JP2008528582A - 18-membered macrocycle and similar compounds - Google Patents

18-membered macrocycle and similar compounds Download PDF

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JP2008528582A
JP2008528582A JP2007553073A JP2007553073A JP2008528582A JP 2008528582 A JP2008528582 A JP 2008528582A JP 2007553073 A JP2007553073 A JP 2007553073A JP 2007553073 A JP2007553073 A JP 2007553073A JP 2008528582 A JP2008528582 A JP 2008528582A
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thiacumicin
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JP5166040B2 (en
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ウォン,チャン−コウ
オクム,フランクリン
シアーズ,パメラ
シュー,ヨウエ−コング
チウ,ユ−ハング
ババクハニー,フラハ
ロメロ,アレックス
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オプティマー ファーマシューティカルズ、インコーポレイテッド
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES, AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/22Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom rings with more than six members
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/70Carbohydrates; Sugars; Derivatives thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07HSUGARS; DERIVATIVES THEREOF; NUCLEOSIDES; NUCLEOTIDES; NUCLEIC ACIDS
    • C07H17/00Compounds containing heterocyclic radicals directly attached to hetero atoms of saccharide radicals
    • C07H17/04Heterocyclic radicals containing only oxygen as ring hetero atoms
    • C07H17/08Hetero rings containing eight or more ring members, e.g. erythromycins

Abstract

The present invention relates to an 18-membered macrocyclic antibacterial agent commonly referred to as Tiacumicin, in particular OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-Tiacumicin B), a pharmaceutical composition containing OPT-80, and OPT-80. About how to use. In particular, this compound is a powerful drug for the treatment of bacterial infections, especially C. difficile infections. One embodiment of the present invention relates to the discovery that the asymmetric center at C-19 of thiacumicin B has a significant effect on biological activity.

Description

  The present invention relates to an 18-membered macrocyclic antibacterial agent and related compounds, generally referred to as Tiacumicin, in particular R-Tiacumicin B or Tiacumicin B. In particular, the invention relates to bacterial infections, in particular of C. difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and C. perfringens. It relates to substantially pure R-thiacumicin B as a potent antibiotic for the treatment of GI infections caused by toxin-producing strains.

  Macrocycles are a therapeutically important class of antibiotics. These compounds are often manufactured as a family of closely related biogenic congeners. Thiacmicins are a series of 18-membered macrocyclic antibiotics whose macrocycles are glycosidic linked to one or two sugars. 7 carbon sugars are esterified with small fatty acids at various positions. Other sugars, when present, are esterified with fully substituted benzoic acid, i.e., an isomer of evernic acid (Non-Patent Document 1).

Thiacmicins are represented by the following formula I
Is a family of related compounds containing an 18-membered ring.

At present, several distinct thiacumicins have been identified, six of these (thiacumins AF), depending on the specific pattern of substituents R 1 , R 2 and R 3 as shown in Table 1. (Patent Document 1; Non-Patent Document 2).

Thiacmicins A-F have been identified spectroscopically and by other physical methods. The chemical structure of thiacumicins is based on spectroscopic methods: UV-vis, IR and 1 H and 13 C NMR. For example, Non-Patent Document 2 is referred to. Examining Table 1, it can be seen that certain members of the family are structurally related isomers and / or differ by the presence or absence of certain moieties. Other constituent members differ in the nature of their ester groups.

  Thiacmicins are produced by bacteria, for example, Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subspecies hamdenensis, which are ARS Patent Collection of the Northern Sensitive Region. 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, accession number NRRL 18085. The characteristics of the strain AB 718C-41 are shown in Non-Patent Document 3 and Patent Document 1.

  Diarrhea (CDAD) associated with C. difficile is a disease characterized by severe and painful diarrhea. C. difficile is responsible for about 20% of cases of antibiotic-related diarrhea (AAD) and most cases of antibiotic-associated colitis (AAC). These diseases typically include C. difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and toxins of C. perfringens. Caused by the producing strain. AAD is a significant economic burden in the United States alone for a healthcare system that is conservatively estimated at $ 3-6 billion per year at excessive hospital costs.

  Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which provide a host of infection with a constant intestinal colonization, have also emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen associated with increased medical costs and mortality. VRE can appear as a superinfection in patients infected with C. difficile, or more commonly in certain high-risk patients, such as blood and cancer patients, intensive care unit patients and Causes infections in patients undergoing solid organ transplants.

  Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, such as MRSA, are increasing the prevalence in both hospital and social environments. Staphylococci are found in the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract, but can infect open wounds and burns and can progress to serious systemic infections. In particular, the emergence of multi-drug resistant staphylococci in hospitals where antibiotics are frequently used and selective pressure on drug-resistant organisms is high has become a challenge for treating these patients. The presence of MRSA in the skin of patients and healthcare workers facilitates the transmission of multidrug resistant organisms.

  Similar diseases, such as, but not limited to, clostridial enteritis, neonatal diarrhea, antibiotic-related enteritis, sporadic enteritis, and nosocomial enteritis are also serious problems in some animal species.

  AAD is a serious problem in hospitals and long-term care facilities and in the general public. C. difficile is a leading cause of AAD in the hospital, accounting for approximately 20% of AAD cases and the majority of cases of colitis (AAC) involving antibiotics. The increased incidence of diarrhea (CDAD) associated with C. difficile is due to frequent prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics to hospitalized patients.

  The most serious form of disease is pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), which histologically presents colitis with mucosal plaques and clinically exhibits severe diarrhea, abdominal cramps and systemic toxicity. Although overall mortality from CDAD is low, it is even higher in patients with severe colitis or systemic toxicity. Recent studies have shown that mortality in CDAD patients is much greater compared to case-matched controls, even when death is not directly attributed to C. difficile. Yes.

  Diarrhea and colitis are caused by the production of one or more C. difficile toxins. The organism grows in the colon of patients receiving broad spectrum antibiotics or less commonly receiving cancer chemotherapy. CDAD is diagnosed in approximately 20% of hospitalized patients who develop diarrhea after treatment with such agents.

