mask to the photovoltaic power generation substrate. That's fine. The heating temperature may be determined according to the material of the particle and the material of the photovoltaic power generation substrate, but particles having a particle size of 1 μmφ or less start an interfacial reaction at a temperature lower than the original melting point of the material, so that the temperature is relatively low. Sintering is complete on the side. If the heating temperature is too high, the fusion area of the particles increases, and as a result, the shape as a single particle film etching mask may change, which may affect the accuracy. Moreover, since it may oxidize a board | substrate and each particle | grain when heating is performed in air, it is preferable to carry out in inert gas atmosphere. When sintering is performed in an atmosphere containing oxygen, it is necessary to set conditions in consideration of an oxide layer in an etching process described later.

  Thus, the method for producing a single particle film etching mask includes a dropping step of dropping a dispersion liquid in which particles are dispersed in a solvent onto a liquid surface in a water tank, and a single particle film made of particles by volatilizing the solvent. Since it has a single particle film forming step to be formed, a transfer step for transferring the formed single particle film onto the photovoltaic power generation substrate and a single particle film fixing step as necessary, the accuracy of single layer formation, Combined with ease of operation, compatibility with large areas, reproducibility, etc., for example, Non-Patent Document <Nature, Vol. 361, 7 January, 26 (1993)] and the like, and is superior to the so-called particle adsorption method described in the patent literature (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 58-120255) and the like. It can correspond to the production level.

[Fine relief structure and its formation method]
Thus, by subjecting the substrate provided with the single particle film etching mask on one side to vapor phase etching and surface processing (etching process), a large number of conical fine protrusions can be formed on one side of the substrate. Specifically, when the vapor phase etching is started, first, as shown in FIG. 3A, the etching gas passes through the gaps between the particles P constituting the single particle film F and reaches the surface of the substrate 11. A groove is formed in the portion, and a cylinder 11 'appears at a position corresponding to each particle P. When the gas phase etching is continued, the particles P on each cylinder 11 ′ are gradually etched to become smaller, and at the same time, the groove of the substrate 11 becomes deeper (FIG. 3B). Finally, each particle P disappears by etching, and at the same time, many conical fine protrusions are formed on one surface of the substrate 11 (FIG. 3C).

  The concept of optical design is based on the following optical theory. That is, when a large number of fine irregularities having an inclined structure in the cross section are formed on the surface, the pitch is not more than the wavelength of visible light (about 380 nm or less), the depth is at least 50 nm or more, preferably 152 nm or more, more preferably 380 nm or more. Further, more preferably 760 nm or more is equivalent to the existence of innumerable layers whose refractive index continuously changes in the depth direction, and Fresnel reflection does not occur. The reflection of light is mainly caused by a sudden change in the refractive index of the incident surface. Therefore, if there is a structure in which the refractive index continuously and smoothly changes at the boundary where light enters, the incident light will eventually not be reflected. By making the concavo-convex structure a size equal to or smaller than the wavelength of visible light, almost no scattering of incident light occurs.

Non-patent literature [Optica Acta, Vol. 29, no. 7, 993 (1982)], non-patent literature [Applied Optics Vol. 26,
No. 6, 1142 (1987)], non-patent literature [Journal of Optical Society of America A, Vol. 12, no. 2, 333 (1995)], non-patent literature [Applied Optics, Vol. 36, 1556 (1997)], etc., introduce the principle of subwavelength gratings as follows.

(Formula 3)

(Formula 4)

(Formula 5)

(Formula 6)

(Formula 7)

In each equation, T j is the transition matrix of transmitted light, λ is the wavelength of transmitted light, n j is the refractive index, d j is the layer thickness, and δ j is the phase change as light travels through the medium. The phase film thickness, φ j is the incident angle, and R is the intensity reflectance. When considering an N-layer multilayer optical body, the corresponding transition matrix is obtained by (Equation 6), and the intensity reflectance R is obtained by (Equation 7).

