JP2008171871A - Highly sensitive photo-sensor element and photo-sensor device using the same - Google Patents

Highly sensitive photo-sensor element and photo-sensor device using the same Download PDF

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JP2008171871A
JP2008171871A JP2007001303A JP2007001303A JP2008171871A JP 2008171871 A JP2008171871 A JP 2008171871A JP 2007001303 A JP2007001303 A JP 2007001303A JP 2007001303 A JP2007001303 A JP 2007001303A JP 2008171871 A JP2008171871 A JP 2008171871A
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semiconductor layer
electrode
optical sensor
layer
formed
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JP2008171871A5 (en
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Toshio Miyazawa
Mitsuharu Tai
敏夫 宮沢
光春 田井
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Hitachi Displays Ltd
株式会社 日立ディスプレイズ
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/02Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L27/12Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body
    • H01L27/1214Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being other than a semiconductor body, e.g. an insulating body comprising a plurality of TFTs formed on a non-semiconducting substrate, e.g. driving circuits for AMLCDs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/0412Digitisers structurally integrated in a display
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/042Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14678Contact-type imagers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14683Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or parts thereof
    • H01L27/14692Thin film technologies, e.g. amorphous, poly, micro- or nanocrystalline silicon
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14601Structural or functional details thereof
    • H01L27/14632Wafer-level processed structures

Abstract

A photosensor built-in image display device in which a high-sensitivity and low-noise photosensor element and a polycrystalline silicon TFT are simultaneously formed on an insulating film substrate using a planar process. After the electrode 11 and the second electrode 12 are formed of a polycrystalline silicon film, the light receiving layer 13 of the optical sensor element is formed of an amorphous silicon film on the upper layer. At that time, a polycrystalline silicon TFT is simultaneously formed.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a thin film optical sensor element formed on an insulating film substrate and an optical sensor device using the same, and in particular, an optical sensor array or an optical sensor such as an X-ray imaging device and a near infrared detection device for biometric authentication. Used for image display devices that incorporate a touch panel function, dimming function, and input function in a display panel, such as a liquid crystal display, an organic EL (Electro Luminescence) display, an inorganic EL display, and an EC (Electro Chromic) display The present invention relates to a low-temperature process semiconductor thin film transistor, a low-temperature process photoconductive element, or a low-temperature process photodiode element.

  The X-ray imaging apparatus is indispensable as a medical apparatus, and simplification of the operation of the apparatus and cost reduction of the apparatus are always required issues. Recently, finger vein and palm vein authentication has attracted attention as a means of biometric authentication, and the development of a reading device for these information has become an urgent task. In these apparatuses, a sensor array for light detection that occupies a certain area, that is, a so-called area sensor is necessary for reading information, and it is necessary to provide the area sensor at a low cost. From this requirement, a method for forming an area sensor on a cheap insulating substrate typified by a glass substrate by a semiconductor formation process (planar process) has been proposed in Non-Patent Document 1 below.

  In the product field different from the area sensor, the light sensor is required to be a small and medium-sized display. Small and medium-sized displays are used for display of mobile devices such as mobile phones, digital still cameras, and PDAs, and as in-vehicle displays, and are required to have multiple functions and high performance. An optical sensor has attracted attention as an effective means for adding a light control function (the following Non-Patent Document 2) and a touch panel function to a display. However, unlike a large display, a small-to-medium display has a low panel cost, so that the cost increase due to mounting of an optical sensor or a sensor driver is large. Therefore, when a pixel circuit is formed on a glass substrate by using a semiconductor formation process (planar process), a technique for simultaneously forming an optical sensor and a sensor driver and suppressing an increase in cost is drawing attention as an effective technique.

  The problem required in the above-mentioned product group is to form an optical sensor element and a sensor driver on an inexpensive insulating substrate. The sensor driver is usually composed of an LSI, and requires a MOS transistor formed on a single crystal silicon wafer or a high-performance switch element corresponding to the MOS transistor. In order to solve such problems, the following techniques are effective.

  Thin film transistors (hereinafter referred to as “polycrystalline semiconductor TFTs”) whose channels are made of polycrystalline semiconductors have been developed as pixels and pixel drive circuit elements of active matrix liquid crystal displays, organic EL displays, and image sensors. The polycrystalline semiconductor TFT is advantageous in that it has a larger driving capability than other driving circuit elements, and a peripheral driving circuit can be mounted on the same glass substrate as the pixel. As a result, it is expected that the cost can be reduced by customizing the circuit specifications, the pixel design, and the formation process simultaneously, and the high reliability by avoiding the mechanical vulnerability of the connection portion between the driving LSI and the pixel.

  A polycrystalline semiconductor TFT for a liquid crystal display is formed on a glass substrate because of cost requirements. In the process of forming TFTs on a glass substrate, the heat resistant temperature of the glass defines the process temperature. As a method of forming a high-quality polycrystalline semiconductor thin film without thermally damaging the glass substrate, an excimer laser is used to melt and recrystallize the precursor semiconductor layer (ELA method: Excimer Laser Anneal). is there. Since the polycrystalline semiconductor TFT obtained by this forming method is improved by more than 100 times in driving ability compared with TFTs (channels are composed of amorphous semiconductors) used in conventional liquid crystal displays, Some circuits such as drivers can be mounted on the glass substrate.

  Regarding the optical sensor, Patent Document 1 below describes a method of using the same polycrystalline semiconductor TFT, and a method of forming a PIN diode simultaneously with forming a pixel circuit and a driver circuit. The characteristics required for the optical sensor are high sensitivity and low noise. Considering only the optical sensor element, high sensitivity means outputting a signal as large as possible with respect to light of a certain intensity, and a material and element structure with high photo-current conversion efficiency are required. Low noise means that the signal when light is not incident is as small as possible.

  FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of a conventional optical sensor element. FIG. 11A shows a vertical structure type PIN diode element having an amorphous silicon film as a light-receiving layer 113, and FIG. 11B shows an amorphous silicon film as the light-receiving layer 113 and charges are applied to the junction surface. On the other hand, it is a structure type (horizontal structure type) TFT element that flows in a parallel direction. Both are optical sensor elements.

  The photosensor element shown in FIG. 11A includes an amorphous silicon film light-receiving layer 113 sandwiched between a first metal electrode layer 111 and a second metal electrode layer 112, and the light-receiving layer 113 and each electrode layer. And an impurity introduction layer 120 formed at the interface with the substrate. This optical sensor element is formed on an insulating substrate 110, and each electrode layer is insulated by an interlayer insulating film 115, connected to an electrode wiring 114, and covered with an insulating protective film 117.

  The optical sensor element shown in FIG. 11B includes a source electrode 131, a gate electrode 132, a drain electrode 133, a light-receiving layer 113 made of an amorphous silicon film, and impurities formed at the interface between the light-receiving layer 113 and each electrode. And an introduction layer 120. This optical sensor element is formed on the insulating substrate 110 and covered with an insulating protective film 117.

  In FIG. 11, the semiconductor material for forming the light-receiving layer 113 of the sensor element on the insulating substrate 110 is silicon in consideration of environmental problems and process consistency when forming the driver circuit (or pixel circuit) at the same time. Silicon-based materials such as silicon germanium are preferable. In a silicon-based material, almost all of the absorbed light is converted into a current in the wavelength range from infrared to visible. Therefore, a high absorption coefficient is suitable for the sensor element.

  Further, focusing attention on the solid state of the semiconductor, such as amorphous or crystalline or polycrystalline (hereinafter referred to as “phase state”), the absorption coefficient is highest in the amorphous region in all wavelength ranges, and Since the resistance is high, an amorphous material is advantageous as the sensor element.

However, when an amorphous material is applied to the sensor element, the performance of the switch element is insufficient, so that it is impossible to simultaneously configure the driver circuit. For example, when a TFT is formed of an amorphous silicon film that is optimal for a sensor element, the field effect mobility is 1 cm 2 / Vs or less. Therefore, for the sensor function, a sensor array is manufactured with the structure shown in FIG. 11, and the switch function is configured by separately mounting a driver LSI and connecting with an FPC or the like.

  As for the structure, in general, the vertical structure type shown in FIG. 11A can increase the bonding area than the horizontal structure type shown in FIG. Further, since the distance that the charge moves to the electrode is short, the generated charge can be efficiently collected. Therefore, a large output can be obtained.

  When the material is a single crystal, a vertical structure can be formed. However, the manufacturing process is a high-temperature process of 1000 ° C. or higher, and manufacturing on an inexpensive insulating substrate such as a glass substrate is impossible.

  When the material is polycrystalline, in the case of a polycrystalline film obtained by the ELA method, a TFT capable of constituting a driver circuit is obtained. However, it is impossible to construct a vertical structure. Further, since the film thickness is limited to about 100 nm at the maximum, most of the incident light is not absorbed and passes through the film. Although there is a method of obtaining a polycrystalline film having a large film thickness by chemical vapor deposition (hereinafter referred to as “CVD”), the performance of the switch element becomes insufficient as in the case of an amorphous material, and the driver It becomes impossible to construct a circuit.

Patent Document 2 below proposes a method of combining a switch element constituting a driver circuit with a polycrystalline silicon film and an optical sensor element portion with an amorphous silicon film. According to this method, it is possible to simultaneously form a driver circuit (in addition to a pixel circuit) and a sensor element on the same insulating substrate. However, the switch element and the sensor element are formed in order, and there is no overlapping process. Therefore, the process steps are long and the photolithography process is increased, resulting in an increase in manufacturing cost.
Technology and Applications of Amorphous Silicon pp. 204-221 (Technology and Applications of Amorphous Silicon pp204-221) Sharp Technique No. 92 (2005), pages 35 to 39 (SHARP Technical Journal vol.92 (2005) pp35-39) JP 2006-3857 A JP 2005-228895 A

  According to the present invention, a high-sensitivity, low-noise optical sensor element and a sensor driver circuit (a pixel circuit and other circuits as necessary) are formed on the same insulating film substrate by using a planar process. It is an object of the present invention to provide a low-cost area sensor with a built-in driver circuit or an image display device with a built-in optical sensor element.

  In the present invention, after forming two electrodes of a sensor driver circuit (a pixel circuit and other circuits as required) and a photosensor element with a polycrystalline silicon film or a polycrystalline silicon germanium film, an amorphous layer is formed on the upper layer. A light-sensitive silicon layer is formed to form a light-receiving layer of the optical sensor element. Accordingly, the switching characteristic of the sensor driver circuit is maintained while suppressing an increase in process steps as much as possible, and the high-sensitivity and low-noise characteristic of the photosensor element formed of the amorphous silicon film is provided.

  In order to increase the added value of a conventional TFT-driven display, it is necessary to add functions. As one means, it is very difficult to incorporate an optical sensor because of the wide range of functions that can be added. Useful. In addition, an area sensor in which optical sensors are arrayed is useful for medical use, authentication use, and the like, and it is important to manufacture the sensor at a low cost.