  Currently there are two main therapeutic agents for CDAD: vancomycin and metronidazole. Vancomycin is not recommended for first-line treatment of CDAD primarily because it is the only antibiotic effective against some serious life-threatening multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, to minimize the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), the medical community does not recommend the use of this drug unless absolutely necessary. .

  Metronidazole is recommended as an initial therapy because of concerns about vancomycin-resistant intestinal flora, especially the promotion of enterococci and selection. Despite reports that the frequency of C. difficile resistance can be> 6% in some countries, metronidazole remains almost as effective as vancomycin and is much cheaper than that. Moreover, it can be used orally or intravenously. Metronidazole is associated with significant side effects such as nausea, neuropathy, leukopenia, seizures, and addictive reactions to alcohol. Metronidazole is also not safe when used for children or pregnant women. Clinical recurrence occurs in up to 20% of cases after treatment with vancomycin or metronidazole. Therapy with metronidazole has been reported to be an important risk factor for VRE colonization and infection. Current treatment regimens for diarrhea (CDAD) involving gastrointestinal infections, such as C. difficile, are quite cumbersome and require up to 500 mg four times a day for 10-14 days. Thus, there is a need for better treatment for CDAD cases and for other antibiotic-related diarrhea (AAD) and antibiotic-related colitis (AAC) cases.

  Thiacmycins, in particular thiacumicin B, are active against various pathogenic bacteria, particularly against C. difficile and Gram-positive bacteria (Non-patent Document 4). C. difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes intestinal infections. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, but abdominal pain and fever can also occur. C. difficile is the main etiological agent of colitis (colon inflammation) and diarrhea that can occur after antibiotic intake. This bacterium is acquired mainly in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Thiacmycin B is expected to be useful in the treatment of bacterial infections in mammals, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, since it exhibits the activity expected against C. difficile. Examples of such treatment include, but are not limited to, treatment of colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. Thiacmycin may also find use in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.

Thiacmicin antibiotics are disclosed in Patent Document 1 (issued on April 17, 1990), Non-patent Document 2, Non-patent Document 3, Non-patent Document 1, Non-patent Document 4, and Patent Document 2 (issued on December 10, 1996). And Patent Document 3 (issued on June 16, 1998), all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Related compounds are lipearmycin antibiotics (see Non-Patent Document 5 and Non-Patent Document 6) and Clostomycin antibiotics (Non-Patent Document 7), all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Incorporated into.
US Pat. No. 4,918,174 US Pat. No. 5,583,115 US Pat. No. 5,767,096 Journal of Liquid Chromatography, 1988, 11: 191-201. J. et al. Antibiotics, 1987, 40: 575-588 J. et al. Antibiotics, 1987, 40: 567-574 Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1991, 1108-1111 J. et al. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I, 1987, 1353-1359 J. et al. Antibiotics 1988, 41: 308-315 J. et al. Antibiotics 1986, 39: 1407-1412

  The present invention relates to novel pharmaceutical compositions containing R-Tiacumicins, in particular optically pure R-Tiacumicin B, and these in combination with existing drugs for treating infections caused by Gram positive anaerobes It relates to the use of the new composition.

  One embodiment of the present invention relates to the discovery that the asymmetric center at C-19 of thiacumicin B has a significant effect on biological activity. Now, a substantially pure preparation of a higher activity R-thiacumicin B having an R-hydroxy group at C-19 has surprisingly been found in the optically pure S-isomer of thiacumicin B and other It has been found to have a lower MIC value than thiacumicin B related compounds.

  In another embodiment of the invention, substantially pure R-Tiacumin B has a significantly longer post-antibiotic effect (PAE).

  The present invention provides a novel antibiotic composition containing substantially pure R-thiacumysins by submerged aerobic fermentation of the microorganism Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. Hamdenensis. Include. The production method can be referred to the description in International Publication No. WO2004 / 014295A2, which description is incorporated herein by reference.

(Definition)
The term “antibiotic-related condition” means that antibiotic therapy disrupts the balance of the gut microbiota and causes pathogenic organisms such as C. difficile, S. aureus and Clostridium Represents a condition that occurs when pertophingens enterotoxin producing bacteria are allowed to flourish. These organisms can cause diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and colitis, and among other symptoms present diarrhea, urgency, abdominal pain, tenesmus and fever. Diarrhea, in severe cases, causes dehydration and medical complications associated with dehydration.

The term “asymmetrically substituted” refers to a molecular structure in which an atom having four tetrahedral valences is bonded to four different atoms or groups. The most common examples include carbon atoms. In such an example, two optical isomers (D- and L-enantiomers or R- and S-enantiomers) are produced per carbon atom that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. Many compounds have two or more asymmetric carbons. This results in the possibility of a number of optical isomers, the number of which is determined by the formula 2 n , where n is the number of asymmetric carbons.

  As used herein, the term “broth” refers to a liquid medium obtained during or after fermentation. Broth contains a mixture of adsorbents with or without water, certain antibiotic (s), unused nutrients, living or dead organisms, metabolites, and adsorbed products. Become.

The term “C-19 ketone” refers to the following formula II:
Represents a thiacumicin B-related compound represented by:

  The term “diastereomers” refers to stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another.

  The term “enantiomer” refers to a mirror image that is not itself superimposable. The enantiomer of the optically active isomer rotates plane polarized light in the same direction but to the same extent as the original isomer. A solution containing equal amounts of an optically active isomer and its enantiomer is known as a racemic solution and has a net rotation of zero plane polarization. Enantiomers will have opposite prefixes: D- becomes L- or R- becomes S-. Since most biological reactions are due to enzymes and enzymes can only bind to one of the enantiomers, only one of the enantiomers is often active in biological systems.

  The term “excipient” refers to an inert substance added to a pharmacological composition to further facilitate administration of the compound. Examples of excipients include, but are not limited to, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various sugars and certain starches, cellulose derivatives, gelatin, vegetable oils and polyethylene glycols.

  The term “halogen” includes F, Cl, Br and I.

