JP2008303659A - Ground biting anchor and anchoring method - Google Patents

Ground biting anchor and anchoring method Download PDF

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JP2008303659A
JP2008303659A JP2007153446A JP2007153446A JP2008303659A JP 2008303659 A JP2008303659 A JP 2008303659A JP 2007153446 A JP2007153446 A JP 2007153446A JP 2007153446 A JP2007153446 A JP 2007153446A JP 2008303659 A JP2008303659 A JP 2008303659A
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grout
anchor
long cylindrical
pulling
ground
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JP4901593B2 (en
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Kaizo Furukawa
改造 古川
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Kaizo Furukawa
改造 古川
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a ground biting anchor for obtaining sufficient withdrawal resistance even if the ground is weak. <P>SOLUTION: The anchor body includes a long cylindrical body 4 which is separated into predetermined lengths at two positions of the middle part. The anchor body is integrated into one by interposing and connecting an inner cylindrical body 12 and a large number of thin and long metal members 11 in each separated part 7. The inner cylindrical body 12 has an outflow port of a grout material formed at the peripheral surface. The end of the inner cylindrical body 12 is fixed to the separated end of the long cylindrical body 4 and the other end is formed to be protrusive from and retreative into the opposite separated end of the long cylindrical body 4. The thin and long metal members 11 extend in a manner of covering the separated part 7 and are formed to slightly be swelled to the outside. Two tensile wires 8 are arranged in the long cylindrical body 4 except the upper end of the separated long cylindrical body 4. Each of lower ends of the tensile wires 8 are connected to each of the separated parts, and upper ends are pulled out of an upper end opening of the long cylindrical body 4. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2009,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、地上の構造物を土地に強固に固定させたり、弱い地盤を安定化させるために地中に埋設する地中食い込ませ型のアンカー及びそのアンカーを用いて施工されるアンカー工法に関する。   The present invention relates to an underground encroaching type anchor embedded in the ground in order to firmly fix a structure on the ground or stabilize a weak ground, and an anchor method constructed using the anchor.
地上の構造物が土地から浮いたり移動したりしないように、その構造物を土地に強固に固定させようとする各種のアンカー工事が実施されている。
通常のアンカー工事においては、ドリルで地盤を深く穿削し、その掘削孔にアンカー材やロックボルトなどの鋼材を挿入してセメントミルク等のグラウト材を注入充填し、その鋼材の先端側を地盤に定着させる。
また地面にはコンクリート製などの受圧板を設置して、この受圧板とその鋼材の基端側と固定させることにより受圧板に固定される建造物などを土地に強固に固定させる工法(グラウンドアンカー工法と呼ばれる)が一般的に行われている。
この工法で施工した場合には、建造物を固定した受圧板が地盤などの地中の変化で移動されようとすると、地中で固まったグラウト材の引抜き抵抗力で鋼材が地中から引き抜けない構造となる。
Various anchor works are being carried out to firmly fix the structure to the land so that the structure on the ground does not float or move from the land.
In normal anchor construction, drill the ground deeply with a drill, insert steel material such as anchor material and rock bolt into the excavation hole, inject and fill grout material such as cement milk, and place the tip side of the steel material on the ground. To settle.
In addition, a concrete pressure receiving plate is installed on the ground, and the structure fixed to the pressure receiving plate is firmly fixed to the land by fixing this pressure receiving plate and the base end side of the steel material (ground anchor) This method is generally called “construction method”.
When the construction method is used, the steel plate is pulled out from the ground by the pulling resistance of the grout material that has hardened in the ground when the pressure-receiving plate that fixes the building is moved due to changes in the ground such as the ground. No structure.
しかしながら、充填されて掘削孔の形状に沿って固化しただけのグラウト部分の形状では、地盤に対する引抜き抵抗力には限りがあり、土地が軟弱又は脆弱である土砂地等では、それ自体が崩れやすく、受圧板に地面から大きな力が加えられると、その押圧力に引抜き抵抗力が負けて地盤からアンカーが抜け、その結果、建造物が傾くなどの異常事態を起こしてしまうことがある。
このため、より長尺なアンカーを使用して、地中により深く差し込むことで地中からの引抜き抵抗力を高めようとすることも実施されてはいるが、そのためには地中に相当に深く差し込まなければならないので、工期の長期化や施工の困難化、さらには工事費の上昇などの問題が生じる。
However, with the shape of the grout part that has just been filled and solidified along the shape of the excavation hole, the pulling resistance against the ground is limited, and in the case of earth and sand where the land is soft or fragile, it is likely to collapse itself. When a large force is applied to the pressure receiving plate from the ground, the pulling resistance force is lost to the pressing force, the anchor is pulled out from the ground, and as a result, an abnormal situation such as tilting the building may occur.
For this reason, attempts have been made to increase the resistance to pulling out of the ground by using a longer anchor and inserting it deeper into the ground. Since it has to be plugged in, problems such as a prolonged construction period, difficulty in construction, and an increase in construction costs arise.
一方、下記特許文献1に記載のように、より深くアンカーを設置しなくても充分にアンカー効果が得られるように、ヒンジ部材が掘削孔の内壁に向けて広げられる拡張型のアンカーが提案されている。
特開2000−73374号公報
On the other hand, as described in Patent Document 1 below, an expandable anchor is proposed in which the hinge member is expanded toward the inner wall of the excavation hole so that the anchor effect can be sufficiently obtained without deeply installing the anchor. ing.