  According to the present invention, a high-performance sensor and a sensor processing circuit can be simultaneously manufactured on an inexpensive glass substrate, and a low-cost and highly reliable product can be provided.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 is a conceptual diagram of an optical sensor element according to the present invention. FIG. 1A is a sectional view of an optical sensor element formed on an insulating substrate, and FIG. 1B is a top view.

  In FIG. 1, a first electrode 11 and a second electrode 12 are formed of a first semiconductor layer on an insulating substrate 10, and a second semiconductor layer is formed on and between the electrodes 11, 12. The prepared light receiving layer 13 is formed. The wiring 14 connected to each electrode is insulated by interlayer insulating films 15 and 16, and is entirely covered with an insulating protective film 17. Each electrode is connected to each wiring through a contact hole 18.

  The first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer are characterized by having different phase states or different semiconductor materials. The phase state refers to a solid state such as amorphous or crystalline or polycrystalline.

  The first semiconductor layer will be described below using a polycrystalline silicon film having a high electrical conductivity as an example based on the concept of using the same layer as the switch element constituting the circuit. A material suitable as a switching element for a circuit, for example, a crystalline silicon film, a crystalline silicon germanium film, a polycrystalline silicon germanium film, a crystalline germanium film, or a polycrystalline germanium film may be used. The material is not limited.

Impurities having a high concentration (the concentration of majority carriers in the semiconductor layer is 1 × 10 19 / cm 3 or more under non-irradiation and no voltage application conditions) are introduced into the first semiconductor layer. Electrode 11 and second electrode 12. When the types of majority carriers of the first electrode 11 and the second electrode 12 are different from each other, a PIN diode element, a photoconductive element in the same case, and a photosensor element in any case.

The second semiconductor layer is an intrinsic layer or an impurity introduction layer having a very low concentration (the concentration of majority carriers in the semiconductor layer is 1 × 10 17 / cm 3 or less under the conditions of no light irradiation and no voltage application). And functions as a light receiving layer (photoelectric conversion layer).

  The second semiconductor layer will be described below using an amorphous silicon film as an example of a material having a higher photoelectric conversion efficiency than the first semiconductor layer and a low leakage current when not irradiated with light. However, any material that satisfies this characteristic may be used. For example, a microcrystalline silicon film, a microcrystalline silicon germanium film, an amorphous silicon germanium film, or the like, or an organic semiconductor material may be used, and the material is not limited.

  In FIG. 1, the light-receiving layer 13 is made of amorphous silicon and can have a large junction area, so that a photosensor element with high visible light sensitivity and little leakage when not irradiated with light can be formed. Furthermore, since the first electrode 11 and the second electrode 12 are polycrystalline silicon films, a TFT can be constituted by the same polycrystalline silicon film, and this TFT can be applied as a switch element of a sensor driver circuit.

  FIG. 2 is an output-illuminance dependence characteristic diagram of the TFT element using the amorphous silicon film shown in FIG. 11B as a light receiving layer and the photosensor element of the present invention shown in FIG. Each element outputs a current corresponding to the illuminance. Comparing these output values, it was found that the output of the present invention was 10 times or more when irradiated with light and the output when light was not irradiated was 1/10 or less. From this, it can be seen that the optical sensor element of the present invention has high sensitivity and is excellent as an optical sensor element.

  FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional view of a polycrystalline silicon TFT manufactured simultaneously with the optical sensor element of the present invention. The source 31, channel 34, drain 33, and LDD region 35 of this polycrystalline silicon TFT are formed of the polycrystalline silicon film on which the first electrode 11 and the second electrode 12 shown in FIG. It is a feature. This sharing simplifies the manufacturing process, and at the same time, a high-performance switch element using a polycrystalline silicon TFT and a high-performance photosensor element using amorphous silicon as a light-receiving layer are shared on the same insulating substrate. It can be manufactured by the manufacturing process. Note that 32 is the gate electrode of the polycrystalline silicon TFT, and the other symbols are the same as those shown in FIG.

  FIG. 3B is a transmission characteristic diagram of the polycrystalline silicon TFT. The solid line in the figure is the characteristic of the polycrystalline silicon TFT manufactured at the same time as the optical sensor element of the present invention, and the broken line in the figure is a normal low-temperature polycrystal. It is the transfer characteristic of the polycrystalline silicon TFT produced by the silicon process. In FIG. 3B, it may be considered that the switch characteristics do not change in consideration of characteristic variations and the like. From this result, it can be seen that the performance of the polycrystalline silicon TFT according to the present invention is comparable to that of a TFT fabricated by a normal low temperature polycrystalline silicon process.

  FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of another structural example of the optical sensor element according to the present invention. 4A to 4D, at least one of the electrodes is formed of a polycrystalline silicon film, and a light receiving layer is formed of an amorphous silicon layer formed thereafter.

  The difference between the photosensor element shown in FIG. 4 (a) and the photosensor element shown in FIG. 1 (a) is that in FIG. 1 (a), the light-receiving layer 13 is formed in the contact hole in which the interlayer insulating films 14 and 15 are opened. In FIG. 4A, the light-receiving layer 13 is formed by opening a contact hole 41 in the interlayer insulating films 14 and 15 on the first electrode 11 and the second electrode 12. As shown in FIG. 4A, when the light-receiving layer 13 is separated by the contact hole 41, there is a concern that the charge transfer path becomes long. However, the distance in the horizontal direction is merely increased by the thickness of the interlayer insulating film. Small compared to

  The difference between the photosensor element shown in FIG. 4 (b) and the photosensor element shown in FIG. 1 (a) is through the insulating protective film 17 on the light receiving layer 13, the first electrode 11 and the second electrode 12. The difference is whether or not the third electrode 42 is formed. By applying a voltage (negative charge) to the third electrode 42, it is possible to suppress a leakage current when no light is irradiated and to improve the S / N ratio.