  The term “isomer mixture” means a mixture of two or more different species having the same chemical formula but different configurations. Isomeric mixtures are genus containing individual isomeric species. Examples of isomer mixtures include, for example, stereoisomers (enantiomers and diastereomers) and positional isomers as obtained from pericyclic reactions. The compounds of the present invention contain asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms. Such asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms can result in a mixture of stereoisomers or a single stereoisomer at a particular asymmetrically substituted carbon atom. As a result, racemic mixtures of the compounds of the invention, mixtures of diastereomers, and single diastereomers are included in the invention.

The term “Lipearmycin A4” has the following formula III:
Represents a thiacumicin B-related compound represented by:

The term “lower alkyl”, alone or in combination, has from 1 to about 8 carbons (eg, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 6 , C 7 , C 8 ), More preferably, it has 1 to 4 carbons (for example, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 ), an optionally substituted straight chain, or an optionally substituted branched chain Represents. Examples of the alkyl group include methyl group, ethyl group, n-propyl group, isopropyl group, n-butyl group, isobutyl group, sec-butyl group, and tert-butyl group. “Lower alkyl” is generally short alkyl, such as alkyl containing from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms (eg, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 ).

  The term “macrocycle” refers to an organic molecule having a large ring structure that usually contains more than 10 atoms.

  The term “18-membered macrocycle” refers to an organic molecule having a ring structure containing 18 atoms.

  The term “membered ring” can include any cyclic structure, such as carbocycles and heterocycles as described above. The term “membered” is meant to represent the number of skeletal atoms that make up the ring. Thus, for example, pyridine, pyran and thiopyran are 6-membered rings and pyrrole, furan, and thiophene are 5-membered rings.

  The term “MIC” or “minimum inhibitory concentration” refers to the minimum concentration of antibiotic necessary to inhibit the growth of bacterial isolates in vitro. A common method for examining antibiotic MICs is to prepare several tubes containing serial dilutions of antibiotics and then inoculate them with the bacterial isolate of interest. Antibiotic MIC can be determined from the tube with the lowest concentration that does not show turbidity (no growth).

The term “MIC 50 ” refers to the minimum concentration of antibiotic necessary to prevent 50% growth of the bacterial strain tested in a given bacterial species.

The term “MIC 90 ” refers to the minimum concentration of antibiotic necessary to prevent 90% growth of the bacterial strain tested in a given bacterial species.

  The term “OPT-80” refers to about 70-100%, preferably 90% (by HPLC assay for all antibiotics) of optically pure R-Tiacumicin B (which is R-19 to C-19). Represents a formulation containing a hydroxy group, see formula IV). The remainder consists essentially of a small amount of thiacumicin B-related compound, such as but not limited to lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone. This type of formulation is described in detail in PCT application No. PCT / US03 / 21977 having the international publication number of WO 2004/014295 A2, which formulation is incorporated herein by reference. However, for non-human use, crude “OPT-80” containing less than 70% optically pure R-Tiacumin B (for all antibiotics by HPLC assay) may be used.

  The term “ORTEP” refers to the Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot computer program written in Fortlan for drawing crystal structure diagrams. Ball-and-stick illustrations of quality suitable for publication include a sphere or thermal-movability ellipsoids derived from anisotropic temperature factor parameters at the location of the atoms. ). The program also creates stereoscopic pairs of explanatory diagrams that help visualize the complex arrangement of atoms and their correlated thermal motion patterns.

  The term “PAE” or “post-antibiotic effect” refers to a well-established pharmacodynamic parameter that reflects sustained suppression of bacterial growth following antibiotic exposure.

  The term “patient” refers to a human or animal in need of medical therapy. For the purposes of the present invention, human patients are typically housed in primary medical facilities such as hospitals or nursing homes. However, treatment of illnesses associated with the use of antibiotics or cancer chemotherapy or antiviral therapy can occur as outpatients with discharge from primary care facilities, or doctors for home care not related to primary care facilities. Can be directed by. Animals that require medical therapy are typically taken care of by a veterinarian.

  The term “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” refers to a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salts” refers to salts derived from pharmaceutically acceptable inorganic and organic bases. Salts derived from appropriate bases include alkali metal (eg, sodium or potassium), alkaline earth metal (eg, magnesium), ammonium and N (C 1 -C 4 alkyl) 4 + salts and the like. Can be mentioned. Examples illustrating some of these include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, choline hydroxide, sodium carbonate and the like.

  The term “pharmaceutical composition” refers to one or more tiacumicins described herein, or physiologically acceptable salts thereof, and other chemical components, such as physiologically acceptable carriers and / or Represents a mixture with excipients. The purpose of a pharmaceutical composition is to facilitate administration of a compound to an organism.

  The term “physiologically acceptable carrier” refers to a carrier or diluent that does not cause significant irritation to an organism and does not abrogate the biological activity and properties of the administered compound.

  The term “pseudomembranous colitis” or “enteritis” refers to the formation of pseudomembranous material (ie, a substance consisting of fibrin, mucus cells, necrotic epithelial cells and leukocytes) due to inflammation of the mucosa of both the small and large intestines.

  As used herein, the terms “R” and “S” configurations are referred to as IUPAC 1974 Recommendations for Section E, Fundamental Stereochemistry, Pure Appl. Chem. (1976) 45, 13-30. Chiral molecules can be named based on the atomic number of the atom or group of atoms, the ligand attached to the asymmetric center. A ligand is given a priority (the higher the atomic number, the higher the priority), and if the priority is increased in the clockwise direction, the ligand is said to be R-. Alternatively, a ligand is said to be S- if the ligand is prioritized in a counterclockwise direction.

The term “R-Thiacmycin B” has the formula IV:
Represents an optically pure (R) -isomer of thiacumicin B having an (R) -hydroxy group at C-19 as shown in FIG.

The term “S-Thiacmycin B” is the following formula V:
Represents an optically pure (S) -isomer of thiacumicin B having an (S) -hydroxy group at C-19 as shown in FIG.

  The term “stereoisomer” refers to compounds whose molecules have the same number and type of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial arrangement.

  The term “sugar” generally refers to a monosaccharide, disaccharide or oligosaccharide. Monosaccharides may be substituted, for example, glucosamine, galactosamine, acetyl glucose, acetyl galactose, N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl galactosamine, galactosyl-N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl neuraminic acid (sialic acid), etc. It may also be a sulfated and phosphorylated sugar. Considering the purpose of this definition, a monosaccharide is its pyranose or furanose type.