JP 2000-73374 A
しかし、上記特許文献1の拡張型のアンカーでは、広げられるヒンジ部材を備えた拡底支持根が、ヒンジを介して連結された一対のヒンジ部材が周方向に数個ほど設けられ、それらのヒンジ部材の上下端部が鉄筋又は鋼棒アンカーで押圧されるとヒンジ部が外側に向かって折り曲がるが、その際、各ヒンジ部材の各鉄筋の長さは全て同じなので、同心円状に広がったヒンジ部材は掘削孔の不規則な壁面に最初の一つが突き当たると鉄筋又は鋼棒アンカーが押し引きできなくなってそれ以外のヒンジ部材は掘削孔の壁面まで到達できなくなるので全開状態になる前で止まって中途半端に広がった状態となってしまう。
そうなると、その後削孔にグラウト材を充填しても、掘削孔の壁面を押すようにヒンジ部材が殆ど拡張されてはいないので、期待したほど大きな引抜き抵抗力を得ることができなくなってしまう。
さらに、一つのアンカーに対して拡底支持根は一つなので、たまたま拡底支持根の当たる部分が脆弱な地盤であった場合には、充分な引抜き抵抗力を得ることができなくなってしまうという難点があった。
However, in the expandable anchor of the above-mentioned Patent Document 1, several pairs of hinge members connected to each other via a hinge are provided in the circumferential direction with a bottom-up support root provided with a hinge member that is spread, and these hinge members When the upper and lower ends are pressed by a reinforcing bar or steel bar anchor, the hinge part bends outward. At that time, the length of each reinforcing bar of each hinge member is the same, so the hinge member spreads concentrically. If the first one hits the irregular wall surface of the drilling hole, the reinforcing bar or steel bar anchor cannot be pushed and pulled, and the other hinge members cannot reach the wall surface of the drilling hole. It will be in a state spread to the other end.
Then, even if the hole is filled with a grout material after that, the hinge member is hardly expanded so as to push the wall surface of the drilling hole, so that it becomes impossible to obtain a large pulling resistance as expected.
Furthermore, since there is only one bottom support base for one anchor, if the part where the bottom support base hits is a weak ground, there will be a problem that sufficient pulling resistance cannot be obtained. there were.
そこで本発明は、上記実情に鑑み、不規則な壁面の掘削孔に対して拡張される多数の金属部材が掘削孔の壁面に食い込むように膨出でき、且つたとえ膨出部分が当たったところに脆弱な地盤があったとしても、他の固い地盤の部分で充分に引抜き抵抗力を得ることができる地中食い込ませ型のアンカー及びそのアンカーを用いた工法を提供しようとすることを目的とする。   Therefore, in view of the above situation, the present invention can bulge so that a large number of metal members that are expanded with respect to an irregular wall digging hole bite into the wall surface of the digging hole, even if the bulging part hits. An object of the present invention is to provide an underground anchor and a construction method using the anchor that can obtain sufficient pulling resistance in other hard ground portions even if there is a weak ground. .
上記目的を達成するために、本発明の地中食い込ませ型アンカーは請求項1記載の発明にあっては、地中の掘削孔に差し込まれた金属製長尺筒体から注入されたグラウト材で掘削孔内の空間を充填し、固化したグラウト材と掘削孔の壁面との間の引抜き抵抗力によって前記長尺筒体の上部の受圧板に固定された地上構造物を支保するアンカーである。
前記アンカー本体は、前記長尺筒体の中間部位の一箇所又は複数箇所を一定の長さに分離して該分離箇所に、周面にグラウト材流出口を備えるとともに該長尺筒体の対向した分断端部に対して一方端部が固着され他方端部が前記長尺筒体に出没可能に形成した内筒体と、前記分離箇所を覆うように架設して外側へ僅か膨らみ状態に形成した多数の細長金属部材とを介在させて全体を一本に連結する。
前記長尺筒体の筒内には、分離された前記長尺筒体の上端側部分を除いた部分に、その分離部分毎に下端を接続し、上端を前記長尺筒体の上端開口部から引き出した一本又は複数本の引張りワイヤを備える。
そして、前記引張りワイヤの牽引で前記細長金属部材を膨出変形させた後、前記細長金属部材の周囲にグラウト材を充填して形成された膨出部によって強力な引抜き抵抗力が得られるようにしたことを特徴とする。
In order to achieve the above object, the underground bite type anchor of the present invention is the grout material injected from the metal long cylindrical body inserted into the underground excavation hole. This is an anchor that fills the space in the excavation hole and supports the ground structure fixed to the pressure receiving plate on the upper part of the long cylindrical body by the pulling resistance force between the solidified grout material and the wall surface of the excavation hole .
The anchor main body has one or a plurality of intermediate portions of the long cylindrical body separated into a certain length, and provided with a grout outlet on the peripheral surface, and opposed to the long cylindrical body. An inner cylinder formed so that one end thereof is fixed to the divided end and the other end can be projected and retracted in the long cylindrical body, and is swelled outwardly so as to cover the separation portion. The whole is connected to one by interposing a number of formed elongated metal members.
In the cylinder of the long cylindrical body, a lower end is connected to each part of the long cylindrical body excluding the upper end side part, and the upper end is an upper end opening of the long cylindrical body. One or a plurality of pull wires pulled out from the cable.
Then, after the elongated metal member is bulged and deformed by pulling the pulling wire, a strong pulling resistance force is obtained by the bulging portion formed by filling a grout material around the elongated metal member. It is characterized by that.
請求項2記載の発明にあっては、前記内筒体の外周面の中間部位にストッパーを突設するとともに、該ストッパーと固着されている端部との間の内筒体の周面にグラウト材流出口を開設したことを特徴とする。   According to a second aspect of the present invention, a stopper is projected from an intermediate portion of the outer peripheral surface of the inner cylindrical body, and a grout is formed on the peripheral surface of the inner cylindrical body between the stopper and the fixed end. It is characterized by opening a material outlet.
請求項3記載の発明にあっては、前記長尺筒体の内壁にグラウト材流出口を備えた隔壁板を固設して該隔壁板に引張りワイヤの下端を接続したことを特徴とする。   The invention according to claim 3 is characterized in that a partition plate provided with a grout material outlet is fixed to the inner wall of the elongated cylindrical body, and a lower end of a pulling wire is connected to the partition plate.
請求項4記載の発明にあっては、前記請求項1から3のうちいずれかに記載の地中食い込ませ型アンカーを用いたアンカー工法である。
このアンカー工法は、予め地中に穿削した掘削孔に、請求項1から3のうちいずれかに記載の地中食い込ませ型アンカーの長尺筒体を挿入する地中挿入工程と、地上にワイヤ挿通口とグラウト材注入口を備えた受圧板を設置して、前記受圧板の引張りワイヤ挿通口に引張りワイヤを挿通させ、前記長尺筒体の上端部に該受圧板を固定する受圧板設置工程と、
前記各引張りワイヤのうち、前記長尺筒体の上側に固着した引張りワイヤから下へと順に引き寄せて、細長金属部材を掘削孔の壁面を押すように膨出変形させる細長金属部材膨出工程と、前記受圧板のグラウト材注入口から前記長尺筒体内へグラウト材を注入し、内筒体のグラウト材流出口から掘削孔内にグラウト材を充満させるグラウト材注入工程と、から成る。
そして、前記細長金属部材の周囲にグラウト材を充填して形成された膨出部によって強力な引抜き抵抗力が得られるようにしたことを特徴とする。
In invention of Claim 4, it is an anchor method using the underground bite type | mold anchor in any one of the said Claim 1 to 3.