  When a protrusion having a shape that gradually narrows toward the tip, an apparent refractive index is continuously changed from the refractive index of the base material to the refractive index of air from the bottom of the protrusion toward the tip. can get. When light propagates through a space where the refractive index continuously changes in this way, there is no sudden change in the refractive index while reaching the substrate from the incident medium (in this case, air), so the Fresnel reflection is almost zero. can do. When such a protrusion structure is formed on the surface, a case where the cross section of the structure is a cone shape or a sine wave is conceivable. In either case, (Equation 3) to (Equation 7) can be calculated by dividing the refractive index gradient structure in the horizontal direction. The refractive index per layer of the finely divided structure can be obtained as follows.

(Formula 8)

(Formula 9)

Where n parallel is parallel to the structure, n perpenicular is the effective refractive index of incident light perpendicular to the structure, q is the ratio of the width and period of the structure, n 1 is the refractive index of the incident medium, and n 2 is The refractive index of the substrate.

  When calculated based on the above optical theory, assuming that the bottom diameter of the protrusion is 300 nm and the cross section is an isosceles triangle, the relationship between the aspect ratio and the reflectance as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 is obtained. That is, as the aspect ratio increases, the effect of reducing the reflectance tends to increase. In this example, when a structure having an aspect ratio of 1 or more is created, the theoretical value of the reflectance is 0.2% or less for the entire wavelength range of visible light. It becomes. In particular, when a structure having an aspect ratio of 2 or more is created, the reflectance is theoretically 0.1% or less.

  It can be said that the excellent reflectance reduction effect by the sub-wavelength grating is the one that increases the effect of reducing the intensity reflectance with a material having a low refractive index which is one of the principles of the AR film. In an actual AR film, in order to improve the wavelength dependency of reflectance, the AR layer is devised such as a multilayer, but the reflectance curve does not become flat. However, since the sub-wavelength grating has a wide band and a high antireflection effect, a substantially flat reflectance curve can be obtained. Therefore, the sub-wavelength grating exhibits optical characteristics far exceeding that of a normal AR film in both minimum reflectance and wavelength dependency.

  The purpose of this patent is to reduce Fresnel reflection on the photovoltaic substrate surface, but its performance is determined by the shape of the conical microprojections. That is, (1) the pitch of the conical microprojection structure is less than or equal to the wavelength of visible light, and (2) the inclined surface (bus line) of the conical microprojection structure is linear in order to create a surface with a gradually changing refractive index. (3) The aspect ratio may be 0.4 or more in order to achieve even a little antireflection performance, but it is necessary to set it to 1 or more, preferably 2 or more if high-level antireflection is required. .

  Hereinafter, the points to be noted when creating a structure by etching will be described in order. From the viewpoint of suppressing optical scattering and sufficiently exhibiting the antireflection effect, it is preferable to form the diameter of the circular bottom surface of each conical microprotrusion to 3 to 380 nm, and for that purpose, as described above, As the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask, those having an average particle diameter A of 3 to 380 nm may be used. The height of each conical fine protrusion is at least 50 nm or more, preferably 152 nm or more, more preferably 380 nm or more, and further preferably 760 nm or more. As described above, when the height of the fine protrusion is set to 0.4 times or more of the target wavelength, an excellent antireflection effect can be obtained, so that it is 0.4 times the wavelength lower limit of 380 nm of visible light. It preferably has a height of 152 nm or more. The aspect ratio represented by the ratio of the height of the conical microprojections to the diameter of the circular bottom surface (height / diameter of the circular bottom surface) is at least 0.4 or more, preferably 1 or more, more preferably 2 or more. With such a height and aspect ratio, a sufficient refractive index gradient effect is obtained at the portion where the conical microprojections are formed, and effective Fresnel reflection of incident light entering from the conical microprojections side is effective. Can be suppressed. Since a fine structure is directly formed on a photovoltaic power generation substrate and used as it is for an antireflective body, there is no particular upper limit for the preferred aspect ratio, but a very large aspect ratio is not desirable for handling. Accordingly, the upper limit of the aspect ratio 10 may be set.