As used herein, the term “thiacumicin” is all of the following formula I:
Represents a family of compounds comprising the 18-membered macrocyclic compound shown in

As used herein, the term “Tiacumsin B” is used in the following formula VI:
Represents an 18-membered macrocyclic compound represented by

  As used herein, the term “yield” refers to the amount of crude thiacumicin reconstituted in methanol to the same volume as the original fermentation broth. Yield is determined using standard HPLC methods. Yield is reported in units of mg / L.

  The present invention encompasses a composition of a novel antibiotic, thiacumicin, by submerged aerobic fermentation of the microorganism Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. Hamdenensis. For the production method, reference is made to the description of International Publication No. WO2004 / 014295A2.

  The present invention treats infections caused by gram-positive anaerobes, and novel antibacterial compositions containing R-thiacumicins, in particular R-thiacumicin B (which has an R-hydroxy at position C-19) For the use of these novel compositions in combination with existing drugs.

  The present invention also relates to a novel OPT-80 formulation containing about 70-100%, preferably 90% R-Tiacumicin B (by HPLC assay for all antibiotics). The remainder consists essentially of a small amount of thiacumicin B-related compound, such as but not limited to lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone. This type of formulation is described in detail in PCT Application No. PCT / US03 / 21977 having an international publication number of WO 2004/014295 A2. However, for non-human uses, crude “OPT-80” containing less than 70% R-Tiacumicin B (by HPLC assay for all antibiotics) may be used.

In accordance with the present invention, Formula VII:
[In the formula:
X is selected from lower alkyl, and the term “lower alkyl” as used herein refers to a branched or straight chain alkyl group containing 1 or 2 carbon atoms, such as a methyl group, an ethyl group, an n-propyl group, And Y is selected from OH or ketone (═O); and Z is selected from H or lower alkyl, where the term “lower alkyl” as used herein refers to 1- A branched or straight chain alkyl group containing 5 carbon atoms, such as a methyl group, an ethyl group, a propyl group, an isopropyl group, an n-butyl group, a t-butyl group, etc.]
A compound having the structure:

  Preferred compounds of the invention are those compounds of formula VII where X is methyl or ethyl, Y is a ketone (= O) or OH, and Z is isopropyl.

  Further preferred compounds of the invention are those compounds of formula VII, wherein X is ethyl, Y is a ketone (═O) or OH, and Z is isopropyl.

  The most preferred compounds of the invention are those compounds of formula VII where X is ethyl, Y is OH and Z is isopropyl.

  One embodiment of the present invention relates to the discovery that the C-19 asymmetric center of thiacumicin B has a profound effect on biological activity. Now, R-Tiacumicin B (which has an R-hydroxy group at C-19) is significantly more active than S-Tiacumicin B and other tiacumicin B related compounds (Ripirmycin A4 and C-19 ketones). It was found to have. This high activity is indicated by very low MIC values, which are C. difficile, S. aureus, E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. ) Can be found in Example 3, Tables 3 and 4 below. This effect of the C-19 asymmetric center on biological activity is a new and unexpected discovery.

  In another embodiment of the present invention, OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumicin B) has a significantly longer post-antibiotic effect (PAE). This is discussed in Example 4 below, where OPT-80 is shown to have a PAE greater than 24 hours. This PAE is unexpectedly longer than the normal antibiotic PAE for 1-5 hours.

  The invention also relates to the disclosure of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the invention in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

  Yet another aspect of the present invention is to prevent or treat human bacterial infections comprising administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present invention alone or in combination with another antibacterial or antifungal agent. A method is disclosed.

(Manufacturing)
18-membered macrocycles and similar compounds are produced by fermentation. Cultivation of Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. Hamdenensis AB 718C-41 NRRL 18085 to produce thiacumicins comprises one or more carbon sources, inorganic salts, and other organic components. It is performed while mixing in a sterilized environment under appropriate aeration conditions in a medium containing further absorbent.

  Microorganisms for producing active antibacterial agents have been confirmed to belong to the genus Dactylosporangium, Actinoplanaceae (Journal of Antibiotics, 1987, 40: 567-574) No. 4,918,174). It has been named Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. Hamdenensis 718C-41. The subcultures are from ARS Patent Collection of the Northern Regional Research Center, United States Department of Agricultural, 1815 North University Street, IL. 61604, U.S.A. S. A. Where the accession number NRRL 18085 was assigned. The characteristics of strain AB 718C-41 are shown in Journal of Antibiotics, 1987, 40: 567-574 and US Pat. No. 4,918,174.

  The present invention encompasses a composition of a novel antibiotic, thiacumicin, by submerged aerobic fermentation of the microorganism Dactylosporangium aurantiacum subsp. Hamdenensis. This manufacturing method is encompassed in International Publication No. WO 2004/014295 A2, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

(Pharmaceutical preparations and administration)
The pharmaceutical composition of the present invention, particularly OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumicin), which contains the thiacumicin compound of the present invention, releases the antibiotic substantially immediately upon administration, or after administration Can be formulated to release antibiotics for a predetermined time or period of time.

  The latter type of composition is generally known as a modified release formulation, which includes a formulation that produces a substantially constant concentration of drug over an extended period of time in the intestinal tract, and a Modified-Release Drug Delivery Technology, Editor M.M. J. et al. Rathbone, J .; Hodgraft and M.M. S. Roberts, Marcel Dekker, Inc. Formulations having controlled release characteristics based on temporal and environmental criteria such as those described in New York.