This anchor construction method includes an underground insertion step of inserting the long cylindrical body of the underground bite type anchor according to any one of claims 1 to 3 into an excavation hole drilled in the ground in advance, A pressure receiving plate that is provided with a pressure receiving plate having a wire insertion port and a grout material injection port, allows the pulling wire to be inserted into the pulling wire insertion port of the pressure receiving plate, and fixes the pressure receiving plate to the upper end portion of the long cylindrical body. Installation process;
An elongated metal member bulging step of pulling the elongated metal member downward in order to push the wall surface of the excavation hole by pulling down the puller wire fixed to the upper side of the long cylindrical body in order from among the respective tensile wires; And a grout material injecting step of injecting a grout material from the grout material injection port of the pressure receiving plate into the long cylindrical body and filling the grout material into the excavation hole from the grout material outlet of the inner cylinder.
A strong pulling resistance can be obtained by a bulging portion formed by filling a grout material around the elongated metal member.
本発明の地中食い込ませ型アンカーは上記構成であり、引張りワイヤが、分離された前記長尺筒体の各部毎に接続されており、地中の掘削孔に挿入された前記長尺筒体の上端部から引き出した各引張りワイヤを強く牽引すると、長尺筒体の分離箇所に出没可能に形成した内筒体が長尺筒体に没入して分離間隔が狭められ、この際、その分離箇所を覆うように長尺筒体の分離箇所の対向端部に対して架設された細長金属部材が両端側から圧迫されて逃げ場を失い、外側に向けて膨出変形を起こす。
すると、細長金属部材が前記掘削孔の内周壁面に当たって、細長金属部材の膨出力により、軟弱地盤にあたると、細長金属部材が外側に突出するように変形しつつ掘削孔の内壁面を押し広げ、硬い地盤に当たると、部分的にその内壁面に沿って塑性変形を起こし、その掘削孔に沿って強く密着状態となる。
そして、グラウト材注入口から圧入されたグラウト材は前記内筒体のグラウト材流出口から掘削孔内に流入して充満し、この膨出部を埋めた状態で固化する。
即ち、細長金属部材を内部に含みんでグラウト材と一体となった強固な膨出部が形成され、この部分がアンカーとなって強力な引抜き抵抗力が得られるようになる。
この結果、長尺筒体に固定された受圧板と一体の地上構造物を地盤に対して強固に支保することが可能となる。
The underground bite type anchor according to the present invention has the above-described configuration, and a tension wire is connected to each part of the separated long cylindrical body, and the long cylindrical body is inserted into an underground excavation hole. When each puller wire pulled out from the upper end of the tube is pulled strongly, the inner cylinder formed so as to be able to protrude and retract in the separation part of the long cylindrical body is immersed in the long cylindrical body, and the separation interval is narrowed. The elongated metal member installed over the opposite end of the separation part of the long cylindrical body so as to cover the part is pressed from both end sides, loses the escape area, and bulges and deforms toward the outside.
Then, when the elongated metal member hits the inner peripheral wall surface of the excavation hole and hits the soft ground due to the bulging output of the elongated metal member, the elongated metal member is deformed so as to protrude outward, and the inner wall surface of the excavation hole is expanded, When it hits the hard ground, it partially undergoes plastic deformation along its inner wall surface, and is strongly in close contact along its excavation hole.
Then, the grout material press-fitted from the grout material inlet flows into the excavation hole from the grout material outlet of the inner cylindrical body and fills, and solidifies in a state where the bulging portion is filled.
That is, a strong bulging portion is formed which includes an elongated metal member inside and is integrated with the grout material, and this portion serves as an anchor to obtain a strong pulling resistance.
As a result, it becomes possible to firmly support the ground structure integrated with the pressure receiving plate fixed to the long cylindrical body with respect to the ground.
また前記長尺筒体の分離箇所を複数設けた形態では、それぞれ異なった深さの地盤に対して膨出部を形成することが可能となるので、たとえ数箇所の膨出部分が当たったところに脆弱な地盤があったとしても、他の固い地盤に当たった部分で充分強力な引抜き抵抗力を得ることが可能となる。
そして、本発明の地中食い込ませ型アンカーの全体で、地上構造物を地面に強固に支保することが可能となる。
Further, in the embodiment in which a plurality of separation portions of the long cylindrical body are provided, it is possible to form a bulging portion with respect to the ground of different depths, so even if several bulging portions have hit Even if there is a fragile ground, it is possible to obtain a sufficiently strong pulling resistance at the part that hits another hard ground.
And the ground structure can be firmly supported on the ground with the entire underground bite type anchor of the present invention.
本発明の実施の形態につき以下図面に基づいて説明する。
本発明は、地盤に構造物を支保するための地中食い込ませ型アンカーと、このアンカーを使用したアンカー工法に関した発明であるが、地中食い込ませ型アンカーについて先に説明する。
Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
The present invention relates to an underground digging anchor for supporting a structure on the ground and an anchor method using the anchor. The underground digging anchor will be described first.
本発明の地中食い込ませ型アンカーは、図2に示すように、土地の法面から地中の地盤内に掘削孔14を掘削して、この掘削孔14に挿入させて使用するものであり、その掘削孔14は、図1に示すように、法面に格子状のコンクリート枠1を打設し、その交点にプレキャストコンクリート枠2を施設してその中央に穿削する。
この場合、例えばコンクリート枠2に120mmの穿削用孔3を設け、図1中の実線で示すように、その穿削用孔3から外径100mmの金属製長尺筒体4を掘削孔14に挿入し、その上端部16をコンクリート枠2に載置した受圧板19に固定する。
この受圧板19には引張りワイヤを挿通させるための引張りワイヤ挿通口5と前記金属製長尺筒体4の中を通して地中の掘削孔14内にグラウト材を注入し充填するためのグラウト材注入口6を設ける。
As shown in FIG. 2, the underground bite type anchor of the present invention is used by excavating an excavation hole 14 in the ground from the slope of the land and inserting it into the excavation hole 14. As shown in FIG. 1, the excavation hole 14 is formed by placing a grid-like concrete frame 1 on the slope, and installing a precast concrete frame 2 at the intersection to drill in the center.