  In the photosensor element shown in FIG. 4C, a third electrode 42 is formed on the light receiving layer 13 of the photosensor element shown in FIG. With this third electrode 42, it is possible to prevent the film constituting the electrode from being lifted when processing the contact hole, it is possible to suppress the leakage current when no light is irradiated, and to improve the S / N ratio. It is an advantage.

  The optical sensor element shown in FIG. 4D is a vertical optical sensor element in which the second electrode 12 is a metal film. With this vertical structure, the junction area can be increased, and the distance that the charge moves to the electrode is determined by the thickness of the light receiving layer 13, and thus the generated charge can be efficiently collected, resulting in a large output. If the metal film is transparent, light incident from above can be efficiently guided to the light receiving layer, so that a highly sensitive photosensor element can be obtained. In FIG. 4D, a high concentration impurity layer 43 is provided on the light receiving layer side in the vicinity of the joint surface between the second electrode 12 and the light receiving layer 13. It is desirable to introduce impurities so that the types of majority carriers are opposite to those of the first electrode 11. Thereby, a PIN diode element having a vertical structure can be formed. However, even when there is no high-concentration impurity layer, depending on the material applied to the second electrode 12, a barrier is formed between the second electrode 12 and the light-receiving layer 13, and a Schottky diode element or a light A conductive element can be formed.

  Next, a manufacturing process of the optical sensor element and the polycrystalline silicon TFT will be described with reference to FIGS. Here, an example in which an optical sensor is incorporated in a pixel circuit of a liquid crystal display device is shown. In the case of an area sensor, a process can be added or omitted as necessary.

  First, in FIGS. 5A and 5A, an insulating substrate 10 is prepared. Here, an inexpensive glass substrate will be described as an example of an insulating substrate, but the insulating substrate can also be manufactured on a plastic substrate typified by PET, an expensive quartz substrate, a metal substrate, or the like. In the case of a glass substrate, it is desirable to form an undercoat film such as a silicon oxide film or a silicon nitride film on the surface because sodium or boron is contained in the substrate and becomes a contamination source for the semiconductor layer. An amorphous silicon film or a microcrystalline silicon film 51 is formed on the upper surface by CVD. Thereafter, the amorphous silicon film 51 is irradiated with an excimer laser 52 to form a polycrystalline silicon film 53.

  Next, in FIGS. 5A and 5B, the polycrystalline silicon film 53 is processed into an island-shaped polycrystalline silicon film 54 by a photolithography process, and silicon is formed by CVD as shown in FIGS. A gate insulating film 55 made of an oxide film is formed. The material of the gate insulating film is not limited to the silicon oxide film, and it is desirable to select a material that satisfies a high dielectric constant, high insulation, low fixed charge, interface charge / level density, and process consistency. . Through this gate insulating film 55, boron is introduced into the entire island-shaped polycrystalline silicon film 54 by implanting ions 56 to form an NE layer (low-concentration boron implanted layer 57).

  Further, as shown in FIGS. 5A and 5D, as a non-injection region among the N-type TFT region 58, the N-type electrode region 59, the P-type TFT region 60, and the P-type electrode region 61 in the photolithography process, After the N-type TFT region 58 and the N-type electrode region 59 are determined by the photoresist 62, phosphorus is introduced by implanting ions 63 to form a PE layer (low concentration phosphorous implanted layer 64).

The impurities in the NE layer (low-concentration boron implantation layer 57) and PE layer (low-concentration phosphorus implantation layer 64) are for the purpose of adjusting the threshold value of the TFT, and the dose during ion implantation is 1 × 10. An optimum value is introduced between 11 cm −2 and 1 × 10 13 cm −2 . At this time, it is known that the concentration of majority carriers in the low-concentration boron injection layer 57 and the low-concentration phosphorus injection layer 64 is 1 × 10 15 to 1 × 10 17 / cm 3 . The optimum value of the boron implantation amount is determined by the threshold value of the N-type TFT, and the optimum value of the phosphorus implantation amount is determined by the threshold value of the P-type TFT.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5 (a) and 5 (5), a metal film 65 for a gate electrode is formed by CVD or sputtering. The metal film for the gate electrode is not necessarily a metal film, and may be a polycrystalline silicon film in which a high concentration impurity is introduced to reduce resistance.

Next, as shown in FIGS. 5 (a) and 6 (6), the gate electrode 66 is formed by processing the metal film 65 for the gate electrode in the photolithography process, and ions 68 are implanted using the same photoresist 67. Then, phosphorus is introduced to form an N + layer (high-concentration phosphorus implantation layer 69). The dose amount of phosphorus during ion implantation is preferably 1 × 10 15 cm −2 or more because it is necessary to sufficiently reduce the resistance of the electrode. At this time, the concentration of majority carriers in the high concentration phosphorus implantation layer 69 is 1 × 10 19 / cm 3 or more.

After removing the resist 67 shown in FIGS. 5 (a) and 6 (6), as shown in FIGS. 5 (b) and 7 (7), ions 70 are implanted on both sides of the gate electrode 66 using the gate electrode 66 as a mask. Phosphorus is introduced to form an N-layer (medium concentration phosphorus implantation layer 71). This impurity introduction is intended to improve the reliability of the N-type TFT, and the dose amount during ion implantation is between the dose amounts of the low-concentration boron implantation layer 57 and the high-concentration phosphorus implantation layer 69, that is, 1 An optimum value is introduced between x 10 11 cm -2 and 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . At this time, the concentration of majority carriers in the N− layer (medium concentration phosphorus implantation layer 71) is 1 × 10 15 to 1 × 10 19 / cm 3 .