  Any oral and biologically acceptable dosage form or combination thereof can be used in the methods of the invention. Examples of such dosage forms include, but are not limited to, chewable tablets, fast dissolving tablets, effervescent tablets, reshaped powders, elixirs, solutions, suppositories, creams, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, tablets, multilayers Tablets, bilayer tablets, capsules, soft gelatin capsules, hard gelatin capsules, osmotic tablets, osmotic capsules, caplets, lozenges, chewable lozenges, beads, powders, granules, particles, microparticles, dispersible granules, ingestibles ), Infusions, health bars, confections, animal feeds, cereals, cereal coatings, foods, nutritional foods, functional foods and combinations thereof. The preparation of such dosage forms is well known to those skilled in the art. In addition, the pharmaceutical formulation can be designed to provide immediate or controlled release of the antibiotic upon reaching the target site. The choice of immediate release composition or controlled release composition depends on a wide variety of factors, such as the species of Gram-positive bacteria being treated and the antibiotic susceptibility and the bacteriostatic / bactericidal properties of the therapeutic agent. Methods well known in the art for preparing formulations are described, for example, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy (20th edition), Editor A. et al. R. Gennaro, 2000, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia or Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology, Editor J. Am. Swarbrick and J.M. C. Found in Boylan, 1988-1999, Marcel Dekker, New York.

  Immediate release formulations for oral use include tablets or capsules containing the active ingredient (s) in a mixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. These excipients include, for example, inert diluents or fillers (eg, sucrose, sorbitol, sugar, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, starch such as potato starch, calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, lactose, calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, Or sodium phosphate); granulating and disintegrating agents (eg, cellulose derivatives such as microcrystalline cellulose, starches such as potato starch, croscarmellose sodium, alginate, or alginic acid); binders (eg, sucrose, glucose) , Mannitol, sorbitol, acacia, alginic acid, sodium alginate, gelatin, starch, pregelatinized starch, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, Cellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, ethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, or polyethylene glycol); and lubricants, glidants, and anti-adhesive agents (eg, magnesium stearate, zinc stearate, stearic acid, silica, hydrogenated vegetable oil, or Talc). Other pharmaceutically acceptable excipients are described, for example, in The Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, 3rd edition, editor Arthur H. et al. It can be a colorant, flavoring agent, plasticizer, humectant, buffering agent, etc. as found in Kibbe, American Pharmaceutical Association Washington DC.

  Dissolution or diffusion controlled release can be achieved by suitable coating of the compound tablets, capsules, pellets or granulated formulations, or by incorporating the compound into a suitable matrix. Controlled release coatings include one or more of the aforementioned coating materials and / or, for example, shellac, beeswax, glycowax, castor wax, carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate, Glycerol palmitostearate, ethyl cellulose, acrylic resin, dl-polylactic acid, cellulose acetate butyrate, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, vinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene, polymethacrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxy methacrylate, methacrylate hydrogel, 1, 3 Mention may be made of butylene glycol, ethylene glycol methacrylate and / or polyethylene glycol. In controlled release matrix formulations, matrix materials also include, for example, hydrated methylcellulose, carnauba wax and stearyl alcohol, carbopol 934, silicone, glyceryl tristearate, methyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and And / or halogenated fluorocarbons.

  The controlled release composition may also be in the form of a floating tablet or capsule (ie, a tablet or capsule that floats over the stomach contents for a period of time upon oral administration). The floating tablet formulation of the compound (s) comprises a mixture of antibiotics and excipients and 20-75% (w / w) hydrocolloid, eg hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. It can be prepared by granulating. The resulting granules can then be compressed into tablets. When in contact with gastric juice, the tablet forms a substantially water impermeable gel barrier around its surface. This gel barrier is responsible for maintaining a density of less than 1, thereby leaving the tablet suspended in gastric juice. Other useful controlled release compositions are known in the art (see, eg, US Pat. Nos. 4,946,685 and 6,261,601).

  The modified release composition may consist of a compression-coated core that regulates the release profile of the antibiotic, the geometry of which is encapsulated. By changing the geometry of the core, the antibiotic release profile can be adjusted to follow zero order, first order, or a combination of these zero order and first order. This system can also be designed to deliver more beneficial agents (each with a different release profile) simultaneously (eg, US Pat. Nos. 4,111,202 and 3,279,995). See the description).

  Formulations that target the thiacumicin compounds of the present invention, particularly OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumicin), which release to specific areas of the intestinal tract, can also be prepared. The thiacumicin compounds of the present invention, particularly OPT-80, prevent release decay and release in the stomach, but can be encapsulated in enteric coatings that dissolve easily in the weakly acidic or neutral pH environment of the small intestine. . Formulations that target the release of antibiotics to the colon using techniques such as time-dependent erosion, pH-dependent erosion, or enzyme erosion of the polymer matrix or coating can also be used.

  The targeted delivery characteristics of the formulations containing the thiacumicin compounds of the present invention, in particular OPT-80, which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumicin B, can be altered by other means. For example, antibiotics can form complexes by inclusion, ionic association, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic bonding, or covalent bonding. Furthermore, polymers or complexes that are sensitive to enzymatic or microbial lysis can also be used as a means of delivering drugs.

  Microsphere encapsulation of the thiacumicin compounds of the present invention, in particular OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumicin B), is another useful pharmaceutical formulation for targeted antibiotic release. Antibiotic-containing microspheres can be used alone for antibiotic delivery or can be used as one component of a two-stage release formulation. A suitable graded release formulation encapsulating the thiacumicin compound of the present invention, particularly OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacmicin B), can be comprised of acid stable microspheres, and antibiotics can be applied to the stomach. And mixed with an immediate release formulation for delivery to the upper duodenum and later released in the lower intestinal tract.

  Microspheres can be prepared by any suitable method or from pharmaceutically acceptable substances. Particularly useful are proteinoid microspheres (see, eg, US Pat. Nos. 5,601,846 or 5,792,451) and PLGA-containing microspheres (see, eg, US Pat. No. 6,235,224 or No. 5,672,659). Other polymers commonly used in the formation of microspheres include, for example, poly-ε-caprolactone, poly (e-caprolactone-co-DL-lactic acid), poly (DL-lactic acid), poly (DL-lactic acid- Co-glycolic acid) and poly (s-caprolactone-co-glycolic acid) (see, for example, Pitt et al., J. Pharm. Sci., 68: 1534, 1979). Microspheres can be prepared by methods well known in the art, such as spray drying, coacervation, and emulsification (eg, Davis et al., Microsphere and Drug Therapy, 1984, Elsevier; Benoit et al., Biodegradable Microspheres: Advances: (Production Technologies, Chapter 3, Editor Benita, S, 1996, Dekker, New York; Microencapsulation and Related Drug Processes, Editor Deasy, 1984, Deker, New York, No. 36).