Examples of the etching gas used for the vapor phase etching include Ar, SF 6 , F 2 , CF 4 , C 4 F 8 , C 5 F 8 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 6 , C 4 F 6 , and CHF. 3 , CH 2 F 2 , CH 3 F, C 3 F 8 , Cl 2 , CCl 4 , SiCl 4 , BCl 2 , BCl 3 , BC 2 , Br 2 , Br 3 , HBr, CBrF 3 , HCl, CH 4 , NH 3 , O 2 , H 2 , N 2 , CO, CO 2 and the like can be mentioned, but the invention is not limited to these in order to carry out the gist of the present invention. One or more of these can be used depending on the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask, the material of the substrate, and the like.

  The vapor phase etching is performed by anisotropic etching in which the etching rate in the vertical direction is larger than the horizontal direction of the substrate. As an etching apparatus that can be used, a reactive ion etching apparatus, an ion beam etching apparatus, or the like that can perform anisotropic etching and can generate a bias electric field of about 20 W at the minimum can generate plasma. There are no particular restrictions on specifications such as system, electrode structure, chamber structure, and frequency of the high-frequency power source.

  In order to perform anisotropic etching, the etching rate of the single particle film etching mask and the substrate must be different, and the etching selectivity (etching rate of the substrate / etching rate of the single particle film etching) is preferably 1 or more. Etching conditions (particle material constituting the single particle film etching mask, substrate material, etching gas type, bias power, antenna power, gas flow rate, etc. are preferably 2 or more, more preferably 3 or more. It is preferable to set pressure, etching time, and the like.

For example, when gold particles are selected as the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask, a glass substrate is selected as the substrate, and these are combined, the etching gas is reactive with glass such as CF 4 or CHF 3. When used, the etching rate of the gold particles is relatively slow, and the glass substrate is selectively etched.
When colloidal silica particles are selected as the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask, and a Si substrate is selected as the substrate and these are combined, the substrate is relatively selective by using a gas such as SF 6 as the etching gas. Can be etched.
When the electric field bias is set to several tens to several hundreds W, the positively charged particles in the etching gas in the plasma state are accelerated and incident on the substrate at a high speed almost vertically. Therefore, when a gas having reactivity with the substrate is used, the reaction rate of the physicochemical etching in the vertical direction can be increased.

  Depending on the combination of the material of the substrate and the type of etching gas, isotropic etching by radicals generated by plasma also occurs in parallel in gas phase etching. Etching with radicals is chemical etching, and isotropically etches in any direction of the object to be etched. Since radicals have no electric charge, the etching rate cannot be controlled by setting the bias power, and the operation can be performed with the concentration (flow rate) of the etching gas in the chamber. In order to carry out anisotropic etching with charged particles, a certain level of gas pressure must be maintained, so as long as a reactive gas is used, the influence of radicals cannot be made zero. However, a method of slowing the reaction rate of radicals by cooling the substrate is widely used, and since there are many devices equipped with the mechanism, it is preferable to use them.

  Moreover, the shape of the protrusion formed needs to be conical. However, in the actual etching process, as shown in FIG. 3, the side surface (side wall) of the cone is etched in the process of changing the shape of the protrusion from the columnar shape to the conical shape. The conical microprotrusion has a large side wall inclination, and the longitudinal cross-sectional shape of the groove between adjacent cones may be U-shaped instead of V-shaped. If it becomes such a shape, sufficient refractive index gradient effect cannot be exhibited, and suppression of Fresnel reflection of incident light may be insufficient. Therefore, in this etching step, it is preferable to improve the aspect ratio while protecting the side wall formed by etching by using a so-called deposition gas, and to bring the shape of the protrusion closer to an ideal conical shape.