In this case, for example, a 120 mm drilling hole 3 is provided in the concrete frame 2, and as shown by a solid line in FIG. 1, a metal long cylindrical body 4 having an outer diameter of 100 mm is drilled from the drilling hole 3. The upper end portion 16 is fixed to the pressure receiving plate 19 placed on the concrete frame 2.
The pressure receiving plate 19 is filled with a grouting material for injecting and filling the grouting material into the underground excavation hole 14 through the pulling wire insertion port 5 for inserting the pulling wire and the metal long cylindrical body 4. An inlet 6 is provided.
アンカー本体は、図2に示すように、前記長尺筒体4の中間部位4a、4b、4cを3部分に分離し、それらの分離箇所7を内筒体12と細長金属部材11とで接続してアンカー本体の全体が一本となるように直列に連結する。   As shown in FIG. 2, the anchor main body separates the intermediate portions 4 a, 4 b, and 4 c of the long tubular body 4 into three parts, and connects the separated portions 7 with the inner tubular body 12 and the elongated metal member 11. And it connects in series so that the whole anchor body may become one.
前記長尺筒体4の分離箇所7は、前記長尺筒体4の全体の長さや、地盤の状況に応じた間隔で複数設けることができる。
即ち、前記分離箇所7を前記長尺筒体4の中間部位4bの一箇所だけ設けても、また図2及び図5に示すように、2数箇所にするなど、複数箇所に設けることができる。
A plurality of separation points 7 of the long cylindrical body 4 can be provided at intervals according to the overall length of the long cylindrical body 4 and the ground conditions.
That is, the separation portion 7 can be provided at a plurality of locations such as only one intermediate portion 4b of the long cylindrical body 4 or two as shown in FIGS. .
さらに、詳しく前記分離箇所7の前記長尺筒体4の連結構造を説明すると、前記内筒体12は両端部を前記長尺筒体4の対向端部にそれぞれ嵌合させ、図3及び図4に示すように、前記長尺筒体4の対向した分断端部に対して下端部12cを固着するとともに上端部12aを前記長尺筒体4の上端部側部分4aにスライド出没可能に形成する。   Further, the connection structure of the long cylindrical body 4 at the separation portion 7 will be described in detail. The inner cylindrical body 12 is fitted with opposite ends of the long cylindrical body 4 at opposite ends, respectively. As shown in FIG. 4, the lower end 12c is fixed to the opposed divided ends of the long cylindrical body 4, and the upper end 12a is slidable into and out of the upper end side portion 4a of the long cylindrical body 4. Form.
また、前記内筒体12を中間部12bの外周面にリング状のストッパー13を周設し、前記長尺筒体4に固定された下端部4cと前記ストッパー13との間の前記内筒体12の周面にグラウト材流出口15を開設する。
このストッパー13は、前記内筒体12が前記長尺筒体4に没入するとき、前記内筒体12のグラウト材流出口15が塞がれてしまうのを防ぎために設けるもで、このストッパー13により、注入されたグラウト材がグラウト材流出口15から掘削孔14内に確実に流出させることが可能となる。
Further, the inner cylinder 12 is provided with a ring-shaped stopper 13 around the outer peripheral surface of the intermediate portion 12 b, and the inner cylinder between the lower end 4 c fixed to the long cylinder 4 and the stopper 13. A grout outlet 15 is opened on the circumferential surface of 12.
The stopper 13 is provided to prevent the grout outlet 15 of the inner cylinder 12 from being blocked when the inner cylinder 12 is immersed in the long cylinder 4. 13, the injected grout material can surely flow out from the grout material outlet 15 into the excavation hole 14.
そして、図3及び図4に示すように、前記内筒体12の周囲の前記分離箇所7全体を覆うように前記長尺筒体4の分離して対向する端部に多数の細長金属部材11と架設し、それらに細長金属部材11は外側へ僅か膨らみ状態に形成しておく。
前記内筒体12の中央部の周囲に前記リング状のストッパー13を高く突設させておけば、前記多数の細長金属部材11はその中間部分11aが前記リング状のストッパー13に接触し、そのストッパー13の突出高さほど膨らんだように変形させておくことができる。
As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, a large number of elongated metal members 11 are provided at the end portions of the long cylindrical body 4 that are separated from each other so as to cover the whole separation portion 7 around the inner cylindrical body 12. The elongated metal member 11 is formed in a slightly bulging state on the outside.
If the ring-shaped stopper 13 is protruded high around the central portion of the inner cylinder 12, the middle portion 11a of the multiple elongated metal members 11 contacts the ring-shaped stopper 13, The stopper 13 can be deformed so as to swell as the protruding height.
図3及び図4に示すように、前記細長金属部材11を放射方向に予め屈曲しておくと、前記引張りワイヤ8を引いて前記長尺筒体4の分離間隔を縮めるよう前記長尺筒体4の対向両端部を圧迫したときに、前記引張りワイヤ8を引いて生じる長手方向の力のべクトルが放射状方向に屈曲させる力のべクトルに転換されるので、前記引張りワイヤ8を牽引する力が比較的小さい力でも細長金属部材11の全本数を、図6及び図7に示すように、容易に放射状に外側に向けて膨出させることが可能になる。
この際の前記細長金属部材11の膨出変形は、引張りワイヤ8を強く牽引し続けると、内筒体12が前記長尺筒体4に没入するに従って、長尺筒体の上端部側部分4aに前記ストッパー13が突き当たるまで、図6及び図7に示すように、中央部全体を同心円状に更に大きく外に膨出させることが可能となる。
なお、前記細長金属部材11の材質と太さは、強度が大きすぎると前記細長金属部材11の中間部分11aの屈曲変形が困難となるので、銅や軟鉄などを使用すると良い。
As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, when the elongated metal member 11 is bent in the radial direction in advance, the elongated cylindrical body is drawn so as to reduce the separation interval of the elongated cylindrical body 4 by pulling the pulling wire 8. When the opposing opposite ends of 4 are compressed, the longitudinal force vector generated by pulling the pulling wire 8 is converted into the force vector bending in the radial direction, so that the pulling force of the pulling wire 8 is pulled. As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the total number of the elongated metal members 11 can be easily radiated outwardly even with a relatively small force.