  A powder, dispersible powder, or granule suitable for the preparation of an aqueous solution or suspension of the thiacumicin compound of the invention, in particular OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumin B), by adding water, It is a dosage form convenient for oral administration. Formulation as a suspension provides the active ingredient in a mixture of a dispersing or wetting agent, suspending agent and one or more preservatives. Suitable dispersing or wetting agents include, for example, natural phospholipids (eg, lecithin or ethylene oxide and fatty acids, long chain fatty alcohol condensation products, or partial esters derived from fatty acids) and hexitol or hexitol anhydrides ( For example, polyoxyethylene stearate, polyoxyethylene sorbitol monooleate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, etc.). Suitable suspending agents are, for example, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, sodium alginate and the like.

  The following examples are provided for the purpose of illustrating specific embodiments of the invention without any intention to limit the scope of the invention.

(Example 1: Exact structure of R-thiacmicin B)
The exact structure of R-Tiacumicin B (the main most active component of OPT-80) is shown below in Formula IV. The X-ray crystal structure of R-thiacumicin B was obtained from colorless parallelepiped crystals (0.08 × 0.14 × 0.22 mm) grown in methanol and is shown as an ORTEP diagram in FIG. This X-ray structure confirms the structure shown in Formula IV below. Its official chemical name is 3-[[[6-deoxy-4-O- (3,5-dichloro-2-ethyl-4,6-dihydroxybenzoyl) -2-O-methyl-β-D-mannopyranosyl. ] Oxy] -methyl] -12 (R)-[[6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-4-O- (2-methyl-1-oxopropyl) -β-D-lyxo-hexopyranosyl] oxy]- 11 (S) -ethyl-8 (S) -hydroxy-18 (S)-(1 (R) -hydroxyethyl) -9,13,15-trimethyloxacyclooctadeca-3,5,9,13,15 -Pentaen-2-one.

(Example 2: Analysis data of OPT-80 and related substances)
OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacmicin B, which is the most active component of OPT-80), and three related compounds (S-thiacmicin B, lipirmycin A4, and The analytical data for C-19 ketone) are summarized below. The structures of these compounds are shown below in Formula VIII and Table 2.

(Analytical data of R-Thiacmycin B)
mp 166-169 ° C. (white needles obtained from isopropanol);
[Α] D 20 -6.9 (c2.0, MeOH);
MS m / z (ESI) 1079.7 (M + Na) <+> ;
1 H 1 H NMR NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 7.21 (d, 1H), 6.59 (dd, 1H), 5.95 (ddd, 1H), 5.83 (brs, 1H), 5.57 (t, 1H), 5.13 (brd, 1H), 5.09 (t, 1H), 5.02 (d, 1H), 4.71 (m, 1H), 4.71 ( br s, 1H), 4.64 (br s, 1H), 4.61 (d, 1H), 4.42 (d, 1H), 4.23 (m, 1H), 4.02 (quintuplet, 1H), 3.92 (dd, 1H), 3.73 (m, 2H), 3.70 (d, 1H), 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.52-3.56 (m, 2H) ), 2.92 (m, 2H), 2.64-2.76 (m, 3H), 2.59 (sixfold, 1H), 2.49 (ddd, 1H), 2.42 (ddd, 1H) ), 2.01 (Dq, 1H), 1.81 (s, 3H), 1.76 (s, 3H), 1.65 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, 3H), 1.29 (m, 1H) , 1.20 (t, 3H), 1.19 (d, 3H), 1.17 (d, 3H), 1.16 (d, 3H), 1.14 (s, 3H), 1.12 ( s, 3H), 0.87 (t, 3H);

13 C NMR (100 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ 178.4, 169.7, 169.1, 154.6, 153.9, 146.2, 143.7, 141.9, 137.1, 137.0, 136.4, 134.6, 128.5, 126.9, 125.6, 124.6, 114.8, 112.8, 108.8, 102.3, 97.2, 94.3, 82. 5, 78.6, 76.9, 75.9, 74.5, 73.5, 73.2, 72.8, 71.6, 70.5, 68.3, 63.9, 62.2, 42.5, 37.3, 35.4, 28.7, 28.3, 26.9, 26.4, 20.3, 19.6, 19.2, 18.7, 18.2, 17. 6, 15.5, 14.6, 14.0, 11.4.

(Analytical data of S-Thiacmycin B)
NaBH 4 (9 eq, 48 mg), was added in three C-19 ketone (150 mg) to a solution of MeOH 3 mL. After 1 hour, saturated NH 4 Cl solution was added. The resulting mixture was extracted with CHCl 3 and then concentrated. S-Thiacumicin B was added to YMC-pack ODS-A 75 × 30 mm ID. Column (H 2 O: MeOH: AcOH 2
8: 72: 1) to obtain pure 35 mg of purified S-thiacmicin B.

MS m / z 1074.5 (M + NH 4 ) + ;
1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.15 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1H), 6.58 (dd, J = 14.1, 11.4 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (ddd, J = 14.1, 10.6, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 5.78 (s, 1H), 5.40 (dd, J = 7.8, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.15 (dd, J = 9.5, 9.5 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (d, J = 9.9 Hz, 1H), 5.01 (d, J = 9.9 Hz, 1H), 4.77 (ddd, J = 5.8, 5.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.65 (brs, 1H), 4.62 (brs, 1H) 4.42 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (brs, 1H), 4.07-3.97 (m, 2H), 3.74-3.58 (m, 4H) 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.52 (dq, J = 9.5, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (dq, J = 12.6, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3. 01 (dq, J = 12.6, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 2.77-2.65 (m, 2H), 2.60 (7 layers, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 2.55- 2.44 (m, 3H), 1.95-1.84 (m, 1H), 1.80 (s, 3H), 1.76 (s, 3H), 1.66 (s, 3H), 1 .34 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 3H), 1.29-1.24 (m, 1H), 1.27 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.21 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H), 1.19 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H), 1.18 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H), 1.15 (s, 3H), 1.10 ( s, 3H), 0.84 (t, J = 7.2H z, 3H);