  In addition, depending on conditions, the tip portion of the conical protrusion formed may be rounded. If it becomes such a shape, sufficient refractive index gradient effect cannot be exhibited, and suppression of Fresnel reflection of incident light may be insufficient. Such a case is seen when the effect of the deposition gas is too strong, so that the top of the conical protrusion is made to have a sharp acute angle by adjusting as appropriate.

Deposition gas is described. That is, C 4 F 8 , C 5 F 8 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 6 , C 4 F 6 , CHF 3 , CH 2 F 2 , CH 3 F, C 3 F 8 and other CFCs It is known that the etching gas is decomposed in a plasma state and then polymerized by bonding the decomposed materials to form a deposited film made of a substance such as Teflon (registered trademark) on the surface of the object to be etched. ing. Since such a deposited film has etching resistance, it acts as an etching protective film. Further, when the substrate is a silicon substrate and the etching gas used has a high etching selectivity with respect to silicon, it is formed by etching by introducing O 2 as part of the etching gas. The formed side wall can be modified to a protective film of SiO 2 . Further, by using a mixed gas of CH 4 and H 2 as an etching gas, conditions for obtaining a hydrocarbon-based etching protective film can be set.
As described above, it is preferable to perform the etching process while forming an etching protective film by appropriately selecting the type of etching gas in that a more ideal conical fine protrusion can be formed.

When the average pitch C of the arrangement of the conical microprotrusions is obtained in the same manner as the method for obtaining the average pitch B between the particles in the single particle film etching mask described above, The pitch C is substantially the same value as the average pitch B of the used single particle film etching mask. Further, the average pitch C of the array corresponds to the average value of the diameters d of the circular bottom surfaces of the conical fine protrusions. Further, when an alignment shift D ′ (%) defined by the following (Formula 2) is obtained for this fine structure, the value is also 10% or less.
D ′ [%] = | C−A | × 100 / A (Formula 2)
In the formula, A is the average particle diameter of the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask used.

  Even if the single particle film of the present invention has non-planar elements such as irregularities, slopes, and steps on the coating surface, it is possible to sufficiently follow the shape and coat the surface. Therefore, if necessary, a single-particle film can be coated on a solar cell substrate (texture structure, etc.) having a non-planar surface using such properties, and an antireflection structure can be created by the subsequent etching process. is there.

Thus, after providing a high-level antireflection structure on the surface, a solar cell panel is completed by a normal production process. That is, for example, when a crystalline Si substrate is used as a base material, (1) pn junction formation [after depositing phosphorus oxychloride (POCl 3 ) or the like in a phosphorylation furnace and heating at about 900 ° C. for about 30 minutes Then, phosphorus is diffused in the Si crystal, an n-type diffusion layer having a phosphorus concentration of about 1 × 10 19 to 1 × 10 20 atoms / cm 3 is formed to obtain a pn junction surface, or a solution containing phosphorus is spin-coated. A coating diffusion method may be used. ] (2) Back electrode formation [An aluminum electrode is formed on the entire back surface by screen printing and fired in a furnace. Since aluminum diffuses on the back side during firing, a p + layer (back side electrolytic layer) is formed. Electrolysis generated at the pp + junction makes it difficult for electrons generated in the p layer to reach the back side and re-connects with holes. Binding is suppressed. ], (3) Surface electrode formation [a silver electrode made of a bus bar and fingers is formed on the antireflection film and fired in a furnace. During firing, the silver electrode penetrates through the antireflection film and comes into contact with the n layer (fire-through)].

  Usually, an antireflection film forming step is inserted between the above (1) and (2), but this step is aimed at forming an antireflection film such as Si nitride, and therefore omitted in carrying out the technique of the present invention. You can do it. However, since the refractive index of Si nitride is 2.02, which is smaller than that of Si, there is no problem even if it is introduced to reduce the surface reflection intensity.