The bulging deformation of the elongated metal member 11 at this time is caused by continuing to pull the pulling wire 8 strongly, and as the inner cylindrical body 12 is immersed in the long cylindrical body 4, the upper end side portion 4a of the long cylindrical body. As shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the entire central portion can be further bulged outwardly in a concentric manner until the stopper 13 comes into contact.
The material and thickness of the elongated metal member 11 may be made of copper, soft iron, or the like because bending and deformation of the intermediate portion 11a of the elongated metal member 11 becomes difficult if the strength is too large.
また前記長尺筒体4の筒内に設ける引張りワイヤ8については、図2及び図5に示すように、分離された前記長尺筒体4の上端側部分4aを除いた部分4b、4cに、その分離部分毎に下端を接続し、上端を前記長尺筒体4の上端開口部から引き出した一本又は複数本必要数を備える。
前記各引張りワイヤ8は、直接前記長尺筒体4に固着することもできるが、グラウト材流出口17aを備えた隔壁板17をその長尺筒体4の内壁に固設して、この隔壁板17に対して前記各引張りワイヤ8の下端を固着しても良い。
Further, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 5, the pulling wire 8 provided in the cylinder of the long cylindrical body 4 is formed in portions 4 b and 4 c excluding the upper end side portion 4 a of the separated long cylindrical body 4. The required number of one or a plurality of the lower ends is connected to each separated portion, and the upper ends are drawn from the upper end opening of the long cylindrical body 4.
Each of the pulling wires 8 can be directly fixed to the long cylindrical body 4, but a partition plate 17 provided with a grout material outlet 17a is fixed to the inner wall of the long cylindrical body 4, and this partition wall is fixed. The lower end of each pulling wire 8 may be fixed to the plate 17.
そして、図2及び図5に示すように、前記各引張りワイヤの上端は受圧板19に設けた引張りワイヤ挿通口5に下から上に通し、それらの引張りワイヤ8の上端部を前記受圧板19の上から牽引できるようにする。
前記引張りワイヤ8の牽引については、図7に示すように、前記長尺筒体4の固定された前記受圧板19上に、前記引張りワイヤを引き上げるためのナット10を設けるとともにこのナット10が羅着する雄ネジ部(図省略)をワイヤに形成し、この引張りワイヤ引き上げナット10を回転させることにより引張りワイヤ8を前記細長金属部材11な変形が可能となる力で強く牽引させる。
また、この外にも、ナットを使用するラチェット方式や、ワイヤ牽引用の機械や器具を用いることによって、前記引張りワイヤ8を前記細長金属部材11が変形するとうに強く牽引させることが可能である。
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 5, the upper ends of the respective tension wires are passed through the pull wire insertion port 5 provided in the pressure receiving plate 19 from the bottom up, and the upper ends of the tension wires 8 are passed through the pressure receiving plate 19. To be towable from above.
With respect to the pulling of the pulling wire 8, as shown in FIG. 7, a nut 10 for pulling up the pulling wire is provided on the pressure receiving plate 19 to which the long cylindrical body 4 is fixed. A male thread portion (not shown) to be worn is formed on the wire, and the pulling wire pulling nut 10 is rotated, whereby the pulling wire 8 is strongly pulled with a force capable of deforming the elongated metal member 11.
In addition to this, by using a ratchet method using a nut or a wire pulling machine or instrument, the pulling wire 8 can be pulled strongly as the elongated metal member 11 is deformed.
次に、上記地中食い込ませ型アンカーを使用したアンカー工法について説明する。
この工法は、図2に示すように地中に穿削した掘削孔14に地中食い込ませ型アンカーの長尺筒体4を挿入する地中挿入工程と、地上にワイヤ挿通口5とグラウト材注入口6を備えた受圧板19を設置して、前記長尺筒体4の上端部に受圧板19を固定する受圧板設置工程と、図5に示すように、前記各引張りワイヤ8を牽引して細長金属部材11を膨出変形させる細長金属部材膨出工程と、前記長尺筒体4内へグラウト材を注入して掘削孔14内にグラウト材を充満させるグラウト材注入工程の各工程順に作業が行われる。
Next, an anchor method using the above-described underground bite type anchor will be described.
As shown in FIG. 2, this construction method includes an underground insertion step of inserting the long cylindrical body 4 of the underground digging anchor into the excavation hole 14 drilled in the ground, a wire insertion port 5 and a grout material on the ground. A pressure receiving plate 19 provided with a pouring port 6 to fix the pressure receiving plate 19 to the upper end portion of the long cylindrical body 4, and pulling the tension wires 8 as shown in FIG. The elongated metal member bulging step for bulging and deforming the elongated metal member 11 and the grout material injecting step for injecting the grout material into the long cylindrical body 4 and filling the grout material in the excavation hole 14. Work is done in order.
各工程をさらに詳しくすると、まず前記地中挿入工程で、図2に示すように、予め地中に穿削した掘削孔14の中に、上記地中食い込ませ型アンカーの長尺筒体4を地中に深く挿入する。
次に、前記受圧板設置工程で、地上面にワイヤ挿通口5とグラウト材注入口6を備えた受圧板19を設置し、長尺筒体4中から引き出された引張りワイヤ8を該受圧板19の引張りワイヤ挿通口5の下面側から上面側に挿通させる。そして、該受圧板19を長尺筒体4の上端部に固定する。
前記引張りワイヤ8の下端部は、図3および図4に示すように、前記長尺筒体4の内壁に固着されるか、又は、前記長尺筒体4の内壁に隔壁板17を固着して、この隔壁板17に対して引張りワイヤが連結され、また前記内筒体12は前記長尺筒体4にスライド没入可能となっている。
More specifically, in each of the steps, first, in the underground insertion step, as shown in FIG. 2, the long tubular body 4 of the underground digging anchor is inserted into the excavation hole 14 previously drilled in the ground. Insert deep into the ground.
Next, in the pressure receiving plate installation step, a pressure receiving plate 19 having a wire insertion port 5 and a grout material injection port 6 is installed on the ground surface, and the pulling wire 8 drawn out from the long cylindrical body 4 is attached to the pressure receiving plate. The 19 pull wire insertion ports 5 are inserted from the lower surface side to the upper surface side. The pressure receiving plate 19 is fixed to the upper end portion of the long cylindrical body 4.