13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 177.4, 170.1, 168.8, 157.6, 152.8, 144.4, 143.1, 141.1, 136.7, 136.2 134.9, 133.8, 128.7, 125.7, 125.2, 123.0, 113.9, 107.5, 107.2, 101.7, 94.9, 92.6, 80. 8, 79.2, 76.6, 74.8, 73.5, 72.7, 71.9, 71.7, 70.2, 70.1, 69.5, 63.5, 62.3, 41.5, 36.6, 34.3, 29.5, 28.2, 26.2, 26.0, 19.4, 19.3, 18.9, 18.5, 17.8, 17. 3, 15.3, 14.1, 13.7, 11.1;

(Analytical data of lipirmycin A4 :)
MS m / z 1060.5 (M + NH 4) +;
1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.12 (d, J = 11.6 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (dd, J = 14.1, 11.6 Hz, 1H), 5.85 (br s, 1H), 5.83 (ddd, J = 14.1, 10.6, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.47 (dd, J = 8.3, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 5.12 (dd , J = 9.6, 9.6 Hz, 1H), 5.00 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (brd, J = 10.6 Hz, 1H), 4.75-4. .69 (m, 1H), 4.68 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (brs, 1H), 4.62 (brs, 1H), 4.40 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.26 (br s, 1 H), 4.07-4.00 (m, 1 H), 4.02 (br d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1 H) 3.75-3.61 (m, 4H), 3.62 (s, 3H), 3.55 (dq, J = 9.6, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 2.82-2.45 (m , 6H), 2.60 (s, 3H), 2.07-1.97 (m, 1H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.81 (s, 3H), 1.67 (s, 3H), 1.32 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H), 1.30-1.22 (m, 1H), 1.21 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.19 ( d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.18 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.15 (s, 3H), 1.10 (s, 3H), 0.83 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H);

13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 177.4, 170.5, 168.9, 157.8, 153.0, 144.3, 140.9, 137.7, 137.0, 136.3, 134 6, 134.4, 129.1, 127.9, 125.3, 123.2, 114.5, 107.4, 107.0, 101.8, 94.7, 92.5, 80.3 79.6, 76.7, 74.9, 73.5, 72.7, 71.9, 71.6, 70.2, 70.1, 69.1, 63.6, 62.3, 41 .9, 36.9, 34.4, 28.8, 28.2, 25.9, 20.0, 19.3, 19.0, 18.6, 18.5, 17.8, 17.2 15.5, 13.8.11.2;

(Analytical data of C-19 ketone)
MS m / z 1072.5 (M + NH 4) +;
1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 7.27 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1H), 6.61 (dd, J = 14.7, 11.4 Hz, 1H), 5.91 (ddd, J = 14.7, 9.1, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 5.83 (s, 1H), 5.31 (dd, J = 7.9, 7.9 Hz, 1H), 5.14 (dd, J = 9.7, 9.7 Hz, 1H), 5.06 (d, J = 10.6 Hz, 1H), 5.00 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (dd, J = 7.1, 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (d, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (brs, 1H), 4.61 (brs, 1H), 4.42. (D, J = 11.9 Hz, 1H), 4.30 (brs, 1H), 4.02 (brd, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.63-3.60 (m, 4 ), 3.62 (s, 3H), 3.51 (dq, J = 9.7, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (dq, J = 14.4, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 3 .03 (dq, J = 14.4, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 2.76-2.50 (m, 6H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 1.93-1.87 (m, 1H), 1.87 (s, 3H), 1.75 (s, 3H), 1.63 (s, 3H), 1.32 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H), 1.27-1 .22 (m, 1H), 1.21 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H), 1.19 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.18 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.14 (s, 3H), 1.10 (s, 3H), 0.84 (t, J = 7.3 Hz, 3H);

13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ 205.5, 177.4, 170.1, 166.9, 157.6, 152.8, 145.7, 143.1, 142.0, 137.1, 136 8,135.5,133.7,128.3,124.8,124.0,122.8,113.9,107.3,107.2,101.3,94.8,92.4 80.4, 77.7, 76.6, 74.7, 73.5, 72.6, 71.8, 71.7, 70.2, 70.0, 63.0, 62.3, 41 5, 36.5, 34.3, 29.6, 28.1, 26.2, 26.1, 26.0, 19.2, 18.9, 18.5, 17.8, 17.3 15.2, 14.0, 13.3, 11.0.

(Example 3: Biological activity)
(MIC values measured for several C. difficile strains)
OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacumicin B) and its related compounds were tested against C. difficile. The resulting MIC values are reported in Table 3 below. As we can see, OPT-80 was particularly active when compared to S-Thiacmycin B and Lipialmycin A4.

(MIC values measured for various microorganisms)
OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-Tiacumicin B) and its related compounds were tested against several other pathogens. The obtained MIC values are reported in Table 4 below. As we can see, OPT-80 was particularly active when compared to S-Thiacmycin B and Lipialmycin A4.

(Example 4: Effect of OPT-80 after administration of antibiotics on C. difficile)
Measured the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiamicin B) against two strains: C. difficile ATCC 43255 and clinical isolate LC3 did. Vancomycin and rifampin were further tested against LC3.

  The PAE at 4 × MIC was observed to be very long for both strains: ie greater than 24 hours. Due to the long term effect, an accurate PAE was not calculated. On the other hand, vancomycin had a more standard PAE of less than 1 hour when used at 4 × MIC against strain LC3.

(Example 5: In vitro activity of OPT-80)
The in vitro effect of OPT-80 (which consists almost entirely of R-thiacmycin B), metronidazole and vancomycin was compared to 110 genetically different isolates of C. difficile by agar dilution. Evaluated against. The obtained MIC data are shown in Tables 5 and 6.

Example 6: Activity of OPT-80 compared to selected anaerobic species
The in vitro activity of OPT-80 was examined against 350 anaerobes. The experimental procedure is outlined in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2004, 48: 4430-4434, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  All organisms, for example 21 C. difficile strains, are separate isolates and are not clonally related. All quality control gram-negative and gram-positive strains recommended by NCCLS are included in each experiment: in each case the results (if available) were within range.

The results of the MIC test are shown in Table 7.