  In addition, since the solar cell of the present invention has fine irregularities on the surface, when diffusing phosphorus to form an n-type diffusion layer, the pn junction interface inherits the surface fine structure and becomes irregular. This interfacial uneven shape has the pitch of the sub-wavelength antireflection structure created on the surface, but since it is obtained by diffusion, the interfacial uneven shape does not have sharp peaks and valleys as much as the surface uneven shape, but is rather uniform. It is flattened. However, since there are still irregularities, this serves to increase the area of the pn junction interface, and has the effect of increasing the electromotive force per unit area.

  The gist of the present invention is to maximize the power generation efficiency of the solar cell by the subwavelength fine structure. Therefore, as described above, the most effective method is to finely process the photovoltaic power generation substrate itself. This is because, in the case of a solar cell using a Si substrate, the difference between the refractive index on the incident side (refractive index of air 1.0) and the refractive index of the substrate (refractive index of Si 3.5) is very large, and reflection is prevented at this interface. This is because the processing is most effective for improving the utilization efficiency of incident light. However, for example, if a similar sub-wavelength fine uneven reflection preventing structure is also applied to the front and back surfaces of the glass plate (refractive index of about 1.45 to 1.55) of the glass case that houses the solar cell, This is preferable because the loss of incident light can be reduced. Thus, it is possible to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency as a whole by applying the fine structure of the present invention to the interface other than the surface of the solar cell included in the photovoltaic power generation panel, and the present invention. It is in line with the gist of

  As described above, the single particle film etching mask of the present invention is the one in which each particle constituting the single particle film is two-dimensionally closely packed and arranged with high precision. A highly efficient and highly accurate subwavelength antireflection microstructure can be directly formed on the surface of the photovoltaic power generation substrate. Unlike the so-called texture structure and surface roughening structure, the antireflection microstructure according to the present invention can be produced with a highly optical design. Therefore, the antireflection effect can be exhibited at a much higher level than a normal photovoltaic power generation substrate on which a texture structure, a surface roughening structure, or an antireflection film with an interference effect is applied.

  Examples of the present invention will be described below. In addition, although an example is introduced here taking a single crystal Si solar cell as an example as a simple system, the system of the target solar cell is not necessarily limited as long as the concept of the present invention is used.

Example 1
A 5.0% by mass aqueous dispersion (dispersion) of spherical colloidal silica having an average particle size of 298.2 nm and a particle size variation coefficient of 6.7% was prepared. The average particle size and the coefficient of variation of the particle size were determined from the peak obtained by fitting the particle size distribution obtained by the particle dynamic light scattering method by Zetasizer Nano-ZS manufactured by Malvern Instruments Ltd. to a Gaussian curve.
Next, this dispersion was filtered through a membrane filter having a pore size of 1.2 μmφ, and an aqueous solution of a hydrolyzate of phenyltriethoxysilane having a concentration of 1.0 mass% was added to the dispersion that passed through the membrane filter, and the mixture was heated at about 40 ° C. for 3 hours. Reacted. At this time, the dispersion and the aqueous hydrolysis solution were mixed so that the mass of phenyltriethoxysilane was 0.02 times the mass of the colloidal silica particles.
Next, methyl ethyl ketone having a volume 4 times the volume of the dispersion was added to the dispersion after completion of the reaction and stirred sufficiently to extract the hydrophobized colloidal silica in the oil phase.