As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the lower end portion of the pull wire 8 is fixed to the inner wall of the long cylindrical body 4, or the partition plate 17 is fixed to the inner wall of the long cylindrical body 4. A tension wire is connected to the partition plate 17, and the inner cylinder 12 is slidable into the long cylinder 4.
そして、前記細長金属部材膨出工程で、前記各引張りワイヤ8のうち、前記長尺筒体4の短いものから長いものへと順番に牽引して引き寄せる。この際、各引張りワイヤ8は、図5に示すように、細長金属部材11を掘削孔14の壁面を押すように充分に膨出変形させてから次の引張りワイヤ8を牽引して、細長金属部材11の全部を膨出変形させる。
前記引張りワイヤ8の牽引については、前記長尺筒体4の固定された前記受圧板19上に、前記引張りワイヤを引き上げるためのナット10を設けるとともにこのナット10が羅着する雄ネジ部をワイヤに形成し、この引張りワイヤ引き上げナット10を回転させることにより引張りワイヤ8を引き上げることができるが、この外にも、ナットを使用するラチェット方式や、ワイヤ牽引用の機械や器具を用いることも可能である。
And in the said elongate metal member bulging process, it pulls and pulls in order from the short thing of the said long cylindrical body 4 to the long thing among the said each pull wire 8. FIG. At this time, as shown in FIG. 5, each of the pulling wires 8 swells and deforms the elongated metal member 11 so as to push the wall surface of the excavation hole 14, and then pulls the next pulling wire 8 to pull the elongated metal member 11. The entire member 11 is bulged and deformed.
For pulling the tension wire 8, a nut 10 for pulling the tension wire is provided on the pressure receiving plate 19 to which the long cylindrical body 4 is fixed, and a male thread portion to which the nut 10 is attached is connected to the wire. The pulling wire pulling nut 10 can be rotated to pull the pulling wire 8, but in addition to this, a ratchet method using a nut or a wire pulling machine or instrument can also be used. It is.
上記の如く前記引張りワイヤを牽引すると、図5に示すように、その引き寄せ長さに応じて、前記引張りワイヤ8の下端部に連結された前記長尺筒体4が、前記内筒体12が前記長尺筒体4にスライド没入することによって上方に引き寄せられ、この際多数の細長金属部材11が上下両側から押圧されて、それぞれが放射状に膨出変形を起こす。   When the pulling wire is pulled as described above, as shown in FIG. 5, the long cylindrical body 4 connected to the lower end portion of the pulling wire 8 is connected to the inner cylindrical body 12 according to the drawing length. By sliding into the long cylindrical body 4, the long cylindrical body 4 is drawn upward, and at this time, a large number of elongated metal members 11 are pressed from both the upper and lower sides, and each of them bulges and deforms radially.
そして、図7に示すように、引張りワイヤ固定部9にて緊結されている引張りワイヤ8を矢印A方向に引き上げるに従って、引張りワイヤ固定部9と一体化している引張りワイヤ隔壁板17およびその引張りワイヤ隔壁板17と一体化している内筒体12及び長尺筒体の中間部側部分4bが矢印Bで示すように上方に移動しながら内筒体12の上部が長尺筒体4の上端部側部分4aの中に没入して行き、ストッパー13と接触状況にあった多数の細長金属部材11が次第にストッパー13から離れ、矢印C方向に放射状に膨出して行く。
そして、前記多数の細長金属部材11が掘削孔14に対して、この膨出変形する押圧力により掘削孔14の内壁を押し広げつつ、細長金属部材11がその内壁に食い込むように密着する。
これだけでも、細長金属部材11の掘削孔14の内壁に対する抵抗でアンカーとして働きが生じる。
Then, as shown in FIG. 7, as the pulling wire 8 that is fastened by the pulling wire fixing portion 9 is pulled up in the direction of arrow A, the pulling wire partition plate 17 integrated with the pulling wire fixing portion 9 and its pulling wire The upper part of the inner cylinder 12 is the upper end of the long cylinder 4 while the inner cylinder 12 integrated with the partition plate 17 and the middle part 4b of the long cylinder move upward as indicated by the arrow B. A large number of elongated metal members 11 that are in contact with the stopper 13 gradually move away from the stopper 13 and bulge radially in the direction of arrow C.
The large number of elongated metal members 11 are brought into close contact with the excavation hole 14 while the inner wall of the excavation hole 14 is expanded by the bulging and deforming pressing force, while the elongated metal member 11 bites into the inner wall.
Even this alone acts as an anchor due to the resistance of the elongated metal member 11 to the inner wall of the excavation hole 14.
なお、この際長い引張りワイヤ8のほうを先に引いて深い方を先に膨出変形させてしまうと、この部分の細長金属部材11は掘削孔14に固定されてしまい、引張りワイヤ8を引いても前記長尺筒体4を引き寄せることができなくなるので全部の細長金属部材11を膨出変形させることができなくなる。したがって前記各引張りワイヤ8は必ず短いものから長いものへと順番に引き寄せまければならない。   At this time, if the long pulling wire 8 is pulled first and the deeper one is bulged and deformed first, the elongated metal member 11 in this portion is fixed to the excavation hole 14, and the pulling wire 8 is pulled. However, since it becomes impossible to draw the long cylindrical body 4, it becomes impossible to bulge and deform all the elongated metal members 11. Therefore, each of the pulling wires 8 must be drawn in order from the shortest to the longest.
次に、前記グラウト材注入工程で、前記受圧板19のグラウト材注入口6から前記長尺筒体4内へグラウト材を圧入すると、長尺筒体内を通って前記内筒体12のグラウト材流出口15から太い白線で示すように流れて、掘削孔14内にグラウト材が充満されるように放出される。そして、その後そのまま放置すればグラウト材が固化し、地盤や岩盤が強化され長尺筒体4も固定されることはもちろん、前記細長金属部材11を内部に含みグラウト材と一体となった強固な膨出部が膨出グラウト材団塊のアンカーとなって、この部分の強力な引抜き抵抗力によって前記長尺筒体4は強力な引抜き力に遭遇しても全く引き抜けなくなる。   Next, when the grout material is pressed into the long cylindrical body 4 from the grout material injection port 6 of the pressure receiving plate 19 in the grout material injection step, the grout material of the inner cylindrical body 12 passes through the long cylindrical body. It flows from the outlet 15 as shown by a thick white line, and is discharged so that the grout material is filled in the excavation hole 14. Then, if it is left as it is, the grout material is solidified, the ground and the rock are strengthened, and the long cylindrical body 4 is fixed. The bulging portion becomes an anchor of the bulging grout material lump, and the long tubular body 4 cannot be pulled out at all even if it encounters a strong pulling force due to the strong pulling resistance of this portion.