Example 7: In vitro activity of OPT-80 against enterobacteria
The in vitro activity of OPT-80 against enteric bacteria was evaluated. The experimental procedure is outlined in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2004, 48: 4898-4902, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  The antibacterial concentration range was constrained by the solubility limit of the drug in the test medium and was chosen to include or exceed concentrations that would be achieved in the gut (to the extent this information is available). The range of OPT-80 concentrations used during the study was 0.03 μg / ml to 1024 μg / ml.

  For analysis, the tested bacteria were roughly classified into genus, species or other groups using at least 10 isolates. Except for organisms tested for fewer than 10 strains, the extent to which 50% and 90% of the isolates were blocked and the MIC were measured. Only that range is reported (Table 8).

OPT-80 had good activity against most anaerobic gram positive non-spore forming bacilli and anaerobic gram positive bacteria. OPT-80 also showed good activity against enterococci and staphylococci.

(Other embodiments)
All references discussed above are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for all purposes. While the invention has been particularly shown and described in connection with preferred embodiments thereof, various changes in form and detail depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that it may be done herein without.

FIG. 1 represents the Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot Program (ORTEP) chemical structure of R-Tiacumicin B.

Claims (36)

  1. 70% to 100% of formula VII
    Wherein X is lower alkyl selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is H or methyl; Lower alkyl selected from the group consisting of ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl and pentyl]
    A composition comprising:
  2.   The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition further comprises 0% to 30% Tiacumin B related compound.
  3.   The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises 75% of Formula VII.
  4.   The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises 80% of Formula VII.
  5.   The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises 85% of Formula VII.
  6.   The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises 90% of Formula VII.
  7.   The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition comprises 95% of Formula VII.
  8.   The composition of claim 1, wherein X is methyl or ethyl; and Y is OH or ketone (═O); and Z is isopropyl.
  9.   9. The composition of claim 8, wherein X is ethyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is isopropyl.
  10.   10. The composition of claim 9, wherein X is ethyl; and Y is OH; and Z is isopropyl.
  11. 70-100% of formula IV
    A composition comprising:
  12.   12. The composition of claim 11, wherein the composition further comprises 0-30% tiacumicin B related compound.
  13.   13. The composition according to claim 12, wherein the thiacumicin B-related compound is selected from the group consisting of Lipialmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  14. The composition is
    13. The composition of claim 12, comprising (a) ≧ 90% of said compound of formula IV; and (b) ≦ 10% of said thiacumicin B related compound.
  15.   15. The composition according to claim 14, wherein the thiacumicin B related compound is selected from the group consisting of lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising:
    (A) 70% to 100% of formula VII
    Wherein X is lower alkyl selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is H or methyl; Lower alkyl selected from the group consisting of ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl and pentyl]
    And (b) 0-30% thiacumicin B-related compound; and (c) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
  17.   The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 16, further comprising an additional agent selected from the group consisting of an antibacterial agent and an antifungal agent.
  18.   17. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 16, wherein X is methyl or ethyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is isopropyl.
  19.   19. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 18, wherein X is ethyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is isopropyl.
  20.   20. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 19, wherein X is ethyl; and Y is OH; and Z is isopropyl.
  21.   21. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 20, wherein the thiacumicin B related compound is selected from the group consisting of lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  22. A pharmaceutical composition comprising:
    A pharmaceutical composition comprising (a) 70% to 100% of a compound of formula IV; and (b) 0% to 30% of thiacumicin B related compound; and (c) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
  23. The pharmaceutical composition is
    23. The method of claim 22, comprising: (a) ≧ 90% of said compound of formula IV; and (b) ≦ 10% of said tiacumicin B related compound; and (c) said pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Pharmaceutical composition.
  24.   24. The pharmaceutical composition according to claim 23, wherein said thiacumicin B-related compound is selected from the group consisting of lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  25.   A method of treating a bacterial infection in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition comprising the pharmaceutical composition of claim 16.
  26.   26. The method of claim 25, wherein X is methyl or ethyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is isopropyl.
  27.   27. The method of claim 26, wherein X is ethyl; and Y is OH or ketone (= O); and Z is isopropyl.
  28.   28. The method of claim 27, wherein X is ethyl; and Y is OH; and Z is isopropyl.
  29.   29. The method of claim 28, wherein the thiacumin B related compound is selected from the group consisting of lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  30.   30. The method of claim 28, wherein the pharmaceutical composition comprises the pharmaceutical composition of claim 23.
  31.   32. The method of claim 30, wherein the thiacumicin B related compound is selected from the group consisting of lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  32.   32. The method of claim 30, wherein the pharmaceutical composition has a MIC value that is significantly lower than the MIC value of a thiacumicin B-related compound.
  33.   33. The method of claim 32, wherein the thiacumin B related compound is selected from the group consisting of lipirmycin A4 and C-19 ketone.
  34.   A bacterium having a MIC value selected from the group consisting of C. difficile, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium is used. 35. The method of claim 32, wherein the method is measured.
  35.   32. The method of claim 30, wherein the pharmaceutical composition has a post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of longer than 24 hours.
  36.   32. The method of claim 30, wherein the pharmaceutical composition further comprises an additional agent selected from the group consisting of an antibacterial agent and an antifungal agent.
JP2007553073A 2005-01-31 2005-01-31 18-membered macrocycle and similar compounds Active JP5166040B2 (en)

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JP2017507994A (en) * 2014-03-18 2017-03-23 クセリア ファーマシューティカルズ エーピーエスXellia Pharmaceuticals ApS New polymorph and new solid state of thiacomycin B

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JP2015516438A (en) * 2012-05-10 2015-06-11 テヴァ・ファーマシューティカル・ワークス・リミテッド Solid form of fidaxomycin and process for its preparation
JP2016183193A (en) * 2012-05-10 2016-10-20 テヴァ・ファーマシューティカル・ワークス・リミテッド Solid state forms of fidaxomicin and processes for preparation thereof
JP2017507994A (en) * 2014-03-18 2017-03-23 クセリア ファーマシューティカルズ エーピーエスXellia Pharmaceuticals ApS New polymorph and new solid state of thiacomycin B

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