  In this embodiment, processing errors of the photoresist 67 and the gate electrode 66 are used in forming the N− layer (medium concentration phosphorus implantation layer 71). The advantage of using the processing error is that the photomask and the photo process can be omitted, and that the region of the N− layer (medium concentration phosphorus implantation layer 71) is uniquely determined with respect to the gate electrode 66. If it is small, the N-layer cannot be secured sufficiently. If the processing error is small, a new photo process may be added to define the N-layer.

Next, as shown in FIGS. 5B and 8B, after determining the non-implanted regions of the N-type TFT region and the N-type electrode region with a photoresist 72, ions are formed in the P-type TFT region and the P-type electrode region. Boron is introduced by implanting 73 to form a P + layer (high-concentration boron implanted layer 74). The dose during ion implantation is preferably 1 × 10 15 cm −2 or more because it is necessary to sufficiently reduce the resistance of the electrode. At this time, the concentration of majority carriers in the P + layer is 1 × 10 19 atoms / cm 3 or more. Through the above steps, the electrodes of the TFT and the optical sensor element can be formed.

  In this embodiment, it should be noted that the same amount of boron as that in the NE layer (low-concentration boron injection layer 57) is added to the P + layer (high-concentration boron injection layer 74) in the PE layer (low-concentration phosphorus injection layer 64). This means that the same amount of phosphorus is introduced as in the N− layer (medium concentration phosphorus implantation layer 71) and the N + layer (high concentration phosphorus implantation layer 69). These are impurities that do not need to be introduced, and in order to maintain the majority carrier types of the electrodes of the TFT and the optical sensor element, it is necessary to introduce phosphorus and boron in amounts equivalent to those to each layer. . This embodiment has the advantage that the photolithography process can be simplified and the photomask can be reduced, but has the disadvantage that many defects are introduced into the active layer of the P-type TFT. If the characteristics of the P-type TFT cannot be secured, it is desirable not to introduce unnecessary impurities by increasing the number of photomasks and photoprocesses and covering the PE layer and P + layer.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5B and 9, an interlayer insulating film 75 is formed on the upper portion of the gate electrode 66 using TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) gas as a raw material by CVD, and then introduced impurities are introduced. Perform activation annealing. Next, a contact hole 77 is formed in the electrode portion by using a photoresist 76 by a photolithography process. Since the interlayer insulating film 75 insulates the wiring to be formed later from the underlying gate electrode and the polycrystalline semiconductor layer, any film can be used as long as it has insulating properties. However, since it is necessary to reduce the parasitic capacitance, it is desirable to have a process consistency with respect to the thick film, such as a low relative dielectric constant and a small film stress. Furthermore, in order to achieve compatibility with the display function, the transparency of the film is important, and it is desirable that the material has a high transmittance in the visible light region. In this embodiment, as an example, a silicon oxide film using TEOS gas as a raw material has been described.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5B and 10, a wiring material is formed, and a wiring 78 is formed by a photolithography process. Further, as shown in FIGS. 5B and 11, an insulating protective film 79 is formed by CVD. If necessary, after the insulating protective film 79 is formed, additional annealing for improving TFT characteristics is performed. The material of the film may be any film as long as it has an insulating property like the interlayer insulating film 75 shown in FIGS.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5C and 12, a contact hole 81 is formed in the insulating protective film 79, the interlayer insulating film 75, and the gate insulating film 55 using a photoresist 80 by a photolithography process. Depending on the element to be mounted and the layer to be contacted, there are those that form holes up to the wiring, and those that form holes up to the polycrystalline silicon electrode. These contact holes are formed by selective etching using the wiring material as a stopper. Can be formed in a batch. When processing accuracy is required, a photolitho process can be added and processed separately.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5C and 13, an amorphous silicon film 82 is formed by CVD. At this time, in order to reduce the level of the interface between the polycrystalline silicon electrode 83 and the amorphous silicon film 82, it is preferable to add a surface modification process or a cleaning process to the polycrystalline silicon electrode 83. The method includes hydrofluoric acid cleaning, but the method is not limited. In addition, it is desirable that the deposition conditions are such that the amount of hydrogen contained in the amorphous silicon film 82 is about 10 atm% or more. A lot of unbonded bonds exist in the amorphous silicon 82 and become recombination centers of electron-hole pairs generated by light irradiation. Hydrogen in the amorphous silicon film 82 has an effect of terminating and inactivating unbonded bonds. In the introduction of hydrogen after film formation, a sufficient amount of hydrogen cannot be introduced into the amorphous silicon film 82, leading to a decrease in sensor performance. The amorphous silicon film 82 is basically an intrinsic layer into which impurities are not introduced. However, when the vertical element shown in FIG. 4D is employed, impurities are mixed into the source gas at the start and end of film formation. As a result, a high-concentration impurity introduction layer 43 can be formed in the amorphous silicon layer 13 near the upper and lower electrodes. Thereby, the leak at the time of light non-irradiation can be reduced.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5C and 14, the amorphous silicon film 82 is processed into an island-shaped sensor light-receiving portion (amorphous silicon film 85) using a photoresist 84 by a photolithography process. Thereafter, as shown in FIGS. 5C and 15, an insulating protective film 86 is formed. This insulating protective film 86 is particularly intended to prevent water from entering the amorphous silicon layer 85 from the outside. Therefore, it is desirable to adopt a material with poor moisture permeability such as silicon nitride as a material rather than a silicon oxide film with good moisture permeability.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5D and 16, a planarization insulating film 87 is formed with a coating insulating film, an insulating resist material, or the like, if necessary, and then using a photoresist 88 by a photolithography process. Then, contact holes 89 are collectively formed through the planarization insulating film 87 and the insulating protective films 79 and 86.