この膨出部分は中間の深さに位置する複数の間隔を置いて形成され、全てが地中に食い込んだ状態となるので、全体とすると極めて大きな引抜き抵抗力が得られ、地上の構造物を確実に支保することが可能となる。   This bulging part is formed at a plurality of intervals located at intermediate depths, and all of them dig into the ground, so a very large pulling resistance is obtained as a whole, and the structure on the ground is It becomes possible to support it reliably.
なお、地中への挿入部分の前記長尺筒体4の長さ及び膨出部分の数は、地盤、岩盤の状況に応じて決定することができる。   In addition, the length of the said long cylindrical body 4 of the insertion part in the ground and the number of the bulging parts can be determined according to the condition of the ground and the bedrock.
本発明は、地上の建造物を地盤に対して安定させるだけではなく、トンネル内の湾曲面などの強化や地表の安定化を図るために行われる各種土木工事においける軟弱土砂層や軟質岩盤層などのある軟弱地盤の補強に利用することが可能である。   The present invention not only stabilizes ground structures against the ground, but also soft soil layers and soft rocks in various civil engineering works to strengthen curved surfaces in tunnels and stabilize the ground surface. It can be used to reinforce soft ground with layers.
地中に本発明のアンカーを埋設してコンクリート枠を設けた状態を示す平面図である。It is a top view which shows the state which embed | buried the anchor of this invention in the ground and provided the concrete frame. 本発明の地中食い込ませ型アンカーを地中へ挿入した状態を示す縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view which shows the state which inserted the underground bite type | mold anchor of this invention into the ground. 長尺筒体の分離箇所における一部を切欠した要部を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the principal part which notched a part in the isolation | separation location of a long cylinder. 図3の断面図である。FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 3. 地中の細長金属部材を膨出変形させた状態を示す縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view which shows the state which swelled and deformed the elongated metal member in the ground. 細長金属部材を膨出変形させた状態の長尺筒体の分離箇所における一部を切欠した要部を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the principal part which notched a part in the isolation | separation location of the elongate cylindrical body of the state which carried out the bulging deformation of the elongate metal member. 掘削孔内で細長金属部材を膨出変形させた状態を示す要部の縦断側面図である。It is a vertical side view of the principal part which shows the state which bulged and deformed the elongate metal member within the excavation hole.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
A 引張りワイヤの牽引方向を示す矢印
B 長尺筒体の牽引方向を示す矢印
C 細長金属部材の膨出方向を示す矢印
1 コンクリート枠
2 プレキャストコンクリート枠
3 コンクリート枠の穿削用孔
4 金属製長尺筒体
4a 長尺筒体の上端部側部分
4b 長尺筒体の中間部側部分
4c 長尺筒体の下端部側部分
5 受圧板の引張りワイヤ挿通口
6 受圧板のグラウト材注入口
7 長尺筒体の分離箇所
8 引張りワイヤ
9 引張りワイヤの固定部
10 引張りワイヤ引き上げナット
11 細長金属部材
11a 細長金属部材の中間部分
11b 細長金属部材の上端側部分
11c 細長金属部材の下端側部分
12 内筒体
12a 内筒体の上端部
12b 内筒体の中間部
12c 内筒体の下端部
13 ストッパー
14 掘削孔
15 グラウト材流出口
16 アンカーの上端部
17 隔壁板
17a 隔壁板のグラウト材流出口
18 アンカーの先端部
19 受圧板
A. An arrow indicating the pulling direction of the pulling wire B. An arrow indicating the pulling direction of the long cylindrical body C. An arrow indicating the bulging direction of the elongated metal member 1 Concrete frame 2 Precast concrete frame 3 Drilling hole for concrete frame 4 Metal length Scale tube 4a Upper end side portion of long cylinder 4b Middle portion side portion of long cylinder 4c Lower end side portion of long cylinder 5 Pull wire insertion port of pressure receiving plate 6 Grout material injection port of pressure receiving plate 7 Separation point of long cylindrical body 8 Pulling wire 9 Fixing portion of pulling wire 10 Pulling wire pulling nut 11 Elongated metal member 11a Intermediate portion of elongate metal member 11b Upper end side portion of elongate metal member 11c Lower end side portion of elongate metal member 12 Inside Cylindrical body 12a Upper end portion of inner cylindrical body 12b Intermediate portion of inner cylindrical body 12c Lower end portion of inner cylindrical body 13 Stopper 14 Drilling hole 15 Grout material outlet 16 Anchor 17 upper end portion 17 partition plate 17a grout outlet of partition plate 18 anchor tip 19 pressure receiving plate

Claims (4)

  1. 地中の掘削孔に差し込まれた金属製長尺筒体から注入されたグラウト材で掘削孔内の空間を充填し、固化したグラウト材と掘削孔の壁面との間の引抜き抵抗力によって前記長尺筒体の上部の受圧板に固定された地上構造物を支保するアンカーであって、
    前記アンカー本体は、前記長尺筒体の中間部位の一箇所又は複数箇所を一定の長さに分離して該分離箇所に、周面にグラウト材流出口を備えるとともに該長尺筒体の対向した分断端部に対して一方端部が固着され他方端部が前記長尺筒体に出没可能に形成した内筒体と、前記分離箇所を覆うように架設して外側へ僅か膨らみ状態に形成した多数の細長金属部材とを介在させて全体を一本に連結し、
    前記長尺筒体の筒内には、分離された前記長尺筒体の上端側部分を除いた部分に、その分離部分毎に下端を接続し、上端を前記長尺筒体の上端開口部から引き出した一本又は複数本の引張りワイヤを備え、
    前記引張りワイヤの牽引で前記細長金属部材を膨出変形させた後、前記細長金属部材の周囲にグラウト材を充填して形成された膨出部によって強力な引抜き抵抗力が得られるようにしたことを特徴とする地中食い込ませ型アンカー。
    The space in the drilling hole is filled with the grout material injected from the long metal cylinder inserted into the underground drilling hole, and the length is increased by the pulling resistance between the solidified grout material and the wall surface of the drilling hole. An anchor that supports the ground structure fixed to the pressure receiving plate at the top of the tubular body,
    The anchor main body has one or a plurality of intermediate portions of the long cylindrical body separated into a certain length, and provided with a grout outlet on the peripheral surface, and opposed to the long cylindrical body. An inner cylinder formed so that one end thereof is fixed to the divided end and the other end can be projected and retracted in the long cylindrical body, and is swelled outwardly so as to cover the separation portion. The whole is connected to one by interposing a number of elongated metal members formed,
    In the cylinder of the long cylindrical body, a lower end is connected to each part of the long cylindrical body excluding the upper end side part, and the upper end is an upper end opening of the long cylindrical body. With one or more puller wires drawn from
    After the elongated metal member is bulged and deformed by pulling the pulling wire, a strong pulling resistance force is obtained by the bulging portion formed by filling a grout material around the elongated metal member. Underground bite type anchor characterized by.