The thus obtained hydrophobized colloidal silica dispersion having a concentration of 0.91% by mass includes a surface pressure sensor for measuring the surface pressure of the single particle film and a movable barrier for compressing the single particle film in the direction along the liquid surface. Was added dropwise at a dropping rate of 0.01 ml / sec to the liquid surface (water used as the lower layer water, water temperature 25 ° C.) in the water tank (LB trough device). Note that a p-type silicon substrate (crystal axis 100, diameter 4 inches, single-sided mirror polishing) for use as a solar cell substrate was immersed in a substantially vertical direction in the lower layer water of the water tank.
Thereafter, ultrasonic waves (output 100 W, frequency 1500 kHz) are irradiated from the lower layer water toward the water surface for 15 minutes to promote the two-dimensional closest packing of the particles, while volatilizing methyl ethyl ketone, which is the solvent of the dispersion, A single particle film was formed.
Next, this single particle film was compressed with a movable barrier until the diffusion pressure became 30 mNm −1 , the p-type silicon substrate was pulled up at a rate of 4 mm / min, and transferred onto one side of the substrate.
Next, a 1% by mass monomethyltrimethoxysilane hydrolyzate as a binder is infiltrated onto the silicon wafer on which the single particle film is formed, and then the surplus hydrolyzate is treated with a spin coater (3000 rpm) for 1 minute. Removed. Then, this was heated at 100 degreeC for 10 minute (s), the binder was made to react, and the p-type silicon substrate with the single particle film | membrane etching mask which consists of colloidal silica was obtained.

On the other hand, for this single particle film etching mask, a region of 10 μm × 10 μm is selected at random, and an atomic force microscope image of that portion is obtained. Then, this image is subjected to waveform separation by Fourier transform, and FFT is performed. I got a statue. Subsequently, the distance from the 0th-order peak to the 1st-order peak in the profile of the FFT image was obtained, and the reciprocal thereof was further obtained. The inverse is the average pitch B 1 between the particles in this region.
Such a process is similarly performed for a total of 25 regions of 10 μm × 10 μm, average pitches B 1 to B 25 in each region are obtained, and an average value thereof is calculated as average pitch B in Formula (1). . At this time, each region was set so that adjacent regions were separated from each other by about 5 mm to 1 cm.
The calculated average pitch B was 302.9 nm.
Therefore, when the average particle diameter A = 298.2 nm and the average pitch B = 302.9 nm are substituted into the above equation (1), the deviation D of the particle arrangement in the single particle film etching mask of this example is 1. .58%.

Next, vapor phase etching was performed on the substrate with a single particle film etching mask using a mixed gas of SF 6 : CH 2 F 2 = 25: 75 to 75:25. Etching conditions were an antenna power of 1500 W, a bias power of 50 to 300 W (13.56 MHz), and a gas flow rate of 30 to 50 sccm. The SEM image of the obtained fine structure is shown in FIG. The average height h of the conical microprotrusions measured from the atomic force microscope image is 934.3 nm, and the average pitch C (circularity) of the array of conical microprotrusions obtained by the same method as that performed for the single particle film etching mask. The average diameter d) of the bottom surface was 302.5 nm, and the aspect ratio calculated from these was 3.09. With respect to this microstructure, the displacement D ′ of the arrangement of the conical microprojections according to the formula (2) was determined to be 1.44%.

  The average height h of the conical fine protrusions was determined as follows. First, an atomic force microscope image was obtained for one 5 μm × 5 μm region randomly selected in the microstructure, and then a profile along the diagonal direction of the image was prepared. And the average value of the unevenness which appeared there was calculated | required. Such processing was similarly performed on a total of 25 randomly selected 5 μm × 5 μm regions, and the average value in each region was obtained. An average height h was obtained by further averaging the average values in the 25 regions thus obtained. On each diagonal line, 23 ± 2 protrusions are included.

Next, a pn junction interface was created on this silicon substrate using phosphorus oxychloride (POCl 3 ) as a diffusion source. The treatment was performed in a diffusion furnace at 910 ± 5 ° C. for 30 minutes, and phosphorus was diffused to the silicon surface by a gas phase reaction to form an n layer on the surface of the silicon substrate. At this time, phosphorus oxychloride was reacted on the front side (antireflection fine structure surface), and an aluminum paste was applied on the back side to prevent the formation of an n layer. After firing, a SiNx film functioning as a passivation film for stabilizing the light receiving surface was formed on the attending surface side by a CVD method (chemical vapor deposition method). Finally, electrodes were formed on the front and back surfaces to complete a single crystal Si type solar cell.