  Next, as shown in FIGS. 5D and 17, after forming a transparent electrode film 90 such as ITO, as shown in FIGS. 5D and 18, the photoresist 91 is used by a photolithography process. A transparent electrode 92 is formed. Thereafter, if necessary, an insulating protective film 17 shown in FIG. 4 may be further formed thereon, and a contact hole may be formed by a photolithography process.

  FIG. 6 shows a cross-sectional view of an optical sensor element and a polycrystalline silicon TFT manufactured by the process of FIG. Here, a PIN photodiode type optical sensor element 601 shown in FIG. 1A and a vertical metal-semiconductor-metal photoconductor type optical sensor element 602 shown in FIG. 4D are formed. If the third electrode 42 shown in FIGS. 4B and 4C and the second electrode 12 shown in FIGS. 4D and 4D are formed of ITO 90 shown in FIGS. By the steps shown, the P-type TFT 603 and the N-type TFT 604 constituting the circuit and the sensor elements having all the structures shown in FIG. 4 can be formed simultaneously.

  The steps shown in this embodiment are performed after impurity activation and other high-temperature heat treatment steps (after the insulating protective film 79 is formed in FIGS. 5B and 11 and the heat treatment is finished). As shown in 5 (c) (13), the amorphous silicon layer 82 is formed. Hydrogen introduced during CVD film formation begins to desorb at around 320 ° C. As described above, since recovery by post-processing is impossible, it is necessary to devise the film formation sequence so that the low-temperature process is performed after the amorphous silicon layer is formed.

  FIG. 7A is a layout of one pixel of an area sensor using the PIN photodiode of the present invention, FIG. 7B is a cross-sectional view taken along a broken line AB in FIG. 7A, and FIG. ) Is an equivalent circuit diagram of FIG. First, the sensor operation will be described with reference to FIG. The potential of the bias line 701 is set lower than the potential of the sensor node 702, and the voltage of the sensor node 702 is reset. During sensor operation, the potential of the bias line 701 is set sufficiently higher than the potential of the sensor node 702. At this time, only a very small current flows through the photodiode 703 due to the rectifying action. When the photodiode 703 is irradiated with light, more current flows than when no light is irradiated, and the potential of the sensor node 702 increases. When a potential is applied to the gate electrode 705 through the gate line 704 to operate the TFT 706 at a certain time, charges proportional to the incident light illuminance are transported to the data line 707 and the potential of the data line 707 rises. This potential data is read by a sensor driver provided outside the area sensor area. The charge is held by the parasitic capacitance added to the sensor node 702, but an auxiliary holding capacitor may be added if necessary. Note that the reference numerals shown in FIGS. 7A and 7B are the same as those described so far, and the description thereof is omitted.

  FIG. 8A is a layout for one pixel of an area sensor using another PIN photodiode of the present invention, and FIG. 8B is a cross-sectional view taken along the broken line AB in FIG. 8 (c) is an equivalent circuit diagram of FIG. 8 (a). First, the sensor operation will be described with reference to FIG. The potential of the bias line 701 is set lower than the potential of the sensor node 702, and the voltage of the sensor node 702 is reset. During sensor operation, the potential of the bias line 701 is set sufficiently higher than the potential of the sensor node 702. At this time, only a very small current flows through the photodiode 703 due to the rectifying action. When the photodiode 703 is irradiated with light, more current flows than when no light is irradiated, and the potential of the sensor node 702 increases. At this time, the potential of the data line 707 is set lower than the potential of the gate line 704 in advance (or vice versa). When the potential of the sensor node 702 becomes larger than the sum of the potential of the data line 707 (in the opposite case, the potential of the gate line 704) and the threshold value of the TFT 706, the TFT 706 is turned on and the data line 707 is The potential is almost the same as that of the gate line 704. The change in the potential data of the sensor node 702 at this time is read by a sensor driver area provided outside the area sensor area. In this method, if the TFT 706 is turned on within the sensor operation time, a signal is output regardless of the illuminance. Therefore, gradation can be detected by changing the sensor operation time. The wiring layer 801 shown in FIG. 8B is formed in the same layer as the layer where the bias line 701 and the data line 707 are formed, and is connected to the gate electrode 705 of the TFT 706 and the anode of the photodiode 703 through a contact hole. The Further, the other reference numerals shown in FIGS. 8A and 8B are the same as the reference numerals described so far, and the description thereof is omitted.

  As shown in FIG. 9, when the sensor portion is a photoconductor 901, a current-voltage circuit is provided in the sensor driver region, or a light blocking diode 902 or a light blocking TFT is provided between the sensor and the bias line 701. There is a method of preventing reverse flow of charges during charge transfer to the data line 707. FIG. 9 is an equivalent circuit diagram in the case where a shielded blocking diode is used.

  Examples of area sensors are shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, but an image display device having a photosensor function can be configured by arranging a pixel circuit in each pixel simultaneously with the sensor. A signal line, a gate line, and the like that send a signal to the pixel may be newly added, or may be shared with the bias line, the data line, or the gate line of the sensor by devising the timing of the signal line.