  2. 内筒体の外周面の中間部位にストッパーを突設するとともに、該ストッパーと固着されている端部との間の内筒体の周面にグラウト材流出口を開設したことを特徴とする請求項1に記載の地中食い込ませ型アンカー。   A stopper is projected from an intermediate portion of the outer peripheral surface of the inner cylinder, and a grout outlet is provided on the peripheral surface of the inner cylinder between the stopper and the fixed end. Item 2. The underground anchor according to item 1.
  3. 長尺筒体の内壁にグラウト材流出口を備えた隔壁板を固設して該隔壁板に引張りワイヤの下端を接続したことを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載の地中食い込ませ型アンカー。   The underground bite type according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a partition plate having a grout outlet is fixed to an inner wall of the long cylindrical body, and a lower end of a pull wire is connected to the partition plate. anchor.
  4. 請求項1から3のうちいずれかに記載の地中食い込ませ型アンカーを用いたアンカー工法であって、
    予め地中に穿削した掘削孔に、請求項1から3のうちいずれかに記載の地中食い込ませ型アンカーの長尺筒体を挿入する地中挿入工程と、
    地上にワイヤ挿通口とグラウト材注入口を備えた受圧板を設置して、前記受圧板の引張りワイヤ挿通口に引張りワイヤを挿通させ、前記長尺筒体の上端部に該受圧板を固定する受圧板設置工程と、
    前記各引張りワイヤのうち、前記長尺筒体の上側に固着した引張りワイヤから下へと順に引き寄せて、細長金属部材を掘削孔の壁面を押すように膨出変形させる細長金属部材膨出工程と、
    前記受圧板のグラウト材注入口から前記長尺筒体内へグラウト材を注入し、内筒体のグラウト材流出口から掘削孔内にグラウト材を充満させるグラウト材注入工程と、
    から成り、前記細長金属部材の周囲にグラウト材を充填して形成された膨出部によって強力な引抜き抵抗力が得られるようにしたことを特徴とする地中食い込ませ型アンカー工法。
    An anchor construction method using the underground bite type anchor according to any one of claims 1 to 3,
    An underground insertion step of inserting the long cylindrical body of the underground bite type anchor according to any one of claims 1 to 3 into an excavation hole previously drilled in the ground,
    A pressure receiving plate having a wire insertion port and a grout material injection port is installed on the ground, and a pulling wire is inserted into the pulling wire insertion port of the pressure receiving plate, and the pressure receiving plate is fixed to the upper end portion of the long cylindrical body. Pressure plate installation process;
    An elongated metal member bulging step of pulling the elongated metal member downward in order to push the wall surface of the excavation hole by pulling down the puller wire fixed to the upper side of the long cylindrical body in order from among the respective tensile wires; ,
    A grout material injection step of injecting a grout material from the grout material injection port of the pressure receiving plate into the elongated cylinder, and filling the grout material into the excavation hole from the grout material outlet of the inner cylinder,
    An underground digging anchor method characterized in that a strong pulling resistance is obtained by a bulging portion formed by filling a grout material around the elongated metal member.
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KR101052852B1 (en) * 2010-11-02 2011-07-29 주식회사 아이콘텍이앤씨 Soil nail device using pc twisted steel wire and method for reinforcing ground using the same
JP2011231538A (en) * 2010-04-28 2011-11-17 Railway Technical Research Institute Oblique penetration type tip expansion anchor having steel bar branches for aseismatic reinforcement and aseismatic reinforcing method for structure in contact with the ground using the same
JP2013199819A (en) * 2012-02-23 2013-10-03 Toyoharu Tsushima Foundation pile
JP5729670B1 (en) * 2014-07-07 2015-06-03 昌弘 清田 Temporary fence fixing method and anchor in soil
KR101712648B1 (en) * 2016-03-16 2017-03-06 주식회사 태하 Pile installation structure in soft ground using pile tip member
CN109162743A (en) * 2018-09-26 2019-01-08 西南交通大学 A kind of quasi- constant resistance and large deformation anchor cable of friction-shearing combined type

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011231538A (en) * 2010-04-28 2011-11-17 Railway Technical Research Institute Oblique penetration type tip expansion anchor having steel bar branches for aseismatic reinforcement and aseismatic reinforcing method for structure in contact with the ground using the same
KR101052852B1 (en) * 2010-11-02 2011-07-29 주식회사 아이콘텍이앤씨 Soil nail device using pc twisted steel wire and method for reinforcing ground using the same
JP2013199819A (en) * 2012-02-23 2013-10-03 Toyoharu Tsushima Foundation pile
JP5729670B1 (en) * 2014-07-07 2015-06-03 昌弘 清田 Temporary fence fixing method and anchor in soil
KR101712648B1 (en) * 2016-03-16 2017-03-06 주식회사 태하 Pile installation structure in soft ground using pile tip member
CN109162743A (en) * 2018-09-26 2019-01-08 西南交通大学 A kind of quasi- constant resistance and large deformation anchor cable of friction-shearing combined type
CN109162743B (en) * 2018-09-26 2020-03-13 西南交通大学 Friction-shearing combined quasi-constant-resistance large-deformation anchor cable

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