When the normal incidence reflectance with respect to the surface of the sub-wavelength antireflection structure of the obtained single crystal Si type solar cell was measured with USB2000 manufactured by Ocean Optics, a visible light surface reflectance as shown in FIG. 7 was obtained. It has been demonstrated that the visible light reflectance is as high as about 0.25% throughout the entire area and has no wavelength dependency. Next, the characteristics of the solar cell prepared using a 150 mW / cm 2 light source (solar simulator; Tokyo Instruments ORIEL series 150W) were evaluated. The short-circuit current density, which was a value obtained by dividing the current when the terminal was short-circuited (short-circuit current) by the effective light-receiving area, was 39.2 mA / cm 2 .

Comparative Example 1
A single crystal Si solar cell prepared by exactly the same operation as in Example 1 was prepared except that the subwavelength antireflection microstructure was not formed on the light receiving surface side surface. Therefore, this solar cell surface is flat. When the normal incidence reflectance was measured, it was about 40% as shown in FIG. It was 21.7 mA / cm < 2 > when the short circuit current density was measured with the same solar simulator as an Example.

Comparative Example 2
A single crystal Si solar cell prepared by exactly the same operation as in Example 1 was prepared except that a texture structure by KOH etching was prepared on the light receiving surface side surface. Therefore, this solar cell surface is covered with a pyramid-shaped texture. The normal incidence reflectance was measured and found to be about 16% as shown in FIG. When the short-circuit current density was measured with the same solar simulator as in the example, it was 30.4 mA / cm 2 .

The top view which shows typically a single particle film etching mask. Schematic which shows an example of the manufacturing method of a single particle film etching mask. The figure explaining the manufacturing method of the fine structure by an etching. The figure explaining the theoretical value of the relationship between an aspect ratio and a reflectance. The figure explaining the reflectance wavelength dependence of an aspect ratio. The figure which shows the SEM image of the subwavelength antireflection structure surface of a single crystal Si type solar cell. The figure which shows the normal incidence reflectance with respect to the solar cell surface of Example 1. FIG. The figure which shows the normal incidence reflectance with respect to the solar cell surface of the comparative example 1. FIG. The figure which shows the normal incidence reflectance with respect to the solar cell surface of the comparative example 2. FIG.

Explanation of symbols

P particle F single particle film C fine structure T minimum structural unit 11 representing the positional relationship of particles in a two-dimensional close-packed array state 11 substrate 11 ′ cylinder 12 lower layer water

Claims (16)