  FIG. 10 is a schematic view of an image display device incorporating the photosensor element of the present invention. FIG. 10A is a rear view of the image display device. A driver LSI printed circuit board 103 having a driver LSI 102 is arranged on a glass substrate 101 and is formed on the front side of the image display device via the FPC 104. A plurality of pixels are driven. FIG. 10B is a side view of the image display device. On the front side of the image display device, a photosensor 105 including the photosensor element of the present invention and a plurality of pixels 106 formed in the image display area are arranged. Has been. FIG. 10C is a front view of the image display device. On the glass substrate 101, a peripheral drive circuit 107 that drives the pixel 106, a photosensor output processing circuit 108 that processes the output of the photosensor 105, and a back A write and other control circuit 109 is arranged.

  In FIG. 10, the sensor signal corresponding to the external light from the optical sensor 105 is processed by the optical sensor output processing circuit 108 and supplied to the peripheral driving circuit 107 that drives the pixel 106. The peripheral drive circuit 107 controls image quality such as brightness and contrast of the image display device in accordance with the sensor signal.

  In FIG. 10, a part of the driver is constituted by an LSI and is mounted on the back surface via the FPC. What satisfies the required performance may be constituted by TFTs sequentially formed on the glass substrate. By doing so, LSIs and their mounting costs can be reduced, and deterioration of mechanical reliability due to mounting can be avoided. In addition, driver design is possible at the time of pixel design, and customization becomes easy. According to the present invention, the sensor and its driver can also be built on the glass substrate, and the sensor installation position and the processing circuit can be made compact at a free position.

Conceptual diagram of optical sensor element Sensor output-illuminance dependence characteristics Cross-sectional view and transfer characteristic diagram of polycrystalline silicon TFT fabricated simultaneously with optical sensor element Sectional drawing of another structural example of the optical sensor element which concerns on this invention Fabrication process of optical sensor element and polycrystalline silicon TFT Fabrication process of optical sensor element and polycrystalline silicon TFT Fabrication process of optical sensor element and polycrystalline silicon TFT Fabrication process of optical sensor element and polycrystalline silicon TFT Cross section of photo sensor element and polycrystalline silicon TFT 1 pixel layout of area sensor, cross section and equivalent circuit diagram Another area sensor's layout for one pixel, its cross-sectional view and equivalent circuit diagram Equivalent circuit diagram using light-blocking blocking diode Rear view, side view, and front view of an image display device incorporating a photosensor element Sectional view of a conventional optical sensor element

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Insulating substrate, 11 ... 1st electrode, 12 ... 2nd electrode, 13 ... Light-receiving layer, 14 ... Wiring, 15, 16 ... Interlayer insulating film, 17 ... Insulating protective film, 31 ... Source, 32 ... Gate electrode 33 ... Drain, 34 ... Channel, 35 ... LDD region, 41 ... Contact hole, 42 ... Third electrode, 43 ... High concentration impurity layer,
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 51 ... Amorphous silicon film (microcrystalline silicon film), 52 ... Excimer laser, 53 ... Polycrystalline silicon film, 54 ... Island-like polycrystalline silicon film, 55 ... Gate insulating film, 56 ... Boron ion, 57 ... NE Layer (low-concentration boron implantation layer), 58... N-type TFT region, 59... N-type electrode region, 60... P-type TFT region, 61. Low concentration phosphorus implantation layer), 65 ... gate metal film, 66 ... gate electrode, 67 ... photoresist, 68 ... phosphorus ion, 69 ... N + layer (high concentration phosphorus implantation layer), 70 ... phosphorus ion, 71 ... N- layer (medium concentration) (Phosphorus implantation layer), 72... Photoresist, 73... Boron ion, 74... P + layer (high concentration boron implantation layer), 75 .. interlayer insulating film, 76. Insulating protective film, 80 ... Photoresist, 81 ... Contact hole, 82 ... Amorphous silicon film, 83 ... Polycrystalline silicon electrode, 84 ... Photoresist, 85 ... Sensor light receiving part (amorphous silicon film), 86 ... Insulating protection Membrane, 87 ... Planarization insulating film, 88 ... Photoresist, 89 ... Contact hole, 90 ... Transparent electrode film (ITO), 91 ... Photoresist, 92 ... Transparent electrode,
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 101 ... Glass substrate, 102 ... Driver LSI, 103 ... Print board for driver LSI, 104 ... FPC, 105 ... Optical sensor, 106 ... Pixel, 107 ... Peripheral drive circuit, 108 ... Optical sensor output processing circuit, 109 ... Backlight Other control circuits,
601... PIN photodiode type photosensor element, 602... Metal-semiconductor-metal photoconductor type photosensor element, 603... P type TFT, 604... N type TFT, 701. 704 ... Gate line, 705 ... Gate electrode, 706 ... TFT, 707 ... Data line, 901 ... Photoconductor, 902 ... Blocking diode

Claims (20)

  1.   An optical sensor element formed on an insulative substrate, and a light-receiving layer made of a second semiconductor layer between at least a first electrode made of the first semiconductor layer and a second electrode And the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer have different phase states or different semiconductor materials.
  2.   The light sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode and the second electrode are made of the first semiconductor layer, and the light receiving layer is made of the second semiconductor layer on the first semiconductor layer. Optical sensor element characterized by that
  3.   2. The optical sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the first carrier and the second electrode have different or the same majority carrier types.
  4.   2. The optical sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode and the second electrode are connected to a light receiving layer formed in a contact hole having a plurality of insulating layers opened.
  5.   2. The optical sensor element according to claim 1, wherein each of the first electrode and the second electrode is connected by a light receiving layer formed in each contact hole having a plurality of insulating layers opened. Sensor element
  6.   2. The optical sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the first semiconductor layer is one of a polycrystalline silicon thin film and a polycrystalline silicon germanium thin film, and the second semiconductor layer is an amorphous silicon thin film, a microcrystalline silicon thin film, An optical sensor element characterized by being either an amorphous silicon germanium thin film or a microcrystalline silicon germanium thin film
  7. 2. The optical sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of majority carriers in the first semiconductor layer is 1 × 10 19 atoms / cm 3 or more in the second semiconductor layer under no light irradiation and no voltage application condition. The majority carrier concentration is 1 × 10 17 / cm 3 or less.
  8.   The light sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode and the second electrode are made of the first semiconductor layer, and the light receiving layer is made of the second semiconductor layer on the first semiconductor layer. And a third electrode formed on the light receiving layer with an insulating film interposed therebetween.
  9.   9. The optical sensor element according to claim 8, wherein the third electrode has a transmittance of 75% or more with respect to light in a visible light region (400 nm to 760 nm).
  10.   2. The optical sensor element according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode is made of a first semiconductor layer, the light receiving layer made of the second semiconductor layer is formed on the first semiconductor layer, and the second semiconductor. An optical sensor element, wherein a second electrode is formed of a metal layer on an upper part of the layer
  11. 11. The optical sensor element according to claim 10, wherein the concentration of majority carriers in the second semiconductor layer in the vicinity of the interface between the second semiconductor layer and the metal layer under the non-light irradiation and no voltage application conditions is The concentration of majority carriers in the semiconductor layer is 1 × 10 19 atoms / cm 3 or more, and the concentration of majority carriers in the second semiconductor layer in the vicinity of the interface between the second semiconductor layer and the first semiconductor layer is 1 × 10 17 pieces / cm 3 or less
  12. An optical sensor device comprising an optical sensor element formed on an insulating substrate and an optical sensor output processing circuit for processing an output from the optical sensor element,
    The optical sensor element has a light-receiving layer made of a second semiconductor layer between at least a first electrode made of the first semiconductor layer and a second electrode, and the first semiconductor layer and the second electrode The two semiconductor layers have different phase states or different semiconductor materials,
    An optical sensor output processing circuit includes a thin film transistor, and a channel, a source, and a drain of the thin film transistor are formed of a first semiconductor layer.
  13.   13. The optical sensor device according to claim 12, wherein the optical sensor element includes a first electrode and a second electrode made of a first semiconductor layer, and a second semiconductor layer on the first semiconductor layer. Photosensor device characterized by having a light-receiving layer fabricated
  14.   13. The optical sensor device according to claim 12, wherein the optical sensor element includes a first electrode and a second electrode made of a first semiconductor layer, and a second semiconductor layer on the first semiconductor layer. An optical sensor device comprising: a manufactured light receiving layer; and a third electrode formed on the light receiving layer via an insulating film
  15.   The optical sensor device according to claim 12, wherein the optical sensor element includes a light receiving layer in which the first electrode is manufactured by the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer is formed on the first semiconductor layer. An optical sensor device, wherein the second electrode is formed of a metal layer on the second semiconductor layer
  16.   The optical sensor device according to claim 12, wherein the first semiconductor layer is one of a polycrystalline silicon thin film and a polycrystalline silicon germanium thin film, and the second semiconductor layer is an amorphous silicon thin film, a microcrystalline silicon thin film, An optical sensor device characterized by being either an amorphous silicon germanium thin film or a microcrystalline silicon germanium thin film
  17. An image display device including an optical sensor formed on an insulating substrate, an optical sensor output processing circuit that processes a sensor signal from the optical sensor, and a peripheral circuit that drives a plurality of pixels according to the sensor signal. And
    The optical sensor includes a light-receiving layer made of a second semiconductor layer between at least a first electrode made of the first semiconductor layer and a second electrode, and the first semiconductor layer and the second electrode The semiconductor layers of the above have different phase states or different semiconductor materials,
    The optical sensor output processing circuit includes a thin film transistor, and a channel, a source, and a drain of the thin film transistor are formed of a first semiconductor layer.
  18.   18. The image display device according to claim 17, wherein the optical sensor includes a first electrode and a second electrode that are manufactured using a first semiconductor layer, and a second semiconductor layer that is formed on the first semiconductor layer. Image display device characterized by having a light-receiving layer formed
  19.   18. The image display device according to claim 17, wherein the optical sensor includes a first electrode and a second electrode that are manufactured using a first semiconductor layer, and a second semiconductor layer that is formed on the first semiconductor layer. And a third electrode is formed on the light receiving layer with an insulating film interposed therebetween.
  20.   The image display device according to claim 17, wherein the optical sensor includes a light receiving layer in which the first electrode is formed of a first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer is formed on the first semiconductor layer; An image display device, wherein a second electrode is formed of a metal layer on the second semiconductor layer
JP2007001303A 2007-01-09 2007-01-09 Highly sensitive photo-sensor element and photo-sensor device using the same Granted JP2008171871A (en)

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US12/000,402 US8097927B2 (en) 2007-01-09 2007-12-12 Highly sensitive photo-sensing element and photo-sensing device using the same
KR1020070134297A KR20080065535A (en) 2007-01-09 2007-12-20 Highly-sensitive photo sensing element and photo sensing device using the same
EP07024987A EP1944806A3 (en) 2007-01-09 2007-12-21 Highly sensitive photo-sensing element and photo-sensing device using the same
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