  1.   A substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film formed by close-packing and arranging single particles on a substrate surface in two dimensions.
  2. 2. The surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask according to claim 1, wherein the single particle film has a particle arrangement deviation D (%) defined by the following (formula 1) of 10% or less. Substrate for forming.
    D (%) = | B−A | × 100 / A (Formula 1)
    [In the formula, A represents the average particle size of particles, B represents the average pitch between particles in a single particle film, and | B−A | represents the absolute value of the difference between B and A. ]
  3.   3. The surface fineness having an etching mask according to claim 1, wherein the single particles constituting the single particle film have an average particle size of 3 to 380 nm determined by a particle dynamic light scattering method. Uneven structure forming substrate.
  4.   The single particle constituting the single particle film has a coefficient of variation in particle size (a value obtained by dividing a standard deviation by an average value) of 20% or less. A substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having the etching mask according to 1.
  5. Single particles constituting the single particle film are metals such as Al, Au, Ti, Pt, Ag, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Si, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , MgO 2 , and CaO 2. 5. A single particle of at least one material selected from metal oxides such as polystyrene, organic polymers such as polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate, semiconductor materials, and inorganic polymers. A substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure comprising the etching mask according to claim 1.
  6.   A single particle dispersion preparation step of preparing a single particle dispersion by dispersing single particles having a surface having an affinity for the dispersion medium in an easily volatile dispersion medium, the single particle dispersion, the single particles and the dispersion A dropping step of forming a single particle dispersion liquid film by dropping on a liquid surface in a liquid storage tank having a non-affinity with the medium, and volatilizing the dispersion medium in the single particle dispersion liquid film so that the single particles are two-dimensionally packed A single particle film forming step for forming a packed single particle film, and a single particle film transfer step for transferring the single particle film to the substrate surface. A manufacturing method of a substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film formed in a close packed arrangement.
  7.   The single particle film fixing step of fixing the single particle film formed on the substrate surface in the single particle film transfer step to the substrate surface subsequent to the single particle film transfer step. A method for producing a substrate for forming a fine surface relief structure having an etching mask made of a single particle film.
  8.   The easily volatile dispersion medium is a hydrophobic organic solvent, the non-affinity liquid with the easily volatile dispersion medium is a hydrophilic liquid, and the single particles are hydrophobic single particles. A method for producing a substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask comprising the single particle film according to claim 6 or 7.
  9.   The easily volatile dispersion medium is a hydrophilic solvent, the non-affinity liquid with the easily volatile dispersion medium is a hydrophobic liquid, and the single particles are hydrophilic single particles. A method for producing a substrate for forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an etching mask comprising the single particle film according to claim 6.
  10.   In the single particle film transfer step, the single particle film formed on the liquid surface in the liquid storage tank in the single particle film formation step is compressed in the liquid surface direction by a movable barrier to form a closest packed single particle film. However, it is a step of moving the substrate immersed in the liquid storage tank in advance to the substrate surface while pulling up the substrate vertically from the liquid so that the substrate surface is perpendicular to the liquid surface. The manufacturing method of the substrate for surface fine concavo-convex structure formation which has an etching mask which consists of a single particle film of any one of Claims 6-9.
  11.   The fine unevenness | corrugation formed by etching the surface of the substrate for surface fine unevenness | corrugation structure formation which has an etching mask which consists of a single particle film of any one of the said Claims 1-5 through this etching mask A surface fine concavo-convex structure having a structure.
  12. 12. The surface fine concavo-convex structure according to claim 11, wherein the fine concavo-convex structure in the surface fine concavo-convex structure has an alignment deviation D ′ (%) defined by the following (formula 2) of 10% or less. .
    D ′ [%] = | C−A | × 100 / A (Formula 2)
    [In the formula, A is the average particle diameter of the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask used, C is the average pitch of the structural arrangement in the fine relief structure, and | C−A | is the difference between C and A Indicates an absolute value. ]
  13.   12. The fine concavo-convex structure in the surface fine concavo-convex structure is constituted by conical fine protrusions having an aspect ratio of 0.4 or more arranged at a pitch equal to or less than a wavelength of visible light. The surface fine concavo-convex structure according to claim 12.
  14. The surface having the etching mask in the surface fine concavo-convex structure forming substrate having the etching mask made of the single particle film according to any one of claims 1 to 5 is subjected to etching treatment, and the following (formula 2) A method for producing a surface fine concavo-convex structure, comprising forming a surface fine concavo-convex structure having an alignment deviation D ′ (%) defined by the formula of 10% or less.
    D ′ [%] = | C−A | × 100 / A (Formula 2)
    [In the formula, A is the average particle diameter of the particles constituting the single particle film etching mask used, C is the average pitch of the structural arrangement in the fine relief structure, and | C−A | is the difference between C and A Indicates an absolute value. ]
  15.   The fine concavo-convex structure of the surface fine concavo-convex structure is composed of conical fine protrusions having a height of at least 50 nm and an aspect ratio of 0.4 or more, which are arranged at a pitch equal to or less than the wavelength of visible light. The method for producing a surface fine concavo-convex structure according to any one of claims 11 to 13.
  16. The photovoltaic power generation panel which has the surface fine grooving | roughness structure body of any one of the said Claims 11-13 in at least 1 part.

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